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HAID Tables of Contents: 0607080910111213

HAID 2009: International Workshop on Haptic and Audio Interaction Design

Fullname:HAID 2009: Haptic and Audio Interaction Design: 4th International Conference
Editors:M. Ercan Altinsoy; Ute Jekosch; Stephen Brewster
Location:Dresden, Germany
Dates:2009-Sep-10 to 2009-Sep-11
Publisher:Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Series:Lecture Notes in Computer Science 5763
Standard No:DOI: 10.1007/978-3-642-04076-4; ISBN: 978-3-642-04075-7 (print), 978-3-642-04076-4 (online); hcibib: HAID09
Links:Online Proceedings
  1. Haptic Communication and Perception
  2. Navigation and Guidance
  3. Visual Impairment
  4. Vibrotactile Feedback and Music
  5. Multimodal User Interfaces: Design and Evaluation
  6. Multimodal Gaming

Haptic Communication and Perception

Communicative Functions of Haptic Feedback BIBAFull-Text 1-10
  Jonas Moll; Eva-Lotta Sallnäs
In this paper a number of examples are presented of how haptic and auditory feedback can be used for deictic referencing in collaborative virtual environments. Haptic feedback supports getting a shared frame of reference of a common workspace when one person is not sighted and makes haptic deictic referencing possible during navigation and object exploration. Haptic guiding is a broader concept that implies that not only a single action, like a deictic reference, is made but that a whole sequence of temporally connected events are shared, sometimes including deictic referencing. In the examples presented in this paper haptic guiding is used by participants as a way to navigate while at the same time explore details of objects during joint problem solving. Guiding through haptic feedback is shown to substitute verbal navigational instructions to a considerable extent.
Target Acquisition with Force Feedback: The Effect of Different Forces on the User's Performance BIBAFull-Text 11-20
  Joan De Boeck; Lode Vanacken; Karin Coninx
Besides realistic haptic rendering of objects, haptic feedback can also be used to provide an abstract feedback channel. This can either be realised by a tactile or a force feedback stimulus. When using forces, care has to be taken that the user's performance is not influenced in a negative way. However, as it is not obvious to determine a suitable force, and currently not many guidelines exist. Therefore, in this paper we investigate the influence on some important parameters that define a force (shape, duration and amplitude). In order to compare different forces, we propose to use the definite integral (Force Integral, FI) which combines the considered parameters. From the conducted experiment we learn that the FI can be used (within bounds) to make an estimation of the result of the force. Besides this, we also found that above a given FI value, the user's performance degrades significantly.

Navigation and Guidance

Evaluating Factors that Influence Path Tracing with Passive Haptic Guidance BIBAKFull-Text 21-30
  Kurosh Zarei-nia; Xing-Dong Yang; Pourang Irani; Nariman Sepehri
A very common task in medical applications and motor-skill training is to trace a path. However, when designing a haptically guided interface, designers need to consider the choice of several parameters in the design. These include the real-time function for bringing back the user to the right path, the effect of the path's curvature on tracing, and the amount of haptic force needed for guiding the user appropriately. In this paper, we describe the results of an experiment that was designed to assess the effect of several design factors that can influence the performance of path tracing tasks. Our results show that the shape of the path has an effect on the amount of deviation from a path. Additionally, we found that a high amount of stiffness is preferred over low stiffness. Finally, the type of force profile that haptically guides the user, particularly the slope of the function, is also an important factor in path tracing tasks. We discuss our results with implications for designs of systems necessitating haptic force feedback in constrained path tracing tasks.
Keywords: Haptic guidance; haptic interface; motor skill training; force feedback
Haptic Interaction Techniques for Exploring Chart Data BIBAKFull-Text 31-40
  Sabrina A. Panëels; Jonathan C. Roberts; Peter J. Rodgers
Haptic data visualization is a growing research area. It conveys information using the sense of touch which can help visually impaired people or be useful when other modalities are not available. However, as haptic devices and virtual worlds exhibit many challenges, the haptic interactions developed are often simple and limited to navigation tasks, preferring other modalities to relay detailed information. One of the principal challenges of navigation with haptic devices alone, particularly single point-based force-feedback devices, is that users do not know where to explore and thus obtaining an overview is difficult. Thus, this paper presents two types of interaction technique that aim to help the user get an overview of data: 1) a haptic scatter plot, which has not been investigated to any great degree, provided by a force model and 2) a new implementation for a haptic line chart technique provided using a guided tour model.
Keywords: Haptic Visualization; Haptic Interaction Techniques; Haptic Scatter Plots; Haptic Line Charts
Audio Bubbles: Employing Non-speech Audio to Support Tourist Wayfinding BIBAKFull-Text 41-50
  David McGookin; Stephen Brewster; Pablo Priego
We introduce the concept of Audio Bubbles -- virtual spheres filled with audio that are geocentered on physical landmarks, providing navigational homing information for a user to more easily locate the landmark. We argue that the way in which tourists navigate is not well supported by traditional visual maps, and that Audio Bubbles better support the serendipitous discovery and homing behaviours exhibited in such tourist activities. We present a study comparing Audio Bubbles to a visual map in a real world navigation task. Navigation with Audio Bubbles appeared to be faster and was preferred by most of the participants. We discuss the findings and outline our future development plans.
Keywords: Non-visual Navigation; Wayfinding; Auditory Display
Interactive Sonification of Curve Shape and Curvature Data BIBAKFull-Text 51-60
  Simon Shelley; Miguel Alonso; Jacqueline Hollowood; Michael Pettitt; Sarah Sharples; Dik Hermes; Armin Kohlrausch
This paper presents a number of different sonification approaches that aim to communicate geometrical data, specifically curve shape and curvature information, of virtual 3-D objects. The system described here is part of a multi-modal augmented reality environment in which users interact with virtual models through the modalities vision, hearing and touch. An experiment designed to assess the performance of the sonification strategies is described and the key findings are presented and discussed.
Keywords: sonification; sound synthesis; modal synthesis; virtual environments; haptics; human-computer interaction

Visual Impairment

Accessing Audiotactile Images with HFVE Silooet BIBAKFull-Text 61-70
  David Dewhurst
In this paper, recent developments of the HFVE vision-substitution system are described; and the initial results of a trial of the "Silooet" software are reported. The system uses audiotactile methods to present features of visual images to blind people. Included are details of presenting objects found in prepared media and live images; object-related layouts and moving effects (including symbolic paths); and minor enhancements that make the system more practical to use. Initial results are reported from a pilot study that tests the system with untrained users.
Keywords: Vision-substitution; sensory-substitution; HFVE; Silooet; blindness; deafblindness; audiotactile; haptics; braille; Morse code
Configurable Design of Multimodal Non Visual Interfaces for 3D VE's BIBAKFull-Text 71-80
  Fabio De Felice; Giovanni Attolico; Arcangelo Distante
3D virtual environments (VE) require an advanced user interface to fully express their information contents. New I/O devices enable the use of multiple sensorial channels (vision, hearing, touch, etc.) to increase the naturalness and the efficiency of complex interactions. Haptic and acoustic interfaces extend the effective experience of virtual reality to visually impaired users. For these users, a multimodal rendering that matches the subjective characteristics and the personal abilities of individuals is mandatory to provide a complete and correct perception of the virtual scene. User feedbacks are critical since the design phase. This paper proposes an approach for the design of haptic/acoustic user interface to makes up the lack of visual feedback in blind users interaction. It increases the flexibility of the interface development by decoupling the multimodal rendering design from the VE geometric structure. An authoring tool allows experts of the knowledge domain (even without specific skills about the VE) to design the haptic/acoustic rendering of virtual objects.
Keywords: Haptic\acoustic interface design; cooperative design; visual impaired users; 3D virtual environments
Tactile Paper Prototyping with Blind Subjects BIBAKFull-Text 81-90
  Mei Miao; Wiebke Köhlmann; Maria Schiewe; Gerhard Weber
With tactile paper prototyping user interfaces can be evaluated with blind users in an early design stage. First, we describe two existing paper prototyping methods, visual and haptic paper prototyping, and indicate their limitations for blind users. Subsequently, we present our experiences while preparing, conducting and analysing tests performed using tactile paper prototyping. Based on our experiences, we provide recommendations for this new usability evaluation method.
Keywords: tactile paper prototyping; low-fidelity prototyping; usability evaluation method; visually impaired; tactile interaction; design methodologies; usability; user-centred design

Vibrotactile Feedback and Music

The Carillon and Its Haptic Signature: Modeling the Changing Force-Feedback Constraints of a Musical Instrument for Haptic Display BIBAKFull-Text 91-99
  Mark Havryliv; Florian Geiger; Matthias Guertler; Fazel Naghdy; Greg Schiemer
The carillon is one of the few instruments that elicits sophisticated haptic interaction from amateur and professional players alike. Like the piano keyboard, the velocity of a player's impact on each carillon key, or baton, affects the quality of the resultant tone; unlike the piano, each carillon baton returns a different force-feedback. Force-feedback varies widely from one baton to the next across the entire range of the instrument and with further idiosyncratic variation from one instrument to another. This makes the carillon an ideal candidate for haptic simulation. The application of synthesized force-feedback based on an analysis of forces operating in a typical carillon mechanism offers a blueprint for the design of an electronic practice clavier and with it the solution to a problem that has vexed carillonists for centuries, namely the inability to rehearse repertoire in private. This paper will focus on design and implementation of a haptic carillon clavier derived from an analysis of the Australian National Carillon in Canberra.
Keywords: Haptics; musical instrument; physical modeling; National Carillon
Augmented Haptics -- An Interactive Feedback System for Musicians BIBAKFull-Text 100-108
  Tobias Grosshauser; Thomas Hermann
This paper presents integrated vibrotactiles, a novel interface for movement and posture tuition that provides real-time feedback in a tactile form by means of interactive haptic feedback, thereby conveying information neither acoustically nor visually and it is a promising feedback means for movements in 3D-space. In this paper we demonstrate haptic augmentation for applications for musicians, since it (a) doesn't affect the visual sense, occupied by reading music and communication, (b) doesn't disturb in bang sensitive situations such as concerts, (c) allows to relate feedback information in the same tactile medium as the output of the musical instrument, so that an important feedback channel for musical instrument playing is extended and trained supportive. Even more, instructions from the teacher and the computer can be transmitted directly and unobtrusively in this channel. This paper presents a prototype system together with demonstrations of applications that support violinists during musical instrument learning.
Keywords: closed-loop tactile feedback; tuition; sensor; violin; bow; 3D-movement; real-time feedback
Interaction Design: The Mobile Percussionist BIBAKFull-Text 109-118
  Tiago Reis; Luís Carriço; Carlos Duarte
This paper presents the user centered iterative interaction design of a mobile music application. The application enables multiple users to use one or more accelerometers in order to simulate the interaction with real percussion instruments (drums, congas, and maracas). The ways through which the accelerometers are held, before and during interaction, define the instruments they represent, allowing the swapping of instruments during musical performances. The early evaluation sessions directed to the interaction modes created for each instrument enabled design iterations that were of utmost importance regarding the final application's ease of use and similarity to reality. The final evaluation of the application involved 4 percussionists that considered it well conceived, similar to the real instruments, natural and suitable for entertainment purposes, but not for professional musical purposes.
Keywords: Audio Interaction; Context Awareness; Mobile Interaction; Accelerometer-Based Gesture Recognition
Vibratory and Acoustical Factors in Multimodal Reproduction of Concert DVDs BIBAKFull-Text 119-127
  Sebastian Merchel; M. Ercan Altinsoy
Sound and vibration perception are always coupled in live music experience. Just think of a rock concert or hearing (and feeling) a church organ sitting on a wooden pew. Even in classical concerts kettledrum and double bass are sensed not only with our ears. The air-borne sound causes seat vibrations or excites the skin surface directly. For some instruments (e.g. an organ) structure-borne sound is transmitted directly from the instrument to the listener.
   If concert recordings are played back with multimedia hi-fi systems at home, these vibratory information is missing in the majority of cases. This is due to low reproduction levels or to the limited frequency range of conventional loudspeakers. The audio signal on todays DVDs contains an additional channel for low frequency effects (LFE), which is intended for reproduction using a subwoofer. The generation of tactile components is still very restricted. An enhancement of such a systems might be possible using an electrodynamical shaker which generates whole body vibration (WBV) for a seated person.
   This paper describes a system implementing this approach. The generation of a vibrotactile signal from the existing audio channels is analyzed. Different parameters during this process (amplitude of the vibration, frequency range) are examined in relation to their perceptual consequences using psychophysical experiments.
Keywords: Multimodal Music Reproduction; Whole Body Vibration; Audiotactile Concert Perception

Multimodal User Interfaces: Design and Evaluation

The Effect of Multimodal Feedback Presented via a Touch Screen on the Performance of Older Adults BIBAKFull-Text 128-135
  Ju-Hwan Lee; Ellen Poliakoff; Charles Spence
Many IT devices -- such as mobile phones and PDAs -- have recently started to incorporate easy-to-use touch screens. There is an associated need for more effective user interfaces for touch screen devices that have a small screen area. One attempt to make such devices more effective and/or easy to use has come through the introduction of multimodal feedback from two or more sensory modalities. Multimodal feedback might provide even larger benefits to older adults who are often unfamiliar with recent developments in electronic devices, and may be suffering from the age-related degeneration of both cognitive and motor processes. Therefore, the beneficial effects associated with the use of multimodal feedback might be expected to be larger for older adults in perceptually and/or cognitively demanding situations. In the present study, we examined the potential benefits associated with the provision of multimodal feedback via a touch screen on older adults' performance in a demanding dual-task situation. We compared unimodal (visual) feedback with various combinations of multimodal (bimodal and trimodal) feedback. We also investigated the subjective difficulty of the task as a function of the type of feedback provided in order to evaluate qualitative usability issues. Overall, the results demonstrate that the presentation of multimodal feedback with auditory signals via a touch screen device results in enhanced performance and subjective benefits for older adults.
Keywords: Multimodal User Interface; Multimodal Feedback; Multimodal Interaction; Older Adults; Touch Screen
Audiotactile Feedback Design for Touch Screens BIBAKFull-Text 136-144
  M. Ercan Altinsoy; Sebastian Merchel
The use of touch sensitive displays and touch surfaces is just emerging and they are more and more replacing physical buttons. If a physical button is pressed, audio and tactile feedback confirms the successful operation. The loss of audiotactile feedback in touch sensitive interfaces might create higher input error rates and user dissatisfaction. Therefore the design and evaluation of suitable signals is necessary. In literature different researchers discuss implementation and evaluation of audio and tactile feedback for mobile applications using small vibration actuators, e.g. [1,..., 12]. However in ticket machines or automated teller machines the size of the actuator is not a limiting factor. Thus arbitrary vibratory stimuli can be generated. In this study, the tactile feedback is generated using an electro-dynamic exciter which allows amplitudes comparable to physical buttons. Real buttons normally produce multimodal feedback. Therefore multimodal interaction is an important issue for the touch screens. In this study, psychophysical experiments were conducted to investigate the design and interaction issues of auditory and tactile stimuli for touch sensitive displays and the combined influence of auditory and tactile information (i.e. vibration) on the system quality.
Keywords: Touch screens; multimodal interaction; auditory; haptic; evaluation; error rate

Multimodal Gaming

Evaluation of User's Physical Experience in Full Body Interactive Games BIBAFull-Text 145-154
  Mitja Koštomaj; Bojana Boh
This paper is an evaluation of full body interactive games using Kroflic's and Laban's framework of Body, Space, Time and Relationship. An experiment with 8 participants playing 10 games for 20 minutes was conducted and recorded to digital video. Body, Space and Time elements have been measured using observation, motion tracking and Quantity of Motion (QoM). The results from the experiment informed the designer about the participants' physical experience through the analysis of postures used in each game, the quality of the movement, the body parts used in the interaction, the playing area, the direction of movement, direction of gaze, tempo, dynamics and QoM. The experiment informed the designer about important issues of the user's physical experience and proved that the method can provide useful information in the development and evaluation of full body interactive games. The theoretical work of Laban and Kroflic also proved useful for interaction and games design in the transition from desktop to full body interactive games.
A Tangible Game as Distributable Platform for Psychophysical Examination BIBAFull-Text 155-164
  Matthias Rath; Sascha Bienert
Through the use of built-in accelerometers a game-software for recent generation MacBooks allows control of a scenario of virtual moving objects by tilting the computer. Together with integrated visual and continuous auditory feedback from models based on physical principles the software forms a possible platform for online collection of psychophysical data.