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HAID Tables of Contents: 0607080910111213

HAID 2007: International Workshop on Haptic and Audio Interaction Design

Fullname:HAID 2007: Haptic and Audio Interaction Design: Second International Workshop
Editors:Ian Oakley; Stephen Brewster
Location:Seoul, South Korea
Dates:2007-Nov-29 to 2007-Nov-30
Publisher:Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Series:Lecture Notes in Computer Science 4813
Standard No:DOI: 10.1007/978-3-540-76702-2; ISBN: 978-3-540-76701-5 (print), 978-3-540-76702-2 (online); hcibib: HAID07
Links:Online Proceedings
  1. Plenary Talks
  2. Session: Tactile Displays
  3. Session: Communication and Games
  4. Session: Accessibility and Navigation
  5. Session: Design

Plenary Talks

Self-produced Sound: Tightly Binding Haptics and Audio BIBAKFull-Text 1-8
  James A. Ballas
This paper discusses the concept of self-produced sound and its importance in understanding audio-haptic interaction. Self-produced sound is an important stimulus in understanding audio-haptic interaction because of the tight binding between the two modalities. This paper provides background on this type of sound, a brief review of the asynchrony and neurophysiology research that has addressed the cross-modality interaction, and examples of research into self-produced sound, including a unique but common instance: sound produced when consuming food.
Keywords: Haptics; self-produced sound; hearing; psychoacoustics
Will Haptics Technology Be Used in Mobile Devices?: A Historical Review of Haptics Technology and Its Potential Applications in Multi-modal Interfaces BIBAFull-Text 9-10
  Dong-Soo Kwon
In recent years, the haptics research area has become an interdisciplinary field covering perception, psychophysics, neuroscience, mechanism design, control, virtual reality, and human computer interaction. If we try to identify the origins of haptics research, it can be said to have emerged from the teleoperator systems of the late 1940s. In these initial explorations, increasing the transparency level of the mechanical master/slave manipulator system was the main issue as such improvements promised higher levels of task efficiency. For example, in order to handle nuclear materials effectively inside a radiation shielded room, minimizing friction and the effects of inertia in a mechanical master/slave system was the critical factor. Furthermore, when teleoperator systems were designed for hazardous environments and long distance space applications, establishing stability in the face of lengthy (and often uncertain) time delays was the key issue. Ergonomic design of the remote control console and the master haptic device also exerted a strong influence on how effectively remote information could be displayed to enhance telepresence.

Session: Tactile Displays

Tactile Visualization with Mobile AR on a Handheld Device BIBAFull-Text 11-21
  Beom-Chan Lee; Hyeshin Park; Junhun Lee; Jeha Ryu
This paper presents a tactile visualization system incorporating touch feedback to a mobile AR system realized on a handheld device. This system enables, for the first time, interactive haptic feedback though mobile and wearable interfaces. To demonstrate the proposed concept, an interactive scenario that helps a visually impaired user to recognize specific pictograms has been constructed. This system allows users to tactually recognize flat pictograms situated in the real world. Furthermore, it also opens the door to a wide range of applications which could be based on wearable tactile interaction.
Mobile Multi-actuator Tactile Displays BIBAKFull-Text 22-33
  Eve Hoggan; Sohail Anwar; Stephen A. Brewster
The potential of using the sense of touch to communicate information in mobile devices is receiving more attention because of the limitations of graphical displays in such situations. However, most applications only use a single actuator to present vibrotactile information. In an effort to create richer tactile feedback and mobile applications that make use of the entire hand and multiple fingers as opposed to a single fingertip, this paper presents the results of two experiments investigating the perception and application of multi-actuator tactile displays situated on a mobile device. The results of these experiments show that an identification rate of over 87% can be achieved when two dimensions of information are encoded in Tactons using rhythm and location. They also show that location produces 100% recognition rates when using actuators situated on the mobile device at the lower thumb, upper thumb, index finger and ring finger. This work demonstrates that it is possible to communicate information through four locations using multiple actuators situated on a mobile device when non-visual information is required.
Keywords: Multimodal Interaction; Haptic I/O; Tactile Icons (Tactons); Mobile Displays; Multi-Actuator Displays
Comparison of Force, Tactile and Vibrotactile Feedback for Texture Representation Using a Combined Haptic Feedback Interface BIBAKFull-Text 34-43
  Ki-Uk Kyung; Jun-Young Lee; Jun-Seok Park
In this paper, we compared force feedback, tactile feedback and vibration feedback for texture display. For this investigation, a pen-like haptic interface with a built-in compact tactile display and a vibrating module was developed. The handle of pen held haptic interface was replaced by the pen-like interface to add tactile feedback capability to the device. Since the system provides combination of force and tactile feedback, three haptic representation methods have been compared on surface with 3 texture groups which differ in direction, groove width and shape. Over all the tests, the haptic device with combined with the built-in compact tactile display showed satisfactory results. Vibration feedback was also reasonably effective in texture display. From the series of experiments, applicability of the compact tactile display and usability of pen-like haptic interface in a pen held hapic interface have been verified.
Keywords: texture; combination; force; tactile; vibration

Session: Communication and Games

Shake2Talk: Multimodal Messaging for Interpersonal Communication BIBAKFull-Text 44-55
  Lorna M. Brown; John Williamson
This paper explores the possibilities of using audio and haptics for interpersonal communication via mobile devices. Drawing on the literature on current messaging practises, a new concept for multimodal messaging has been designed and developed. The Shake2Talk system allows users to construct audio-tactile messages through simple gesture interactions, and send these messages to other people. Such messages could be used to communicate a range of meanings, from the practical (e.g. "home safely", represented by the sound and sensation of a key turning in a lock) to the emotional (e.g. "thinking of you" represented by a heartbeat). This paper presents the background to this work, the system design and implementation and a plan for evaluation.
Keywords: haptics; audio; vibrotactile; multimodal interaction; mobile phones; messaging; remote communication; gesture recognition
Communication-Wear: User Feedback as Part of a Co-Design Process BIBAKFull-Text 56-68
  Sharon Baurley; Philippa Brock; Erik Geelhoed; Andrew Moore
Communication-Wear is a clothing concept that augments the mobile phone by enabling expressive messages to be exchanged remotely, by conveying a sense of touch, and presence. It proposes to synthesise conventions and cultures of fashion with those of mobile communications, where there are shared attributes in terms of communication and expression. Using garment prototypes as research probes as part of an on-going iterative co-design process, we endeavoured to mobilise participants' tacit knowledge in order to gauge user perceptions on touch communication in a lab-based trial. The aim of this study was to determine whether established sensory associations people have with the tactile qualities of textiles could be used as signs and metaphors for experiences, moods, social interactions and gestures, related to interpersonal touch. The findings are used to inspire new design ideas for textile actuators for use in touch communication in successive iterations.
Keywords: Smart textiles; wearable technology; touch communication; clothing and emotion; user research; prototype as probe
Interactive Racing Game with Graphic and Haptic Feedback BIBAKFull-Text 69-77
  Sang-Youn Kim; Kyu-Young Kim
This paper proposes a mobile racing game prototype system where a player haptically senses the state of a car and the road condition with a vibrotactile signal generation method. The vibrotactile signal generation method provides variable vibrotactile effects according to a user's interaction with the graphic environment. The generated vibrotactile effects are used for the input of an eccentric vibration motor and a solenoid actuator in order to convey vibrotactile information with a large bandwidth to the players. To evaluate the proposed racing game, six persons experience two kinds of racing game; one with vibrotactile feedback, the other without vibrotactile feedback. The experiment shows that the proposed game with vibrotactile feedback provides players with increased levels of realism and immersion.
Keywords: Vibrotactile; Haptic; Racing game

Session: Accessibility and Navigation

Obstacle Detection and Avoidance System for Visually Impaired People BIBAFull-Text 78-85
  Byeong-Seok Shin; Cheol-Su Lim
In this paper, we implemented a wearable system for visually impaired users which allows them to detect and avoid obstacles. This is based on ultrasound sensors which can acquire range data from objects in the environment by estimating the time-of-flight of the ultrasound signal. Using a hemispherical sensor array, we can detect obstacles and determine which directions should be avoided. However, the ultrasound sensors are only used to detect whether obstacles are present in front of users. We determine unimpeded directions by analyzing patterns of the range values from consecutive frames. Feedback is presented to users in the form of voice commands and vibration patterns. Our system is composed of an ARM9-based embedded system, an ultrasonic sensor array, an orientation tracker and a set of vibration motors with controller.
Tangible User Interface for the Exploration of Auditory City Maps BIBAKFull-Text 86-97
  Martin Pielot; Niels Henze; Wilko Heuten; Susanne Boll
Before venturing out into unfamiliar areas, most people scope out a map. But for the blind or visually impaired traditional maps are not accessible. In our previous work, we developed the "Auditory Map" which conveys the location of geographic objects through spatial sonification. Users perceive these objects through the virtual listener's ears walking through the presented area. Evaluating our system we observed that the participants had difficulties perceiving the directions of geographic objects accurately. To improve the localization we introduce rotation to the Auditory Map. Rotation is difficult to achieve with traditional input devices such as a mouse or a digitizer tablet. This paper describes a tangible user interface which allows rotating the virtual listener using physical representations of the map and the virtual listener. First evaluation results show that our interaction technique is a promising approach to improve the construction of cognitive maps for visually impaired people.
Keywords: sonification; auditory display; tangible user interface; spatial audio; exploration; interaction techniques; visually impaired users
Haptic and Sound Grid for Enhanced Positioning in a 3-D Virtual Environment BIBAKFull-Text 98-109
  Seung-Chan Kim; Dong-Soo Kwon
As images are projected onto the flat retina when identifying objects scattered in space, there may be considerable ambiguity in depth (i.e. z-direction) perception. Therefore, position information can be distorted, especially along the z-axis. In this paper, virtual grids using haptic and auditory feedback are proposed to complement ambiguous visual depth cues. This study experimentally investigates the influence of virtual grids on position identification in a 3-D workspace. A haptic grid is generated using the PHANTOM® Omni™ and a sound grid is generated by changing the frequency characteristics of the sound source based on the hand movement of the operator. Both grids take the form of virtual planes placed at regular intervals of 10mm through three axes (i.e. x, y, and z). The haptic and sound grids are conveyed to subjects separately or simultaneously according to test conditions. In cases of bimodal presentation, the grids are displayed with cross-modal synchrony. The statistically significant results indicate that the presence of the grid in space increased the average values of precision. In particular, errors in the z-axis decreased by more than 50% (F=19.82, p<0.01).
Keywords: grid plane; depth ambiguity; haptic; auditory; multimodality

Session: Design

User-Centered Design Proposals for Prototyping Haptic User Interfaces BIBAKFull-Text 110-120
  Hans V. Bjelland; Kristian Tangeland
The range of applications for haptic user interfaces is wide, but although haptics offer unique qualities to user interfaces, the rate of adoption and implementation of haptics in commercialized products is relatively low. The challenges of building low-cost flexible prototypes with haptics in the early stages of product development are believed to be a contributing factor to this. This paper addresses these specific challenges in relation to the user-centered design process. A case where prototypes were used in the early project stage is presented as an example of possibilities of prototyping haptic feedback. Finally, general recommendations for how to prototype haptic user interfaces that support both technological development and usability are listed. These are comprised by: 1) Build on the tradition of user-centered design, 2) Prototype from day one, 3) Substitute technology, 4) Build several different prototypes, 5) Develop a vocabulary, 6) Stick with the heuristics. These recommendations can contribute to a better understanding of how haptics can be handled in the design process as well as guide future haptic research.
Keywords: prototyping; haptic user interfaces; user-centered design
Designing Eyes-Free Interaction BIBAKFull-Text 121-132
  Ian Oakley; Jun-Seok Park
As the form factors of computational devices diversify, the concept of eyes-free interaction is becoming increasingly relevant: it is no longer hard to imagine use scenarios in which screens are inappropriate. However, there is currently little consensus about this term. It is regularly employed in different contexts and with different intents. One key consequence of this multiplicity of meanings is a lack of easily accessible insights into how to best build an eyes-free system. This paper seeks to address this issue by thoroughly reviewing the literature, proposing a concise definition and presenting a set of design principles. The application of these principles is then elaborated through a case study of the design of an eyes-free motion input system for a wearable device.
Keywords: Eyes-free interaction; design principles; motion input
Beyond Clicks and Beeps: In Pursuit of an Effective Sound Design Methodology BIBAFull-Text 133-144
  Antti Pirhonen; Kai Tuuri; Manne-Sakari Mustonen; Emma Murphy
Designing effective non-speech audio elements for a user-interface is a challenging task due to the complex nature of sounds and the changing contexts of non-visual interfaces. In this paper we present a design method, which is intended to take into account the complexity of audio design as well as the existing audio environment and the functional context of use. Central to this method is a rich use scenario, presented in the form of a radio play, which is used as a basis for the work of design panels. A previous version of the design method is analysed and specific practical issues are identified. Solutions to these issues are presented in the form of a modified version of the method. In the current version of the method, special attention has been paid to the development of a rich use scenario and the underlying personage. A case study is presented to illustrate the practical implementation of the modified design method and to support the proposed guidelines for its use.