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DESRIST Tables of Contents: 09101112131415

Proceedings of the 2009 International Conference on Design Science Research in Information Systems and Technology

Fullname:4th International Conference on Design Science Research in Information Systems and Technology
Editors:Vijay Vaishanvi; Sandeep Purao
Location:Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Dates:2009-May-07 to 2009-May-08
Publisher:ACM
Standard No:ISBN: 978-1-60558-408-9; ACM DL: Table of Contents; hcibib: DESRIST09
Papers:32
Links:Conference Website
  1. Designing healthcare systems
  2. Design theory and theorizing
  3. Design research: methods
  4. Domain-specific design research
  5. The social element in design
  6. Technological design
  7. Evaluating design research
  8. Organizational design research
  9. Research posters

Designing healthcare systems

Measuring information volatility in a health care information supply chain BIBAFull-Text 1
  Monica Chiarini Tremblay; Donald J. Berndt; Alan R. Hevner
We propose a measure of reliability called information volatility (IV) to complement Business Intelligence tools when considering aggregated data or when observing trends. Two types of information volatility are defined: intra-cell and inter-cell. For each, two types of distributions are considered: normal and lognormal, which is often the case for time series data. The IV measures are based on similar measures found in the finance literature, since there are similarities in the types of data. In order to understand the information volatility metrics, the notion of benchmarking is introduced with three propositions: numerical benchmarking, graphical benchmarking and categorical benchmarking. The IV metric is designed and evaluated using the design science research paradigm: first, the metric is developed and then it is evaluated through the use of focus groups (including several cycles for refinement of the design). The paper concludes with our research contributions and future research directions.
Collaborative social modeling for designing a patient wellness tracking system in a nurse-managed health care center BIBAFull-Text 2
  Yuan An; Prudence W. Dalrymple; Michelle Rogers; Patricia Gerrity; Jennifer Horkoff; Eric Yu
There has been an increasing need for developing health information systems for improving clinical processes and outcomes. Deeply understanding and accurately capturing the information needs of the stakeholders is crucial to successfully designing and deploying such a system. Empirical study on "effective" methodologies for requirements analysis for information system design is one of the important aspects in design science research in information systems. In this paper, we present our case study on exploring a goal-oriented requirements analysis technique called the i* framework for eliciting and modeling the requirements for a patient wellness tracking (PWT) system in a nurse-managed health care services center. The center employs a transdisciplinary care approach for managing illnesses. The innovation and complexity in the health care approach brings about many challenges in designing a PWT system that always provides positive impacts on the current workflows at the center. The system is aimed to maintain information about a wide variety of health and wellness services provided to patients. We want to thoroughly elicit the requirements through modeling the socio-technical environment and analyzing the goals of stakeholders through a collaborative approach. For this purpose, we explored the i* framework and introduced two adaptations in order to meet our needs in eliciting and capturing requirements. Our preliminary experience in this case study demonstrates that using the i* approach with our adaptations is a potentially effective method for eliciting, modeling, capturing, and validating the requirements of healthcare information systems.
Designing for complex innovations in health care: design theory and realist evaluation combined BIBAFull-Text 3
  Christina Keller; Klas Gäre; Mats Edenius; Staffan Lindblad
Innovations in health care are often characterized by complexity and fuzzy boundaries, involving both the elements of the innovation and the organizational structure required for a full implementation. Evaluation in health care is traditionally based on the collection and dissemination of evidence-based knowledge stating the randomized controlled trial, and the quasi-experimental study design as the most rigorous and ideal approaches. These evaluation approaches capture neither the complexity of innovations in health care, nor the characteristics of the organizational structure of the innovation. As a result, the reasons for innovations in health care not being disseminated are not fully explained. The aim of the paper is to present a design -- evaluation framework for complex innovations in health care in order to understand what works for whom under what circumstances by combining design theory and realist evaluation. The framework is based on research findings of a case study of a complex innovation, a health care quality register, in order to understand underlying assumptions behind the design of the innovation, as well as the characteristics of the implementation process. The design -- evaluation cycle is hypothesized to improve the design and implementation of complex innovation by using program/kernel theories to develop design propositions, which are evaluated by realistic evaluation, resulting in further refinement of program/kernel theories. The goal of the design -- evaluation cycle is to provide support to implementers and practitioners in designing and implementing complex innovations in health care. As a result, the design -- evaluation cycle could provide opportunities of improving dissemination of complex innovations in health care.

Design theory and theorizing

Building theory in the sciences of the artificial BIBAFull-Text 4
  Shirley Gregor
This essay extends Simon's arguments in the Sciences of the Artificial to a critical examination of how theorizing in Information Technology disciplines should occur. The essay is framed around a number of fundamental questions that relate theorizing in the artificial sciences to the traditions of the philosophy of science. Theorizing in the artificial sciences is contrasted with theorizing in other branches of science and the applicability of the scientific method is questioned. The paper argues that theorizing should be considered in a holistic manner that links two modes of theorizing: an interior mode with the how of artifact construction studied and an exterior mode with the what of existing artifacts studied. Unlike some representations in the design science movement the paper argues that the study of artifacts once constructed can not be passed back uncritically to the methods of traditional science. Seven principles for creating knowledge in IT disciplines are derived: (i) artifact system centrality; (ii) artifact purposefulness; (iii) need for design theory; (iv) induction and abduction in theory building; (v) artifact construction as theory building; (vi) interior and exterior modes for theorizing; and (viii) issues with generality. The implicit claim is that consideration of these principles will improve knowledge creation and theorizing in design disciplines, for both design science researchers and also for researchers using more traditional methods. Further, attention to these principles should lead to the creation of more useful and relevant knowledge.
Ontological design BIBAFull-Text 5
  Arkalgud Ramaprasad; Sridhar S. Papagari
In this paper, we describe the concept of ontological design. We show how ontologies can be used as cognitive maps of complex, ill-structured, plastic problems. They can be used to concisely encapsulate the core logic of a problem. From it one can also derive a closed set of a very large number of natural language descriptions of a problem. The ontologies can be plastic but at the same time systematic, repeatable, and extensible. They can be used to map the gaps between the states-of-the-art, -practice, and -- need. Knowing the gaps strategies can be designed to bridge them. Thus, ontological design is a method of logical analysis, synthesis of research and practical knowledge, its interpretation, and application to the design of solutions to complex, ill-structured, and plastic problems. We illustrate ontological design in the context of eHealth.
Using the metaphysics of quality to define design science BIBAFull-Text 6
  Christoph Bartneck
Design has evolved from a craft into an academic discipline, but it still falls short on defining its own science. I review previous approaches to Design Science and conclude that the subject-object dualism is the one of the main obstacles. I then apply the Metaphysics of Quality to overcome the dualism and propose Quality as the phenomenon of Design Science. Next, I propose to utilize the analysis of interaction effects as a mean to investigate Quality. Last, I recommend steps we can take to mature this new Design Science and strategies how we can gain the acknowledgement of the other sciences.

Design research: methods

Outline of a design science research process BIBAFull-Text 7
  Philipp Offermann; Olga Levina; Marten Schönherr; Udo Bub
Discussions about the body of knowledge of information systems, including the research domain, relevant perspectives and methods have been going on for a long time. Many researchers vote for a combination of research perspectives and their respective research methodologies; rigour and relevance as requirements in design science are generally accepted. What has been lacking is a formalisation of a detailed research process for design science that takes into account all requirements. We have developed such a research process, building on top of existing processes and findings from design research. The process combines qualitative and quantitative research and references well-known research methods. Publication possibilities and self-contained work packages are recommended. Case studies using the process are presented and discussed.
Design science as nested problem solving BIBAFull-Text 8
  Roel Wieringa
Design science emphasizes the connection between knowledge and practice by showing that we can produce scientific knowledge by designing useful things. However, without further guidelines, aspiring design science researchers tend to identify practical problems with knowledge questions, which may lead to methodologically unsound research designs. To solve a practical problem, the real world is changed to suit human purposes, but to solve a knowledge problem, we acquire knowledge about the world without necessarily changing it. In design science, these two kinds of problems are mutually nested, but this nesting should not blind us for the fact that their problem-solving and solution justification methods are different. This paper analyzes the mutual nesting of practical problems and knowledge problems, derives some methodological guidelines from this for design science researchers, and gives an example of a design science project following this problem nesting.
Soft design science methodology BIBAFull-Text 9
  Richard Baskerville; Jan Pries-Heje; John Venable
This paper proposes and evaluates a soft systems approach to design science research. Soft Design Science provides an approach to the development of new ways to improve human organizations, especially with consideration for social aspects, through the activities of design, development, instantiation, evaluation and evolution of a technological artifact. The Soft Design Science approach merges the common design science research process (design, build-artifact, evaluation) together with the iterative soft systems methodology. The design-build artifact-evaluation process is iterated until the specific requirements are met. The generalized requirements are adjusted as the process continues to keep alignment with the specific requirements. In the end, the artifact represents a general solution to a class of problems shown to operate in one instance of that class of problems. The proposed methodology is evaluated by an analysis of how it differs from, and could have informed and improved, a published design science study, which used a design-oriented action research method.

Domain-specific design research

A theory-based alternative for the design of instruction: functional design BIBAFull-Text 10
  Andrew S. Gibbons
An approach to instructional design is described which avoids some of the problems traditionally associated with process design models, sometimes referred to as waterfall models. The new approach is based on the functional decomposition of a generic instructional artifact and the use of the functions as entry points to the design. A theory of design architecture is described that relates artifact functions to the "layers" of a design, similar to Schön's architectural domains. By viewing the instructional artifact functionally, the designer takes advantage of the correspondence of instructional design layers and their associated theories. Thus, instructional theory can be applied more directly to designs. A design order that is adaptive to the individual design project is obtained as the process order restraints of the waterfall model are traded for ordering on the basis of a set of decision priority rules.
Towards a design theory for online communities BIBAFull-Text 11
  David Gurzick; Wayne G. Lutters
Online communities are increasingly important in modern social life. Yet, the diverse collection of guidelines that have directed online community design may not be keeping pace with significant changes in the operating environment of these systems. This paper collects and distills the most relevant of these guidelines and describes their instantiation in a design artifact foundational to a larger design science research project. The core contributions include the distilled guidelines, a detailed account of the mechanics of their translation into practice, and a framework for doing design science research in online communities.
Pattern languages in the wild: exploring pattern languages in the laboratory and in the real world BIBAFull-Text 12
  Christine E. Wania; Michael E. Atwood
For more than two decades much of the pattern language literature, within the field of Human Computer Interaction (HCI), has focused on the possible benefits pattern languages may provide, but there has been very little empirical work to support these claims. In fact, existing controlled studies show practically no benefit of using pattern languages in design. Despite this lack of evidence, interest in pattern languages continues. In this paper we examine how pattern languages are used in experimental settings and in the real world. We explore two questions here: Are pattern languages real? Are pattern languages useful? We argue that the answer to both of these questions is yes. As a community, we believe that we have been looking in the wrong places to find evidence of pattern languages and have been looking for the wrong benefits. Said differently, we have been overlooking the existence of and the benefits of pattern languages. This study began exploring pattern languages in a laboratory setting, but then continued that exploration in a real setting where we encountered evidence of the existence of pattern languages and of their benefits. By continuing these explorations, we argue that, the HCI community will then begin to see the benefits from all the great efforts in this area.

The social element in design

Power of peripheral designers: how users learn to design BIBAFull-Text 13
  Yutaka Yamauchi
In information system development, end-users often participate in design and in many cases learn to design their own system. Design, however, requires a distinct approach that users typically are not familiar with. The unique position in which users find themselves makes users' learning even more complicated: They have no interest in designing and becoming designers. To understand how users learn to design despite such difficulties, longitudinal ethnography was conducted in an accounting system development project. The analysis reveals how a user progressively acquired the design capability in two months. In the beginning, the user treated the problem as given and rejected design proposed by designers that did not solve the given problems. The user then gradually learned the details of the system and started to explore various configurations of features; however, this design focused on parts, with the problem remaining fixed. The user finally demonstrated her design capability by constructing creative designs both in parts and on the whole. Drawing on situated learning theory, the notion of the peripheral designer is used to illustrate this type of design practice. The user became a peripheral designer in that she could design in a competent but peripheral manner without becoming a full designer. Power relationships posed challenges to this learning. The notion of the peripheral designer clarifies what designing is, beyond active participation in discussion and configuration of parts, and delineates a realistic picture of how a user learns to design in the real world.
The constitutive and the instrumental in social design BIBAFull-Text 14
  Murali Venkatesh
Simon's <u>The Sciences of the Artificial</u> is rightly influential as a founding text in design research in the information systems field (IS). Simon's contributions in the same volume to what he calls social planning and human design -- practices associated with the development of societal scale artifacts that foster a "humane society" -- are much less visible in IS design research. I develop and expand on some of Simon's insights here using social design projects such as IT-based civic networks as my context, drawing on a civic network development project called the Urban-net that I have tracked since its inception in 1996. I define some distinctive features of such projects and advance an institutionalist conception of actors (designers) and action. Despite noting that "nothing is more fundamental in setting our research agenda and informing our research methods than our view of the nature of the human beings whose behavior we are studying" (Simon 1985; emphasis added), and despite his recognition that social planning projects often are quite different from other types of technical projects in the demands they make on actors, Simon's (1996) discussion is not moved by a sufficiently nuanced view of the designer. Apropos, and drawing on a sociological institutionalist view of social actors and action, I outline a model of two inter-related design activities: constitutive design -- targeting design of the normative or institutional foundation and governance mechanisms -- and instrumental design, where designers specify the system to be built within the agreed-upon normative constraints. I conclude with a brief account of the Urban-net case.
Towards a paradigmatic shift in IS: designing for social practice BIBAFull-Text 15
  Markus Rohde; Gunnar Stevens; Peter Brödner; Volker Wulf
The paper elaborates on the theoretical foundation of Information System understood as a field of design science. Revisiting Hevner's et al. seminal paper [44], we elaborate on theoretical and conceptual shortcomings. Theoretically, we state a somehow limited perception of pragmatist thinking. Conceptually, we criticize a limited definition of the IS research field and argue in favour of an (obligatory) evaluation of IT artifacts in real world settings. To develop the design science paradigm beyond these shortcomings, we present a theoretical framework which takes the interrelation of IT artifacts and social practices as a central focus of research. Such an epistemological and ontological opening of the design science perspective leads to methodological implications. We exemplify methodological shifts by taking the Canonical Action Research (CAR) method as a problematic example. Design probes are discussed as a method which holds considerable promises under a reframed paradigm. The consequences of the theoretical and methodological reflections for a socially relevant IS design science are discussed finally.

Technological design

An empirical evaluation of information security awareness levels in designing secure business processes BIBAFull-Text 16
  Fergle D'Aubeterre; Lakshmi S. Iyer; Rahul Singh
Information Systems Security (ISS) is critical to ensuring the integrity and credibility of digitally exchanged information in business processes. Information systems development methodology that considers security requirements in the early phases of systems development is essential for ISS. In the context of ISS, information security awareness (SA) can play a vital role in minimizing end-user related security faults and maximizing the efficiency of security techniques. This information security awareness should be present in the requirements gathering phase of the software development process so that analysts become more aware of security constraints and possible violations resulting into secure business processes. In this paper, we extend the work by D'Aubeterre et al. (2008b) to evaluate the utility of Secure Activity Resource Coordination artifacts in generating three levels of security awareness: perception, comprehension and prediction. The experimental evaluation shows that using SARC artifacts analysts are able to better explain the current state of security of a business process. Should violations occur, analysts are able to explain the nature of security violation in terms of segregation of duties, non-repudiation, and authorization.
Coordination analysis: a method for deriving use cases from process dependencies BIBAFull-Text 17
  Xiang Michelle Liu; George M. Wyner
Despite the widespread recognition that information technology (IT) and business process are tightly connected, existing system design methods provide limited guidance on how to take business process into account when designing information systems. The primary goal of this paper is to describe a method which helps systems analysts to explore more systematically the potential of IT to change the design of business processes. We use coordination theory to provide a theoretical connection between use cases and the dependencies among activities within a process. By building use cases from dependencies, we are able to consider a wide range of functionality for managing those dependencies and thus incorporate process redesign into the requirements process. We employ a healthcare case as an example to illustrate the proposed method.
Towards design principles for effective context- and perspective-based web mining BIBAFull-Text 18
  Vijay K. Vaishnavi; Art Vandenberg; Yanqing Zhang; Saravanaraj Duraisamy
A practical and scalable web mining solution is needed that can assist the user in processing existing web-based resources to discover specific, relevant information content. This is especially important for researcher communities where data deployed on the World Wide Web are characterized by autonomous, dynamically evolving, and conceptually diverse information sources. The paper describes a systematic design research study that is based on prototyping/evaluation and abstraction using existing and new techniques incorporated as plug and play components into a research workbench. The study investigates an approach, DISCOVERY, for using (1) context/perspective information and (2) social networks such as ODP or Wikipedia for designing practical and scalable human-web systems for finding web pages that are relevant and meet the needs and requirements of a user or a group of users. The paper also describes the current implementation of DISCOVERY and its initial use in finding web pages in a targeted web domain. The resulting system arguably meets the common needs and requirements of a group of people based on the information provided by the group in the form of a set of context web pages. The system is evaluated for a scenario in which assistance of the system is sought for a group of faculty members in finding NSF research grant opportunities that they should collaboratively respond to, utilizing the context provided by their recent publications.

Evaluating design research

Design alternatives for the evaluation of design science research artifacts BIBAFull-Text 19
  Anne Cleven; Philipp Gubler; Kai M. Hüner
Within a consideration of cost effectiveness the evaluation of design science research artifacts is of major importance. In the past, a plenitude of approaches has been developed for this purpose -- partly artifact-specific, partly artifact-neutral. Nonetheless, there is a lack of a comprehensive overview over existing methods as well as a systemization of those with regard to fundamental structuring criteria. The paper at hand surveys existing methods and introduces a framework that equally supports the designer and the user of artifact evaluation approaches. Subsequent to the embedding of the framework into the design science research process two exemplary application scenarios are described.
Towards knowledge needs-technology fit model for knowledge management systems BIBAFull-Text 20
  Peter Baloh; Kevin C. Desouza
The goal of this paper is threefold. The first goal is to provide an illustrative example of design science research. Readers will benefit from seeing how design science research guidelines, as proposed by Hevner et al. (2004), can be rigorously followed in a practically relevant study. The second goal is to describe the novel artifact constructed during the research project: a knowledge management system design model. The third goal is to provide a methodological contribution to the design science community. The paper calls for adding an exploratory step in the build phase when designing a new artifact.
An approach for designing management support systems: the design science research process and its outcomes BIBAFull-Text 21
  Sven A. Carlsson; Stefan Henningsson; Stefan Hrastinski; Christina Keller
Design science research involves creating and evaluating innovative methods and approaches to be used in design practice. We present an approach to be used in the process of designing Management Support Systems (MSS). The nature of managerial work makes the design, development, and implementation of MSS a major challenge. The MSS literature suggests that determining MSS requirements and specification of MSS are the most critical phases in MSS design and development. We present an approach that can be used as a guide for MSS design, with a primary focus on MSS requirements determination and how requirements can be fulfilled using information and communication technologies (ICT). The approach builds on Quinn and associates' competing values model (CVM) of organizational effectiveness. The approach can guide MSS designers in designing MSS that support different managerial roles, i.e., the development of MSS that support managerial cognition, decision, and action.

Organizational design research

Situational maturity models as instrumental artifacts for organizational design BIBAFull-Text 22
  Tobias Mettler; Peter Rohner
In order to identify and explore the strength and weaknesses of particular organizational designs, a wide range of maturity models have been developed by both, practitioners and academics over the past years. However, a systematization and generalization of the procedure on how to design maturity models as well as a synthesis of design science research with the rather behavioural field of organization theory is still lacking. Trying to combine the best of both fields, a first design proposition of a situational maturity model is presented in this paper. The proposed maturity model design is illustrated with the help of an instantiation for the healthcare domain.
Language communities in enterprise architecture research BIBAFull-Text 23
  Joachim Schelp; Robert Winter
As a result of the rigor vs. relevance debate, researchers who focus on design research on organizational problems are beginning to focus on their research methodology's rigor. One of the means to lever the standards is the explicit establishment of defined language communities. This paper investigates to what extent current design research focusing on organizational problems is satisfying the requirements to establish such language communities. As research on organizational problems in IS research is still a very broad field, this paper focuses on research on enterprise architecture (EA). It contributes a state of the art overview on EA research regarding the research methodology employed and their language community state. Results show that local language communities in EA research do exist, but still have to lever their standards -- both regarding the quality of the language communities and the quality of the design research.
Situational method engineering for governance, risk and compliance information systems BIBAFull-Text 24
  Anke Gericke; Hans-Georg Fill; Dimitris Karagiannis; Robert Winter
Against the background of the current financial crisis and an aftermath of increasing regulation, companies enhance and integrate information systems in the areas of risk management, governance and compliance. Based on experience with isolated and often immature partial solution in these fields, major challenges are the evolution of a suitable risk management solution component as well as the conceptual design of an integrated "Governance, Risk and Compliance" (GRC) approach. Another challenge is the rollout of such an integrated GRC solution. In this paper, we develop and evaluate a situational method that supports the implementation of an integrated GRC solution. The proposed situational method is comprised of 21 method fragments that support conceptual, strategic, organizational, technical, and cultural rollout aspects. Furthermore, method configurations are specified that identify only those method fragments that are relevant for certain roles, e.g. project manager or GRC expert.

Research posters

Enhancing the quality of use case models and activity diagrams using a differential quality model BIBAFull-Text 25
  Narasimha Bolloju; Sherry X. Sun
Use case models and activity diagrams play an important role in the early stages of requirement specification for systems development. When complex use cases descriptions are supplemented with corresponding activity diagrams to represent the same set of requirements from different perspectives, inconsistencies between pairs of related artifacts affect the quality of the resulting models. This paper presents a differential quality model, which can be utilized for enhancing the quality of those UML models.
An extended interpretation of process design and modeling BIBAFull-Text 26
  Stefan Jablonski; Stephanie Meerkamm
Business process modeling is nowadays generally accepted as a way to describe business activities. However existing process modeling languages are not always adequate for specific application domains. They are taken for granted and the development (design) of tailored languages is not taken into consideration. Therefore, we focus on process design and extend it in a way that its outcome is a new process modeling language that ideally meets the requirements of an application domain.
Organic design techniques utilized in the development of a domain-based integrated knowledge repository to enhance learning outcomes BIBAFull-Text 27
  David Lubliner; George Widmeyer; Fadi P. Deek
The goal of the research was to design and build an organic knowledge repository that had the inherent ability to grow and evolve over time. A design artifact -- Constructivist Unifying Baccalaureate Epistemology (CUBE) -- was designed and tested to validate the efficacy of this approach. Concept Clustering displayed as a knowledge map was used to display linkages between related concepts. Two models that facilitate this organic nature of the system were developed for this research; a Knowledge Weighting Model and the Aggregation-Integration-Master model. A ranking/voting feature was incorporated which enabled students and faculty to add content to the knowledge base and collectively evaluate the relative weights of conceptual threads. The two design goals of this approach were validated. First, students and faculty were able to enter information that dynamically altered the organization and structure of the knowledge repository. Second, students utilizing the Integrated Knowledge Repository developed a more complex understanding of the interconnected nature of the materials linking a discipline than those students who take conventional single topic courses.
C-K design theory for information systems research BIBAFull-Text 28
  Jan Ondrus; Yves Pigneur
Design science is slowly but surely establishing itself as a recognized paradigm for conducting research in information systems. Researchers in the IS field have tried to study different aspects of design science. So far, it seems that the design activity, or "design reasoning" has not received much attention from the IS community. In this paper, we propose to use a theory developed in engineering fields in order to solve this issue. The C-K theory, or Concept-Knowledge theory, is considered to be a good candidate to deal with the design reasoning.
Towards adapting authentic learning for formal work-integrated e-learning BIBAFull-Text 29
  Christian Ostlund; Karlheinz Kautz; Lars Svensson
This poster reports from the initial steps of formulating a prescriptive design theory to support the development of scholastic/formal work-integrated e-learning systems. For this purpose a framework for authentic learning, developed and evaluated in a school setting and the eight components of design theories by Gregor and Jones has been used to guide two e-learning activities in a work setting. Adapting authentic learning to a formal work-integrated e-learning context calls for a simplification of the framework where some elements of authentic learning become peripheral whereas others become more central.
A design theory for managing software process improvement BIBAFull-Text 30
  Jan Pries-Heje; Richard Baskerville
This article summarizes a management design theory in the form of technological rules for software process improvement. A general model of the improvement recommendation process can include four elements: agenda, observation, analysis and synthesis. This model supports a design theory in the form of technological rules for each of the four elements. This design theory is useful as a framework in which practitioners can better manage their software process improvement process through more precise orientation of their organization and their goals.
Security enhanced integrative modeling language (SEIML): a conceptual modeling grammar for agile business information systems BIBAFull-Text 31
  Kirti Sudumbrekar; Nan Xiao; Raj Sharman; Sanjukta Das-smith
In this paper, we present a grammar SEIML for semi-autonomous multi-agent system specifically catering to the area of integrative business information systems (IBIS) environments. SEIML is intended to provide the necessary constructs to model a dynamic business organization that is adaptive to fast-changing business needs.
The design and evaluation of a virtual world-based learning environment: information security learning using Second Life BIBAFull-Text 32
  Angsana A. Techatassanasoontorn; Jungwoo Ryoo; Dongwon Lee; Taylor Davenport
This research proposes a design framework of a virtual world-based learning environment that integrates unique features of the virtual world technology with an instructional strategy. We then demonstrate the environment's usefulness and assess the effectiveness of our design framework in the context of information security learning using Second Life. Overall, the results strongly suggest that the virtual world-based learning environment enhances information security learning. In addition, our research shows that Learner traits have an important influence on learning outcomes through perceived enjoyment.