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DESRIST Tables of Contents: 09101112131415

Proceedings of the 2015 International Conference on Design Science Research in Information Systems and Technology

Fullname:DESRIST 2015: Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on New Horizons in Design Science: Broadening the Research Agenda
Editors:Brian Donnellan; Markus Helfert; Jim Kenneally; Debra VanderMeer; Marcus Rothenberger; Robert Winter
Location:Dublin, Ireland
Dates:2015-May-21 to 2015-May-22
Publisher:Springer International Publishing
Series:Lecture Notes in Computer Science 9073
Standard No:DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-18714-3 hcibib: DESRIST15; ISBN: 978-3-319-18713-6 (print), 978-3-319-18714-3 (online)
Papers:43
Pages:506
Links:Online Proceedings | Conference Website
  1. Design Science Research in Action
  2. Meta Perspectives
  3. Data Mining and Analytics
  4. Emerging Themes
  5. Design Practice and Design Thinking
  6. Prototypes
  7. Short Papers

Design Science Research in Action

Designing an Enterprise Social Questions and Answers Site to Enable Scalable User-to-User Support BIBAKFull-Text 3-18
  Oliver Gass; Gülcan Öztürk; Silvia Schacht; Alexander Mädche
Nowadays, the information technology infrastructure within organizations is getting more and more heterogeneous. Recent trends such as bring-your-own-device or choose-your-own-device satisfy user requests for diverse devices they already know from their private life. On the other hand, following these trends results in an increased complexity of the organizations' infrastructure and a substantial rise in required effort for supporting users. In order to address this increased support demand, the establishment of a user-to-user support culture seems promising. An established concept to provide user-to-user support is the concept of social questions and answers (SQA) sites. SQA sites have been shown to be successful in the private context. Users can seek and provide knowledge and thereby support each other. This paper presents the design and evaluation of an enterprise SQA platform aiming to support employees in solving problems with processes or technologies. Building on already derived design principles, we discuss the design and implementation of the SQA prototype within an existing Customer Relation Management platform. The resulting system was then evaluated within five focus group sessions with professionals from various industries. The evaluation results show the validity of our design principles and the usefulness of the implemented prototype.
Keywords: BYOD; User-to-user support; Social questions and answer sites
Real Time Bidding in Online Digital Advertisement BIBAKFull-Text 19-38
  Shalinda Adikari; Kaushik Dutta
Real time bidding (RTB) is becoming the key to target marketing where it could optimize advertiser expectations drastically. Not like the conventional digital advertising, in the process of RTB, the impressions of a mobile application or a website are mapped to a particular advertiser through a bidding process which triggers and held for a few milliseconds after an application is launched. To carry out the bidding process a special platform called demand side platform (DSP) provides support to advertisers to bid for available impressions on their behalf. This process has turned into a complex mission as there are many applications/websites that have come into the market. Mapping them to advertisers' target audience, and bidding appropriately for them is not a simple human mediated process. The complexity and the dynamic nature in the RTB process make it difficult to apply forecasting strategies effectively and efficiently. In this paper we propose an autonomous and a dynamic strategy for bidding decisions such as bidding price. We applied our proposed approach on a real RTB bidding data and demonstrated that our approach can achieve higher conversion rate with the target spend for a DSP.
Keywords: Real time bidding; Demand side platform; Bid price; Bid request; Impressions; Advertiser expectations; Target audience; Forecasting; Dynamic programming
Information System Design Space for Sustainability BIBAKFull-Text 39-54
  Moyen Mohammad Mustaquim; Tobias Nyström
The interdisciplinary nature of human-computer interaction (HCI) makes it possible to contribute towards an improved thinking in design and the process of information system designs. It is, however, a challenging aim, because the transformation of different gathered knowledge from HCI to information system designers is not easy, there being multiple design solutions available. In this paper a design space for designing an information system aimed at sustainability is introduced and discussed. The design space could be seen as part of a new design process, or correlating with an existing design setting and consisting of nine different components that are explored elaborately through a design space analysis. Differently selected dimensions of the proposed design space imitate knowledge from HCI and the result thus reflects a support for successfully transferring knowledge from HCI to the information system (IS) designers for improving a design process.
Keywords: Information system design space; Sustainability; Design space
Visionary Design Research: Renewing e-government Support for Business Set Up BIBAFull-Text 55-70
  Göran Goldkuhl; Anders Persson; Annie Röstlinger
To set up a new business can be a complex and demanding task in a highly regulated society. There is a need for many contacts with and applications for permits to different public authorities. There exists e-government support for new businesses, e.g. business link portals with information and services based on a life-event approach. This presented research contains formulation of a vision for a renewed e-government support for business set up (an assemblage information system; joined-up support for application processes; a reversed application process). This is characterized as visionary design research, which is argued to be a legitimate research approach. The paper articulates a visionary design research approach based on multi-grounding principles. Grounding of the emergent vision is done in theoretical pre-knowledge, internally through vision coherence and empirically in identified problematic situations, articulated goals and opinions/assessments from knowledgeable practitioners.
Design Science in Practice: Design and Evaluation of an Art Based Information System to Improve Indoor Air Quality at Schools BIBAKFull-Text 71-86
  Paul Rigger; Felix Wortmann; André Dahlinger
Indoor air quality has a significant effect on human performance. In addition, many health issues can be traced back to bad indoor room-climate. However, especially in Europe, pupils spend a majority of their learning life in school classes affected by poor room climate. Without an automatic heating, ventilation and air conditioning system these pupils and their teachers have to rely on manual ventilation by opening windows. Thereby, they often lack fundamental room climate quality information to effectively guide their behavior. Information systems (IS) and sensor technology can be a remedy to these challenges. Existing room climate monitoring systems regularly reveal major shortcomings, e.g. in respect to user interfaces, presentation of data, and systematic engagement. We want to address the aforementioned shortcomings and present an art IS, which reflects room conditions in real time through modifications of depicted art. The artifact is evaluated in a field experiment, conducted in an Austrian grammar school. The evaluation reveals that room climate measured in CO2 can indeed be improved significantly. In addition, pupils also perceive a significant room climate improvement.
Keywords: Human-computer interaction; Ambient displays; Art information systems; Pervasive computing
Designing a Report Recommendation Assistant: A First Design Cycle BIBAKFull-Text 87-103
  Martin Kretzer; Maximilian Kleinedler; Christian Theilemann; Alexander Mädche
Employees often supplement their organization's Business Intelligence (BI) system with individually tinkered reports. Unfortunately, these supplements bear numerous threats such as limited report reuse across all users of the BI system. Therefore, we established a design science research (DSR) project by exploring impediments of existing BI systems, building meta-requirements and suggesting design principles. In particular, we propose a Report Recommendation Assistant (RRA) for improving reuse of reports across potential users.
   In this paper, we present our DSR project and focus on the first evaluation cycle. Our results indicate that the RRA has a positive impact on perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness of the BI system. Furthermore, we find that these effects are negatively moderated by user's expertise in using the BI system and are not biased by the underlying BI system. Finally, we leverage results from BI expert interviews and existing literature to refine the proposed RRA.
Keywords: Business intelligence; Design science research; Diffusion of reports; Report reuse; Recommendation assistant
Communication Artifacts for Requirements Engineering BIBAKFull-Text 104-118
  Miloslava Plachkinova; Ken Peffers; Greg Moody
The current study aims to improve the requirements engineering (RE) communication, as often times projects fail due to poorly specified or misunderstood requirements. We use design science methods to build and evaluate a conceptual model which can add value to managers by offering them a set of guidelines and best practices for facilitating the RE communication. We did a qualitative study to investigate what the criteria are for selecting communication artifacts and we discovered that organizational culture plays a key role in this process. We demonstrate that the used artifacts need to adequately reflect the dynamic and intensity of the communication. Finally, we extend the RE process by adding two transitional phases to avoid requirements slipping through the gaps. Our findings indicate that such transitions are more distinct in traditional waterfall organizations and less salient in agile companies. The current study approaches the RE communication process from a design science perspective which adds more knowledge on the topic and addresses some existing issues leading to project failure.
Keywords: Communication artifacts; Requirements engineering; Design science; Qualitative research

Meta Perspectives

Entering Action Design Research BIBAKFull-Text 121-134
  Matthew T. Mullarkey; Alan R. Hevner
In the execution of an Action Design Research (ADR) project, we experienced challenges in how to enter into the ADR research stages effectively. In this paper, we present how we addressed these challenges by extending the ADR model with two expanded up-front activities and multiple entry points. Our research on inter-organizational social networks is briefly described as the project context for application of the extended ADR model.
Keywords: Action design research; Design science research process; Social networking information systems
Proposal for Requirements Driven Design Science Research BIBAKFull-Text 135-151
  Richard Braun; Martin Benedict; Hannes Wendler; Werner Esswein
Design Science Research (DSR) still reveals several methodical shortcomings, which need to be remedied in order to enhance the maturity of DSR and its derived artifacts. For instance, there is a remarkable lack in methodical support for problem formulation. Also, DSR does not provide detailed procedure models, which can be operationalized appropriately. This compromises rigor within the design process and hampers demarcation from professional practice. In order to tackle these issues, we propose the adaptation of Requirements Engineering for structuring the problem space and deriving design decisions systematically. Requirements are also intended to work as glue between single design stages in order to keep the design process comprehensible and transparent. We therefore justify an ontology-based analogy between requirements analysis and DSR parts and provide a requirements-driven DSR framework based on a four-part ontology that especially focuses problem analysis and design preparation. Moreover, a detailed state of the art is presented and our approach is discussed within a critical appraisal.
Keywords: Design science; Requirements analysis; Requirements ontology; Analogy; Design rigor; Design science framework
A Postmodern Perspective on Socio-technical Design Science Research in Information Systems BIBAKFull-Text 152-167
  Andreas Drechsler
This paper presents a critical account of the current state of design science research (DSR) of socio-technical artifacts in the information systems discipline as viewed through a postmodern lens. The paper offers a novel perspective to reflect on DSR and socio-technical artifacts, especially in terms of their limitations and boundaries of application. To achieve this, I critically appraise the current state of DSR practices, based on postmodern researchers' key stances. The findings offer new perspectives on artifact effects, their application contexts, artifact utility, artifact audiences, the roles of the languages in which artifacts are specified, the design researcher's role in the DSR process, and the political dimension of artifact design and evaluation. Design science researchers working on all types of socio-technical artifacts can use this paper's findings to reflect on their artifacts' limitations and potential real-world consequences before, during, and after artifact design and instantiation, and to subsequently improve these artifacts.
Keywords: Design science; Socio-technical artifacts; Postmodernism; Postmodern
Agile Design Science Research BIBAKFull-Text 168-180
  Kieran Conboy; Rob Gleasure; Eoin Cullina
As design science has matured, prescriptive frameworks and best practices have been advanced to assist researchers and lay out the academic standards for the paradigm. We argue that the problem-solving model underlying much of this progress has limited the ability of researchers to produce creative artefacts. To address this, we propose an amended Agile Design Science Research Methodology (ADSRM). ADSRM draws upon breakthroughs made in industry by those adopting 'agile' perspectives on IT development. This agile perspective balances procedural rigour with the need to consider empirically-driven problem/solution coevolution, allowing development to hone in on the most meaningful and unanticipated of problems. ADSRM proposes amendments to several existing DSR best practices, as well as two entirely new components to be modelled in the design process, namely a problem backlog and a hardening sprint. The value of these additions is illustrated in two exemplar cases.
Keywords: Design science; Agile; Software development

Data Mining and Analytics

NavigTweet: A Visual Tool for Influence-Based Twitter Browsing BIBAKFull-Text 183-198
  Chiara Francalanci; Ajaz Hussain
Directed links in social media could represent anything from intimate friendships to common interests. Such directed links determine the flow of information and hence indicate a user's influence on others -- a concept that plays a vital role in sociology and viral marketing. Identifying influencers is an important step towards understanding how information spreads within a network. Social networks follow a power-law degree distribution of nodes, with a few hub nodes and a long tail of peripheral nodes. This paper proposes a novel visual framework to analyze, explore and interact with Twitter 'Who Follows Who' relationships, by browsing the friends' network to identify the key influencers based upon the actual influence of the content they share. We have developed NavigTweet, a novel visualization tool for the influence-based exploration of Twitter network. The core concept of the proposed approach is to identify influencers by browsing through a user's friends' network. Then, a power-law based modified force-directed method is applied to clearly display the graph in a multi-layered and multi-clustered way. To gather some insight into the user experience with the pilot release of NavigTweet, we have conducted a qualitative pilot user study. We report on the study and its results, with initial pilot release.
Keywords: Social Media Influencers; Social Media Influence; Twitter Analytics; Graph Visualization
A Continuous Markov-Chain Model of Data Quality Transition: Application in Insurance-Claim Handling BIBAKFull-Text 199-214
  Yuval Zak; Adir Even
Data quality (DQ) might degrade over time, due to changes in real-world entities or behaviors that are not reflected correctly in datasets that describe them. This study presents a continuous-time Markov-Chain model that reflects DQ as a dynamic process. The model may help assessing and predicting accuracy degradation over time. Taking into account cost-benefit tradeoffs, it can also be used to recommend an economically-optimal point in time at which data values should be evaluated and possibly reacquired. The model addresses data-acquisition scenarios that reflect real-world processes with a finite number of states, each described by certain data-attribute values. It takes into account state-transition probabilities, the distribution of time spent in each state, the damage associated with incorrect data that fails to reflect the real-world state, and the cost of data reacquisition. Given current state and the time passed since the last transition, the model estimates the expected damage of a data record and recommends whether or not to correct it, by comparing the potential benefits of correction (elimination of potential damage), versus reacquisition cost.
   Following common design science research guidelines, the applicability and the potential contribution of the model is demonstrated with a real-world dataset that reflects a process of handling insurance claims. Insurants' status must be kept up-to-date, to avoid potential monetary damages; however, contacting an insurant for status update is costly and time consuming. Currently the contact decision is guided by some heuristics that are based on employees' experience. The evaluation shows that applying the model has major cost-saving potential, compared to the current state.
Keywords: Data Quality; Accuracy; Continuous-Time Markov Chain; Design Science Research
Enabling Reproducible Sentiment Analysis: A Hybrid Domain-Portable Framework for Sentiment Classification BIBAKFull-Text 215-229
  Matthias Eickhoff
In this paper a hybrid framework for Sentiment Analysis is presented. In the first part, dictionary based and machine learning based Sentiment Classification are introduced and the two approaches are contrasted. In the second part of the paper, the HSentiR framework, which combines the two approaches, is introduced. Consequently, the framework is evaluated regarding scoring accuracy and practical concerns.
Keywords: Sentiment analysis; Reproducible research
Improving Customer Centric Design for Self-service Predictive Analytics BIBAKFull-Text 230-245
  Colm Thornton; Brian O'Flaherty
Customer-centric design is critical to the success of delivering Predictive Analytics (PA) as a Self-Service Technology (SST), yet efforts to date have focused upon the related technical challenges. This research turns to the multidisciplinary field of Service Design to address this where its centerpiece Service Blueprint (SB) method has the potential to support such customer-centric design. However the fields' long-standing emphasis on traditional high-touch low-tech services limits its utility for the design of SSTs. This research adopts a Design Science approach to improve upon the SB to offer a more complete solution beyond these traditional boundaries. As output, a new multi-model is proposed with an enhanced SB at its center, enabling design practitioners to rise to the challenges of these technology-enabled services. Besides providing the necessary customer-focused design for PA SSTs, the research contributes to the development of a more holistic approach to the broader practice of Service Design.
Keywords: Service Blueprint; Self-Service Technology; Predictive Analytics; Service Design; Service Science; Design Science

Emerging Themes

The Front End of Innovation: Perspectives on Creativity, Knowledge and Design BIBAKFull-Text 249-263
  Shirley Gregor; Alan R. Hevner
While the importance of innovation as a dominant driver of societal and economic progress is well established, the processes and outcomes of innovation remain distressingly ad-hoc and unpredictable. In particular, the Front End of Innovation (FEI) provides many open questions as innovators are challenged to understand the opportunity context, generate novel ideas, and evaluate these ideas for the implementation of solutions. We propose an original model of the FEI with a nascent theory base drawn from recent perspectives in the areas of innovation, creativity, knowledge, and design science. A key insight is the application of a knowledge maturity lens to distinguish four categories of innovation -- invention, exaptation, advancement, and exploitation. We conclude with an agenda for future research to extend innovation theories and with actionable advice for improving current practices of innovation.
Keywords: Innovation; Front end of innovation; Design science research; Knowledge; Creativity
Five and Ten Years on: Have DSR Standards Changed? BIBAKFull-Text 264-279
  John R. Venable
It has been more than ten years since the publication of Hevner et al [1] and five years since Venable [2] surveyed editors and DSR researchers on standards and criteria for judging the quality and suitability of DSR submissions for publication. Since then, there has been much further discussion about evaluation, design theory, and standards for DSR publication. This paper attempts to answer the question of how standards for judging the quality (e.g., rigour and relevance) of DSR research publications have changed since 2010 and to develop a snapshot of the relative importance of different extant DSR publication criteria. To do so, the author surveyed editors of IS Scholars' "basket-of-eight" journals, DESRIST conference program committee members, and DESRIST (co-)authors. This paper compares the quantitative findings of the current survey to the 2010 survey.
Keywords: Design Science Research; Research Standards; Evaluation; Design Theory; Publication Criteria
Projecting the Future for Design Science Research: An Action-Case Based Analysis BIBAFull-Text 280-291
  Richard Baskerville; Jan Pries-Heje
Design science research should be relevant, valuable, purposeful and prescriptive. Its value as a relevant source of prescriptions implies the practical usefulness of its results beyond a single expository instantiation. But propagation of such design science products as design principles and theories appears to be a key challenge. In this paper we commence with a DESRIST paper from 2012 that instantiated design principles in an artifact for a bank. That paper included plans and techniques for future use of its principles (propagation), including prescriptions for a five-phase adoption process. In this paper we discuss the propagation issues around generalizing design science research across multiple contexts and propose alternative propagation concepts of projectability and entrenchment. The existing concepts around generalizability have issues that make them less suitable for design science research: context (local/possible worlds) and theoretical statements based on functional explanations. A projection is any relevant instance that supports a theory. Projectability involves defining the relationship between a base case or evidence and a projection. Entrenchment occurs when design principles or theories have stimulated many actual projections. We demonstrate these concepts in a case study of propagation: a chemical manufacturer and service provider that adopted the design principles arising from that 2012 DESRIST banking-based design science research. We conclude that generalizability is too well-oriented to descriptive research and argue that a more appropriate framing for design science research is projectability and entrenchment. The paper includes recommendations to increase the projectability of design science research.

Design Practice and Design Thinking

Multi-criteria Selection in Design Science Projects -- A Procedure for Selecting Foresight Methods at the Front End of Innovation BIBAKFull-Text 295-310
  Patrick Brandtner; Markus Helfert; Andreas Auinger; Kurt Gaubinger
In order to identify the best option(s) out of a set of alternatives selection procedures are used in many different fields of application. Depending on the respective setting and research domain, developing or selecting an appropriate selection procedure is a complex and challenging task. This paper proposes a procedure for selecting a set of options out of a large amount of alternatives. The procedure is used within a Design Science Context. It has been developed, applied and evaluated in the course of a current research project addressing the highly dynamic Front End of Innovation. This represents a classic "wicked" and challenging Design Science problem. The selection procedure proposed in this paper can serve as a reference framework for other Design Science based projects in similar "wicked" application domains, where a theory- and practice-based definition of selection criteria and a structured evaluation process requires comprehensive domain knowledge and deep practical insights.
Keywords: Selection procedure; Design Science Research; Front End of Innovation; Corporate Foresight; Focus Group Study
Design Science for Future AIS: Transferring Continuous Auditing Issues to a Gradual Methodology BIBAKFull-Text 311-326
  Andreas Kiesow; Novica Zarvic; Oliver Thomas
The tightened legal framework and technical evolution increase the relevance of effective Accounting Information Systems (AIS). In this context, researchers and practitioners predict the transition from traditional auditing to automated Continuous Auditing (CA). However, the organizational implementation of CA is still an unsolved problem in AIS research. To face this challenge, the authors of this paper used a Design Science Research (DSR) model considering the characteristics of CA. The proposed artifact in this paper is a gradual methodology which addresses general issues of CA implementation projects. The authors evaluate this artifact in an argumentatively descriptive way before stating limitations and giving an outlook on future research. Ultimately, the authors believe that the proposed methodology as well as the DSR approach for CA research contribute to the knowledge base and set the baseline for further investigations.
Keywords: Continuous Auditing; Accounting Information System; Design Science Research
Unpacking the Artifact Knowledge: Secondary Data Analysis in Design Science Research BIBAKFull-Text 327-342
  Mateusz Dolata; Mehmet Kilic; Gerhard Schwabe
Evaluation of design artifacts generates a set of scientifically valuable data, which is primarily used to prove the utility of the artifact or to identify potential for improvement. Extension of such studies by reanalyzing the same data set did not attract much attention in design-oriented research and design science. However, the reuse of this data with the secondary analysis approaches can provide valuable insights on artifact-based interventions. This paper aims at launching a debate on the role of secondary analysis in DSR. We argue that secondary analysis of evaluation data shall be granted respect within the DSR-IS community as a valuable method for scientific inquiry. By discussing role of data reuse in reference disciplines and showing how secondary analysis is understood within the IS, we argue that there is a need and great opportunity for reanalysis data originating from design experiments as a form of evaluation. With thin in mind, we provide guidance for conducting such analysis.
Keywords: Secondary data analysis; Evaluation; Methods; Design experiments
Artifact-Centered Planning and Assessing of Large Design Science Research Projects -- A Case Study BIBAKFull-Text 343-357
  Gerald Daeuble; Michael Werner; Markus Nuettgens
Design science research has gained increased attention in the academic research community in the past decade. Several authors have published useful guidelines for conducting and publishing design science-oriented research. But little attention has yet been paid to the set-up and planning of design science research projects. Design science research is different compared to other research approaches due to the duality of the epistemological and the design objective. We investigate how a framework that was developed for the structuring of large design science projects by focusing on research artifacts can be used for the planning and assessment of such projects. We use a case study to demonstrate the application of the framework and discuss what kind of conclusions can be drawn on the applicability of the used framework. We also provide suggestions that might be useful for other scholars when assessing their projects.
Keywords: Design Science Research; Management of Research Projects; Critical Analysis

Prototypes

icebricks BIBAKFull-Text 361-365
  Jörg Becker; Nico Clever; Justus Holler; Maria Shitkova
In times of demanding requirements for BPM projects, providing an additional access point from a mobile device to the process modeling tool for efficient communication of process models and distributed modeling is of high importance. In this article, we present a mobile application (app) prototype for the web-based business process modeling tool icebricks. The app is realized as a hybrid app for the Google Android and Apple iOS operating systems. As such, it makes use of the advantages of mobile websites -- single code repository for software updates -- and native apps -- device-specific functionality. The app is integrated with the icebricks web application, so redundancies in the data management are avoided. The design of the app adheres to the previously compiled usability guidelines and ensures, amongst others, the same look-and-feel for both the web application and the mobile app. The app was shaped in a design thinking workshop with developers, BPM consultants, who are using the tool, and academic BPM and usability domain experts. The functional range of the app is a subset of the web application functionality and was worked out as part of the design thinking workshop. The app was successfully evaluated by the product owner and target users, a BPM consultancy and its employees.
Keywords: Prototype; Modeling Tools; Business Process Management; Building Block Based Modeling; Mobile Application
Supporting LIFE: Mobile Health Application for Classifying, Treating and Monitoring Disease Outbreaks of Sick Children in Developing Countries BIBAKFull-Text 366-370
  Yvonne O' Connor; Victoria Hardy; Ciara Heavin; Joe Gallagher; John O' Donoghue
This paper presents the Supporting LIFE (Low cost Intervention For disEase control) project. Supporting LIFE applies a novel combination of Android based smartphone technology, patient vital sign sensors and expert decision support systems to assist Community Health Workers in resource-poor settings in their assessment, classification and treatment of seriously ill children, more specifically children from 2 months to 5 years of age. The application digitises widely accepted WHO/UNICEF paper based guidelines known as Community Case Management. The project also facilitates for disease monitoring and surveillance via a reporting website.
Keywords: Mobile Health; Developing Countries; Community Health Workers
A Prototype for Supporting Novices in Collaborative Business Process Modeling Using a Tablet Device BIBAFull-Text 371-375
  Christian Ritter; Josef-Michael Schwaiger; Florian Johannsen
Business process modeling is a decisive task as process models prepare the ground for business transformation and process improvement initiatives. However, modeling projects fall short of their initial aim when process participants are not involved in the act of model creation. The employees' individual process knowledge has been recognized as a crucial success factor to define high-quality process models that reflect a company's working procedures correctly. This paper introduces a prototype supporting collaborative modeling of business processes on tablet devices aimed at process modeling novices.
CollaborGeneous: A Framework of Collaborative IT-Tools for Heterogeneous Groups of Learners BIBAKFull-Text 376-380
  Amir Haj-Bolouri; Lennarth Bernhardsson; Patrik Bernhardsson
In this paper, we present our designed prototype: CollaborGeneous. CollaborGeneous is a framework of collaborative IT-tools for heterogeneous groups of learners in Civic Orientation. It is designed to serve different types of activities for producing, maintaining, distributing and presenting digital learning-material within Civic Orientation. The significance of introducing our prototype is relevant for both practitioners and researchers within Design Science Research. The novelty of our artifact lies in its characteristic of use in the intersection between Civic Orientation and Information Systems, providing different groups of learner's necessary tools to collaborate and create an open digital experience of Civic Orientation.
Keywords: Heterogeneous Groups; Civic Orientation; IT-Tools; Learning; Design Science Research; CollaborGeneous
InsightGame: Designing a Market Research Game to Gain Better Insights into Purchase Decision Processes BIBAKFull-Text 381-385
  Silke Plennert; Susanne Robra-Bissantz
InsightGame is a serious game developed as an innovative qualitative market research method. It can be used to gain valuable insights into purchase decision processes by letting probands play their information search. The artifact uses the positive effects of games to gain better results than classical market research methods. It is composed as a board game combined with a smartphone application.
Keywords: Serious Games; Market Research Game; Purchase Decision Process; Customer Insights; Game Design
The Social Newsroom: Visual Analytics for Social Business Intelligence BIBAFull-Text 386-390
  Christopher Zimmerman; Ravi Vatrapu
Today, businesses are utilizing social media as part of their strategy for communicating with and understanding the behaviors of their consumers. The widespread public use of social media is a relatively new phenomenon that presents an ongoing, ever-changing challenge to companies and creates a unique set of risks as well as advantages to decision-makers. At the same time expansion into the online social space offers tremendous potential strategic advantages including demographic targeting from a new, pervasive reflection of consumers and brand advocates. Social media thus takes on a new relevance in forging relationships of brand co-creation. The research project, in its entirety, seeks to derive business value from social data by designing and developing a series of dashboards for those who struggle to interpret and keep up with the social data created around a brand and marketing campaign.
   The following prototype demo demonstrates how the tool is theoretically informed (in a theory of social data), technically robust and sound (via visual analytics), methodologically rigorous (following Action Design Research), and empirically evaluated (in real-world campaigns and trainee evaluations). We first outline the foundation of tool development with focus on the main perspectives guiding the research. A presentation of the actual tool development is subsequently put forward highlighting the main components of the tool.
A Mobile Cloud Workforce Management System for SMEs BIBAKFull-Text 391-395
  Leonard Heilig; Stefan Voß
The application of innovative technologies for advancing mobile workforce management often represents a considerable financial barrier, especially for small and medium enterprises. In this paper, we propose an on-demand and multi-tenancy cloud-based workforce management system utilizing state-of-the-art mobile and non-mobile technologies and vehicle routing methodologies. The prototype includes functionality to manage customer data, track and communicate with mobile workers, and to efficiently plan routes by solving vehicle routing problems with different metaheuristics in a highly scalable cloud environment using the Google App Engine. The cloud-based solution can be flexibly used "as a service" by different organizations and thus enables smaller enterprises to utilize innovative technologies for low variable expenses in order to improve their competitiveness. To the best of our knowledge, the proposed prototype is the first integrative approach to support the management of mobile workforces in the cloud. The generic architecture builds a foundation for implementing cloud-based real-time decision support and communication in other appropriate application areas.
Keywords: Mobile workforce management; Cloud computing; Google App Engine; Cloud-based decision analytics; Vehicle routing problem
Smart City App BIBAKFull-Text 396-400
  Joana Monteiro; Matthew Austin; Gaurav Mandilwar; Raj Sharman
Collaboration is fundamental for cities and regions to meet the combined economic, environmental and social challenges of the 21st century. A broad array of stakeholders including citizens, non-profit organizations, private businesses, foundations, academic institutions and local governments, will need to make decisions together in order to realize a sustainable future for their communities. Our artifact was developed for the Western New York community as part of One Region Forward's planning process, developing a single portal for all stakeholders involved to continue collaborating on the plan. We developed an application that will serve as a forum to allow citizens that are passionate about sustainability to express their ideas to other citizens and plan stakeholders to build capacity and turn their ideas into action. The artifact acts as a multi-sided platform that promotes crowdsourcing for a variety of agents to come together and participate on sustainability related projects.
Keywords: Sustainability; Smart City; Green IS; Activity Theory; Design Science; Community Engagement; Climate Change; Environment; Urban Planning
Considering Risks in Planning and Budgeting Process -- A Prototype Implementation in the Automotive Industry BIBAKFull-Text 401-405
  Tobias Knabke; Sebastian Olbrich; Lars Biederstedt
Corporate budgeting, planning and risk management are crucial functions in today's organizations. Yet, these important functions are often separated in different departments although both rely on similar information. This paper suggests connecting the underlying data structures by means of a software prototype. The suggested solution is based on a planning and budgeting solution running in a major European automotive company. The current Business Intelligence system is extended by hierarchical risk and value driver model that follows the organization's structure. It utilizes a risk-adjusted corridor planning approach based on Monte Carlo simulations. Instead of common point estimates the approach uses ranges that consciously represent uncertainty. As a result budgeting and forecasting are informed by additional knowledge. Hence, behavioral risk that is immanent in any planning activity can be managed.
Keywords: Corridor Planning; Risk Management; Business Intelligence; In-Memory; Prototype; Monte Carlo Simulation
ITSM ProcessGuide -- A Process Guidance System for IT Service Management BIBAKFull-Text 406-410
  Stefan Morana; Timo Gerards; Alexander Mädche
Process Guidance aims at increasing the process model understanding and effective and efficient process execution. In this paper we present the context, design, implementation, and ongoing evaluation of a Process Guidance System instantiation in an organizational setting. The system is used to support the IT Service Management processes within the case company. It is used productively in the case company of this research and this article describes how the system's features are designed for the evaluation.
Keywords: Process guidance; Longitudinal study; Organizational evaluation

Short Papers

IS Success Awareness in Community-Oriented Design Science Research BIBAFull-Text 413-420
  Dominik Renzel; Ralf Klamma; Matthias Jarke
Design efforts on innovative IS artifacts are increasingly taking place in agile, small, and specialized long-tail communities supported by academic research. Long-tail communities need to reflect and develop awareness for the success of community-specific IS (CIS) artifacts in their particular practice context in an ongoing manner. In community-oriented DSR, researchers participate as active community members contributing CIS success awareness with the help of CIS success models resulting from ongoing CIS evaluation. However, CIS success awareness is challenging to achieve compared to organizational IS due to diversity, dynamicity, informal structures and permeable boundaries. In this paper, we emphasize the benefits of ongoing CIS success awareness with the help of custom-tailored CIS success models in community-oriented DSR contexts. We demonstrate our approach in a longitudinal case study of designing and evaluating therapeutic tools in an aphasia community.
Decision Support for Succession Management Conferences Using Mobile Applications -- Results from the 3 rd Iteration of a Design Science Research Project BIBAKFull-Text 421-429
  Christian Tornack; Björn Pilarski; Matthias Schumann
Although succession management can be supported through DSS, the final decision regarding succession candidates is made by managers and HR professionals within conferences. In practice, conferences are supported by paper-based information about employees, positions, and development measures. This approach has two major drawbacks: First, additional effort is needed, as all information must be prepared prior to conference. Second, additional information isn't available, if previously unconsidered candidates were suggested so that decisions are based on incomplete information. Our goal is to address these problems by developing a mobile application for tablet PCs which supports succession decisions by distributing necessary information. We identify requirements for such applications based on theoretical and practical insights, which we transform into design principles. Finally, these principles inform the construction of an instantiation that can support succession conferences.
Keywords: Design science research; Succession management conference
Guidelines for Establishing Instantiation Validity in IT Artifacts: A Survey of IS Research BIBAKFull-Text 430-438
  Roman Lukyanenko; Joerg Evermann; Jeffrey Parsons
The centrality of information technology (IT) artifacts in Information Systems (IS) research makes it important to understand the relationship between artifacts and the theoretical constructs they purport to instantiate. Despite the central role of the IT artifact in IS research, there are no generally accepted principles for establishing instantiation validity -- the extent to which an artifact is a valid instantiation of a theoretical construct or a manifestation of a design principle. We survey relevant knowledge in IS and identify potential guidelines that may address threats to instantiation validity. The guidelines are intended for researchers and reviewers when using IT artifacts in theory testing and when evaluating design science artifacts.
Keywords: Instantiation validity; IT artifact; Design science research; Methodology
Analyzing Corporate Social Responsibility Reports Using Unsupervised and Supervised Text Data Mining BIBAKFull-Text 439-446
  Monica Chiarini Tremblay; Carlos Parra; Arturo Castellanos
The literature shows that companies have matured on how they see and understand CSR -- even to the extent of seeing it as an essential element of the firm's strategy. As part of a comprehensive research agenda, we investigate CSR reports from seven Dow Jones companies to assess the embeddedness of Environmental Sustainability considerations into their Core Business discourse. We leverage the use of supervised and unsupervised Text Data Mining (TDM) techniques to analyze data from these seven companies. To our knowledge, this is one of the first attempts to apply TDM processing to analyze unstructured data from CSR reports. The process we outline should facilitate pattern discovery in documents, minimizing or eliminating the need for time-consuming content analysis that is frequently used in qualitative research.
Keywords: Corporate social responsibility; Sustainability; Text mining; STM
Extending Battery Management Systems for Making Informed Decisions on Battery Reuse BIBAKFull-Text 447-454
  Markus Monhof; Daniel Beverungen; Benjamin Klör; Sebastian Bräuer
A battery management system (BMS) is an embedded system for monitoring and controlling complex battery systems in high-tech goods, such as electric vehicles or military communication devices. BMSs are often designed for simplicity and cost efficiency, storing few crucial data on the condition of batteries. With an increasing trend to reuse batteries, BMSs face a need to implement additional functionality to support decision-making tasks. This functionality requires rich data on the structure, usage history, and condition of a battery that is not supported by current BMS type series. Based on expert interviews and document analyses, we sketch a design theory for implementing BMSs that supply the data required for making decisions on how to best reuse battery systems.
Keywords: Design theory; Battery management system; Embedded system; Decision support system; Condition monitoring
How Can We Design Products, Services, and Software That Reflect the Needs of Our Stakeholders? Towards a Canvas for Successful Requirements Engineering BIBAKFull-Text 455-462
  Christian Ruf; Andrea Back
Current research in the requirements engineering (RE) domain is extensive. However, despite increased efforts from both practitioners and researchers to make RE more successful, the implied link to project success is questionable. Consequently, to address this gap, researchers propose a new paradigm in the domain of RE, namely the artefact orientation. Based on this new research field, this study introduces a requirements engineering canvas (REC) which we developed based on model requirements (MRs) derived from a literature review. Moreover, we confirmed these MRs with findings from interviews involving 7 domain experts. In particular, the REC addresses the 7 MRs: goal orientation, documentation, integration, agility, continuity, adaptability, and responsibilities.
Keywords: Requirements engineering; Artefact orientation
Impact of Text Mining Application on Financial Footnotes Analysis BIBAKFull-Text 463-470
  Maryam Heidari; Carsten Felden
In recent decade and with the advent of the eXtensible Business Reporting Language (XBRL), financial reports have a great mutation in terms of a unified reporting process. Nevertheless, the unstructured part of financial reports, so called footnotes, remains as barrier facing an accurate automatic and real-time financial analysis. The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether the text mining approach is an appropriate solution to assist analyzing textual financial footnotes or not. The implemented text mining prototype is able to classify textual financial footnotes into related pre-defined categories automatically. This avoids manually reading of the entire text. Different text classification supervised algorithms have been compared, where the decision tree by 90.65% accuracy performs better rather than other deployed classifiers. This research provides preliminary insights about the impact of using a text mining approach on automatic financial footnote analysis in terms of saving time and increasing accuracy.
Keywords: Financial footnotes; Text mining; Prototyping; Classification algorithms
Empirical Grounding of Design Science Research Methodology BIBAKFull-Text 471-478
  Stefan Cronholm; Hannes Göbel
The purpose of this paper is to empirically ground design science research methodology (DSR). We claim that popular DSR methodologies lack solid empirical grounding since they are based on reconstructions of studies conducted for other purposes. Thus, we have systematically collected methodology users' empirical experiences and reflections from DSR projects. The overall findings show that the experiences are mainly positive. However, there are negative experiences such as the guidelines' granularity, lack of rigorousness concerning evaluation of new knowledge, and support for collaboration.
Keywords: Design science research; Design science research methodology; Empirical grounding; Empirical validation; Secondary analysis
Supporting Participatory Innovation Through Introductory Tools BIBAKFull-Text 479-487
  Muhammad Mustafa Hassan; Andrés Moreno; Erkki Sutinen; Abdul Aziz
Recently, participatory design is gaining popularity in designing usable novel systems. A participatory design activity typically starts with presenting the participants with introductory tools. These tools provide the participant with the required background knowledge and also trigger their creative process. Thus, the right choice of introductory tools is a determinant of participants' creativity, and hence innovative output. In this work, the authors analyze the impact of various introductory tools on the overall innovation. To test the hypothesis, a series of participatory workshops were conducted to design a novel mleaning tool. Each workshop enrolled the real users of the system and was staged with a different combination of introductory tools. The participants' output in the form of innovative design artefacts was collected and behavior during workshops was noted. The authors analyzed the results to find the relation between the choice of introductory tools and the participants' innovative output.
Keywords: Participatory design; Innovation; Introductory tools; mLearning
Development of Augmented Reality Application on Android OS BIBAKFull-Text 488-495
  Ondrej Bilek; Ondrej Krejcar
Augmented reality is one of the current mobile trends, while the main development has not yet come. It complements properties around the user for additional software added elements whose goal is to further expand the user possibilities to real reality. Many of augmented reality applications apply a wide range of sensors, because it is necessary to accurately identify the surrounding reality in order to be properly extended.Paper deals with use of embedded sensors of mobile devices. Selected examples of specific procedures and algorithms are described on currently the most widely used mobile platform Android OS. Design of application, implementation with class descriptions as well as interesting algorithms and testing of final application is also described.
Keywords: Sensor; Mobile; Device; Embedded; Augmented; Reality
Toward a Taxonomy of Wearable Technologies in Healthcare BIBAKFull-Text 496-504
  Mayda Alrige; Samir Chatterjee
Wearable Technologies continue to dramatically change healthcare system in various ways. The proliferation of these wearable technologies used in healthcare has made the emerging discipline confusing to understand. To better understand the rapid, fast-moving change, we propose a taxonomy to classify wearable technologies in terms of three major dimensions: application, form, and functionality. This taxonomy is evaluated by conducting both literate and market mapping. By doing so, we were able to classify a number of existing wearable technologies in light of the taxonomy dimensions. This DSR project concludes with some practical implications as design principles.
Keywords: Wearable computing; Wearable technology; Smart devices; Taxonomy; Classification framework