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Proceedings of the 2010 International Conference on Design Science Research in Information Systems and Technology

Fullname:5th International Conference on Design Science Research in Information Systems and Technology
Note:Global Perspectives on Design Science Research
Editors:Robert Winter; J. Leon Zhao; Stephan Aier
Location:St. Gallen, Switzerland
Dates:2010-Jun-04 to 2010-Jun-05
Publisher:Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Series:Lecture Notes in Computer Science 6105
Standard No:DOI: 10.1007/978-3-642-13335-0 hcibib: DESRIST10; ISBN: 978-3-642-13334-3 (print), 978-3-642-13335-0 (online)
Papers:45
Pages:564
Links:Online Proceedings
  1. Organising Design Research
  2. Reflecting Design Science Research
  3. Design Research Techniques
  4. Design and Context
  5. Design and Organisation
  6. Design and Information
  7. Design Research Exemplars
  8. Design and Behaviour
  9. Designing Collaboration
  10. Design and Requirements Engineering
  11. Short Papers

Organising Design Research

When Designers Are Not in Control -- Experiences from Using Action Research to Improve Researcher-Developer Collaboration in Design Science Research BIBAKFull-Text 1-15
  Anders Hjalmarsson; Daniel Rudmark; Mikael Lind
Design science research (DSR) has received much attention in the past few years from the field of information systems. This paper argues that control in researcher-developer collaboration during artefact development has not yet received enough attention in design science research even though control is necessary for successful artefact instantiation. Experiences are presented from improving researcher-developer collaboration during DSR by using action research (AR) as means. These experiences are driven from the need to achieve meta-design control throughout the development of artefacts by non-researching system developers when DSR is performed in an authentic setting. The paper shows that the use of AR to both diagnose uncertainty and actively improve building activities may lead to sustainable improvements in researcher-developer collaboration, and hence achieve meta-design control in DSR performed in authentic development environments, as well as enhance progress in DSR methodology development.
Keywords: Design science research; action research; researcher-developer collaboration; meta-design control; authentic setting
Relevance through Consortium Research? Findings from an Expert Interview Study BIBAKFull-Text 16-30
  Boris Otto; Hubert Österle
The Information Systems (IS) community is discussing the relevance of its research. Design-oriented IS research is considered a promising approach since it combines practical relevance and scientific rigor. Only limited guidance, however, is available for the researcher to gain access to and exchange knowledge from the practitioners' domain. This is surprising insofar as the IS "ecosystem" is under change and research and innovation largely takes place in the practitioners' community. Consortium research addresses the issue of getting access to and exchanging knowledge from the practitioners' community. It supports the development of artifacts and is characterized by close cooperation between the university and its partners in all stages of the design-oriented research process, practical validation of research results with partner companies, and a focus on the practical benefits of the research, with all research activities being funded by the consortium partners. The research question posed in this paper is what consortium research contributes to design-oriented IS research against the background of the aforementioned phenomena. The paper presents the findings from an expert interview study among professors of the German-speaking IS community in Europe.
Keywords: Consortium Research; Design Science Research in IS; Research Relevance; Expert Interviews
Taking a Project Management Perspective on Design Science Research BIBAKFull-Text 31-44
  Jan vom Brocke; Sonia Lippe
In this paper we develop a project management (PM) perspective on design science research (DSR). We account for the increasing amount of DSR projects that are emerging in public-private research collaborations and that align both business needs and research rigor. In addition to the application of sound research methodologies, the successful management of the work relations constitutes an important success factor for DSR projects. Hence the need emerges for professional project management. However, certain features such as creativity, uncertainty in terms of the research method and outcome, and research rigor complicate the application of standard PM approaches and make certain adaptations necessary. The goal of this paper is to identify a set of characteristics specific to DSR projects and to analyse their implications for selecting and adapting established project management standards. For evaluation purposes, we are using the PMBOK® Guide by the Project Management Institute which is commonly accepted and widely used in practice and academia.
Keywords: Design Science Research Project; Project Management; Contingency Frameworks

Reflecting Design Science Research

A Multi-Grounded Design Research Process BIBAKFull-Text 45-60
  Göran Goldkuhl; Mikael Lind
There has been a growing interest in the philosophy and constituents of design research by a vast amount of IS-scholars. There are several unresolved concerns and issues in design research (DR). Some examples are the outcomes of design research, the role of theorizing in DR, how to conduct evaluation and validation, and the need for different grounding processes to generate valid knowledge from design research endeavors. This paper describes a multi-grounded approach for design research; consisting of three types of grounding processes (theoretical, empirical and internal grounding). The purpose is to investigate DR-based design knowledge and its roles during design research and design practice. A key feature in this approach is the division between the meta-design (within design research) producing abstract design knowledge and the empirical design practice producing situational knowledge and artefacts. The multi-grounding approach to design research will be illustrated by the support of two design cases.
Keywords: Design research; multi-grounded knowledge development
Relevance and Problem Choice in Design Science BIBAFull-Text 61-76
  Roel Wieringa
The supposed opposition of rigor versus relevance is based on the mistaken idea that rigor consists of linear technology transfer combined with positivistic science, and ignores the context-dependence of relevance as well as the incorporation of conditions of practice necessary for applicability of knowledge. Historical insights from the history of science and technology show that technology is not transferred linearly from research to practice, and that technical science has more in common with social science than a superficial comparison would reveal. In both fields, (1) practical problems are often solved without input from research, and (2) researchers often investigate past innovations rather than prepare future ones. And in both fields, (3) relevance is context-dependent, because it depends on changeable goals of stakeholders. Applicability is a more important requirement than relevance to a goal, where applicability is the match between theory and the condition of practice of a concrete case.
   This paper summarizes insights from the history of science and technology to substantiate these points and provides an extended framework for design science to incorporate these insights. Since relevance depends on problem choice, the paper also summarizes what is known about classes of relevant practical problems and research questions in technical design science and discusses the relevance of this for IS design science. We finally discuss implications for research methods, research strategy, and knowledge transfer in IS design science.
Artifact Types in Information Systems Design Science -- A Literature Review BIBAKFull-Text 77-92
  Philipp Offermann; Sören Blom; Marten Schönherr; Udo Bub
Many information systems researchers designate their work as design science referring to the term "IT artifact" and the categorization systems that have emerged under this label. Alas, there is no consensus at this point as to what the research output in design science is and what types of artifacts exist. Using a widely accepted artifact typology would strengthen the scientific discussion and ease the categorization of contributions. Based on a literature review of all DESRIST publications and a special MISQ issue on design science, we derived such a typology. We identified eight relevant artifact types and related our typology to existing ones. With this contribution, we hope to enable a discussion about what legitimate design science outputs and their main types are.
Keywords: Design science; research output; IT artifact; typology; literature review
Quo Vadis, Design Science? -- A Survey of Literature BIBAKFull-Text 93-108
  Kalle Piirainen; Rafael A. Gonzalez; Gwendolyn Kolfschoten
Design science (DS) is increasingly a popular approach for research with a problem-solving perspective. The literature on DS has exploded in the past few years creating a lively discussion emphasizing the balance between rigor and relevance in research, particularly within the information systems field. However, there is still inconsistency with regards to the terminology, the underlying philosophy and the strategy to follow when doing DS. The field(s) into which DS can contribute or in which it can be placed is also an open issue. The advent of special issues, tracks and conferences on the subject is a sign of this and perhaps a suggestion that it constitutes a field on its own. This paper reports a survey on the most influential literature on DS and provides an analysis of it in order to facilitate the discussion, clarify the terminology and contribute to making DS more actionable for researchers.
Keywords: Design science; design research; information systems research; bibliometrics
Design Science Research Post Hevner et al.: Criteria, Standards, Guidelines, and Expectations BIBAKFull-Text 109-123
  John R. Venable
There is ongoing debate about how the quality (rigour and relevance) of Design Science Research (DSR) should be judged. This research investigates the state of the debate by surveying the opinions of IS scholars who write, review, edit, and publish DSR papers. The survey respondents rated the relative importance of the seven guidelines (often used as evaluation criteria) laid out in Hevner et al. (2004) [6], more specific criteria about the evaluation activity in DSR, criteria concerning IS Design Theories, and miscellaneous other criteria, and made general open-ended comments. The findings indicate a lack of consensus, with much variability in ratings. The Hevner et al. [6] guidelines are largely endorsed, but caution is also raised to apply them less mechanistically than at present. Some criteria/guidelines are seen to be less important at earlier stages of research. Caution is also urged not to expect single papers to fit all criteria/guidelines.
Keywords: Design Science Research; Research Method; Research Standards; Evaluation; IS Design Theory
Meta-analysis of Design Science Research within the IS Community: Trends, Patterns, and Outcomes BIBAKFull-Text 124-138
  Olusola Samuel-Ojo; Doris Shimabukuro; Samir Chatterjee; Musangi Muthui; Tom Babineau; Pimpaka Prasertsilp; Shaimaa Ewais; Mark Young
The knowledge of design problem and solution is obtained in the building and application of an artifact, which is the end-goals of the design science research. Our objective in this paper is to conduct meta-analysis of the research being published by DESRIST to date to better understand the paradigm of design science research, and to sense the direction that research undertakings are headed. We present a meta-analysis model and detailed analysis of applications, IT artifact types, multi-disciplinary teams, and impact results. Our findings show that the majority of the papers are negatively skewed, systematically clustering more IT artifacts for IS development problem domain. The most cited papers clustered around those that featured better design theories. We concur that researchers need to equally focus on areas with less research including organization and market domains, as well as causal theories of design through a rigorous formative or summative evaluation of artifacts.
Keywords: design science research; meta-analysis; problem domain; IT artifact; evaluation method; multi-disciplinary; impact

Design Research Techniques

Comparing Two Software Design Process Theories BIBAKFull-Text 139-153
  Paul Ralph
This paper explores an ongoing conflict concerning the nature of software design. This conflict manifests itself as antagonism between managers and developers, debates about agile vs. plan-driven methodologies and aspiring developers' dissatisfaction with their courses. One side views design as a plan-driven information processing task involving rational decision-making (the Reason-Centric Perspective), while the other views design as an improvised, creative task involving naturalized decision-making (Action-Centric Perspective). Each perspective includes an epistemology, theory of human action and a software design process theory (an explanation of how software is created in practice). This paper reports the results of an exploratory questionnaire study that comparatively and empirically evaluated the two process theories. Results clearly favor the Action-Centric process theory: the Sensemaking-Coevolution-Implementation Framework.
Keywords: Design Science; Process Theory; Software Design; Questionnaire
The Ecology of Learning-by-Building: Bridging Design Science and Natural History of Knowledge BIBAFull-Text 154-166
  Marco De Marco; Renato Fiocca; Francesca Ricciardi
A growing stream of research in Information Systems -- Organizational Studies is focusing on Design Sciences, not only because a deep understanding of design processes is perceived as fundamental in order to enhance artifacts quality, but also because design activity is more and more understood as a powerful opportunity to create new knowledge. But what are the relationships between design as a pragmatic, problem-solving activity, and design as a learning activity? Moreover, what are the relationships between design as a learning activity, and "proper" scientific research? Even more importantly, under what conditions does successful learning-by-building more probably take place? Natural sciences, and Konrad Lorenz in particular, have given important contributions to answer these questions. This paper seeks to demonstrate how eco-evolutionary thought, which has been quite overlooked in our disciplinary field so far, could be useful to build an effective, multi-disciplinary, epistemologically sound basis to Design Sciences.
On Computer Simulation as a Component in Information Systems Research BIBAFull-Text 167-179
  Sebastian Hudert; Christoph Niemann; Torsten Eymann
Computer simulation is widely regarded as a useful activity during various phases of research. However, depending on its context, the meaning, definition, and focus of the term can vary: While in traffic planning, for example, simulation is used to determine useful configurations of a road network and thus focuses on the environment, there is an entirely different perspective of simulations when used within multi-agent systems. In such settings, the environment of the agents remains static, while the interesting research questions concern the behavior of the agents themselves. The research focuses on the microscopic level and resulting emergent behavior. This article addresses the different meanings of simulation and puts them in the context of a research process that treats descriptive and prescriptive research as two sides of the same coin. Building on this abstract research process, we develop a framework to classify different types of simulation, based on the actual research activity they are intended to be used for. This framework can thus serve subsequently as a guideline on the usage of computer simulation as a research tool.

Design and Context

Design Logic and the Ambiguity Operator BIBAKFull-Text 180-193
  Richard Baskerville; Jan Pries-Heje
Technological rules are one form of expressing management design activities like organizational design, decision design, and information systems design. However, the notion of a "rule" can imply an unintended over-specification of premises and outcomes. We propose a design logic using the concept of an ambiguity operator in the predicate logic format. To test the validity of the ambiguity operator, we used it to express the theory under test in a field experiment. The field experiment demonstrated that the ambiguity operator is both useful and valid in logically capturing the field reality when applying designs expressed in the form of technological rules.
Keywords: Design science; design theory; design logic; technological rules; ambiguity; field experiment
Information Model-Based Configuration of Situational Methods -- A Foundation for Design Research Applying Situational Method Configuration BIBAKFull-Text 194-209
  René Fitterer
Design research as an information systems research paradigm aims for the construction and evaluation of innovative artifacts for relevant problems. Design science reflects the design research process aiming to create standards for its rigor. Design science produces guidelines and metrics for the construction and evaluation of artifacts. In the field of method engineering design science established situational method engineering as a means to maintain rigor of artifacts, while at the same time integrating situation-specific adaptation mechanisms to increase applicability and thus improve relevance. The design science knowledge base on situational method engineering however lacks a systematic integration between the semantics of a method and the semantics of the situations it is adapted for. The work presented in this paper applies ontological meta modeling to address a better representation of the interdependencies between method elements and configuration rules in situational method configuration and demonstrates its exemplary application on an existing artifact.
Keywords: Design science; situational method engineering; adaptation mechanisms; method configuration
A Methodology for Content-Centered Design of Ambient Environments BIBAKFull-Text 210-225
  Sabine Janzen; Tobias Kowatsch; Wolfgang Maass
The design of ambient environments does not depend on technical issues exclusively but also on social aspects. There are several design specifications for ambient environments as well as development principles for the design of such systems, a design method should address. In this paper, we survey design methodologies considering the fulfilling of the design principles and their applicability for ambient environments. Because unprecedented, we introduce a methodology for Content-Centered Design of Ambient Environments (CoDesA) and apply this method in parts to an ambient bath environment.
Keywords: Design Method; Ambient Environment; Pre-Artifact; Narrative

Design and Organisation

Extending the Design and Engineering Methodology for Organizations with the Generation Operationalization and Discontinuation Organization BIBAKFull-Text 226-241
  David Aveiro; A. Rito Silva; José Tribolet
We propose an extension for the Design and Engineering Methodology for Organizations -- DEMO -- to support organization and model change dynamics: the ontological model of the generic G.O.D. organization, considered to exist in every organization and being responsible for the Generation, Operationalization and Discontinuation of organization artifacts -- e.g., actor role pizza deliverer -- as a consequence of the process of handling unexpected exceptions causing dysfunctions in the organization's activity. The G.O.D. organization keeps a thorough trace of all acts regarding the diagnosis of problems (dysfunctions) and the design and operationalization of their respective solutions. Such an historical trace provides useful information to each organizational engineering process (OEP) handling unexpected exceptions. Another benefit is to provide a base for a constantly updated model of organizational reality, useful to guide the general activity of organization agents and to provide up to date information of current organizational reality to each OEP.
Keywords: organizational design; organizational engineering; model; dysfunction; unexpected exception
Towards Deterministically Constructing Organizations Based on the Normalized Systems Approach BIBAFull-Text 242-257
  Dieter Van Nuffel; Philip Huysmans; David Bellens; Kris Ven
Contemporary organizations need to be more agile to keep up with the swiftly changing business environment. This means that their organizational structure, business processes and information systems should evolve at the same pace. This proves to be quite a challenge due to the invasive nature of these changes and a lack of alignment between these artefacts. It has therefore been argued that more determinism is needed when engineering these artefacts. Recently, the normalized systems approach has been proposed to design information systems exhibiting proven evolvability. In this paper, we extend the approach's basic principles to the related fields of Enterprise Architecture (EA) and Business Process Management (BPM). This study is part of ongoing design science research to incorporate determinism in the construction of an organization's artefacts. Our results show that such approach is feasible and could increase traceability from the organizational level to the information systems.
Harness Mobility: Managing the Off-Task Property BIBAKFull-Text 258-269
  Bo Andersson; Christina Keller
Technological advancements in mobile computing and wireless networks open up to new applications and new user-groups in the mobile workforce. However, a considerable part of the mobile workforce, such as e.g. drivers or healthcare staff, is chiefly performing other tasks than interacting with their computers. As a result, they are not able to pay attention to computer interaction, making them mainly off computer tasks. The aim of the paper is to develop a design theory to manage off-task situations in mobile computing. Interviews were performed with developers of an information system comprising mobile devices for drivers. From the interviews, a design of an artifact and a design theory based on a strategy to automate routine administration task using place awareness is presented. The eight components of IS design theory by Gregor and Jones is applied as a theoretical framework.
Keywords: Mobile Information Systems; Off-Task; On-Task; Design Theory; Mobile Users; Location Awareness

Design and Information

Dynamically Generating Context-Relevant Sub-Webs BIBAKFull-Text 270-285
  Art Vandenberg; Vijay K. Vaishnavi; Saravanaraj Duraisamy; Tianjie Deng
There is unprecedented growth of Web information but challenges on mining this vast information resource remain. This paper addresses designing an effective prototype tool that dynamically generates sub-webs of information from a web-based resource (World Wide Web or a subset). Sub-webs present context-relevant results to individuals or groups. Given that the prototype tool is technically implemented from multiple components, each of which has efficacy, there still remains the challenge of devising an appropriate evaluation of the complete model. This is difficult when the search scope is the entire World Wide Web and a vast number of result pages are technically good on Recall but low on Precision. This paper describes an iterative approach to finding an effective technical prototype using an evaluation method that can a) reasonably model the search environment of the World Wide Web and b) provide convincing metrics for evaluating efficacy of solutions.
Keywords: Context; Sub-Web; Web Mining; Evaluation; Metrics
Designing Business-Intelligence Tools with Value-Driven Recommendations BIBAKFull-Text 286-301
  Adir Even; Yoav Kolodner; Roy Varshavsky
Business-intelligence (BI) tools are broadly adopted today, supporting activities such as data analysis, decision making, and performance measurement. This study investigates a new approach for designing BI tools -- the integration of feedback and recommendation mechanisms (FRM), defined as embedded visual cues that provide the end-user with usage and navigation guidelines. The study focuses on FRM that are based on assessment of previous usage, and introduce the concept of value-driven usage metadata -- a novel methodology for linking the use of data resources to the value gained. A laboratory experiment, which tested the design of FR-enhanced BI with 200 participants, confirmed that FRM integration will improve the usability of BI tools and increase the benefits that can be gained from using data resources. Further, the experiment highlighted the potential benefits of collecting value-driven usage metadata and using it for generating usage recommendations.
Keywords: Business Intelligence; Decision Support Systems; Recommender Systems; Data Warehouse; Metadata
Process Performance Management -- Identifying Stereotype Problem Situations as a Basis for Effective and Efficient Design Research BIBAKFull-Text 302-316
  Anne Cleven; Felix Wortmann; Robert Winter
Just recently many organisations get involved with process performance management (PPM). It appears, however, that PPM initiatives confront organisations with multi-faceted and complex challenges that call for a detailed problem analysis before any solution is developed. In this paper we introduce two patterns for identifying stereotype problem situations in design research (DR) and apply one to the field of PPM. The application gives detailed insights into typical PPM problem situations and illustrates the usefulness of our approach.
Keywords: Design Research; Design Science; Process Performance Management; Problem Definition

Design Research Exemplars

The Design of Focus Area Maturity Models BIBAKFull-Text 317-332
  Marlies van Steenbergen; Rik Bos; Sjaak Brinkkemper; Inge van de Weerd; Willem Bekkers
Maturity models are a well-known instrument to support the improvement of functional domains in IS, like software development or testing. While maturity models may share a common structure, they have to be developed anew for each functional domain. Focus area maturity models are distinguished from fixed-level maturity models, like CMM, in that they are especially suited to the incremental improvement of functional domains. In this paper we present a generic method for developing focus area maturity models based on both extensive industrial experience and scientific investigation. In doing so, we show two examples of focus area maturity models, one for enterprise architecture and one for software product management. We used a design science research process to develop the method presented.
Keywords: Design Research Methodology; Design Science; Enterprise Architecture; Software Product Management; Maturity Model; Maturity Matrix; Method Engineering
Applying Design Research Artifacts for Building Design Research Artifacts: A Process Model for Enterprise Architecture Planning BIBAKFull-Text 333-348
  Stephan Aier; Bettina Gleichauf
Enterprise architecture (EA) describes the fundamental structure of an organization from business to IT. EA as a practice as well as a research topic has been around for several years. However, existing methods largely neglect the existence of time which is essential in order to systematically approach EA planning. The article at hand builds a process model for EA planning as a design research artifact. We therefore use another more general design research artifact -- a method for process engineering -- in order to systematically build our proposed planning process. From a design science research (DSR) perspective we demonstrate how elements of the DSR knowledge base can be applied to create new DSR artifacts and how DSR might build a toolbox as it is available in other mature engineering disciplines.
Keywords: enterprise architecture; planning; process design
Realization Approaches of Customer Relationship Management -- A Design Science Research Contribution to Support the Construction of Situational CRM Artifacts BIBAKFull-Text 349-364
  Anke Gericke; Tobias Bucher
In this paper, customer relationship management (CRM) is focused as one particular field of application for design science research (DSR). In managerial practice, it can be observed that CRM is approached differently by diverse organizations; moreover, the need for adaptable ("situational") models and methods in support of CRM (so-called "CRM artifacts") is postulated both in scientific theory and in practice. The paper at hand aims at contributing to this field by reporting on the results of an exploratory analysis. Based on our empirical evidence, we propose to differentiate between four distinct realization approaches of CRM: (1) initial CRM; (2) IT-focused CRM; (3) mature CRM; (4) selective CRM. Each of these approaches is characterized by a unique vector of realization degrees with respect to four CRM design factors and represents an exemplary, generalized way of how organizations deal with CRM. These insights are particularly useful for the construction of situational CRM artifacts within DSR.
Keywords: Customer Relationship Management; Design Science Research; Contingency Approach; Situational Framework
The Instance-Based Multilevel Security Model BIBAKFull-Text 365-380
  Jeffrey Parsons; Jianmin Su
Managing data securely is a critical issue in modern organizations. Multilevel database systems offer one approach to security that assigns various security levels or clearances to the data in a database and to users of a database. The objective of multilevel databases is to share data that have been assigned different security levels, while preventing unauthorized access to data by a user with a given clearance level to data at a higher security classification. Current models store information in different security levels separately to prevent unauthorized access to data by users at different levels. However, leakages could still occur in cases such as those involving null values and those where sensitive data is included in the key field(s) of a relation. In this research, we design a novel security model, the instance-based multilevel security model, to solve problems associated with existing security models. We define the model, propose data access and integrity rules, and develop a two-layered access control method. Finally, we prove that the model is secure and identify areas for future research.
Keywords: Access control; confidentiality; instance-based security model; security; multilevel security; polyinstantiation
A Negotiation Based Approach for Service Composition BIBAKFull-Text 381-393
  Sherry X. Sun; Jing Zhao; Huaiqing Wang
In service oriented environments, complex applications can be constructed from invoking a number of atomic service components. Given that many services provide the same functionality and differ in quality of service (QoS), e.g., availability and execution time, the critical challenge in service composition is to dynamically identify the available service components to meet the user's QoS requirements and preference. In this paper, we propose to tackle this challenge through incorporating the negotiation mechanism into service composition. The negotiation mechanism allows for both service consumers and providers to exchange proposals and counter proposals to reach agreements on QoS attributes dynamically at runtime.
Keywords: QoS; Service Composition; negotiation
Usability through System-User Collaboration BIBAFull-Text 394-409
  Tamara Babaian; Wendy Lucas; Jennifer Xu; Heikki Topi
Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems have become essential in industry, yet the potential value created through system use can be illusive due to poor usability. Extensive interviews with users revealed that the underlying complexity of these systems manifests itself in unintuitive interfaces that are challenging to use. Given the lack of progress made with traditional design approaches, we propose a different tactic based on a system-user collaborative approach. This entails that the system acts as a collaborative partner by sharing knowledge, providing task-specific support, and adapting to user behaviors. Based on this collaborative view, we derive a set of principles for guiding the design of ERP systems and provide concrete examples demonstrating (1) how a lack of collaborativeness contributes to various usability problems, and (2) how our proposed design principles can be used to enhance the collaborativeness and, hence, the usability of ERP systems.

Design and Behaviour

Instruction Manual Usage: A Comparison of Younger People, Older People and People with Cognitive Disabilities BIBAKFull-Text 410-425
  Abdusselam Selami Cifter; Hua Dong
When people are faced with new products for the first time or require assistance using features, the instruction manual is a key information source and therefore the design of instruction manuals is as important as the design of the product itself. There are often situations where the design embedded in the product is not sufficient to express its usage to the user. In addition, users differ significantly from each other in terms of their needs, expectations and capabilities. The main question is "are instruction manuals accessible enough and do they consider a variety of user groups?" This paper investigates the differences between three user groups (i.e. younger people, older people and people with cognitive disabilities) regarding their approach to understanding of instruction manuals. An experimental study was carried out testing thirty volunteer participants from the aforementioned user groups, using two digital products from two different market segments and their instruction manuals.
Keywords: Instruction Manuals; Older People; Disabled People; User Characteristics
FASTS: FAcets Structured Tag Space -- A Novel Approach to Organize and Reuse Social Bookmarking Tags BIBAKFull-Text 426-438
  Sudha Ram; Wei Wei
Social bookmarking tools are generating an enormous pool of metadata describing and categorizing web resources. The value of these metadata in the form of tags can be fully realized only when they are shared and reused for web search and retrieval. The research described in this paper proposes a facet classification mechanism, and a tag relationship ontology to organize tags into a meaningful and intuitively useful structure. We have implemented a web-based prototype system to effectively search and browse bookmarked web resources using this approach. We collected real tag data from del.icio.us for a wide range of popular domains. We analyzed, processed, and organized these tags to demonstrate the effectiveness and utility of our approach for tag organization and reuse.
Keywords: tag; social bookmarking; facet; semantics; ontology; del.icio.us
Twitter Me: Using Micro-blogging to Motivate Teenagers to Exercise BIBAKFull-Text 439-448
  Mark Mingyi Young
A micro-blogging site for the persuasive technology is developed along with cell phone application that helps motivate teenage girls to exercise by exploiting their social desire to stay connected with their peers. We choose teenage girls because they are more responsive to health behavior interventions and they think exercising is the easiest way to improve health. The purpose of this study is to provide real-time information sharing in order to modify the behaviors of girls and ultimately lead to improved health habits. Our study investigated how collecting, sharing and comparing personal fitness information impacts activity level and health awareness.
Keywords: Persuasive technology; health improvement

Designing Collaboration

Designing for Light-Weight Collaboration: The Case of Interactive Citizens' Advisory Services BIBAKFull-Text 449-460
  Gerhard Schwabe; Claudia Bretscher; Birgit Schenk
This paper reports on the design of a collaborative system to support citizens' advisory services. Recent research on the adoption of collaborative technologies indicates that: a) successful collaborative technologies diffuse from the private sector to the business sector and not vice versa, b) collaborative processes evolve and therefore cannot be prestructured in detail, and c) creative collaboration can be characterized as creating and sharing mental models. We demonstrate how these insights informed our design of a citizens' advisory system and provide data from an evaluation in a German city. Implications for the design of our collaborative system are offered.
Keywords: CSCW; Collaboration Information Technologies; CIT; E-Government; Advisory Support; Citizenship Information
Design for Business Innovation: Linking the Value Chains of Logistics Service and Cargo Insurance Companies by Designing a Collaborative Service Infrastructure BIBAKFull-Text 461-474
  Alexander C. H. Skorna; Christoph Bode; Oliver Baecker; Jan vom Brocke; Elgar Fleisch
Both, the logistics and insurance companies rely on software intensive systems and IT-infrastructure to run their core business operational. In recent years IT-improvements have resulted e.g. in better tracking and tracing capabilities for the whole logistics industry. Designing an interface in this case between the logistics and insurance value chain further enhances visibility and transparency on transportation. Though, the design of a large collaborative service infrastructure is a complex task. In this paper, we investigate whether design science supports this. The research follows design science guidelines creating a message hub based on sensor telematics technologies, which physically links the two value chains. The described IT-artefact enables logistics and insurance companies to improve their respective products and solutions with e.g. integrated risk management or active process control. This demonstrates how design science projects eventually facilitate real business innovation within networked enterprises.
Keywords: design science; business alignment; enterprise integration; service design; supply chain risk management

Design and Requirements Engineering

A Requirements Engineering Method Designed for the Blind BIBAKFull-Text 475-489
  Tuure Tuunanen; Ken Peffers; Simeon Hebler
This paper motivates, designs and demonstrates a method for requirements engineering (RE) with blind users. We motivate the need for the method by pointing out that, although much has been done to accommodate blind users' accessibility to systems, little formal research has addressed the need to include members of this large and growing population in RE activities. We develop objectives for a method to address three problems that potentially affect such participation. We design a method to address each of the problems We demonstrate its use in a RE effort among users in New Zealand and Germany to develop requirements for mobile service applications and features for blind users and validate its use in a follow-up survey. Our theoretical evaluation of the process shows that we were able meet most of the objectives for a blind user RE method. The proposed method should be a beginning for research efforts.
Keywords: requirements elicitation; requirement discovery; requirements engineering; blind; design science research
Assessing Project Effort in Requirements Engineering: A Report on Design Research in Progress BIBAKFull-Text 490-505
  Frank Zickert; Roman Beck
In this paper we report on our design research in progress, where we have developed an artifact that assesses project effort resulting from requirements. Based on models used in the goal-oriented requirements engineering method KAOS, the artifact measures system size via function point analysis and analyzes system complexity via structural analysis. In addition, we provide theoretical explanations and empirically validate how size and structural complexity affect project effort. Overall effort depends on counted functions that must be transformed, since software development can be regarded as a transformation process where size matters. Structural complexity matters as well, since software development is also a complex problem, where effort spent depends on the structure of the problem. Insights from empirical evaluation in three software development projects are encouraging, wherefore we believe that the artifact appropriately assesses project effort. Furthermore, our artifact increases the utility of KAOS by providing additional information on project effort.
Keywords: Requirements Engineering; Project Effort; KAOS
Systematic Development of Business-Driven Requirements -- Using Next-Generation EIS Design as an Example BIBAKFull-Text 506-521
  Jörg H. Mayer; Frederik Marx
Despite many improvements to IT support for executives, they still complain that executive information systems (EIS) bear little relevance to their management task and fail even more to accommodate their working style. This indicates that business issues should more strongly drive requirements for next-generation EIS. The article contributes to such an EIS design by systematically developing requirements criteria that are more business driven than the state-of-the-art. To do so, requirements lists of EIS, structural models of user satisfaction and technology acceptance are evaluated with criteria derived from the requirements engineering discipline. The findings show a dual gap: as the rigor of the models increases, they become less relevant for practice. In comparison, the requirements lists demonstrate relevance, but do not evidence strong rigor. To bridge this gap, this article applies the principle of economic efficiency to balance scientific rigor with relevance for practice. A case demonstrates a first implementation and helps to evaluate the results of this article by using the same criteria as for the state-of-the-art reflection. The findings should lead to better next-generation EIS design and should also be applicable to IS in general.
Keywords: requirements engineering; next-generation executive information systems (EIS); principle of economic efficiency

Short Papers

Systematization of Maturity Model Extensions BIBAKFull-Text 522-525
  Gerrit Lahrmann; Frederik Marx
In order to identify and explore the strengths and weaknesses of particular initiatives, managers in charge need to assess the maturity of their efforts. For this, a wide range of maturity models has been developed, but there is no detailed methodical guidance how to extend these models. Therefore, we present a systematization of maturity model extensions.
Keywords: maturity model; maturity model extension; systematization
Process Design as Basis for Comprehensive Process Modeling BIBAKFull-Text 526-529
  Stefan Jablonski; Stephanie Meerkamm
Today, with process management generally established as a management tool, there is a stringed interest in process modeling. Although there is a multitude of standard process modeling techniques available, often the modeling results are not satisfying. One of the reasons could be that the so called design phases including a requirement analysis and the implementation in an appropriate modeling language and tool is neglected. Thus, we want to offer a framework which focus more on the design and gives the process modeler the option to design an adequate process modeling language and tool.
Keywords: process management; process design; process modeling; meta model hierarchy; specification of process modeling languages
Design Science Research Engagement: Proposal for an Engagement Approach for Company Collaboration BIBAKFull-Text 530-533
  Anita Friis Sommer; Charles Møller
Design science research is experiencing a comeback within IS research, as there are movements towards more fashion setting and practitioner relevant research. An engagement approach for design science research is proposed to engage in practical collaboration with companies. The approach allows for researchers to actively participate in artifact development and implementation in case companies, which generates firsthand knowledge for following generation of new theories. The proposed approach is relevant for potentially all design science researchers within IS research and is based on generally accepted design science research models.
Keywords: Design science research; research paradigm; engagement approach
Design Science in Research Cooperations with the Industry: Findings from Three Prototyping Projects BIBAKFull-Text 534-537
  Sven Weber; Roman Beck; Robert Gregory
A challenge that IS researchers face in general is to combine the goals of generating new scientific knowledge while at the same time producing practically relevant research results, e.g., in the form of IT artefacts. To combine rigor and relevance, researchers and practitioners need to collaborate to develop and employ methods that enable both the systematic generation of scientific insights and the knowledge exchange between academia and industry. In this paper, we present the findings of a research project where we entered into an industry-academic collaboration with the financial services industry involving three software development and implementation projects. We adopted a design science research approach to accompany the project and to guide the scientific discovery process. In the course of our research process we developed an innovative research model that integrates our experiences from the research project with existing design science research models.
Keywords: Design Science Research; Prototyping; IT Artefact
Towards a Theory on Collaborative Decision Making in Enterprise Architecture BIBAKFull-Text 538-541
  Agnes Nakakawa; Patrick van Bommel; Erik Proper
Several challenges in enterprise architecture development indicate the need for collaborative decision making to be deployed during architecture creation. However, how this should be achieved remains ad hoc. This paper, therefore, presents an evolving theory that is currently being used to guide the development of a method for supporting collaborative decision making during enterprise architecture creation. The first iteration to evaluate the relevance of the concepts in this theory was done using an exploratory survey, and the findings are briefly presented.
Keywords: Enterprise Architecture; Collaborative Decision Making
In Pursuit of IT Artifact Generality: The Case of Predictive Model for Electronic Negotiation Support BIBAKFull-Text 542-545
  Rustam Vahidov; Réal André Carbonneau; Gregory E. Kersten
Electronic Negotiation Systems (ENS) allow conducting negotiations by parties over the internet. When equipped with analytical tools they also provide means of decision support for the negotiators in analyzing the offers received and preparing new offers. One possibility to enhance the decision support capabilities in ENS is by providing a model for prediction of the next offer by a negotiator's counter-part. This paper describes the project aimed at building such a predictive model. The model had been built initially based on a specific negotiation case using the extensive database of past negotiations conducted through the "Inspire" ENS. The findings supported our anticipation of the effectiveness of offer prediction.
Keywords: Electronic Negotiations; Artifact Generality; Offer Prediction; Neural Networks
Use Cases for Business Metadata -- A Viewpoint-Based Approach to Structuring and Prioritizing Business Needs BIBAKFull-Text 546-549
  Daniel Stock; Felix Wortmann; Jög H. Mayer
Business metadata plays a crucial role in increasing the data quality of information systems. Despite its importance, business metadata is primarily discussed from a technical perspective, while its business value is scarcely addressed. Therefore, this article aims at contributing to the further development of existing design approaches by explicitly accounting for the use cases of business metadata.
Keywords: Business metadata; requirements engineering; user acceptance
The IT-CMF: A Practical Application of Design Science BIBAFull-Text 550-553
  Brian Donnellan; Markus Helfert
The IT-Capability Maturity Model [IT-CMF] is a high-level process capability maturity framework for managing the IT function within an organization. The purpose of this paper is to explore and explain the IT-CMF as a "method meta-model" for IT management, emphasizing the novel approach to addressing the application of design processes and design artifacts by means of a very structured use of engaged scholarship and open innovation techniques to the ongoing challenge of managing organization's IT capability.
Ontology Design for Strategies to Metrics Mapping BIBAKFull-Text 554-557
  Fatemeh "Mariam" Zahedi; Atish P. Sinha
With the growth of enterprise resource planning technologies and automatic data collection, businesses are flooded with data. But the wealth of data has not translated into the knowledge required to articulate strategies at the top levels of the decision hierarchy, because of the lack of connectivity between business strategies and the underlying performance data. This has deprived top-level executives of the ability to connect enterprise strategies to objectives and performance metrics in a systematic fashion. In this paper, we describe the design of an ontology that captures and connects a comprehensive set of business strategies, objectives, and performance metrics by grounding our work in design-science research. It reflects the involvement of a large multi-national manufacturing company and a high-tech provider of services. The ontology we have designed enables the development of strategy support systems for tracking the implementation and assessment of business strategies.
Keywords: Design science; ontology; OWL; Protégé; strategies; objectives
Naturalistic and Artificial Evaluations of Personas and Role-Based Enterprise Systems BIBAKFull-Text 558-562
  Sven Carlsson; Björn Johansson
Scholars in design science research in Information Systems and Technology (IS&T) argue that evaluation of developed and created artifacts is critical. We describe the evaluations of: 1) the use of personas in the development of ERPs (naturalistic evaluation), and 2) from an individual and organizational effectiveness view what a role-based ERP supports (artificial evaluation).
Keywords: Design science research; evaluation; enterprise resource planning; persona; role-based