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CRIWG Tables of Contents: 02030405060708091011121314

CRIWG 2009: Groupware: Design, Implementation, and Use 2009-09-13

Fullname:CRIWG 2009: Groupware: Design, Implementation, and Use: 15th International Workshop
Editors:Luís Carriço; Nelson Baloian; Benjamim Fonseca
Location:Peso da Régua, Douro, Portugal
Dates:2009-Sep-13 to 2009-Sep-17
Publisher:Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Series:Lecture Notes in Computer Science 5784
Standard No:DOI: 10.1007/978-3-642-04216-4; ISBN: 978-3-642-04215-7 (print), 978-3-642-04216-4 (online); hcibib: CRIWG09
Links:Online Proceedings
  1. Mobile Collaboration
  2. Social Aspects of Collaboration I
  3. Social Aspects of Collaboration II
  4. Technology for CSCW
  5. Groupware Evaluation
  6. CSCW Design
  7. Geo Collaboration
  8. Collaborative Learning
  9. Modeling CSCW

Mobile Collaboration

Building Real-World Ad-Hoc Networks to Support Mobile Collaborative Applications: Lessons Learned BIBAKFull-Text 1-16
  Roc Messeguer; Sergio F. Ochoa; José A. Pino; Esunly Medina; Leandro Navarro; Dolors Royo; H. Andrés Neyem
Mobile collaboration is required in several work scenarios, i.e. education, healthcare, business and disaster relief. The features and capabilities of the communication infrastructure used by mobile collaborative applications will influence the type of coordination and collaboration that can be supported in real work scenarios. Developers of these applications are typically unaware of the constraints the communication infrastructure imposes on the collaborative system. Therefore, this paper presents an experimental study of how ad-hoc networks can effectively support mobile collaborative work. The article analyzes several networking issues and it determines how they influence the collaborative work. The paper also presents the lessons learned and it provides recommendations to deal with the networking issues intrinsic to ad-hoc networks.
Keywords: Mobile Collaboration; Communication Support; Wireless Networks
Preserving Interaction Threads through the Use of Smartphones in Hospitals BIBAKFull-Text 17-31
  David A. Mejia; Jesús Favela; Alberto L. Morán
Hospital workers need information to decide on the appropriate course of action for patient care; this information could be obtained from artifacts -- such as medical records and lab results -- or as a result of interactions with others. However, these exchanges could be a source of medical errors since this information is not usually preserved and could be lost -- totally or partially -- due to the volatility of human memory. This happens due to the verbal nature of the interaction or due to the lack of an infrastructure that facilitates the capture of information even when hospital workers are on the move. The capabilities increasingly found in Smartphones, such as WiFi, touch screen or a D-pad (directed pad), built-in camera, accelerometers, contact management software, among others, make it feasible to record significant information about the interactions that take place in the hospital and seamlessly retrieve it to support work activities. Thus, in this paper we propose a system to capture and manage collaboration outcomes in hospitals through the implementation of mobile collaboration spheres in Smartphones.
Keywords: Informal interactions; Capture of Interactions' Outcomes
Nomadic User Interaction/Cooperation within Autonomous Areas BIBAFull-Text 32-40
  Victor Gómez; Sonia Mendoza; Dominique Decouchant; José Rodríguez
Ubiquitous computing integrates Internet/Intranet small integrated sensors as well as powerful and dynamic devices into the people's working and domestic areas. An intelligent area contains many devices that provide information about the state of each artifact (e.g., power failure of the refrigerator) without user intervention. Service discovery systems are essential to achieve this sophistication as they allow services and users to discover, configure and communicate with other services and users. However, most of these systems only provide support for interaction between services and software clients. In order to cope with this limitation, the SEDINU system aims at supporting interactions between nomadic users and services provided by areas. As users may move within the organization from an area to another one in order to accomplish their tasks, this system also provides support for user-user interaction and collaboration under specific contexts (role, location and goals).
Increasing Opportunities for Interaction in Time-Critical Mobile Collaborative Settings BIBAFull-Text 41-48
  Valeria Herskovic; David A. Mejia; Jesús Favela; Alberto L. Morán; Sergio F. Ochoa; José A. Pino
The critical nature of some working environments, such as hospitals or search and rescue operations, gives rise to the need for timely collaboration. However, interactions are not always possible since potential collaborators may be unreachable because of the lack of a communication channel to carry out the interaction or due to their involvement in other activities. The use of adequate interaction facilitators may allow users to collaborate even in these circumstances. This paper presents a characterization of this type of situation and then introduces a set of design suggestions that may help improve opportunities for user interaction in time critical mobile collaborative settings.

Social Aspects of Collaboration I

A Social Matching Approach to Support Team Configuration BIBAFull-Text 49-64
  Flavia Ernesto de Oliveira da Silva; Claudia Lage Rebello da Motta; Flávia Maria Santoro; Carlo Emmanoel Tolla de Oliveira
Organizations aim to store knowledge about their employees systematically in order to find "who knows what" in a timely fashion and match people by identifying their skills and competences. This paper presents a Social Matching Model, which brings together skills, socio-emotional factors and roles to support the composition of teamwork.
Understanding Open Source Developers' Evolution Using TransFlow BIBAKFull-Text 65-78
  Jean Marcel dos Reis Costa; Francisco W. Santana; Cleidson R. B. de Souza
Due to the success of many Open Source Software projects, both the industry and the academic community are interested in understanding how such software is produced. Particularly, there is interest in understanding how these communities are organized, maintained, and also how the contributors join and evolve their roles in these projects. However, few studies have been conducted around the evolution of the developers in the communities, i.e., how they reach roles of greater importance, and how the software changes over time through this evolution. This paper describes TransFlow, a tool aimed to support the integrated study of the evolution of both: the software itself and the developers' participation in open source projects. This integrated study is a requirement since the software architecture may support or hinder developers' participation in the project. We describe the rationale for building TransFlow and illustrate how its features can be used to study open source projects.
Keywords: Open Source; Software Evolution; Developers Evolution; Role Migration
Exploring the Effects of a Convergence Intervention on the Artifacts of an Ideation Activity during Sensemaking BIBAKFull-Text 79-93
  Victoria Badura; Aaron Read; Robert O. Briggs; Gert-Jan de Vreede
Organizations must enlist the efforts of groups to solve important problems. Six patterns of collaboration describe group behavior as they work towards solutions. The convergence patterns of collaboration -- reduce and clarify are key in helping a group focus effort on issues that are worthy of further attention. These group behaviors have not been extensively studied in the literature. In the current study, we further this research effort by exploring and characterizing the effects of a fast focus intervention on an ideation artifact. Researchers conducted an observational case study of executives addressing a real task within a large organization. Analysis of the problem statements generated during a problem identification and clarification session revealed several implications about convergence activities. The FastFocus thinkLet was found to reduce the number of concepts from 246 down to 30, a reduction of 76%. Ambiguity was reduced from 45% in the ideation artifact to 3% in the converged artifact. A serendipitous event in the field allowed researchers a window into comprehensiveness, showing that the FastFocus thinkLet may not contribute to comprehensiveness as much as was previously thought. Finally implications for brainstorming instructions were identified that may contribute to reduced ambiguity in ideation artifacts.
Keywords: Collaboration; Convergence; Group Support Systems; Information Overload

Social Aspects of Collaboration II

Social Knowledge Management in Practice: A Case Study BIBAFull-Text 94-109
  Ricardo Araujo Costa; Edeilson M. Silva; Mario G. Neto; Diego B. Delgado; Rafael A. Ribeiro; Silvio R. L. Meira
This case study describes the effects of using a Web Based Social Network (WBSN) approach to Knowledge Management in a Brazilian software development organization. During this work it was verified how the previous approach to Knowledge Management, a wiki based approach, did not work to this organization and how users voluntarily migrated from this environment to the WBSN. In addition to the WBSN environment, a Knowledge Management process has been proposed, with some metrics related to its phases. These metrics have been monitored since October 2006 and analyzed in order to verify the efficiency of this approach. In order to give a better understanding of the concepts related to Social Networks and Knowledge Management, it is presented a brief introduction to each one of them, including an evaluation of existing Knowledge Management approaches.
Tailoring Collaboration According Privacy Needs in Real-Identity Collaborative Systems BIBAKFull-Text 110-125
  Mohamed Bourimi; Falk Kühnel; Jörg M. Haake; Dhiah el Diehn I. Abou-Tair; Dogan Kesdogan
Nowadays, collaboration and social interaction among people become everyday activities in our evolving information age. In many learning platforms, collaborative platforms in the educational and industrial field or social networks like LinkedIn or Xing, users have to disclose private information and reveal their identities. Working with those systems allows them to create user profiles which could reveal more information about the user, than he wants to give. Furthermore, such environments may construct profiles about users' interaction, which may be used for attacks; thus preserving privacy is an essential component of such environments. In this paper, a decentralized group-centric approach for tailoring collaboration according privacy needs is introduced. The main idea of our approach lays in its construction. In contrast to traditional collaboration environments with central hosting, our approach gives each group the whole responsibility of hosting the collaboration environment by using their own technical means. The feasibility of our approach is demonstrated through a lightweight ubiquitous collaboration platform. The experiences gathered are discussed.
Keywords: Shared workspaces; adaptation; group context; privacy; tailoring
Why Should I Trust in a Virtual Community Member? BIBAKFull-Text 126-133
  Juan Pablo Soto; Aurora Vizcaíno; Javier Portillo-Rodríguez; Mario Piattini
A huge amount of virtual communities focusing on different topics currently exist. In this paper we centre on those virtual communities in which people share knowledge and experience. However, the level of knowledge shared may decrease when there is no face to face communication and when members do not have the chance to meet each other personally. In order to reduce this problem we propose a trust model with which to help community members decide whether another person is trustworthy or otherwise.
Keywords: Virtual Communities; Trust; Software Agents
Antecedents of Awareness in Virtual Teams BIBAKFull-Text 134-141
  Chyng-Yang Jang
This study examined the antecedents of awareness in geographically distributed teams. Task structure, group propensity, communication frequency, groupware usage, and subjective reliance on various communication tools were proposed to affect the perceived level of awareness. Based on data collected from seven distributed student engineering teams, results showed that perceived task interdependence and communication frequency were positively associated with the level of awareness, but group propensity and groupware usage were not. Further analysis found the reliance on synchronous meetings mediated the relationship between task interdependence and awareness level. Implications for virtual team management are discussed.
Keywords: Virtual team; awareness

Technology for CSCW

A Flexible Multi-mode Undo Mechanism for a Collaborative Modeling Environment BIBAFull-Text 142-157
  Tilman Göhnert; Nils Malzahn; Heinz Ulrich Hoppe
This paper presents a flexible multi-mode undo mechanism for a collaborative modeling environment supporting different types of graph representations (including Petri Nets and System Dynamics models) as well as free-hand annotations. The undo mechanism is first introduced on a formal basis. It is implemented as an extension of the underlying MatchMaker collaboration server and allows for selecting from and making use of several undo variants with minimal adaptation effort. This is a basis for future usability studies comparing different versions of undo and for better adapting the undo effects to the actual user goals.
Forby: Providing Groupware Features Relying on Distributed File System Event Dissemination BIBAFull-Text 158-173
  Pedro Sousa; Nuno M. Preguiça; Carlos Baquero
Intensive research and development has been conducted in the design and creation of groupware systems for distributed users. While for some activities, these groupware tools are widely used, for other activities the impact in the groupware community has been smaller and can be improved. One reason for this fact is that the mostly common used applications do not support collaborative features and users are reluctant to change to a different application. In this paper we discuss how available file system mechanisms can help to address this problem. In this context, we present Forby, a system that allows to provide groupware features to distributed users by combining filesystem monitoring and distributed event dissemination. To demonstrate our solution, we present three systems that rely on Forby for providing groupware features to users running unmodified applications.
Extending a Shared Workspace Environment with Context-Based Adaptations BIBAKFull-Text 174-181
  Dirk Veiel; Jörg M. Haake; Stephan Lukosch
Nowadays, many teams collaborate via shared workspace environments, which offer a suite of services supporting group interaction. The needs for an effective group interaction vary over time and are dependent of the current problem and group goal. An ideal shared workspace environment has to take this into account and offer means for tailoring its services to meet the current needs of the collaborating team. In this article, we propose a service-oriented architecture of shared workspaces, analyze this architecture to identify adaptation possibilities, introduce the Context and Adaptation Framework as a means to extend shared workspace environment for context-based adaptations and validate our approach by reporting on our prototype implementation.
Keywords: Shared workspaces; adaptation; group context
An Evolutionary Platform for the Collaborative Contextual Composition of Services BIBAKFull-Text 182-189
  João Paulo Sousa; Benjamim Fonseca; Eurico Carrapatoso; Hugo Paredes
Besides services traditionally available in wireless networks, new ones may be offered that transparently adjust and adapt to the user context. The user would have more choice and flexibility if not only could he use platform and third-party services, but also compose his own services in an ad-hoc way, making it available to other users, involving them collaboratively in the construction of a wide set of services. Moreover, collaboration among users can be fostered by the availability of awareness services in mobile environments that enable them to execute joint tasks and activities. This paper presents iCas, an architecture to create context-aware services on the fly, and discusses its main modules. Also a collaborative application scenario is briefly described.
Keywords: Context-aware; Services composition; Semantic Web; CSCW

Groupware Evaluation

Gesture Interaction in Cooperation Scenarios BIBAKFull-Text 190-205
  Carlos Duarte; António Neto
Several computer based tools have been developed to support cooperative work. The majority of these tools rely on the traditional input devices available on standard computer systems, i.e. keyboard and mouse. This paper focuses on the use of gestural interaction for cooperative scenarios, discussing how it is more suited for some tasks, and hypothesizing on how users cooperatively decide on which tasks to perform based on the available input modalities and task characteristics. An experiment design is presented to validate the proposed hypothesis. The preliminary evaluation results, also presented, support this hypothesis.
Keywords: Gestural Interaction; Collaboration; Shared Workspace; Evaluation
Strategies and Taxonomy, Tailoring Your CSCW Evaluation BIBAKFull-Text 206-221
  Kahina Hamadache; Luigi Lancieri
With the rapidly growing development of Computer Supported Collaborative Work technologies, the evaluation of these services becomes an essential aspect. This evaluation mixes technical, business, social, perceptive, ergonomic aspects which can't be considered independently. In this paper we propose a new taxonomy of CSCW evaluation methods based on previous works and on our analysis of current evaluation methods. With this new taxonomy and the description of CSCW development process and life-cycle we are able to propose evaluation strategies that can be adapted and tailored for most of systems.
Keywords: Evaluating CSCW; Groupware evaluation; evaluation strategy; evaluation adaptability
Analyzing Stakeholders' Satisfaction When Choosing Suitable Groupware Tools for Requirements Elicitation BIBAFull-Text 222-230
  Gabriela N. Aranda; Aurora Vizcaíno; Alejandra Cechich; Mario Piattini
Global software development faces a series of problems related to various aspects of communication; for example, that people feel comfortable with the technology they use. In previous papers we have analyzed strategies to choose the most suitable technology for a group of stakeholders, taking advantages of information concerning stakeholders' cognitive characteristics. In this paper we present the preliminary results of an experiment in which our strategy was applied, and analyze stakeholders' satisfaction with regard to communication so as to discover if it is actually improved by our approach.

CSCW Design

Assessment of Facilitators' Design Thinking BIBAKFull-Text 231-246
  Anni Karhumaa; Kalle Piirainen; Kalle Elfvengren; Markku Tuominen
Meeting design is one of the most critical prerequisites of the success of facilitated meetings but how to achieve the success is not yet fully understood. This study presents a descriptive model of the design of facilitated meetings based on literature findings about the key factors contributing to the success of collaborative meetings, and links these factors to the meeting design steps by exploring how facilitators consider them in practice in their design process. The empirical part includes a case study conducted among 11 facilitators. Session goals, group composition, supporting technology, motivational aspects, physical constraints, and correct practices are found to outline the key factors in design thinking. Furthermore, the order of considering these factors in the design process is outlined. The results contribute to the discussion on how to improve the effectiveness of collaboration with better meeting design, providing also some insights into further development of design support tools.
Keywords: Collaboration engineering; meeting design; facilitation; group support systems
Unraveling Challenges in Collaborative Design: A Literature Study BIBAKFull-Text 247-261
  Kalle Piirainen; Gwendolyn L. Kolfschoten; Stephan Lukosch
The complexities of modern business technology and policy are straining experts who aspire to design multi-actor systems to enhance existing organizations. Collaborative design is one approach to try and manage complexity in design activities. Still, collaboration in itself is not necessarily an easy mode of working. In this paper, we seek insight to challenges of collaborative design though a survey of design literature and qualitative content analysis. The literature reveals that the challenges can be condensed to five main challenges, creating shared understanding, balancing requirements of different stakeholders, balancing rigor and relevance in the process, organizing the collaboration effectively and creating ownership.
Keywords: Design science; design research; design methodology; collaborative design
The Application of Design Patterns for the Adaptation of a Modeling Tool in Collaborative Engineering BIBAKFull-Text 262-269
  Michael Klebl; Monika Hackel; Stephan Lukosch
In order to improve design processes in mechatronical engineering, concurrent processes and interdisciplinary phases replace the hitherto existing sequential processes. This change places high demands on the interdisciplinary collaboration in teams of engineers from different disciplines. Collaborative functions in engineering tools support this collaboration. The aim of this contribution is to demonstrate the application of design patterns for the design of adapted collaborative features within an adequate engineering tool. This adaptation addresses the requirements and needs of process organization in different engineering departments.
Keywords: CSCW; Design Patterns; Collaborative Engineering; Socio-technical systems; Social Scientific Research; Mechatronics
Communication Patterns to Support Mobile Collaboration BIBAKFull-Text 270-277
  H. Andrés Neyem; Sergio F. Ochoa; José A. Pino
The mobility of the collaborators, the diverse technologies available to support them and the continuous change in the collaboration scenarios bring new challenges to design, implement, and reuse communication software for these complex systems. This article presents a design patterns system to help modeling the communication services required to support mobile collaboration. These patterns serve as educational media for developers, students or researchers on how to design communication services for mobile collaborative applications. The patterns also foster the reuse of proven solutions.
Keywords: Communication patterns; mobile collaboration

Geo Collaboration

A Model for Designing Geocollaborative Artifacts and Applications BIBAKFull-Text 278-294
  Pedro Antunes; Gustavo Zurita; Nelson Baloian
There are many human activities for which information about the geographical location where they take place is of paramount importance. In the last years there has been increasing interest in the combination of Computer Supported Collaborative Work (CSCW) and geographical information. In this paper we analyze the concepts and elements of CSCW that are most relevant to geocollaboration. We define a model facilitating the design of shared artifacts capable to build shared awareness of the geographical context. The paper also describes two case studies using the model to design geocollaborative applications.
Keywords: Geocollaboration; sensemaking; collaborative capacity
MobMaps: Towards a Shared Environment for Collaborative Social Activism BIBAKFull-Text 295-302
  Luís Gens; Hugo Paredes; Paulo Martins; Benjamim Fonseca; Yishay Mor; Leonel Morgado
Nowadays it is possible to disseminate information to the all world in real time using current communication tools supported mostly by the Internet. The work of several organizations reporting a multitude of problems that our society faces can be sustained by participatory platforms, which stimulate the collaboration of participants all over the world. In this paper we present a technological platform that provides a shared environment for collaborative social activism. We adapted the platform to a particular organization, MachsomWatch that reports human rights abuses in Israelis checkpoints. Finally we present some preliminary results obtained by ethnographic research using the developed platform.
Keywords: Mobile collaboration; georeferenced information; social activism
Spatial Operators for Collaborative Map Handling BIBAKFull-Text 303-310
  Renato Rodrigues; Armanda Rodrigues
In this paper, we describe an online spatial decision-support system developed to support asynchronous spatial collaboration between physically distributed users, with a focus on defining spatial operators for supporting these activities in a public participation context.
   The developed system takes advantage of recent development on maps APIs and Web 2.0 technologies, to provide generic features that can improve spatial decision-making. It implements a web-based public participation GIS (PPGIS) while allowing geographic information based collaboration. The system, is based on a customizable platform, targets different types of spatial collaboration and user expertise, while encouraging debate between participants with similar spatial interests.
   The system's features, architecture and interface are presented in detail as well as usability testing procedures realized for different users' roles and expertise.
Keywords: GeoCollaboration; Online Mapping; Geographic Information Systems; Spatial Decision-Making; Public Participation

Collaborative Learning

Cooperative Model Reconstruction for Cryptographic Protocols Using Visual Languages BIBAKFull-Text 311-318
  Benjamin Weyers; Wolfram Luther; Nelson Baloian
Cooperative work in learning environments has been shown to be a successful extension to traditional learning systems due to the great impact of cooperation on students' motivation and learning success. In this paper we describe a new approach to cooperative construction of cryptographic protocols. Using an appropriate visual language (VL), students describe a protocol step by step, modeling subsequent situations and alternating this with the creation of a concept keyboard (CK) describing the operations in the protocol. The system automatically generates a colored Petri subnet that is matched against an existing action logic specifying the protocol. Finally, the learners implement role-dependent CKs in a cooperative workflow and perform a role-play simulation.
Keywords: Cooperative construction; cryptographic algorithm; learning environment; dialog and interaction logic modeling
Enacting Collaboration via Storytelling in Second Life BIBAKFull-Text 319-327
  Andréia R. Pereira; Katia Cánepa; Viviane David; Denise Filippo; Alberto Raposo; Hugo Fuks
This work presents a collaborative educational game, Time2Play, developed in Second Life, which allows the creation of stories in a collaborative fashion, offering a new form of expression in education. This game is projected for children from 7 to 12 years old, enabling them to express their creativity and imagination by creating and enacting stories of their own. The proposed game can become a resource for implementing collaborative projects in school activities.
Keywords: Collaborative Learning; 3D Collaborative Virtual Environments; Storytelling; Second Life

Modeling CSCW

An Approach for Developing Groupware Product Lines Based on the 3C Collaboration Model BIBAKFull-Text 328-343
  Bruno Gadelha; Ingrid Nunes; Hugo Fuks; Carlos José Pereira de Lucena
Software Product Lines (SPLs) are a new software engineering technology that aims at promoting reduced time and costs in the development of system families by the exploitation of applications commonalities. Given that different Groupware applications typically share a lot of functionalities, Groupware Product Lines (GPLs) have emerged to incorporate SPL benefits to the Groupware development. In this paper, we propose an approach for developing GPLs, which incorporates SPL techniques to allow the derivation of customized groupware according to specific contexts and the systematic reuse of software assets. Our approach is based on the 3C Collaboration Model that allows identifying collaboration needs and guiding the user to select appropriate features according to their collaboration purpose. A GPL of Learning Object repositories, named FLOCOS GPL, is used to illustrate the proposed approach.
Keywords: Groupware development; software product lines; learning objects
Negotiation-Collaboration in Formal Technical Reviews BIBAKFull-Text 344-356
  Giovana Brandao Ribeiro Linhares; Marcos R. S. Borges; Pedro Antunes
This paper discusses the negotiation-collaboration process: a binomial process mixing collaboration, negotiation and argumentation. We applied the negotiation-collaboration process to Formal Technical Reviews, commonly adopted to verify the functional specification of software. We developed a groupware tool demonstrating the dynamic of the negotiation-collaboration process in Formal Technical Reviews. And we provide results from an experiment with the tool in a software engineering firm. The obtained results demonstrate the negotiation-collaboration process promotes bigger participation in FTR.
Keywords: Formal Technical Reviews; Negotiation; Software Quality Assurance
Generating User Stories in Groups BIBAKFull-Text 357-364
  Cuong D. Nguyen; Erin Gallagher; Aaron Read; Gert-Jan de Vreede
Communicating about system requirements with user stories is a distinctive feature of Agile Software Development methods. While user stories make system requirements intelligible to both customers and technical developers, they also create new challenges for the requirements elicitation process such as personal bias and requirements coverage. In this study we propose that when elicited from groups instead of individuals, the number of stories generated, the uniqueness and the comprehensiveness of the stories is likely to increase. A lab experiment design is delineated and partially completed. Future research will need to be conducted to determine conclusions.
Keywords: Requirements elicitation; user stories; group story telling