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CRIWG 2011: Collaboration and Technology 2011-10-02

Fullname:CRIWG 2011: Collaboration and Technology: 17th International Conference
Editors:Adriana S. Vivacqua; Carl Gutwin; Marcos R. S. Borges
Location:Paraty, Brazil
Dates:2011-Oct-02 to 2011-Oct-07
Publisher:Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Series:Lecture Notes in Computer Science 6969
Standard No:DOI: 10.1007/978-3-642-23801-7; ISBN: 978-3-642-23800-0 (print), 978-3-642-23801-7 (online); hcibib: CRIWG11
Papers:18
Links:Online Proceedings
  1. Theoretical Foundations
  2. Empirical Studies
  3. Methods and Techniques
  4. Tools for Communication and Cooperation

Theoretical Foundations

An Ontological Model to Blend Didactic Instruction and Collaborative Learning BIBAFull-Text 1-13
  Yusuke Hayashi; Seiji Isotani; Jacqueline Bourdeau; Riichiro Mizoguchi
Didactic learning that follows the "traditional" model of a teacher-student relationship is often considered completely different from collaborative learning. As a result, few studies have explored the potential to effectively connect these two forms of learning. Nevertheless, in practice, a well-thought-out linkage between these different approaches is essential to leverage and facilitate the learning process. Thus, in this paper, we propose an ontological model that captures the similarity between the two forms of learning, with a focus on participants' interactions. One of the benefits of this model is the creation of a flexible framework to describe learning independently of the approach used to learn. Second, it also enables us to describe the design rationale of learning scenarios and to organize theoretical knowledge for designing such scenarios in the same manner. To validate this model, we show its advantages with the examination in modeling theories for didactic and collaborative learning, and describe the development of an authoring tool for learning design that uses the model to facilitate the design of theory-based blended learning scenarios.
Boosting Participation in Virtual Communities BIBAKFull-Text 14-29
  Francisco Gutierrez; Nelson Baloian; Gustavo Zurita
We have been experiencing an explosion in the market of social websites that aim not only to entertain us, but also to help us enlarge our professional networks, to redefine business models and capture new customers, to modify the way learning and teaching are performed, among others. So far, little research has been done on what drives individuals to contribute to online communities, as there is not enough empirical evidence to validate well-established models. In this research we propose to design, develop and test a set of principles and functionalities a virtual community should have in order to attempt to achieve a high degree of activity by its members. We will focus, at first, on the particular case of educational virtual communities. We would like our results to cover more of the scenarios and area regardless of its content and context.
Keywords: Motivation; Participation; Virtual Communities; Social Networks; Collaborative Work; Collaborative Learning
Context-Awareness on Software Artifacts in Distributed Software Development: A Systematic Review BIBAKFull-Text 30-44
  Rafael Leonardo Vivian; Elisa Hatsue Moriya Huzita; Gislaine Camila Lapasini Leal; Ana Paula Chaves Steinmacher
Distributed Software Development (DSD) has brought several competitive advantages, but also many challenges, such as communication among physically distributed teams. In order to establish the collaboration in software development, communication and awareness on artifacts generated and shared among team members are essential. The purpose of this article is to present a systematic review identifying papers in the current literature that address acquisition and presentation techniques of contextual information when software artifacts are generated or updated in DSD. Some important properties and contextual information, such as relationship among artifacts and their change history during the software development, were identified and are presented as well.
Keywords: Awareness; Contextual Information; Artifacts; Global Software Development; Collaboration
Interference Management Mechanisms and Socio-cognitive Constructs in Cooperative Relationships BIBAKFull-Text 45-56
  Hengameh Irandoust
Collaboration tools are increasingly being used to allow distributed agents/individuals or teams to interact effectively to perform some tasks and achieve some goals. There have been many research efforts in providing comprehensive treatment of cooperation in teams or socio-technical systems. With a multi-disciplinary approach based on human factors research, organization studies, and artificial intelligence findings, this paper offers a conceptual framework in which cooperation and other social relationships can be defined in terms of the fundamental concepts of goal fit, intentionality, motivation, interference, and dependence. It is shown that social relationships are established and sustained by means of particular interaction mechanisms used for interference management, as well as socio-cognitive constructs that emerge from and feed these interactions. This framework can be used to determine the level of cooperation between different individuals or teams for a given task and therefore be used to better inform the requirements of the collaborative tools designed for them.
Keywords: Cooperation; collaboration; interference management; goal fitness; shared mental models
Motivation and Its Mechanisms in Virtual Communities BIBAKFull-Text 57-72
  Juliana de Melo Bezerra; Celso Massaki Hirata
Participation is a key aspect of success of virtual communities. Participation is dependent on the members' motivation that is driven by individual and environmental characteristics. This article investigates the individual and environmental factors that contribute to motivation and discusses mechanisms to improve motivation in virtual communities. The study is based on the Hersey and Blanchard's motivation model, the Maslow's hierarchy of needs, and the virtual community model. For the discussion of motivation mechanisms, we reviewed the literature and made qualitative interviews with members of the Wikipedia community.
Keywords: Motivation; participation; virtual community

Empirical Studies

Collaborative Refactoring: Results of an Empirical Study Using Grounded Theory BIBAKFull-Text 73-80
  Pedro J. F. Treccani; Cleidson R. B. de Souza
Due to the current market dynamics, changes in requirements are often faced by the software industry, impacting directly on the software system to be produced. To deal with this situation, software development organizations need to use techniques that enable fast responses. Agile methods have been considered adequate to handle these situations. Our research focuses on understanding how Brazilian organizations are adopting agile methods. In this paper we present the results of an empirical study of refactoring activities, which in the organizations we studied are conducted in a collaborative way. We call this collaborative refactoring. Our results suggest that collaborative refactoring promotes knowledge sharing among the development team especially about the software architecture of the system. On the other hand, we also observed that there is a lack of tools to support collaborative refactoring.
Keywords: Agile methods; Refactoring; Collaboration; Grounded Theory; Brazilian organizations
Communicating in a Transnational Network of Social Activists: The Crucial Importance of Mailing List Usage BIBAKFull-Text 81-88
  Saqib Saeed; Markus Rohde; Volker Wulf
Social movements need to coordinate their political activities. They are often characterized by a fragile organizational structure, and sparse personnel, financial and technical resources. In this paper we describe how a transnational networks of social activists, the European Social Forum (ESF), uses a central mailing list as a major communication tool. By means of a long-term field study, we analyzed the work practices of this network and observed the usage of the mailing list. The empirical findings highlight how the mailing list is used for a variety of different activities such as collaborative work, decision making, coordination and information sharing. We discuss the finding with regard to the discourse on cooperative work and come up with implications for design.
Keywords: mailing list; email communication; community informatics; social activists; European social forum
Does "Virtually Being There" Help? Comparing Collaborative Work between 3D and 2D Conditions BIBAKFull-Text 89-101
  Hannes Olivier; Niels Pinkwart
3D Collaborative Virtual Environments (CVEs) have been in the focus of CSCW research for some time. This paper presents a study comparing teamwork done in a CVE with teamwork done in a 2D remote condition and a F2F control condition. The tasks done were designed for groups without prior knowledge; they did not favor any of the environments. In some dependent variables, the 3D environment outperformed the other conditions while in others it kept on par.
Keywords: CSCW; Virtual Environments

Methods and Techniques

A Software Architecture for Collaborative Training in Virtual Worlds: F-16 Airplane Engine Maintenance BIBAKFull-Text 102-109
  Benjamim Fonseca; Hugo Paredes; Lt. Jorge Rafael; Leonel Morgado; Paulo Martins
The maintenance of military aircraft is complex and exhaustive, requiring an accurate training program. This process is not fault tolerant and requires certification renewal periodically. Furthermore, the process involves many professionals and resources, requiring phases of maintenance and verification of the tasks. Cooperation between professionals in the overall process is essential and requires strong team coordination. It is a highly costly process, since aircrafts are scarce and their readiness is essential for missions, and it requires a scheduling effort between all team members and aircrafts. The availability of tools that allow intensive training without aircraft presence is an asset to the maintenance squadrons. Virtual worlds have simulation and collaboration capabilities to implement this process. This paper presents a software architecture developed for training engine maintenance squadrons for certification, using virtual worlds platforms. This architecture is being tested in cooperation with the Portuguese Air Force and an engine maintenance squadron of F-16 aircrafts.
Keywords: Cooperation processes; task coordination; virtual worlds; aircraft engine maintenance
A Transfer Approach for Facilitation Knowledge in Computer-Supported Collaboration BIBAKFull-Text 110-125
  Stefan Werner Knoll; Jana Schumann; Thomas Matzdorf; Ayneta Adege; Martin Linnemann; Graham Horton
Collaboration is an important process for companies to combine the potential and expertise of their employees. Groupware can improve the productivity of collaboration by coordinating activities and improving group communication. Considering the possible complexity of a collaboration process, the faithful appropriation of a groupware technology is fundamental to design predictable and efficient collaboration. This paper presents ongoing research on how to improve technological support for collaboration by formalizing the workflow of a collaboration process into a machine-readable process description. We will present a knowledge transfer approach for the adaptation of a logical process design by an inexperienced user. This approach transfers facilitation knowledge for the selection and configuration of a collaboration process and provides rules for instructional writing to support an inexperienced user in defining clear and explicit instructions. A software application was used to evaluate the knowledge transfer approach in a quasi-experiment with inexperienced participants.
Keywords: Groupware; Collaboration; Facilitation; Instructional Design; Knowledge Transfer Approach
Beyond GSS: Fitting Collaboration Technology to a Given Work Practice BIBAKFull-Text 126-141
  Tanja Buttler; Jordan Janeiro; Stephan Lukosch; Robert O. Briggs
Collaboration has become a critical success factor for many organizations. Collaboration is however not without challenges. Free riding, dominance, group think or hidden agendas are but a few phenomena in group work that make it a non straight effort. In addition, tools and technology that supports collaboration exists in a variety of shapes from complex group support systems (GSS) to simple boxes with cards and pencils. GSS often only offer a limited set of tools with a limited set of configurable features. Organizations, however, face an unlimited variety of problems with an unlimited variety of structures. In this article, we present a component-based groupware approach that goes beyond current GSS and allows collaboration engineers to fit the collaboration technology to a given work practice. We illustrate the feasibility of our approach by reporting on first experiences on supporting a requirements engineering work practice.
Keywords: Collaboration Engineering; Component-Based Groupware; Collaboration Support Systems (CSS); Group Support Systems (GSS)
Collaborative Features in Content Sharing Web 2.0 Social Networks: A Domain Engineering Based on the 3C Collaboration Model BIBAKFull-Text 142-157
  Lucas Santos de Oliveira; Marco Aurélio Gerosa
Researchers and developers still replicate ideas with low reuse when developing Web 2.0 applications. A domain engineering identify and document communalities and variabilities of an application family fostering reuse. In this work, we used a domain engineering approach for content sharing features of social networks. We used as a method the FODA (Feature Oriented Domain Analysis) with patterns for computer-mediated interaction to describe the collaborative features and the 3C collaboration model to classify them. To implement the commonalities, we defined and developed a component kit based on an infrastructure named Groupware Workbench. We conducted an experiment and a case study to evaluate the artifacts generated by the domain engineering.
Keywords: Collaborative Systems; Domain Engineering; 3C Collaboration Model; Interaction Patterns; Social Networks; Web 2.0; Groupware
Identifying the Need to Intervene: Analysis and Representation of Interaction Patterns in Group Programming Learning BIBAKFull-Text 158-174
  Thais Castro; David Robertson; Hugo Fuks; Alberto Castro
This paper focuses on a supporting strategy for enhancing distributed and computer-mediated group programming learning. Based on a real-world research setting that started two decades ago, we have exploited a particular context characterized by: (i) a close analysis of artifacts produced by learners; (ii) a collaborative approach to learning, combined with (iii) a team-based approach to programming; and (iv) the use of a Progressive Learning Scheme for group programming learning. These elements are discussed as rationale for the analysis and representation of forum-based discussion logs generated within a case study carried out with first year undergraduate computing students. This analysis allowed us to develop a means of coordinating group programming on a distributed, agent-based platform using group programming stereotypes from conversation analysis. These stereotypes were defined using interaction patterns within a process calculus.
Keywords: Collaborative learning; distributed learning environments; improving classroom teaching; teaching/learning strategies; group programming

Tools for Communication and Cooperation

A Collaboration Support Environment for Decision Enhancement in Business Process Improvement BIBAKFull-Text 175-190
  Mercy Amiyo; Josephine Nabukenya
Continuous Business Process Improvement (BPI) in light of increased business process agility demand necessitates continuous process analysis and exploration of several improvement alternatives. These activities are knowledge intensive thus require multi-disciplinary skills. Furthermore, the cross-cutting nature of business processes as a result of having several people working on related activities in order to attain business goals necessitates collaboration among stakeholders in any business process improvement effort. However current suites provide limited to no support for this kind of collaboration especially in the decision process involved. In light of this, we designed a decision enhancement studio environment consisting of 4 suites to support collaboration, business process analysis and dissemination of information in order to enhance group decision making and achieve business process agility. Evaluation results from testing sessions at two organisations show that the BPI alternative exploration collaboration process supported by the analysis tools and group support systems provides a BPI decision enhancement studio which is a suitable environment to generate and select a BPI alternative. The BPI Decision enhancement studio is thus useable and useful for collaboration support in the BPI decision process.
Keywords: Business Process Improvement; Business Process Agility; Collaboration Support; Decision Enhancement; Studio
A Collaborative Environment for Offshore Engineering Simulations BIBAKFull-Text 191-206
  Ismael H. F. dos Santos; Alberto Raposo; Paulo G. Rodrigues; Rogério P. Souza; Wagner Gomes do Amaral
The main objective of this article is to find effective solutions for collaboration of team workers during the execution of Large Scale Engineering Projects (LSEP). The research is based on actual operational needs of Petrobras, a large Brazilian governmental oil & gas company. For this article we have focused on Offshore Engineering Projects as our case study. We have implemented a Service Oriented Architecture aimed to create a collaborative environment, called CEE (Collaborative Engineering Environment), for visualizing engineering simulations considering important requirements identified for LSEPs, such as collaboration, workflow coordination, and immersive visualization. CEE allows team workers to concentrate in the task of solving a problem using seamlessly the computational resources available, from the execution of engineering simulations on a Grid to the collaborative visualization of results in an immersive or desktop environment.
Keywords: Scientific Workflow Management Systems; Collaborative Problem Solving Environments; Virtual Environments; Offshore Engineering
Design and Implementation of a 3D Collaborative Telerobotic Simulator BIBAKFull-Text 207-214
  Claudinei Dias; Marcelo da Silva Hounsell; Maurício Aronne Pillon; Carla Diacui Medeiros Berkenbrock
Three-dimensional robotic simulations represent a way to protect the physical integrity of both the robot and its operator. Among their applications, teleoperation enable to command robot manipulations of hazardous 3D objects (such as radioactive or explosive ones) on a remote site. To some telerobotic applications there is the need for two or more operators due to task complexity or due to the object being handled. A collaborative robotic simulator would provide a multi-user environment to perform tasks that are split to generate interdependence between operators. This paper presents a simulated 3D telerobotic system where two 5 degrees-of-freedom robots perform collaborative tasks. The system, called CollBot4us (Collaborative roBot for Us), proposes a task and continuously evaluate the scenario to determine when operators have reached a specified goal and, at the same time, it captures metrics that can be used to assess the collaboration process. While using CollBot4us operators see a single scene from their own perspective but the operations they command come from geographically distinct locations. CollBot4us can be used for teaching robotics through collaboration or teaching collaboration strategies through robotics.
Keywords: Collaboration; Telerobotics; 3D Simulator
Hey yaa: A Haptic Warning Wearable to Support Deaf People Communication BIBAKFull-Text 215-223
  Maria Paula Saba; Denise Filippo; Fernando Reiszel Pereira; Pedro Luiz Pereira de Souza
This paper investigates Hey yaa, a haptic wearable interaction system that allows sensory-motor communication through vibration. The system allows users to call each other attention through haptic sensation, without using voice or vision. Hey yaa, thereby, meets the special needs of the hearing impaired and works as an assistive technological solution to call people when they usually wouldn't be able to do so. Hey yaa prototype consists of two waist belts. When a button is pressed in one, the other one vibrates, drawing the user's attention. We evaluated Hey yaa concept and prototype regarding usability, usefulness, usage learning, communication with interlocutor and appearance. As a result, test users confirmed its relevance and gave directions for further improvement.
Keywords: wearable; haptic interface; deaf communication; accessibility; assistive technology; hearing impairment computer aid
Trusty: A Tool to Improve Communication and Collaboration in DSD BIBAFull-Text 224-231
  Gabriela N. Aranda; Aurora Vizcaíno; José Luís Hernández; Ramon R. Palacio; Alberto L. Morán
Distributed Software Development (DSD) projects frequently confront the problem of a lack of face-to-face interaction, which is a great obstacle in informal communication. Since informal communication is the means by which people normally discover facts about their co-workers, thus leading to their mutual trust, we have designed a tool called Trusty with which to support DSD. In this paper we describe the main characteristics of Trusty, which provides mechanisms to support communication, coordination, knowledge management and other capabilities such as the statistical analysis of those networks which are valuable in virtual environments.