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CHI Tables of Contents: 11-212-112-213-113-214-114-215-115-216-116-2

Extended Abstracts of the ACM CHI'16 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems

Fullname:CHI'16: Extended Abstracts of the 34th ACM Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems
Editors:Jofish Kaye; Allison Druin; Cliff Lampe; Dan Morris; Juan Pablo Hourcade
Location:San Jose, California
Dates:2016-May-07 to 2016-May-12
Standard No:ISBN: 978-1-4503-4082-3; ACM DL: Table of Contents; hcibib: CHI16
Links:Conference Website
  1. CHI 2016-05-07 Volume 2
    1. Video Showcase Presentations
    2. Student Design Competition
    3. Student Research Competition
    4. Student Game Competition
    5. Doctoral Consortium
    6. Interactivity
    7. alt.chi: Critical Theory and Pedagogy
    8. alt.chi: Design Fictions and HCI
    9. alt.chi: Food Fictions
    10. alt.chi: Confronting Power in HCI
    11. alt.chi: See this, hear this, touch this, keep this
    12. alt.chi: Authorship and Reviews
    13. Case Study: Education
    14. Case Study: Tools for Workers
    15. Case Study: Gaming, Gamifications and Arts
    16. Case Study: New Markets and Localization
    17. Case Study: User Research
    18. Case Study: Organizational Change for Better UX
    19. Case Study: Design Methodology
    20. Case Study: Activities and Health
    21. Course Overviews
    22. Panel Outlines
    23. SIG Meetings
    24. Late-Breaking Works: Collaborative Technologies
    25. Late-Breaking Works: Designing Interactive Systems
    26. Late-Breaking Works: Engineering of Interactive Systems
    27. Late-Breaking Works: Extending User Capabilities
    28. Late-Breaking Works: Games & Playful Interaction
    29. Late-Breaking Works: Interaction in Specific Domains
    30. Late-Breaking Works: Novel Interactions
    31. Late-Breaking Works: People and Contexts
    32. Late-Breaking Works: Usable, Useful, and Desirable
    33. Workshop Summaries
    34. Interactivity Demos
    35. Art Exhibition
    36. Award Talks
    37. Invited-Keynote Talks
    38. Plenary Talks

CHI 2016-05-07 Volume 2

Video Showcase Presentations

TactileVR: Integrating Physical Toys into Learn and Play Virtual Reality Experiences BIBAFull-Text 1
  Judith Amores; Xavier Benavides; Lior Shapira
We present TactileVR, an immersive presence and tactile feedback into virtual reality. Our system allows users free to move around and interact with physical objects and toys, which co-exist in the virtual world. By integrating tracking information from the space as well as head, hands and feet of the user, we represent this information as virtual proxies in the 3D environment. Each object has a unique appearance and behavior e.g. in an electric circuits lab toy blocks serve as switches, batteries and light bulbs. By tracking and integrating toys and other everyday objects into VR, we are able to create educational and recreational experiences for children, an environment in which they can play and learn more autonomously.
PsychicVR: Increasing mindfulness by using Virtual Reality and Brain Computer Interfaces BIBAFull-Text 2
  Judith Amores; Xavier Benavides; Pattie Maes
We present PsychicVR, a proof-of-concept system that integrates a brain-computer interface device and Virtual Reality headset to improve mindfulness while enjoying a playful immersive experience. The fantasy that any of us could have superhero powers has always inspired people around the world. By using Virtual Reality and real-time brain activity sensing we are moving one step closer to making this dream real. We non-invasively monitor and record electrical activity of the brain and incorporate this data in the VR experience using an Oculus Rift and the MUSE headband. By sensing brain waves using a series of EEG sensors, the level of activity is fed back to the user via 3D content in the virtual environment. When the user is focused they are able to make changes in the 3D environment and control their powers. Our system increases mindfulness and helps achieve higher levels of concentration while entertaining the user.
Haptic Retargeting Video Showcase: Dynamic Repurposing of Passive Haptics for Enhanced Virtual Reality Experience BIBAFull-Text 3
  Mahdi Azmandian; Mark Hancock; Hrvoje Benko; Eyal Ofek; Andrew D. Wilson
Manipulating a virtual object with appropriate passive haptic cues provides a satisfying sense of presence in virtual reality. However, scaling such experiences to support multiple virtual objects is a challenge as each one needs to be accompanied with a precisely-located haptic proxy object. We showcase a solution that overcomes this limitation by hacking human perception. Our framework for repurposing passive haptics, called haptic retargeting, leverages the dominance of vision when our senses conflict. With haptic retargeting, a single physical prop can provide passive haptics for multiple virtual objects. We introduce three approaches for dynamically aligning physical and virtual objects: body manipulation, world manipulation and a hybrid technique which combines both world and body warping. This video accompanies our CHI paper.
Reality Editor BIBAFull-Text 4
  Valentin Heun; Eva Stern-Rodriguez; Marc Teyssier; Pattie Maes
The Reality Editor is a tool for empowering a user to connect and manipulate the functionality of physical objects. As such, a user can point the camera of a smartphone at a prepared object and its invisible capabilities will become visible to be edited. By dragging a virtual line from one object to another a new relationship between these objects is created. The research presented in this video aims to enable a user to master the entire scope of connected objects using a simple interface. The contribution of this video is to show a proof of concept of our user interface research as well the use of our novel networking platform called openhybrid.org in a real life scenario. The presented technology enables the simple creation of decentralized augmented user interactions. The authors have made the Reality Editor and the openhybrid.org platform open source and freely available online for download.
Access: A Mobile Application to Improve Accessibility BIBAFull-Text 5
  Yi Yang; Yunqi Hu; Yidi Hong; Varun Joshi; Radhika Kolathumani
This video introduces Access, a mobile application to provide information about accessibility information of local establishment and public spaces. We partnered with a local nonprofit in Jackson, MI which allowed us to access existing data they had collected in the three county areas of Jackson, Hillsdale and Lenawee in Michigan. The application is focused on providing information on accessibility of local establishments and public spaces, and how the mechanism works will be clearly explained in the video. Additionally, the video demonstrates details of user interfaces of Access and information flow, and also provides user scenarios depicting how the solution fits in the life of wheelchair users and solves problems.
SKUID: Sketching Stylized Animated Drawings with Motion Amplifiers BIBAFull-Text 6
  Rubaiat Habib Kazi; Tovi Grossman; Nobuyuki Umetani; George Fitzmaurice
We present Skuid, a sketching tool for crafting animated illustrations that contain the exaggerated dynamics of stylized 2D animations. Skuid provides a set of motion amplifiers which implement a set of established principles of 2D animation. These amplifiers break down a complex animation effect into independent, understandable chunks. Each amplifier imposes deformations to an underlying grid, which in turn updates the corresponding strokes. Users can combine these amplifiers at will when applying them to an existing animation, promoting rapid experimentation. Skuid leverages the freeform nature of sketching, allowing users to rapidly sketch, record motion, explore exaggerated dynamics using the amplifiers, and fine-tune their animations.
ID-Match: A Hybrid Computer Vision and RFID System for Recognizing Individuals in Groups BIBAFull-Text 7
  Hanchuan Li; Peijin Zhang; Samer Al Moubayed; Shwetak N. Patel; Alanson P. Sample
Technologies that allow autonomous robots and computer systems to quickly recognize and interact with individuals in a group setting has the potential to enable a wide range of personalized experiences. We present ID-Match, a hybrid computer vision and RFID system that uses a novel reverse synthetic aperture technique to recover the relative motion paths of a RFID tags worn by people and correlate that to physical motion paths of individuals as measured with a 3D depth camera. Results show that our real-time system is capable of simultaneously recognizing and correctly assigning IDs to individuals within 4 seconds with 96.6% accuracy and groups of five people in 7 seconds with 95% accuracy. In order to test the effectiveness of this approach in realistic scenarios, groups of five participants play an interactive quiz game with an autonomous robot, resulting in an ID assignment accuracy of 93.3%.
GaussRFID: Reinventing Physical Toys Using Magnetic RFID Development Kits BIBAFull-Text 8
  Rong-Hao Liang; Han-Chih Kuo; Bing-Yu Chen
We present GaussRFID, a hybrid RFID and magnetic-field tag sensing system that supports interactivity when embedded in retrofitted or new physical objects. The system consists of two major components -- GaussTag, a magnetic-RFID tag that is combined with a magnetic unit and an RFID tag, and GaussStage, which is a tag reader that is combined with an analog Hall-sensor grid and an RFID reader. A GaussStage recognizes the ID, 3D position, and partial 3D orientation of a GaussTag near the sensing platform, and provides simple interfaces for involving physical constraints, displays and actuators in tangible interaction designs. The results of a two-day toy-hacking workshop reveal that all six groups of 31 participants successfully modified physical toys to interact with computers using the GaussRFID system.
SATURNO: A Shadow-Pushing Lamp for Better Focusing and Reading BIBAFull-Text 9
  Yunwoo Jeong; Boram Noh; Young-Woo Park
We introduce SATURNO, a shadow-pushing lamp that helps users to focus more on tasks at the desk environment. Hanged from the ceiling, the wide oval ring-shaped SATURNO detects the location information of the user's hand from infrared proximity sensors. When the user simply reach out the hand to the position that s/he wants to brighten up to diminish interrupting shadows, it gives more light to the part detected and reduces other lights that makes irritating shadows, which looks like a pushing shadows. The gentle un-touching interaction of managing the brightness of each lights and the overall shape design of SATURNO can support users' concentration, especially delicate working like drawing or taking notes.
MoCap Tango: Materialising Movement Qualities BIBAFull-Text 10
  Ambra Trotto; Jeroen Peeters; Stoffel Kuenen
This video shows the ongoing design research project MoCap Tango. The project highlights the subtle qualities embedded in the physical dialogue between two tango dancers from a design perspective. Using custom-made wearables fitted with passive markers, in an optical Motion Capture System, the movements of two world-class tango dancers are captured. This data is used to experiment with real-time visualisations and 3D printed materialisations of the movements. The video presents the current state of the project, showing public performances in which the system was used as well as current work to use the data to create animations and 3D printed sculptures. Interviews with part of the design team highlight motivations for the project and discuss its relevance for embodied interaction design.
Video Showcase: Using Expressy to Showcase Expressiveness in Touch-based Interactions BIBAFull-Text 11
  Gerard Wilkinson; David Philip Green; Gavin Wood; Ahmed Kharrufa; Jonathan Hook; Bradley Pursglove; Hendrik Haeuser; Nils Y. Hammerla; Steve Hodges; Patrick Olivier
We present a video demonstration of how information about hand movements, generated from a wrist-worn IMU (inertial measurement unit), can be used to provide expressiveness to touch-based interactions. The IMU identifies features that were not previously accessible, such as instantaneous force, wrist roll and pitch. We demonstrate a range of applications that have been extended using Expressy, a system we describe in more detail in the full paper [1]. Tap force allows users to express their intent behind an interaction before touch. Wrist roll and pitch enriches the touch during the interaction. Flick force and wrist roll allows users to follow-up their touch interaction.
MirrorFugue for the Composer, Performer and Improviser BIBAFull-Text 12
  Xiao Xiao; Lamtharn Hanoi Hantrakul; Hiroshi Ishii
This video illustrates the usage of an integrated workbench for learning and composing music on the piano. Built on a Yamaha Disklavier augmented with projection, the system supports music represented either as symbolic notation or as MirrorFugue, where virtual hands projected on the keyboard appear to physically plays the piano [1]. The story of two friends collaborating on the creation of an original composition depicts how the system may be used to record musical ideas on the fly, how to annotate scores with playing, and how these annotations may aid the learning of expressive nuance. Built on a semi-functioning prototype, this video explores how the symbolic and embodied understandings of music may complement each other in the learning and creative process.
Second Skin: Biological Garment Powered by and Adapting to Body in Motion BIBAFull-Text 13
  Lining Yao; Helene Steiner; Wen Wang; Guanyun Wang; Chin-Yi Cheng; Jifei Ou; Hiroshi Ishii
In the video, we showcased "Second Skin", a self-transforming garment that is activated by living bacteria. The synthetic bio-skin reacts to body heat and sweat, causing flaps around heat zones to open, enabling sweat to evaporate and cool down the body through an organic material flux.

Student Design Competition

EMIE: Using 3D Printing to Help People Living with Ataxia BIBAFull-Text 14-19
  Stéphanie Rouleau; Marjolaine Cazes; Rémi Dupont; Tarik Benadda; Serenela V. Valfre Piazza
A rare neurological disease is found in the Charlevoix and Saguenay-Lac-Saint-Jean (Québec) regions: Autosomal Recessive Spastic Ataxia of Charlevoix-Saguenay (ARSACS). This disease affects the spinal cord and peripheral nerves in charge of movement, balance and body coordination. As the disease evolves, people with ARSACS need more ergonomic products to maintain a certain level of autonomy. With an ethnographic approach, we observed that in addition to not fulfilling the needs of people with ARSACS, these expansive ergonomic products are not aesthetically pleasing and therefore negatively influence the self-image of their users who apprehend and feel the look of others upon them. In collaboration with occupational therapists and designers, we are now introducing EMIE, a digital service used to design and print -- in 3D -- personalized ergonomic products that meet the needs of people with ARSACS, in hopes of building a community. This service will both raise the self-image of people with ARSACS and foster their autonomy and social insertion.
Dot-it: Managing Nausea and Vomiting for A Peaceful Pregnancy with Personal Pattern Exploration BIBAFull-Text 20-25
  Tzu-I Lee; Yih-Harn Chiang; Jiayi Guo; Mu-Tsz Chen; Yue Chen
Nausea and vomiting are the most common discomforts associated with pregnancy. Both significantly impact a pregnant woman's quality of life. Through research, we have discovered that nausea and vomiting have consistent daily patterns that pregnant women can leverage in order to manage their symptoms. However, without specific tools, a considerable amount of time would be spent trying to discover the pattern. Our work aims to help pregnant women find their pattern more quickly and avoid triggers. We present Dot-it, a system that allows pregnant women to record and pattern their NVP episodes so they can plan their daily schedules around their discomfort. Dot-it also facilitates emotional support by notifying pregnant women's partners their symptoms.
CarryLine: A Tool for Management and Rehabilitation of Post-Natal Chronic Back Pain BIBAFull-Text 26-31
  Danilo Di Cuia; Jelizaveta Janovica; Zuzanna Lechelt; Sheng Li; Harpreet Purewal
Thus far, very little research has specifically addressed the potential of technologies for post-natal chronic back pain. This is a prevalent condition in women which responds to rehabilitation and management patterns distinct from those used for other forms of chronic back pain and must also take into account the unique lifestyle factors of motherhood. Here, we present CarryLine, a smart baby carrier connected to a digital frame, which encourages physiotherapist-recommended activity for rehabilitation of post-natal chronic back pain in an innovative and engaging way.
LaneMate: Car Sensing System for the Deaf BIBAFull-Text 32-37
  Sangwook Lee; Yunho Kang; YuKyoung Lee
Recently, while many assistive technology systems for the disabled have emerged with the advancement of the Information Technology (IT), there are not many solutions for people with hearing impairment. This study aims to design and develop an assistive technology system to help the deaf adopting the process of human-centered design. First of all, we conducted an interview with people with hearing impairment to find their needs in daily situations, and one of the core problems was related to their walking in the street with cars approaching behind them. To resolve this problem, we developed a prototype of the car sensing system called LaneMate using Arduino platform. We tested the prototype with four subjects, and the responses were mostly positive. Overall, this research suggests the possibility of developing an affordable assistive technology system that helps the daily activities of people with hearing impairment.
Touch and #Tag: Improving Clothing Experiences of People with Visual Impairment BIBAFull-Text 38-43
  Ting-Ying Hsu; Zong-Yu Li; Hung-Yeh Lin; Yu-Han Liou; Chia-Ling Tsai
For people with visual impairment, many daily chores are burdensome and time-consuming. After discussions, we set a goal of improving clothing experiences of the visually impaired. After researches and interviews, we noticed that the visually impaired have to face many troubles when dealing with chores about clothes, which include doing laundry, shopping for new garments, and searching for what to wear every morning. In addition, we also realized that visually impaired people can take good care of themselves and their clothes, all they need is an easy approach to recognize their clothes. Accordingly, to achieve our goal, we designed a complete clothing label system along with some related products. The key design of our system is the tactile clothing labels, which can be either made by users or provided by clothing stores. With the labels, users can easily gain information of each article of clothing by themselves, making many tasks about clothes be done more efficiently.
BringUBus: Matching Buses to Passengers with Lower Mobility BIBAFull-Text 44-49
  Yi-Tien Lin; Hsiao-Ching Su; I-Wen Lo; Po-Lin Chou
Nowadays, some citizens of Taiwan are still suffering the inconvenience when taking public transportation. The research has shown that the average distance between passengers and bus is 10 to 15 meters in approximation caused by imprecision of bus stopping, therefore the scenery which passengers with lower mobility unable to get on bus smoothly is not uncommon. As one of the potential solutions to the above issue, our research team has designed a new system named "BringUBus", which generates a designated parking spot for drivers to respect, thus being notified to stop right in front of the passengers with lower mobility. Eventually improves the bus-taking experience of those in need and promotes the completeness of accessible environment.
EGDE, A Soft Keyboard for Fast Typing for the Visually Challenged BIBAFull-Text 50-55
  Chandni Rajendran; Chinmay Parab; Shreya Gupta
EDGE is an accessible text-input overlay on touch screen phones that is designed specifically to enable speedier typing by users with vision impairment. The model uses the edges of the phone because all the tactile references available on a touch screen are concentrated along the edges. The characters are laid out along the edges in the same grouping as a 3x4 International Standard Key Pad, building on users' familiarity [1]. It can be initiated in the same manner as any keyboard service on a smart phone. However, it occupies the full extent of the screen as an overlay and can be dismissed by an on-screen gesture. The model has the ability to switch between single-tap and multi-tap mode and features that provide context awareness while typing. Along with text prediction as an added feature, EDGE could be a very effective text input method that visually impaired users will be able to use with confidence even without audio feedback.
Saathi: Making it Easier for Children with Learning Disabilities to understand the concept of Time BIBAFull-Text 56-61
  Vikram Aditya; Suprabho Dhenki; Likhith Amarvaj; Ajinkya Karale; Harmeet Singh
Children with learning disabilities have been found to perform poorly in understanding abstract concepts such as the concept of time as compared to normal children. Our project, taps on the ability of students to understand concepts with the help of objects and visuals they are accustomed to. Saathi is a smart watch which instead of displaying time in the form of numbers uses visuals, audio feedback and images from the daily life of children to give them an understanding of the concept of time and is aimed at generating a sense of individual task pace. Owing to the functionality, this watch will also promote a deeper sense of association in the child (the primary user) with his parents/teachers (the secondary user).
LifeKey: Emergency Communication Tool for the Deaf BIBAFull-Text 62-67
  Leeyat Slyper; Min Kyung Kim; Yooyoung Ko; Ismael Sobek
Emergency situations pose a particular challenge for Deaf individuals. Deaf people experience difficulties both when contacting emergency call centers and when emergency personnel arrive on-scene. The ability to communicate with emergency dispatch via SMS text message is a new technology in the adoption phase worldwide. We propose LifeKey, a custom smartphone keyboard and corresponding app for the Deaf that facilitates communication with emergency response personnel both remotely and on-scene.
AwareMe: Addressing Fear of Public Speech through Awareness BIBAFull-Text 68-73
  Mark Bubel; Ruiwen Jiang; Christine H. Lee; Wen Shi; Audrey Tse
Fear of public speaking is an anxiety that most people encounter at some point in their lives. Some people with extreme fear of public speaking will avoid it at all costs, even if it means their personal, professional, and social growth may be hindered. AwareMe incorporates aspects of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) and good public speaking practices to make an empowering assistive technology for people who suffer from different levels of public speaking anxiety. AwareMe is a device that provides feedback on voice pitch, filler words, and words per minute during presentation practice. It has a detachable wristband, worn during presentations, that provides visual and haptic feedback. Our approach differs from existing solutions because it focuses on bringing the users' attention to how their anxiety influences their speech patterns; this awareness helps them to directly improve their public speaking skills.
Moments A Wearable Device for Early Stage AD Patients to Maintain Their Autonomy BIBAFull-Text 74-79
  Chieh-Lin Wu; Bing-Hsun Wu; Yun-Ting Lin; Pengfei Wang; Yining Zhou
Moments is a wearable device designed for helping people suffering from early stage Alzheimer's disease (AD) be able to walk alone outdoors independently. Moments is featured by a voice control interface that allows users to follow pre-recorded instructions to travel along the routes preset by their care partners. We conducted user and expert research and then a user test with five early stage AD patients to collect their feedbacks on the prototype in order to improve our final design. Moments makes early stage AD patients feel secure while walking outside alone, and thus maintains their autonomy.
Readful-U: Improving Reading Experience and Social Interaction for Low Vision Elders BIBAFull-Text 80-85
  Ninglu Wang; Kai Yu; Junhui Li; Ruofan Zhang; Fei Ren
Low vision seriously impedes people from performing daily tasks especially reading. Readful-U is a mobile application with an attachable stand that helps people with low vision to read easily. It mainly targets the elderly patients since they are the primary group affected. Furthermore, users will be engaged in wider social interactions through inviting people to read for them. Built on current reading assistant technologies, Readful-U steps into the blank space to make audio assistance a vivid interaction between people rather than with a machine generated voice. The user-centered design process is featured with parallel designs, primary user research, contextual inquiry, prototyping, user testing, and iterations. Going beyond the common functions of current reading assistant devices, Readful-U specially caters to the emotional and social needs of low vision patients in an innovative and cost-effective way.

Student Research Competition

Improving Social Communication Skills Using Kinesics Feedback BIBAFull-Text 86-91
  Roghayeh Barmaki
Interactive training environments typically include feedback mechanisms designed to help trainees improve their performance through guided or self-reflection. When the training system deals with human-to-human communications, as one would find in a teacher, counselor or cross-cultural trainer, such feedback needs to focus on all aspects of human communication. This means that, in addition to verbal communication, nonverbal messages (kinesics in particular) must be captured and analyzed for semantic meaning. The goal of this research is to introduce interactive training models developed to improve human-to-human interaction. The specific context in which we prototype and validate these models is the TeachLivE teacher rehearsal environment developed at the University of Central Florida. We implemented an online gesture recognition application on top of the Microsoft Kinect software development kit with multiple feedback channels including visual and haptics. In a study of twelve participants rehearsing a teaching session in TeachLivE, we found that the online gesture recognition tool and its associated feedback method are effective and non-intrusive approaches for the purpose of communication-skill training. The algorithms employed, the results, and the implications for other interactive contexts are discussed in this paper.
Learnersourcing Thematic and Inter-Contextual Annotations from Islamic Texts BIBAFull-Text 92-97
  Amna Basharat
In this paper, I introduce an approach for obtaining semantic annotations in specialized and knowledge intensive domains. In particular, I consider the case of classical and historic Islamic texts, primarily the Qur'an and the books of Prophetic narrations called the Hadith. I propose formal and scalable methods towards thematic classification, annotation and interlinking for these texts; this is done at various levels of granulartiy that existing research fails to address. I apply a 'semantics driven learnersourcing' methodology, which leverages primarily upon students engaging in typical knowledge seeking and learning scenarios, and embeds within them, semantic annotation tasks. The chosen method also ensures annotation reliability by introducing an 'expert sourcing' workflow tightly integrated within the system. Therefore, quantitative measures of ensuring annotation quality are woven into the very fabric of learnersourcing.
Bounce: A Mobile Behavioral Intervention Technology for Breast Cancer Survivors BIBAFull-Text 98-103
  Meghan M. Plank; Nishtha H. Dalal
Behavior change theories are often applied to the design of technologies for improving health and wellness. However, researchers commonly apply these theories too narrowly or too broadly, resulting in a design process that does not account for the complexities of behavior change. To address this limitation in prior research, we developed a methodological framework that blends abstract theory with contextual relevance. Based on this framework, we developed a set of design guidelines for Bounce -- a smartphone application aiming to increase the physical activity of breast cancer survivors.
Error Correction of Speech Recognition by Custom Phonetic Alphabet Input for Ultra-Small Devices BIBAFull-Text 104-109
  Kazuki Fujiwara
Automatic speech recognition (ASR) is one of the most effective ways to input text, in particular, for ultra-small devices such as smartwatches. Although the accuracy of ASR has been improving these days, it still often makes recognition errors. If you want to correct words that have been recognized incorrectly, you need to use a software keyboard or read out the words again. However, it is difficult and annoying to input text correctly using a software keyboard on a small display. Besides, even if you read out the same phrase again, there is no guarantee that your speech will be recognized correctly. To address this problem, we designed a custom phonetic alphabet optimal for ASR. It enables the user to input words more accurately than spelling them out directly or using the NATO phonetic alphabet, which is known as the standardized phonetic alphabet used for human-human speech interaction under noise. Furthermore, we conducted user studies to verify our method's efficiency in correcting speech recognition errors on a small display.
User Adaptability to System Delay BIBAFull-Text 110-115
  Brian D. Hall
This double-blind, controlled, counter-balanced experiment examines the effects of system delay on users. Sixty-one participants completed 8 computerized tasks under 4 varied levels of time delay (from 500ms to 2000ms), with time and accuracy recorded. Participants rapidly adapted to system delay, committing neither errors of omission nor commission more frequently due to slowed system response. Time to finish tasks increased with system delay, but users were only slowed down by approximately as much time as was introduced by system delay itself. Implications for estimating the potential value of reduced system delay are discussed, as well as study limitations and suggestions for future work.
The Memory Tree: Using Sound to Support Reminiscence BIBAFull-Text 116-121
  Keisha Jayaratne
Memories make us who we are and reminiscing about loved ones is important for maintaining personal connections. This paper looks at sound bytes as a tool for reminiscing, through the interactive Memory Tree concept, and how it can support the reminiscing of adults about their loved ones. To explore this, a home tour interview was conducted where participants were asked to select an object that reminded them of a loved one. Through thematic analysis of responses, it became clear that sound recordings could be a useful tool that allow people to reminisce. These findings led to the development of the Memory Tree prototype that aimed to find out how people use sound to reminisce. Three people were asked to interact with the prototype. Results showed that the Memory Tree successfully facilitated reminiscing, both in the recording and playback stages, even if participants did not identify sound as the memory cue.
Making Science Simulations Accessible For Students With Vision Impairments BIBAFull-Text 122-127
  Emily Randall
Interactive science simulations, built by the PhET Interactive Simulations Project at the University of Colorado, rely heavily on visual representations to achieve their learning goals. This prevents students with visual disabilities from using the simulations. This paper examines one simulation, Capacitor Lab: Basics, as a case study on the implementation of keyboard navigation and auditory descriptions in PhET simulations. By creating a parallel DOM, it was possible to provide HTML equivalents of every Javascript element of the simulation, allowing a screenreader to access the descriptions. Keyboard navigation and auditory descriptions were designed and refined based on interviews with screenreader users. Findings suggest that these designs can support students with visual impairments to successfully learn from the simulation.
Species Identification in Citizen Science: Effects of Interface Design and Image Difficulty on User Performance and Workload BIBAFull-Text 128-133
  Nirwan Sharma
Species identification is an important scientific activity for ecological monitoring and digital technology has enabled citizen science projects to recruit volunteers for collecting and processing species information. Experts can easily identify species due to their formal knowledge and experience but volunteers require identification tools, which can help them to filter out the relevant species. Filtering of species is an important design element for such tools and we have identified two relevant techniques i.e. feature selection and decision tree for this purpose. We prototyped interfaces based on these techniques and conducted a user study where participants performed species identification tasks.
Veri-Pen: A Pen-based Identification Through Natural Biometrics Extraction BIBAFull-Text 134-139
  Jihoon Suh
As we live in the Internet age, we face high threats of data leakage, identity theft, and inconvenience over authenticating ourselves online. Safe and simple digital identification is crucial in the digital realm. In order to solve the above issues, a mediating digital assistive device could possibly act between the user and computer system in order to replace the current identification system. In this paper I present Veri-Pen, a stylus that provides digital identification through the natural extraction of a signature and fingerprint. The proposed concept aims to deliver simple and secure pen-based online identification. The prototype, built upon user case studies, was evaluated in a simulated scenario of digital authentication in comparison to conventional ID-password identification. The user evaluation confirmed that the pen-based identification tool with biometrics delivers a simple and trustworthy experience to users during the procedure of authentication.
Older Users and In-Vehicle Navigation Map Design Elements BIBAFull-Text 140-145
  Crystal Tobias
This study investigated digital map reading performances of older and younger participants across map concepts. Participants answered questions related to their map reading while driving in a simulator. Mixed ANOVA analyses were completed on the dependent variables: response time, self-reported difficulty, and eye glance behavior. There was a significant difference in response time, with older participants requiring longer time to respond. Although no significant differences were found for eye glance duration towards the map, there were significant differences for the number of eye glances toward the maps with older participants glancing at the maps twice as often as younger participants. Younger participants had significantly longer glance durations towards the driving scene. It is suggested that the higher number of glances reflects the older participants' need to retain the information in working memory. This proves useful in better understanding the cognitive and visual processes of older drivers while reading digital maps.
Crowdnection: Connecting High-level Concepts with Historical Documents via Crowdsourcing BIBAFull-Text 146-151
  Nai-Ching Wang
To form and test hypotheses and finally produce conclusions, people use existing schemas to search a pool of data for evidence. The quality of the search largely depends on the quality of connections between the schemas and the data. Making good connections between schemas and unprocessed data is challenging because it is time-consuming and may require expertise. Crowdsourcing provides a potential solution because with appropriate methods, humans are often more effective at synthesizing diverse information than automated techniques. This paper introduces Crowdnection, which leverages crowdsourcing methods to examine the effect of amount of context on performance in making connections between raw texts of historical textual documents and high-level concepts. The results suggest novices are able to help process information to provide meaningful insights, and indicate that there is an ideal amount of context facilitating the sensemaking process.

Student Game Competition

PinchFun: A Fine Motor Training Game for Preschool Children with Developmental Delay BIBAFull-Text 152-155
  I-Fang Wang; Dennis Wang; Chia-Yu Chen; Jyun-Fong Jheng
Children with developmental delayed can make progress through early intervention and training. However, from the interviews with occupational therapists and parents, we found that current training techniques lack variety and bore children in a short while. To improve the training effect, we proposed PinchFun, a cooperative game aiming to provide fine motor training for preschool children (under 6 years old) with developmental delay, in which the parent can cooperate with the child to achieve the game goals and adjust the game difficulty to meet different developmental milestones. The game employs the Leap motion controller and force-sensitive resistor (FSR) to detect the hand gesture and level of pressure of fingers. PinchFun integrates the physical assistive devices, i.e. clips and rubber band, and the virtual interactive game to optimize learning impact and gaming experience.
Human and Dog: Explore the Game Design of Unequal Communicative Patterns BIBAFull-Text 156-159
  Kuan-Ting Chou; Hsincheng Hou; Michael Shen; Te-Yuan Chen; Cynthia Liu; Pei-Jung Wu
Inequality of communicative capabilities, such as proficiency in a language, could be an awkward experience in real life. However, it could be a good mechanic to make games more challenging and interesting. Charades is a good example, where one player tries to express a word via body language, and the other tries to guess it. We have designed Human and Dog, in which 2 players, a human and a dog, have their unique capabilities to acquire clues and cooperate to solve a series of puzzles.
Bad News: A Game of Death and Communication BIBAFull-Text 160-163
  James Owen Ryan; Adam J. Summerville; Ben Samuel
Bad News is a game about death notification that combines deep simulation and live performance. After discovering a dead body, the player is tasked with tracking down a next of kin to inform him or her of the death. To do this, the player must discover the identities of both the deceased and next of kin, as well as the current location of the latter. Gameplay is underpinned by a rich simulation of a generic small town inhabited by several hundred non-player characters (NPCs) who build up subjective knowledge of one another as the simulation proceeds. The player interface is serviced by Wizard-of-Oz techniques, and the core gameplay interaction is embodied conversation with live-acted NPCs. Stationed out of sight from the player, a 'wizard' executes his or her commands (as they are spoken aloud) by live-coding modifications to the simulation. When the player encounters an NPC, an actor reveals himself to perform the character live. Crucially, the actor's improvisation is constrained to the underlying simulation -- particularly the personality, life history, and knowledge of the character he is portraying -- which is expressed to him via a discreet interface.
FitPlay Games: Increasing Exercise Motivation Through Asynchronous Social Gaming BIBAFull-Text 164-167
  Sarah Justine Guy Skriloff; Dario C. Gonzalez; Kurtis C. Christensen; Logan J. Bentley; Cody V. Mortensen
Many factors contribute to people's physical inactivity, but among the leading factors is a lack of motivation. Fitness trackers have been shown to encourage an increase in exercise, but they are frequently abandoned within a few short months. We developed our asynchronous-play social gaming platform, FitPlay Games, to fill the gap in motivation left by current fitness trackers. By providing users with a variety of asynchronous cooperative and competitive gaming styles, we enable them to find a motivation technique that works best for their lifestyle and fitness prowess. The platform encourages prolonged use of fitness trackers, helping users to have more healthy lifestyles. Individual games are designed to allow both the novice and the maven to have a chance at winning, leveling the playing field, and increasing motivation to win. The effectiveness, usability, and enjoyability of the social games will be assessed, with an emphasis on understanding differences in play habits due to gender and lifestyle.
Household Survival: Immersive Room-Sized Gaming Using Everyday Objects as Weapons BIBAFull-Text 168-171
  Brent Berghmans; Axel Faes; Matthijs Kaminski; Kashyap Todi
Generic multi-button controllers are the most common input devices used for video games. In contrast, dedicated game controllers and gestural interactions increase immersion and playability. Room-sized gaming opens up possibilities to further enhance the immersive experience, and provides players with opportunities to use full-body movements as input. We present a purpose-centric approach to appropriating everyday objects as physical game controllers, for immersive room-sized gaming. Virtual manipulations supported by such physical controllers mimic real-world function and usage. As a proof-of-concept, we present a 'Tower Defense' styled game, that uses four everyday household objects as game controllers, each of which serves as a weapon to defend the base of the players from enemy bots. Players are provided with: 1) a broom to sweep away enemy bots directionally; 2) a fan to scatter them away; 3) a vacuum cleaner to suck them; 4) a mouse trap to destroy them. Each controller is tracked using a motion capture system. A physics engine is integrated in the game and ensures virtual objects act as if they are manipulated by the actual physical controller, thus providing players with an immersive gaming experience.
AS IF: A Game as an Empathy Tool for Experiencing the Activity Limitations of Chronic Pain Patients BIBAFull-Text 172-175
  Weina Jin; Servet Ulas; Xin Tong
Pain is both a universal and unique experience for its sufferers. Nonetheless, pain is also invisible and incommunicable that it becomes difficult for the public to understand or even believe the suffering, especially for the persistent form of pain: Chronic Pain. Therefore, we designed and developed the game -- AS IF -- to foster non-patients' empathy for Chronic Pain sufferers. In this game, players engage with the connecting dots tasks through whole body interaction. After they generate the connection with their virtual body, they will experience a certain degree of activity limitation that mimics one of the sufferings of Chronic Pain. In this paper, we introduce the game design that facilitates the enhancement of empathy for Chronic Pain experience, and illustrate how this game acts as a form of communication media that may help to enhance understanding.
VR-Drop: Exploring the Use of Walking-in-Place to Create Immersive VR Games BIBAFull-Text 176-179
  Sam Tregillus
Low-cost smartphone adapters can bring virtual reality to the masses, but input is typically limited to using head tracking, which makes it difficult to perform complex tasks like navigation. Walking-in-place (WIP) offers a natural and immersive form of virtual locomotion that can reduce simulation sickness. We present VR-Drop; an immersive puzzle game that illustrates the use of WIP for virtual locomotion. Our WIP implementation doesn't require any instrumentation as it is implemented using a smartphone's inertial sensors. VR-Drop demonstrates that WIP can significantly increase VR input options and allows for a deep and immersive VR experience.
Garden: A Mixed Reality Experience Combining Virtual Reality and 3D Reconstruction BIBAFull-Text 180-183
  Keng Hua Sing; Wei Xie
Garden is a Mixed Reality (MR) experience that combines both Virtual Reality (VR) and Augmented Reality (AR), and lets players transform their environment into a virtual garden they can play in. This is done by doing both stereoscopic rendering and 3D reconstruction on Project Tango, a tablet with motion tracking and depth sensing capabilities made by Google. During gameplay, we scan the environment in real-time and build a virtual voxel world. We spawn virtual objects in the voxel world, and allow simple hand and leg interactions. The tablet is mounted on the user's head using the Durovis Dive headset so that the user can see the world in VR. All this is done in 60 fps for user comfort. With this approach, we have created a fully immersive, untethered experience where players can freely walk around large spaces in the real world and avoid obstacles, while interacting with a virtual environment.
BoomChaCha: A Rhythm-based, Physical Role-Playing Game that Facilitates Cooperation among Players BIBAFull-Text 184-187
  Fengyuan Zhu; Wangshu Sun; Carrie Zhang; Rebecca Ricks
We designed a new genre of gaming that is rhythm-based, cooperative, physical and involves role-playing. In the game, three players as a team combat monsters by waving physical weapons on certain beats of the background music. The game requires a collective effort, as each player plays a certain role that is responsible for attacking, healing or defending respectively. To defeat the monster, the three players need to wave the physical weapons according to the rhythm of a six-beat waltz, which encourages cooperation and promotes pro-social behaviors.

Doctoral Consortium

Supporting Bodily Communication in Video-based Clinical Consultations BIBAFull-Text 188-192
  Deepti Aggarwal
Over the last two decades, video consultations have emerged as an effective practice to offer diagnostic and therapeutic advice to the patients living in rural and remote areas. This thesis aims to understand how bodily expressions such as eye gaze and postures are communicated over video; and how can we design technologies that can communicate such essential information between clinicians and patients. As such, the thesis intends to augment the space of video consultations beyond video medium through the use of computational technologies.
Canine Behavior and Working Dog Suitability from Quantimetric Data BIBAFull-Text 193-197
  Joelle Alcaidinho
I propose new approaches for assessing the suitability of dogs for a given working dog occupation. The main focus is placed on continuously-recording technology that does not rely on constant human observation. Examples are provided in the form of two pilot studies. One study uses quantimetric technologies to better understand the relationship between restfulness and performance during advanced training and the other is an ongoing longitudinal study with service dogs being raised and trained for Canine Companions for Independence. In this manuscript, I describe work underway for these efforts in working dog prediction and assessment, as well as a pilot study on how these devices can be used to better understand the needs of non-working (pet) dogs.
From Smart Cities to Social Cities: Technology to Support Community Life BIBAFull-Text 198-202
  Andre de Oliveira Bueno
The future of the cities is being planned based on new technologies, such as IoT and cloud computing, providing such infrastructure to citizens to use anywhere at anytime to support their activities. This new context is being called Smart Cities. However, this scenario aims at building cities' infrastructure, not attending citizens' needs to gather and form communities, considering the social nature of human beings and how disruptive technologies can be to the sense of community and citizenship. So, instead of the current social network trend reinforcing people using technology to create a "virtual social life" avoiding the physicality, we believe technology itself can be used to manage this techno-social dilemma, completing the technological infrastructure proposed for smart cities. We present a Digital Community Ecosystem (DCE) aiming at guiding technology? developers in the process of creating applications to bond communities in the Smart Cities era.
Unobtrusive Interaction for Wearable Computing BIBAFull-Text 203-207
  David Dobbelstein
Interaction with wearable devices such as smartglasses is yet a problem. While the input space is limited, the interaction itself can have strong social implications in public spaces. Missing social conventions and technology apprehension can affect the users willingness to perform interaction in public. One possible way to address this, is to reach for preferably unobtrusive interactions that do not cast a lot of attention upon the user. Social acceptance may then rise due to continued exposure with the technology.
Paper Books, Digital Books: How the Medium of an Object Affects its Use BIBAFull-Text 208-212
  Jane Gruning
Understanding differences between digital and physical objects, and people's perceptions of those objects, is a matter of foundational importance to CHI. These differences affect how people interact with digital objects and what roles those objects are able to take on in daily life. The goal of my research is to investigate these differences in the case of books, and to investigate how the affordances and limitations of paper books and e-books affect the possibilities for their use in high-level activities.
Live Media Places: Participation in Online Education through Composition BIBAFull-Text 213-217
  William Hamilton
Live streaming is an emerging form of social media, which affords sharing and participating in rich experiences. Through these experiences, live streams often serve as places supporting the formation of online communities. Meanwhile, MOOCs are rapidly expanding the scope and reach of online learning. However they struggle to engage students in participatory learning experiences. In this work, I propose an environment that supports the composition of live media to create places that foster expression and participation in online communities and education.
Online Help-Seeking in Communities of Novice Innovators BIBAFull-Text 218-222
  Julie Hui
Recent online innovation support tools, such as crowdfunding platforms, have made it easier for novice innovators to develop and implement their work in the real world. However, novice innovators often fail to connect with mentors in these contexts, which limits their ability to develop successful products. Theories of learning and innovation describe the importance of working in a social context to acquire needed resources. By designing tools that encourage and scaffold the act of help-seeking, we can connect more novice innovators with potential mentors. The goal of my dissertation is to 1) develop an emergent model of online help-seeking behavior for novice innovators, 2) identify features novice innovators use to inform mentor connection decisions, and 3) design and evaluate a tool that scaffolds novice-mentor connection in innovation communities.
Proprioceptive Interaction: The User's Muscles as Input and Output Device BIBAFull-Text 223-228
  Pedro Lopes
In my research, I investigate how users might interact with devices smaller than mobile or wearable devices. I argue that to achieve the intended minimal form-factor such devices will leverage the user's body as an input and output device. Users will not interact with the device but instead will interact through one of their limbs, which they share with the computer as the interface. I present four research prototypes, all of which actuate the user's limbs by means of electrical muscle stimulation and are perceived through the user's proprioceptive senses.
Rare World: Designing for Dispersed Populations with Rare Diseases BIBAFull-Text 229-233
  Haley MacLeod
Researchers have created innovative designs to address common chronic conditions, but little is known about how to design for or even study rare disease populations. I have completed an interview study and a study in a Facebook group to understand the needs and challenges of people with rare disease. I intend to design solutions to the challenges identified in these two studies, focusing largely on support from family and friends.
AgentSmith: Exploring Agentic Systems BIBAFull-Text 234-238
  David Miller
The design of systems with independent agency to act on the environment or which can act as persuasive agents requires consideration of not only the technical aspects of design, but of the psychological, sociological, and philosophical aspects as well. Creating usable, safe, and ethical systems will require research into human-computer communication, in order to design systems that can create and maintain a relationship with users, explain their workings, and act in the best interests of both users and of the larger society.
bump2bump: Online Peer Support in First-Time Pregnancy BIBAFull-Text 239-243
  Nikki Newhouse
First-time pregnancy is a significant life event and holistic maternal wellbeing is important. Dominant social narratives state that pregnancy is a time of fulfilment and stability but many women report feeling otherwise. Healthcare prioritises generic information relating to physical health and psychological support is often overlooked. Social support is an important mediator of maternal wellbeing and significant numbers of pregnant women go online to seek out others they can talk to. This research is exploring the potential of digital resources to provide social support in first time pregnancy. Participatory design methods will be used to develop a prototype digital resource with the aim of facilitating tailored peer support to enhance subjective wellbeing during pregnancy and beyond birth.
Performing Play: Cultural Production on Twitch.tv BIBAFull-Text 244-248
  Anthony Pellicone
Digital games are a major part of the global economy, and participation in gaming cultures can lead to informal learning in computer science and technology. However, recent news stories highlight the often toxic attitudes that gamers have towards marginalized populations participating in, and having a voice regarding game culture. A valuable lens into game culture that may help us to understand its operations is in an increasingly popular practice: streaming gameplay for others on platforms like Twitch.tv. My dissertation aims to understand the performance of play using mixed methodologies, informed by a sociological approach called field analysis. The proposed research aims to understand the performance of play in terms of the individual, the spaces that support the practice, and the relations of power within the wider economic field of digital games.
Interactive Technology for Inclusive Play BIBAFull-Text 249-254
  Kiley Sobel
In this paper, I describe my current work as a PhD student in HCI. My dissertation research is in how to increase opportunities for children with mixed abilities to equally, actively, and meaningfully participate in the same setting with the assistance of interactive technology. Specifically, I am interested in understanding the ability of interactive technology to support children and their adult guardians with inclusive play, or play among children with different abilities and needs. My research adds to the growing movement within HCI toward a social model of disability, and I hope to inspire future technology design based on inclusive principles and the empowerment of all children.
Exploring and Supporting Today's Collaborative Writing BIBAFull-Text 255-259
  Dakuo Wang
Collaborative writing has become increasingly common in many professions, however, when compared to the extensive research conducted 30 years ago, we know very little about it today. Now that both tools and people's skills have changed, how are people actually using these new tools in their collaborations? In my dissertation project, I investigate how people write together now, using both qualitative (i.e., interviewing participants and hand-coding co-authored documents) and quantitative (i.e., statistical modeling using Google Docs log data) research methods. I have also built information visualization systems to complement existing research methods. By understanding what practices and tools people use in collaborative writing, I will propose design implications for system designers to improve the tools, as well as collaboration guidelines for people to write together better.
Adaptive Biofeedback for Mind-Body Practices BIBAFull-Text 260-264
  Bin Yu
Mind-body practices are widely used to reduce feelings of tension and effects of stress. With biofeedback, users receive information (feedback) about their body (bio), which facilitates mind and body interactions. Biofeedback process is a highly individual experience in the way the users respond to the feedback and use it to regulate their thoughts and physiology. This research explores a novel adaptive biofeedback system for mind-body practices. The proposed biofeedback system could adapt its feedback source, information load and interface modality based on the user's physiological states, achieved performance and interaction. The adaptive biofeedback system is currently being developed and a longitudinal evaluation will be conducted in the future.


New Scenic Subjects: Explorations of a System of Autonomous On-Stage Observers BIBAFull-Text 265-268
  Ludvig Elblaus; Åsa Unander-Scharin; Carl Unander-Scharin
This paper describes a full body interactive performance system where the users interact with a set of non-human observers. An observer is a sculptural scenic presence, vaguely anthropomorphic, equipped with a camera, that analyses the movements of the users, and creates a soundscape. The observers are movable but not mobile, meaning that their placement on stage defines a set of overlapping layers of activation for the users to interact with. This work aims to answer questions on what scenic subjects emerge from interacting with the observers, what new identities and relationships are established, and how we can use emotional and scenic components of these relationships to find new expressive qualities in stage productions.
SharedSpaces Mingle BIBAFull-Text 269-272
  Leif Handberg; Charlie Gullstrom; Joke Kort; Jimmy Nyström
SharedSpaces is a WebRTC design prototype that creates a virtual media space where people can mingle and interact. Although you are in different locations, you appear side by side in front of a chosen backdrop. This interactive installation addresses spatial and social connectedness, stressing the importance of integrating architectural and spatial features to support complex social dynamics in mediated interaction. The tool engages users in manipulating their real-time video-streams, creatively co-designing a shared mediated space that fits a contextual need. It supports social dynamics by allowing users to draw and paint together and to move and resize video streams. Further, it enhances grounding and social cues by merging video-streams and space, representing users as if they were in the same space. Standard and easily available equipment is used. Recent user studies show that a seamless integration of space, social dynamics and shared activity benefits the experience of presence, naturalness, immersion/engagement and social connectedness.
Maintaining Relationships With Our Devices BIBAFull-Text 273-276
  Sarah Homewood
Despite the current strong commercial trend towards wearable technology, the performance "Maintaining Relationships With Our Devices" considers the role that un-worn personal devices have played in most of our lives for over twenty years. This performance explores the distance we have had between our bodies and our devices and proposes that this distance has given us the space to form meaningful relationships with our devices. The relationship model of parent and child is used as an analogy for the relationship between the performer and their mobile device. This model of parent and child is used in order to propose the design of mobile device accessories that maintain and enhance this relationship. The performance also proposes a form of wearable technology that maintains relationships with mobile devices as we lose our distance to them as they migrate onto and into our bodies.
Hotaru: The Lightning Bug Game BIBAFull-Text 277-280
  Kaho Abe; Katherine Isbister
The Hotaru game is a collaborative play experience in which two players use costume elements as input devices. The experiential aim for the game is to give players a sense of connection and transformation.
Tactile Presentation to the Back of a Smartphone with Simultaneous Screen Operation BIBAFull-Text 281-284
  Sugarragchaa Khurelbaatar; Yuriko Nakai; Ryuta Okazaki; Vibol Yem; Hiroyuki Kajimoto
In most common methods of tactile presentation on touch screen, the tactile display was directly attached or contacted onto the screens. Therefore, the tactile display must be transparent so that it does not obstruct the view of the screen. On the other hand, if the tactile sensation is presented at the back of the device, the tactile display does not need to be transparent. However, tactile presentation to the whole palm of hand is not appropriate while a shape on the screen is touched by only one finger. To overcome these limitations, we proposed a new novel to present tactile feedback to a finger on the back. Electro-tactile display is used because it is small and dense. The tactile display presents touch sensation as a mirror of shape on the screen.
Threadsteading: Playful Interaction for Textile Fabrication Devices BIBAFull-Text 285-288
  Lea Albaugh; April Grow; Chenxi Liu; James McCann; Gillian Smith; Jennifer Mankoff
Our interaction -- Threadsteading -- combines game design practices, traditional crafting techniques of quilting and embroidery, and existing fabrication technologies to produce an innovative game experience that results in a tangible artifact at the end of play. Threadsteading offers a glimpse at a future in which humans can engage in realtime, playful interaction with fabrication machines.
What We Have Lost/What We Have Gained: Embodied Interfaces for Live Performance and Art Exhibitions BIBAFull-Text 289-292
  Matthew Mosher
This paper examines the use of embodied interface design in experiential systems sculpture for art exhibitions, using the piece What We Have Lost / What We Have Gained as an example. Looking at musical instruments and MIDI devices for live electronic music performance as a starting point led to developing an interface that allows for more expressive physical gestures, and in turn functions in the area of interactive art. This paper demonstrates how HCI can be applied to and included within art disciplines to increase engagement with the artworks by transforming viewers into participants, players, and co-creators.
#Scanners: A BCI Enhanced Cinematic Experience BIBAFull-Text 293-296
  Matthew Pike; Max L. Wilson; Steve Benford; Richard Ramchurn
#Scanners is a bio-responsive digital arts experience that blurs the lines between cinematics and neuroscience. Using a commercially available wireless EEG device, #Scanners presents a specially commissioned film that is dynamically altered both visually and aurally in accordance with the viewer's levels of Attention and Meditation, as calculated by the EEG device. The system has been demonstrated to audiences across Europe and has allowed us to explore design opportunities around both extents of, and awareness of control with otherwise passive multimedia experiences. At CHI2016, viewers will be able to experience the #Scanners system, watch their own personalized version of the film. Spectators will be able to see viewers, their levels, and their effect on the film.
A Theatrical Turing Test: An Encounter of Telematic Bodies BIBAFull-Text 297-300
  Sahar Sajadieh; Nathan Weitzner
In our daily interactions with technology, we have accepted digital reproductions of others' voice and image as alternatives to the real ones. This paper examines human perception and sensitivity towards detecting the immediacy and relevance of responses in telecommunication. We studied participant interactions in our participatory performance piece, "The Body is Present" (2015). We sought to quantify the participants' ability to correctly identify whether or not they were interacting with live or recorded video streams when presented with a sequence of both stimuli. Our study explores the new dynamics of human interaction in telecommunication and the significance of the co-presence of another human on the other end.
Synthesis in the Audiovisual BIBAFull-Text 301-304
  Vygandas 'Vegas' Šimbelis; Anders Lundström
The S T R A T I C audiovisual project is based on the phenomenon that occurs when filming a pulsating light -- lines appear on the screen. The thickness, color and movement of these lines are directly related to the frequency of the sound. In other words, the sound generates the visuals in real-time. The visuals are examined by the use of shutter speed and frame rate of a camera. In this project we explore the interactive potential through our live performances and the space for aesthetic expression by synthesizing the audio and the visuals. The project relates to the genre of visual music and abstraction in the arts and creates a synesthetic experience for the audience. We find it highly relevant to CHI since it concerns aspects of materiality at the intersection of the analog and the digital.
The Soma Mat and Breathing Light BIBAFull-Text 305-308
  Anna Ståhl; Martin Jonsson; Johanna Mercurio; Anna Karlsson; Kristina Höök; Eva-Carin Banka Johnson
We present the experience of using the prototypes Soma Mat and Breathing Light. These are designed with a somaesthetic approach to support a meditative bodily introspection. We use light and heat as modalities to subtly guide participants to turn their gaze inwards, to their own bodies. People trying our prototypes reports on a feeling of relaxation, softer movements, and an increased awareness of their own breathing.
Fear Division; Archiving the Intangible BIBAFull-Text 309-312
  Dorien Neema Koelemeijer; Franziska Maria Tachtler
This paper describes the theoretical grounding, the concept and the construction of an embodied interactive installation about fear. The processes in the brain when exposed to fear, the memories related to it and the triggering of these memories are taken as a starting point. The functionality and design of the installation are based on the findings of neuroscientific research and the distribution of cultural probes. The neuroscientific research encompassed the exploration of two parts in the brain, the amygdala and the hippocampus, that cooperate when processing fear reactions. The acquired knowledge about these processes in the brain that is active when encountering fear enabled us to make informed decisions during the design process. Additionally, the cultural probes provided new insights about different fears and the content for the installation. The goal of the audiovisual installation is to give people more insight into the subject of fear, by offering them an interactive experience that is based on the archiving and retrieving of emotions and sounds related to fear.
A Participatory Live Music Performance with the Open Symphony System BIBAFull-Text 313-316
  Kate Hayes; Mathieu Barthet; Yongmeng Wu; Leshao Zhang; Nick Bryan-Kinns
Our Open Symphony system reimagines the music experience for a digital age, fostering alliances between performer and audience and our digital selves. Open Symphony enables live participatory music performance where the audience actively engages in the music creation process. This is made possible by using state-of-the-art web technologies and data visualisation techniques. Through collaborations with local performers we will conduct a series of interactive music performance revolutionizing the performance experience both for performers and audiences. The system throws open music-creating possibilities to every participant and is a genuine novel way to demonstrate the field of Human Computer Interaction through computer-supported cooperative creation and multimodal music and visual perception.

alt.chi: Critical Theory and Pedagogy

The User Experience in Zen and the Art of Motorcycle Maintenance BIBAFull-Text 317-327
  Simon Harper
How do we teach UX/HCI concepts to an audience who have not encountered the domain before? We thought the learning process may be best supported by using material which might be more compelling. Zen and the Art of Motorcycle Maintenance (ZAMM) is a classic and accessible work of American literature, often taught at college or as part of University degrees. Published in 1974 ZAMM is a first person account of a 17-day motorcycle journey from Minnesota to Northern California by the author and his son. Surprisingly, we encouraged reading ZAMM as a method of learning the over arching issues in HCI and UX. Even more surprisingly, students reported benefits in the comprehension of HCI/UX topics from reading it.
Meaning Reconstruction as an Approach to Analyze Critical Dimensions of HCI Research BIBAFull-Text 328-340
  Colin M. Gray; Austin L. Toombs; Christian McKay
A critical tradition has taken hold in HCI, yet research methods needed to meaningfully engage with critical questions in the qualitative tradition are nascent. In this paper, we explore one critical qualitative research approach that allows researchers to probe deeply into the relationships between communicative acts and social structures. Meaning reconstruction methods are described and illustrated using examples from HCI research, demonstrating how social norms can be traced as they are claimed and reproduced. We conclude with implications for strengthening rigorous critical inquiry in HCI research, including the use of extant critical research methods to document transparency and thick description.
Critical Realist HCI BIBAFull-Text 341-351
  Christopher Frauenberger
Against the backdrop of the current debate about HCI's relationship with science and its ways to produce and argue for knowledge, this paper seeks to develop a novel philosophical foundation that rests on the central ideas put forward in critical realism. While it affords many of the features of the post-modern theories that shaped modern HCI, critical realism avoids the danger of slipping into extreme relativism, in which knowledge construction becomes arbitrary and isolated in its context. Moreover, critical realism is inherently multi-faceted and provides a basis on which scientific enquiries of very different natures can be treated complementary rather than as competing with each other. This allows us to develop a non-reductionist view on interaction with technology that accommodates and potentially reconciles the variety of approaches, practices and stances that we see in current HCI.
Making the Case for an Existential Perspective in HCI Research on Mortality and Death BIBAFull-Text 352-364
  Victor Kaptelinin
The paper discusses some of the key HCI studies dealing with mortality and death and concludes that the overall research perspective, adopted in most of the studies -- namely, conducting empirical analyses of user practices and trying to improve the practices through iterative cycles of design and evaluation -- is not fully appropriate for understanding the impact of technology on how people experience their own mortality. The paper discusses an alternative research perspective, existential HCI, and argues that adopting that perspective can usefully complement existing studies related to mortality and death. A tentative analysis of "digital afterlife", understood as the persistence of a person's digital possessions and traces beyond the person's life span, from an existential HCI perspective, is presented. Prospects and challenges for future development of an existential perspective in HCI research are discussed.

alt.chi: Design Fictions and HCI

Resistance is Fertile: Design Fictions in Dystopian Worlds BIBAFull-Text 365-374
  Nicholas S. Dalton; Rebecca Moreau; Ross K. Adams
Current work on design fiction has discussed their use for personal reflection, sharing with collaborators, forming a public "vision" but with small numbers of participant readers. We wanted to explore a new way of using design fictions as a tool for discussion with large global audiences via social authoring web sights. To achieve this, we wrote a highly read, science-fiction novel called I'm a Cyborg's Pet (The Thinking Girl's Guide to Surviving a Robot Apocalypse), on an online, social, serial-writing website called Wattpad. We found our readers confounded our initial expectations of dystopian fiction.
Design Fiction: How to Build a Voight-Kampff Machine BIBAFull-Text 375-386
  Miriam Sturdee; Paul Coulton; Joseph G. Lindley; Mike Stead; Haider Ali; Andy Hudson-Smith
Tyrell: Is this to be an empathy test? Capillary dilation of the so-called blush response? Fluctuation of the pupil. Involuntary dilation of the iris... Deckard: We call it Voight-Kampff for short. Design fiction is a broad term that occupies a space within the wider miscellany of speculative design approaches and is appearing as a nascent method for HCI research. The factor that differentiates and distinguishes design fiction from other approaches is its novel use of world building and in this paper we consider whether there is value in creating fictional research worlds through which we might consider future interactions. As an example we build a world in which algorithms for detecting empathy will become a major compnent of future communications. We take inspiration from the sci-fi film Blade Runner in order to consider what a plausible world, in which it is useful to build a Voight-Kampff machine, might be like.
The Solution Printer: Magic Realist Design Fiction BIBAFull-Text 387-396
  Enrique Encinas; Mark Blythe
This paper is presented as a "design fiction" because nobody would accept these findings in any other form though they are as true as anything else published at CHI. It begins with empirical investigations into the infamous dream simultaneously experienced by thousands of people. We describe the development of a device designed to capture images from that extraordinary dream. This was a prop, or diegetic prototype that unexpectedly began to work. We then report a range of other fictional devices developed at the Solutionist Studio which began to function as described. We argue that the line between fiction and reality has become entirely porous.
After Death: Big Data and the Promise of Resurrection by Proxy BIBAFull-Text 397-408
  Muhammad Aurangzeb Ahmad
With the advent of Big Data and the possibility of capturing massive personal data it is possible to simulate some aspects of a person's personality. The imitation game is based on the observation that it is possible to convince a person of a fake identity if sufficient information is available about the identity being faked. Imitation is however not limited to a person who is alive but also a person who is not alive; the question of simulating a deceased person for the purpose of having the simulation interact with a person is addressed. Various challenges and background considerations for such an endeavor are discussed. The goal of the paper is to open up discussion on this subject and examine its feasibility.

alt.chi: Food Fictions

Data Edibilization: Representing Data with Food BIBAFull-Text 409-422
  Yun Wang; Xiaojuan Ma; Qiong Luo; Huamin Qu
Data communication is critical in data science. We propose data edibilization, i.e., encoding data with edible materials, as a novel approach to leverage multiple sensory channels to convey data stories. We conduct a preliminary data tasting workshop to explore how users interact with and interpret data edibilization. Based on the participants' feedback, we summarize the advantages of edibilization in terms of attractiveness, richness, memorability, affectiveness, and sociability. We also identify several challenges with data edibilization. We discuss possible pragmatic processes, enabling technologies, and potential research opportunities to provide insights into the design space of data edibilization and its practicality.
Computational Agroecology: Sustainable Food Ecosystem Design BIBAFull-Text 423-435
  Barath Raghavan; Bonnie Nardi; Sarah T. Lovell; Juliet Norton; Bill Tomlinson; Donald J. Patterson
We propose a new domain for sociotechnical system design: creating new ecosystems for food production that are sustainable while producing high yields. Drawing on the field of agroecology, we discuss techniques for allowing a range of users to design sustainable food ecosystems that can overcome the environmental costs of industrial agriculture. Industrial agriculture, relying on declining reserves of fossil fuels and generating increasingly costly externalities, is unsustainable. Agroecology cannot scale until practitioners have access to detailed knowledge of local conditions and appropriate agricultural strategies. This paper reviews the agricultural and sustainability challenges that motivate our research. It describes design problems that must be addressed to scale agroecology. We discuss our initial work, and sketch a program of research we believe will contribute to global food security.
Deciphering a Meal through Open Source Standards: Soylent and the Rise of Diet Hackers BIBAFull-Text 436-448
  Marketa Dolejšová
A life without food -- a leitmotiv of science fiction dystopias is becoming a voluntary choice for thousands of people consuming the powdered food replacement soylent. The DIY soylent powders are designed by a group of nutrition hobbyists who distrust existing healthy eating standards and crowdsource experimental soylent recipes in their online user forums. This DIY food-tech rebellion offers an opportunity to look at the issues around present food standards and policies from the HCI perspective. This paper reports findings from in-depth interviews with 21 soylent dieters, with the aim of identifying the risks and opportunities of the expert-amateur DIY food practices.
Printable Hydroponic Gardens: Initial Explorations and Considerations BIBAFull-Text 449-458
  Yuichiro Takeuchi
Digital fabrication, in particular additive manufacturing technology (aka 3D printing), has now emerged as a popular topic of investigation in both academic and DIY/makers circles. Of particular attention lately are techniques for fabricating functional systems as opposed to static objects-e.g., electronic/mechanical apparatuses, biological tissues, etc. Building upon this trend, in this paper we explore the concept of printable hydroponic gardens, lushly adorned with various types of actual, living plants. The paper will describe our initial investigations into the topic, which have mostly focused on searching for 3D printable materials that can serve as effective substrates for plant growth. We will also discuss the potential utility of printable gardens particularly for dense, urban centers, and how the concept may be viewed as an initial step towards fabrication of more complex, holistic natural environments i.e., printable nature.

alt.chi: Confronting Power in HCI

Discussing about Sexual Harassment (Breaking Silence): The Role of Technology BIBAFull-Text 459-472
  Nova Ahmed
Technology can play an important role to fight social problems. We have explored the role of technology in sexual harassment through our yearlong qualitative study on urban female undergraduate students. The existing notion of fear, mistrust and hope towards technology affects the discussion as presented in our research.
Does Technology Have Race? BIBAFull-Text 473-486
  David Hankerson; Andrea R. Marshall; Jennifer Booker; Houda El Mimouni; Imani Walker; Jennifer A. Rode
This paper started as a response to the "Black Lives Matter" campaign in the USA, and emerged as a critique of race more generally in technology design. This paper provides case studies of how technologies are often less usable by persons of color, and contextualizes this in light of intersectionalist theory. Finally, it discusses how the HCI community can ameliorate the situation, and our obligation to do so in light of the ACM code of ethics.
Impromptu Crowd Science and the Mystery of the Bechdel-Wallace Test Movement BIBAFull-Text 487-500
  Cosima Rughinis; Razvan Rughinis; Bogdana Huma
We propose the concept of 'impromptu crowd science' to analyze the Bechdel-Wallace movement. We argue that the practice of using this test to evaluate movies generates a form of digitally distributed knowledge that reveals a challenging conceptual impasse. The current organization of the movement, mainly through blog and newspaper articles, quantitative analyses and wiki syntheses, does not encourage the formulation of theoretically innovative answers, remaining captive in a rhetorical style of balancing pros-and-cons. We propose that hybridizations between such impromptu crowd science and academic inquiries could stimulate crowd theorizing, and we extend this challenge as an invitation for HCI researchers.
The Smartphone: A Lacanian Stain, A Tech Killer, and an Embodiment of Radical Individualism BIBAFull-Text 501-511
  Matthew P. Aylett; Shaun Lawson
YAFR (Yet another futile rant) presents the smartphone: an unstoppable piece of technology generated from a perfect storm of commercial, technological, social and psychological factors. We begin by misquoting Steve Jobs and by being unfairly rude about the HCI community. We then consider the smartphone's ability to kill off competing technology and to undermine collectivism. We argue that its role as a Lacanian stain, an exploitative tool, and as a means of concentrating power into the hands of the few, make it a technology that will rival the personal automobile in its effect on modern society.
Designing for Others, and the Trap of HCI Methods & Practices BIBAFull-Text 512-524
  Bert Vandenberghe; Karin Slegers
HCI research often (cl)aims to do good for others, but does it actually? We discuss two cases that exemplify how designing for others can in fact be harmful: the Games Against Health paper by Linehan et al. and the Uninvited Guests video by Superflux. We feel that user-centered methods are often considered as a safe-conduct, simply because the end-user is involved one cannot do wrong. We plead for explicit transparency about the origin of research projects and technology designs to put a critical reflection about underlying values of the work into practice.

alt.chi: See this, hear this, touch this, keep this

From Inaction to Interaction: Concept and Application of the Null Gesture BIBAFull-Text 525-540
  Karsten Seipp; Katrien Verbert
Gestures in HCI often have a meaning in the real world or are specifically designed for an application. They have a definition and purpose. We introduce Null Gestures: Bodily utterances that have no clearly defined purpose or meaning, such as rubbing one's chin while thinking. They exist, but their assignment is 'Null'. Using the computer, we help users unlock their potential by giving them a meaning in the human-computer dialogue. We thus hope to instigate a discussion about their potential use in HCI and the role of the computer as an enabler for the discovery of unused motor abilities.
You Can Touch This: Eleven Years and 258218 Images of Objects BIBAFull-Text 541-552
  Nina Runge; Johannes Schöning; Rainer Malaka; Alberto Frigo
Touch has become a central input modality for a wide variety of interactive devices, most of our mobile devices are operated using touch. In addition to interacting with digital artifacts, people touch and interact with many other objects in their daily lives. We provide a unique photo dataset containing all touched objects over the last 11 years. All photos were contributed by Alberto Frigo, who was involved early on in the "Quantified Self" movement. He takes photos of every object he touches with his dominant hand. We analyzed the 258,218 images with respect to the types objects, their distribution, and related activities.
A Remote Pointing Method with Dynamic C-D Ratio during a Pinching Gesture for Large Tabletop Systems BIBAFull-Text 553-559
  Naoya Tochihara; Toshiki Sato; Hideki Koike
This paper proposes a simple but efficient remote pointing method for large tabletop systems using a pinching gesture with a thumb and a forefinger. The proposed method uses a control-display (C-D) ratio that dynamically changes depending on the height of the user's hand. The user can intuitively control the speed of the pointer and its travel distance by changing his hand position in 3-D. The method can also be used in a multi-user environment. We applied the method to a photo viewer application.
From Ecological Sounding Artifacts Towards Sonic Artifact Ecologies BIBAFull-Text 560-570
  Cumhur Erkut; Stefania Serafin
The discipline of sonic interaction design has been focused on the interaction between a single user and an artifact. This strongly limits one of the fundamental aspects of music as a social and interactive experience. In this paper we propose sonic artifact ecologies as a mean to examine interactions between one or many users with one or many artifacts. Case studies from a recently run workshop on product sound design are examined.
Making It Real: Towards Practical Progress in the Management of Personal Information BIBAFull-Text 571-582
  William Jones; Caleb Thorsteinson; Brandon Thepvongsa; Tanner Garrett
Discussion of a need for and potential of a study of human-information interaction is decades old. However, this discussion gains added impetus as computing technology and advances in HCI improve the transparency of access to information and "liberate" this information from dependency on a specific device for its persistence. But personal information is bound in other ways, most notably to a supporting application or service and in ways that resist liberation. This paper argues for a let-it-lie approach where a new class of applications might be "applied" to the information in situ through an API supported by its hosting application or service. The approach is illustrated through review of an itemMirror platform for the development of JavaScript web applications.

alt.chi: Authorship and Reviews

Peer Review and Design Fiction: "Great Scott! The quotes are redacted" BIBAFull-Text 583-595
  Joseph Lindley; Paul Coulton
In the 10 years since the term was coined 'design fiction' has become an increasingly common approach in HCI research. The practice involves working with 'diegetic prototypes', that is prototypes that need not exist in reality, but instead exist from within a 'story world'. Although fictional aspects are not unusual in HCI prototyping methods (e.g. storyboards, personas, Wizard-of-Oz), the breadth and flexibility of design fiction poses new challenges. This paper originally featured quotes from peer reviews of design fiction orientated papers that have previously been submitted to ACM SIGCHI conferences in order to highlight inherent challenges when reviewing research that may be based upon or include elements of fiction. In response to the SIGCHI Executive Committee's request to not directly quote reviewers the quotes have now been redacted. This somewhat changes the paper's tone and also makes very clear that publishing discussions relating to peer reviews (or the reviews themselves) is extremely challenging.
What Did Authors Value in the CHI'16 Reviews They Received? BIBAFull-Text 596-608
  Yvonne Jansen; Kasper Hornbæk; Pierre Dragicevic
Peer-review is key to assessing work in HCI conferences. The content and process of peer-review, and how it moves scholarship forward or impedes it, are much discussed but little data is available. We provide initial data from surveying 46 authors who submitted papers and notes to CHI 2016, and asking them what they found helpful and unhelpful in their reviews. Responses were overall positive, and showed that authors appreciated encouragement, ideas for related work, and seeing their work fairly assessed. At the same time, some authors commented that reviews may not be inclusive of new approaches, may contain insufficient details, and occasionally seem unreasonable. They also noted issues specific to the rebuttal process. We discuss how instructions for reviewers could be improved, and link our findings to ongoing debates on peer review.
Solving the Battle of First-Authorship: Using Interactive Technology to Highlight Contributions BIBAFull-Text 609-620
  AC BD; Christine Bauer; Afsaneh Doryab
Human-Computer Interaction research is traditionally collaborative. However, the current authorship model -- i.e., placing authors' names in a particular order -- makes the contributions of collaborators who are not the "first author" (or not mentioned) less visible which negatively affects career paths. Still, if smaller and larger contributions are equally rewarded with a "good" position in the author list, a researcher's achievements may be overrated. We suggest a solution with interactive technology to highlight contributions. The benefits include high visibility of contributions, in-situ access to in-depth researcher profiles, in situ access to similar work by the contributors, and low incentive for artificial credits.
An Uninteresting Tour Through Why Our Research Papers Aren't Accessible BIBAFull-Text 621-631
  Jeffrey P. Bigham; Erin L. Brady; Cole Gleason; Anhong Guo; David A. Shamma
Our research is delivered as Portable Document Format (PDF) documents, and very few include basic metadata to make them accessible to people with disabilities. As a result, many people are either unable to read them efficiently or at all. Over the past few years, we have tried everything from writing guidelines and giving accessibility feedback, to enforcing accessibility standards and volunteering to make PDFs accessible ourselves. The problem with making PDFs accessible is in part due to the lack of good tools, but the complexity of the PDF format makes improving tools difficult. Making accessible research papers is as much about our choices as a community: our choice of publication format, and our choice to make accessibility a voluntary task for authors. In this paper, we overview the context in which PDFs became our publication format, the difficulty in making PDF documents accessible given current tools, what we have tried to make our PDFs more accessible, and potential options for doing better in the future.

Case Study: Education

The Panda Hat of Doom BIBAFull-Text 647-654
  Andrew J. Hunsucker; Daniela Gobbo; Michael Stallings; Martin A. Siegel
Upon finishing an internship or degree in design, novice designers face a challenging professional world. Design schools often prepare novices for the types of projects they will face, but preparing them for the professional realities they will face is often left to the company that hires them. One way we can prepare designers for the challenges they will face as professionals is by simulating professional presentations that go wrong. In this case study, we will examine one particular pedagogical tool designed for this purpose: The Panda Hat of Doom.
Beyond the Lab: Using Technology Toys to Engage South African Youth in Computational Thinking BIBAFull-Text 655-661
  Veronica Lin; Orit Shaer
We present a two-part case study to explore how technology toys can promote computational thinking for young children. First, we conducted a formal study using littleBits, a commercially available technology toy, to explore its potential as a learning tool for computational thinking in three different educational settings. Our findings revealed differences in learning indicators across settings. We applied these insights during a teaching project in Cape Town, South Africa, where we partnered with an educational NGO, ORT SA CAPE, to offer enriching learning opportunities for both privileged and impoverished children. We describe our methods, observations, and lessons learned using littleBits to teach computational thinking to children in early elementary school, and discuss how our lab study informed practical work in the developing world.
Dear Diary: Student Meets World BIBAFull-Text 662-669
  Megan McCracken
This case study describes a project for which the goal was to engineer a unique, user-driven development process for mobile games. It is written from the perspective of a student coming straight from a university into the tech industry. Telling the story in this way provides opportunities to explain how the university has or has not prepared students to enter the work force; specifically, which aspects of the real world can't be simulated or prepared for by attending a university. This topic is explored alongside the phenomenon of how reality meets a student's expectations of industry. Within this case study, I also discuss topics such as the collaborative process between researchers, designers, programmers, and project managers.
Diversity by Design: Female Students' Perception of a Spanish Language Learning Game BIBAFull-Text 670-679
  Yolanda A. Rankin
Prior research has established video games as effective pedagogical tools for Second Language Acquisition. However, few game studies evaluate the gameplay experience from foreign language students' perspective; even fewer game studies specifically examine women's perceptions of language learning video games. For the purpose of understanding how to better design language learning video games that appeal to a diverse group of students, we examine female college students' gameplay experiences in a conversation-based Spanish language learning video game. Student evaluations reveal that the majority of students had a positive gameplay experience. However, students criticized the game for its lack of diversity, including lack of diverse game characters, missed opportunities to integrate aspects of Spanish culture into game tasks and the inability to customize the gameplay experience. Qualitative analysis of students' suggestions provide insights into designing inclusive gaming environments that promote language learning.

Case Study: Tools for Workers

Untethered Workspaces: A Zones Concept Towards Supporting Operator Movements in Control Rooms BIBAFull-Text 680-689
  Veronika Domova; Saad Azhar; Maria Ralph; Jonas Brönmark
Within industrial domains there is a need for control room operators to be in constant contact with the different processes they are responsible for controlling. With this responsibility comes the need to constantly be near their workstations in order to monitor, diagnose and quickly troubleshoot issues presented. These workstations, however, restrict operators in control rooms from moving freely within the control room itself, such as between their own and their colleague's workstations since they cannot interact with the system from a distance. These systems also restrict those operators who need to continuously enter the control room from the plant/factory floor since interacting with process graphics requires them to remove all of their specialized equipment every time (e.g. large bulky safety gloves). We therefore present a concept for control room operators that supports their untethering from dedicated workstations, providing them with the ability to interact in a more flexible way.
From Two CSCW Frameworks to User Requirements Definition for a Retail Planning Collaborative Software BIBAFull-Text 690-699
  Grégory Petit; Justin Soles
This case study explains how we used two computer-supported cooperative work (CSCW) frameworks to define collaboration-related user requirements and experience attributes for Retail.Me, a new retail planning solution currently being designed at JDA Software. Our focus is on how this kind of framework can be used in industry and if one particular framework better answered our need to define user requirements and experience attributes for collaborative software. We explain how we configured each of the frameworks, how we reconciled them, and how this helped us reach our goal of defining user requirements and experience attributes for Retail.Me. At the end of this case study, we highlight differences in using the two frameworks, discuss their respective advantages and disadvantages and identify what we could have done to improve our process of defining user requirements and experience attributes.
Interactive Colormapping: Enabling Multiple Data Range and Detailed Views of Ocean Salinity BIBAFull-Text 700-709
  Francesca Samsel; Sebastian Klaassen; Mark Petersen; Terece L. Turton; Gregory Abram; David H. Rogers; James Ahrens
Ocean salinity is a critical component to understanding climate change. Salinity concentrations and temperature drive large ocean currents which in turn drive global weather patterns. Melting ice caps lower salinity at the poles while river deltas bring fresh water into the ocean worldwide. These processes slow ocean currents, changing weather patterns and producing extreme climate events which disproportionally affect those living in poverty. Analysis of salinity presents a unique visualization challenge. Important data are found in narrow data ranges, varying with global location. Changing values of salinity are important in understanding ocean currents, but are difficult to map to colors using traditional tools. Commonly used colormaps may not provide sufficient detail for this data. Current editing tools do not easily enable a scientist to explore the subtleties of salinity. We present a workflow, enabled by an interactive colormap tool that allows a scientist to interactively apply sophisticated colormaps to scalar data. The intuitive and immediate interaction of the scientist with the data is a critical contribution of this work.
Designing the Alarm Management User Experience for Patient Monitoring BIBAFull-Text 710-717
  Sharoda A. Paul; Alexander K. Carroll; Stephen M. Treacy
We present a case study of designing the alarm management user experience for patient monitoring devices in critical care units. Based on contextual inquiry with critical care nurses, we developed novel design concepts that re-imagined the user experience of patient monitoring devices to reduce alarm fatigue. We conducted preliminary evaluations of the design concepts to examine whether the new features would enable better alarm management. In this case study, we highlight the design process and the lessons learnt.

Case Study: Gaming, Gamifications and Arts

beEco: Co-designing a Game with Children to Promote Environmental Awareness -- A Case Study BIBAFull-Text 718-727
  Nuno Jardim Nunes; Valentina Nisi; Kara Rennert
In this paper we describe the goals and challenges posed by the development of beEco an interactive game aiming to increasing environmental awareness. Here we recount the HCI based process and design strategy for an interactive game aiming at promoting a new and more positive dialogue between the local population and a Nature Reserve Park. Recognizing the power of relationships and the creative potential and emotional impact of children, the team ended up involving local schools in the visual design of the interactive game. Here, we present and discuss our field research, design decisions and the results from several iterative prototype testing. We conclude with a discussion about our results compared to the aims of the project. The project targeted an increase of environmental awareness of the local professionals and the creation of a new and more positive dialogue between the local population and the Nature Park.
The Salome Experience: Opera Live Streaming and Beyond BIBAFull-Text 728-737
  Peter Reichl; Christian Löw; Svenja Schröder; Thomas Schmidt; Bernhard Schatzl; Valon Lushaj; Oliver Hödl; Florian Güldenpfennig; Christopher Widauer
Since a couple of years, opera houses have started transmitting selected performances via live streaming over the Internet, in order to make them accessible to a broader audience. In this context, the "Salome Experience" project, carried out at the University of Vienna in collaboration with Vienna State Opera, investigates innovative approaches for further closing the gap between stage and audience via modern communication technology. This paper discusses the prototypical realization of some of these ideas in the framework of a dedicated live streaming transmission of the opera "Salome" by Richard Strauss during a symposium celebrating the 25th anniversary of the Internet in Austria. Moreover we present a novel smartphone app which has evolved from this initiative and aims at providing the audience with "smart subtitles" to make stage performances more accessible, with a specific focus on the audiences of large open air events or streaming transmissions.
nDiVE: Gamified Virtual Reality Environment for Logistics and Supply Chain Management Training BIBAFull-Text 738-744
  Marko Teras; Torsten Reiners; George Coldham; Lincoln C. Wood
Virtual reality (VR) technologies have been under development for decades, but latest more affordable and increasingly available technologies have raised unprecedented interest in using VR for enhancing human capacities, also in higher education learning. This paper will report a summary of a three-year project in developing and studying the use of VR for safety training in Logistics and Supply Chain Management (SCM). The training environment, 'nDiVE', with its technological and learning design developments is presented. Also opportunities and challenges that have emerged during the project, in addition to future research and development opportunities are discussed.

Case Study: New Markets and Localization

Mobile Seva-Enabling mGovernance in India BIBAFull-Text 745-754
  Kapil Kant Kamal; Manish Kumar; Soumya Shrivastava; Priyesh Chourasia
Mobile Governance (m-Governance) is a new channel or access method to deliver government service to all citizens. M-Governance provides an additional access tool for e-Government and its processes with the uses of wireless and mobile technologies to deliver services over mobile devices. We present an instructive case study of Government of India initiative taken in mobile Governance called "Mobile Seva". Mobile Seva is to mainstream mobile governance in India as a new model for e-delivery of public services through mobile devices. It leverages the massive dissemination of mobile phones in India to substantially enhance access to electronic services, especially in the rural areas. Mobile Seva platform has been developed based upon open standards and is scalable and highly interoperable. Mobile Seva is the second place winner of the 2014 UN Public Service Awards [1]. Commonwealth Association for Public Administration and Management (CAPAM) has recognized Mobile Seva as a Finalist in the International Innovations Awards 2014[2]
What Makes a Successful Localized App?: An International Case Study BIBAFull-Text 755-761
  Stephanie Rosenbaum; Jennifer Lee Carlson
What are the requirements for a mobile app to be successful in multiple languages? Cisco Systems developed a mobile application, SalesConnect, for its internal sales force of tens of thousands, as well as partners across the globe. Before investing in costly localization, the team wanted to learn: What is most important to sales users for a localized app? When and why do these users want materials in English versus in their local language? When do they search using English versus their local language? This case history describes how Cisco and UX consultancy TecEd worked together on a localization research project to learn what constituted a good localized application for sales users' content needs. It describes what methods we used, what challenges we overcame, and what we learned.
Breaking the UCD Process: The Case Study of a Failed Mexican Government Project BIBAFull-Text 762-767
  Mario A. Moreno-Rocha; Carlos A. Martínez Sandoval; Abril I. Rodríguez López; J. Andrés De la Cruz Pineda; Fernando Macias Ruvalcaba
The present paper narrates our experience in the development of a critical and complex software system for a state Mexican government. This ill-fated project is still in development but unfortunately it is plagued with a number of issues caused mainly by delays. Several identified factors include an inefficient and ever changing requirements elicitation, UI development without the users' feedback, inefficient procedures, etc., with yields into a low user satisfaction. We believe that a correct and complete implementation of a User Centered Design approach is key for projects like this, especially in a Latin American government environments and organizational cultures like these.
Exploring Regional User Experience for Designing Ultra Low Cost Smart Phones BIBAFull-Text 768-776
  Sanjay Ghosh; Sarita Seshagiri; Aditya Ponnada
This case study shares our experiences and challenges in understanding the innate needs of typical users of smartphone from various socio economic classes of a rapidly growing region like India. The objective was to support the design of a commercial ultra-low cost smartphone would appeal to the user experience of the mass. We were a team of HCI researchers started by devising a formal method to segment the vast and varied user group in order to undertake field study. We were faced with challenges ranging from diverse expectations of users, their varied levels of technology exposure and the means to map their perceived experience to our design ideas. Our contribution was in the critical insights, which we gathered through our field research. These insights helped define the final product which was ultimately commercially launched with differentiating regional user experience.

Case Study: User Research

Capturing & Measuring Emotions in UX BIBAFull-Text 777-785
  Sarah E. Garcia; Laura M. Hammond
Gathering data about the emotional journey of a product and user experience is on the forefront of both user and customer experience, but the question remains: What is the best way to do this? There are sloughs of solutions that claim to capture the user's emotions in various ways: via biometrics, facial analysis, vocal analysis, and more. While some of these solutions can provide you with seemingly accurate feedback, they can also be intrusive. Other solutions can be expensive, leaving a start up or other lean UX team struggling to find these answers. This case study follows UEGroup's approach to tackle the issues surrounding capturing the emotional experience of a product, with a focus on an agile self-reporting method. In this case study we attempt to answer the question -- is self-reporting more or less effective than these other emotion capturing methods?
Practical Usability Rating by Experts (PURE): A Pragmatic Approach for Scoring Product Usability BIBAFull-Text 786-795
  Christian P. Rohrer; James Wendt; Jeff Sauro; Frederick Boyle; Sara Cole
Usability testing has long been considered a gold standard in evaluating the ease of use of software and websites-producing metrics to benchmark the experience and identifying areas for improvement. However, logistical complexities and costs can make frequent usability testing infeasible. Alternatives to usability testing include various forms of expert reviews that identify usability problems but fail to provide task performance metrics. This case study describes a method by which multiple teams of trained evaluators generated task usability ratings and compared them to metrics collected from an independently run usability test on three software products. Although inter-rater reliability ranged from modest to strong and the correlation between actual and predicted metrics did establish fair concurrent validity, opportunities for improved reliability and validity were identified. By establishing clear guidelines, this method can provide a useful usability rating for a range of products across multiple platforms, without costing significant time or money.
Tackling User Research Challenges within the Finance Industry BIBAFull-Text 796-803
  Rina R. Wehbe; Shahtab Wahid; Siddharth Gupta; Edward W. Ishak
We present a case study illustrating how a user experience (UX) team performs user research in the finance industry. In particular, we focus on the impact of salespeople and financial professionals on how the research is conducted. Challenges stemming from this -- such as recruitment, time constraints, and conflicting expectations -- and potential ways to mitigate them are discussed. Our work contributes to an understanding of how to do research in time-sensitive, high pressure environments while also working with gatekeepers to accessing users.
Lessons Learned from Conducting Group-Based Research on Facebook BIBAFull-Text 804-815
  Haley MacLeod; Ben Jelen; Annu Prabhakar; Lora Oehlberg; Katie A. Siek; Kay Connelly
Existing research methods are largely intended to be conducted co-located and synchronously with a study population, but this approach is not feasible with remote or distributed populations. We describe a group-based study we conducted asynchronously on Facebook with a remote population. This study made use of adapted versions of a number of commonly used HCI research methods. We provide a thorough description of our research process, and a discussion of the lessons learned from this approach.

Case Study: Organizational Change for Better UX

UX Strategy as a Kick-starter for Design Transformation in an Engineering Company BIBAFull-Text 816-822
  Lassi A. Liikkanen
Digitalization is driving established companies to become software providers. To succeed in software, these companies must excel beyond traditional engineering and take user experience seriously. How do you make this kind of a change? In this case study, we describe a start of a UX improvement program at a global company with a number external and internal software offerings, but no culture of utilizing design or dealing with user experience. The story starts from the design research, leads to a UX strategy framework and an eventual launch of a UX transformation project. We explain the elements of UX strategy developed in the project and provide insights on what are the key actions and enablers, such as the executive buy in, for a such project. Our goal with this report is to inform the UX researchers of the need for strategic UX work as an enabler of practical UX.
Embedding User Understanding in the Corporate Culture: UX Research and Accessibility at Yahoo BIBAFull-Text 823-832
  Maria Stone; Frank Bentley; Brooke White; Mike Shebanek
This case study shows how a UX Research organization created a company-wide user first culture, aligned the strategy of multiple products to align with real user needs, and improved product usability in a global company with over 1 billion monthly web and mobile app users. We will describe the team, its organization and role, and specific ways research is conducted to positively impact product development. As the organization and function of research teams in industry has been largely opaque to the broader CHI community, we hope that this case study will provide deep insight and foster a larger conversation about the role of UX Research at scale and the best ways to organize and deliver that research for maximum effect.
UX Expeditions in Business-to-Business Heavy Industry: Lessons Learned BIBAFull-Text 833-839
  Virpi Roto; Eija Kaasinen; Maaria Nuutinen; Marko Seppänen
Traditionally, user experience research has focused on consumer products, and there is little research on the role of experience design in business-to-business industry. This paper shortly reports the lessons learned on introducing experience design to Finnish metals and engineering industry during a 5-year research programme. It proved important to prepare the organization to the experience thinking, to give practical means to designing for experiences, to provide distinctive experiences in all touchpoints, and to widely advertise the benefits of experience-driven design. Investing in experiences ultimately pays off by enhanced competitive advantage. We call for more research on experience design in this domain by suggesting research topics for the future.
Why Designers Might Want to Redesign Company Processes to Get to Better UX Design: A Case Study BIBAFull-Text 840-848
  Meghan Ede; Garett Dworman
Imagine being given the chance to fundamentally change a product that hadn't been updated for years. A chance to take an outdated and hard-to-use product and turn it into a customer's delight. And then imagine hitting the "internal inertia" of many companies -- "we don't do things that way", "not enough resources", "my group doesn't work on that". We will share how we learned that internal company processes impact redesign efforts and why managing internal change is as important for improving a product as redesigning the screens in the user interface (UI). Learn from our pilot project -- our tips (and failures) about how to identify internal company process problems and road-blocks, get buy-in, break down silos, and evangelize new design processes. And how this seeming side-path into change management contributes to overall product success.

Case Study: Design Methodology

API Design Reviews at Scale BIBAFull-Text 849-858
  Andrew Macvean; Martin Maly; John Daughtry
The number of APIs produced by Google's various business units grew at an astounding rate over the last decade, the result of which was a user experience containing wild inconsistencies and usability problems. There was no single issue that dominated the usability problems; rather, users suffered a death from a thousand papercuts. A lightweight, scalable, distributed design review process was put into place that has improved our APIs and the efficacy of our many API designers. Challenges remain, but the API design reviews at scale program has started successfully.
Adapting Design Thinking and Cultural Probes to the Experiences of Immigrant Youth: Uncovering the Roles of Visual Media and Music in ICT Wayfaring BIBAFull-Text 859-871
  Karen E. Fisher; Katya Yefimova; Ann P. Bishop
Our case study focuses on our fifth collaborative design workshop with immigrant and refugee youth, geared to understanding the role of information and communication technologies (ICTs) in their daily lives, especially as wayfaring aids for helping others with healthcare, transportation, education, employment, etc. The importance of our case study lies in its lessons for co-design research techniques related to immigrant youth. We have found that best practice includes adapting to the different cultures and experiences of immigrant and refugee youth from East Africa, Myanmar, Syria, and Latin America. Our adaptations exemplify our growing understanding of teen culture and the rapid evolution of ICTs created, employed and managed by youth. Our fifth workshop, with 22 Latino teens, embodies best practices related to the importance of visuals and music in forging youth's digital identities and their ICT wayfaring behavior.
User Research to Inform Product Design: Turning Failure into Small Successes BIBAFull-Text 872-879
  Joan Morris DiMicco; Nancy Mann
A product team launched a new type of product, an interactive data dashboard. They were designed and built because customers had asked for them, but once launched, customers were not using them. Our user experience team offered to help the product team investigate the issue of low usage and, after getting the full support from the product executive, we collected customer feedback, identified core user personas, and made recommendations for next steps and design approaches. While this work led to some changes and one new dashboard, the impact on the overall product was minimal. Why? This case studies explores the underlying issues of why user research done right does not always influence product software development.
Lightweight Journey Mapping: The Integration of Marketing and User Experience through Customer Driven Narratives BIBAFull-Text 880-888
  Laura Dove; Stephen Reinach; Irwin Kwan
Marketing researchers often utilize customer surveys and interviews to gage customer satisfaction, but user experience professionals know that these methods may not reveal discrepancies between self-reported and actual customer behavior. Integrating market research and observational research approaches in a fashion that is agreeable to a cross-functional team can be very challenging, but using hybrid techniques can help a team collaborate to provide a high-quality user experience. This case study describes the development of a customer-driven lightweight journey mapping approach that led to new insights about how our customers were using our product. These insights led to a new understanding of our customers' challenges using our product, and more generally, they helped the team appreciate the variety of user experience challenges our customers faced.

Case Study: Activities and Health

Look! A Healthy Neighborhood: Means to Motivate Participants in Using an App for Monitoring Community Health BIBAFull-Text 889-898
  Nazli Cila; Guido Jansen; Maarten Groen; Wouter Meys; Lea den Broeder; Ben Kröse
Participatory data collection relies on the commitment of the participants to report data continuously, which makes providing incentives to people crucial. In this case study, we describe how we designed a web app by using different incentive mechanisms to collect participatory data for monitoring community health. The insights we gathered through evaluating the prototype in focus groups and the lessons we learned about sustaining motivation and interest are discussed in the paper. We expect that these lessons would be useful for other participatory sensing projects that aim for constant and systematic data contribution from a large group of people.
How Far in the Future will We Start From?: Interacting with the Stakeholders of a Nation-wide Patient Portal BIBAFull-Text 899-909
  Inês Rodolfo; Nuno Correia; Marta Sousa; Paulo ; Carlos Duarte
Nation-wide patient portals with integrated personal health records have been emerging in recent years, to increase patient safety through online healthcare services. Our research, described here, was focused on the improvement of a national patient portal, involving its stakeholders in a case study based on a user-centered design process. We combined qualitative and quantitative user research methods to study the users of these platforms. We began with backcasting for short-term strategic planning with the main goal of attracting first-time users into the portal registration. We then conducted stakeholder's interviews and web analytics to gather broader insights for long-term development, which can also inform other efforts about the design of these new type of healthcare systems. The paper reports on the process of working with a large organization with a strong connection to governmental policies. The combined research methods helped stakeholders to find strategies to promote the portal user awareness, also giving the opportunity to share their experience and learned lessons.
How to Save a Life: Could Real-Time Sensor Data Have Saved Mrs Elle? BIBAFull-Text 910-920
  DanaKai Bradford; Qing Zhang
This is the story of Mrs Elle*, a participant in a smart home pilot study. The pilot study was aimed to test the efficacy of sensors to capture in-home activity data including meal preparation, attention to hygiene and movement around the house. The in-home monitoring and response service associated with the sensors had not been implemented, and as such, data was not analyzed in real time. Sadly, Mrs Elle suffered a massive stroke one night, and was found some time after. She later died in hospital without regaining consciousness. This paper looks at the data leading up to Mrs Elle's stroke, to see if there were any clues that a neurological insult was imminent. We were most interested to know, had we been monitoring in real time, could the sensors have told us how to save a life'
Designing Mobility Eco-Feedback for Elderly Users BIBAFull-Text 921-926
  Johanna Meurer; Dennis Lawo; Lukas Janßen; Volker Wulf
This paper describes a design-case study for eliciting user feedback and investigating the requirements of a mobile app fostering the adoption of sustainable mobile behavior by elderly users. We report the main lessons learned based on an interview-study using low-mid fidelity prototyping design features for eco-feedback. These lessons currently inform our implementation work in the INNOLAB project and could be of interest for designers in the eco-sustainability field.

Course Overviews

Research Methods for Child Computer Interaction BIBAFull-Text 927-930
  Janet C. Read; Shuli Gilutz
In this course participants will learn about the theory and practice of conducting research in children's HCI. The course is divided into two sessions: basic principles and theory, and best practices. The instructors have multiple years of experience designing, conducting, and analyzing children-computer interaction (CCI) studies, in the UK, USA, and Israel.
Designing with the Mind in Mind: The Psychological Basis for UI Design Guidelines BIBAFull-Text 931-932
  Jeff Johnson
UI design rules and guidelines are not simple recipes. Applying them effectively requires determining rule applicability and precedence and balancing trade-offs when rules compete. By understanding the underlying psychology, designers and evaluators enhance their ability to apply design rules. This two-part (160-minute) course explains that psychology.
Introduction To Human Computer Interaction BIBAFull-Text 933-935
  Jonathan Lazar; Simone D. J. Barbosa
The objective of this course is to provide newcomers to Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) with an introduction and overview of the field. In addition to introducing basic concepts, the course will provide enough structure to help understand how the advanced material in the CHI 2016 technical program fits into the overall field.
Personal Fabrication: State of the Art and Future Research BIBAFull-Text 936-939
  Patrick Baudisch; Stefanie Mueller
Personal fabrication is an emerging research field in Human Computer Interaction and related disciplines. Within the last three years, an increasing number of papers have been published that branch out into different research directions. To maximize the impact HCI researchers can have on this emerging field, it is important to identify the grand challenges and then approach them in a focused way. In order to understand what trajectory fabrication can be expected to follow, we analyze state-of-the-art research and draw an analogy to similar trends we have seen in the history of personal computing. As a result, we identified five challenges for fabrication research: (1) material, (2) interactivity, (3) domain knowledge, (4) sustainability, and (5) intellectual property. At the end of the course, participants will have an in-depth understanding of state of the art research in personal fabrication and will be aware of open research question in the field that they might want to tackle in their future research.
Game User Experience Evaluation BIBAFull-Text 940-943
  Regina Bernhaupt; Florian "Floyd" Mueller
In a nutshell: This course comprehensively covers important user experience (UX) evaluation methods as well as opportunities and challenges of UX evaluation in the area of entertainment and games. The course is an ideal forum for attendees to gain insight into state-of-the art user experience evaluation methods going way-beyond standard usability and user experience evaluation approaches in the area of human-computer interaction. It surveys and assesses the efforts of user experience evaluation of the gaming and human computer interaction communities during the last 15 years.
Hands-on Introduction to Interactive Electrical Muscle Stimulation BIBAFull-Text 944-947
  Pedro Lopes; Max Pfeiffer; Michael Rohs; Patrick Baudisch
In this course, participants create their own prototypes using electrical muscle stimulation. We provide a ready-to-use device and toolkit that allows for programmatically actuating the user's muscles.
An Introduction to Cognitive Aging and Dementia: A Clinical Neuropsychologist's Perspective BIBAFull-Text 948-951
  Allyson Rosen
There is a new urgency to measure subtle age-related cognitive dysfunction with discoveries that amyloid pathology afflicts the brain 20 years before Alzheimer's dementia and more recently that drug infusions can reduce amyloid. Measuring mental processes in controlled laboratory environments has yielded rich insights; however, there is a growing awareness of the importance of complimenting this work with study in real life contexts to understand everyday functioning. In fact the diagnosis of dementia is critically dependent on the measure of functional decline and clinicians have long struggled to define this effectively. This course will be an introduction to the current state of clinical diagnosis of age-related cognitive declines and dementia with the goal of facilitating effective collaboration between computer scientists and clinicians to help older adults. The following topics will be covered. How do we define dysfunctional cognition and dementia clinically? How does a clinician approach diagnosis and what are the major types of dementia and age-related cognitive disorders defined? What is a clinical measure and how do we develop them? How are clinical measures used? What are the major research directions ongoing to treat and prevent age-related declines (e.g. brain stimulation, exercise, medications, diet)? What are some key ethical issues that clinicians consider in working the novel technologies?
Visual Facilitation for Design Groups BIBAFull-Text 952-954
  Eileen Clegg
Introduction to visual facilitation for design groups, enables leaders to catalyze innovation in groups by (1) aggregating ideas creatively in a visual tableau (2) activating human-system elements of design through somatic expression, (3) enabling multiple cognitive inputs, (4) modeling the fundamentals of innovation such as risk-taking, open-ended inquiry, vulnerability, and pattern-finding. This is a highly experiential course, based on the cognitive apprenticeship approach to learning. Participants will work on large paper altogether and in small groups. Human factors are increasingly complex in computer-human interaction. Effectiveness depends on the ability of designers to reach a diverse audience, including cognitive diversity. Design teams often are facing this challenge by including greater diversity in their groups. But to succeed, they must learn to leverage multiple perspectives, and enable team members to stretch their thinking, transcending unconscious biases and the limits of their own training and experience. To accomplish this requires techniques that support people of different personality traits, cultural backgrounds, and cognitive attributes to express their best ideas in an environment that is interpersonally supportive as well as intellectually rigorous. Visual facilitation enables this through: (1) The use of free-hand, simple imagery that expresses the essence of ideas before they are fully formed. The imperfect nature of a quick visual conveys that ideas are in process rather than fully-formed. This encourages the sharing of emerging concepts so that collaboration can occur earlier in the design process. (2) Methods that enable people to contribute their ideas multiple ways that allow full expression for diverse personality and cultural styles. (3) At the meta-level, the deeply human and ancient practice of communicating visually creates a design atmosphere likely to produce more human-friendly products.
Visual Analytics 101 BIBAFull-Text 955-958
  Jean Scholtz; Russ Burtner; Kristin Cook
This course will introduce the field of Visual Analytics to HCI researchers and practitioners highlighting the contributions they can make to this field. Topics will include a definition of visual analytics along with examples of current systems, types of tasks and end users, issues in defining user requirements, design of visualizations and interactions, guidelines and heuristics, the current state of user-centered evaluations, and metrics for evaluation. We encourage designers, HCI researchers, and HCI practitioners to attend to learn how their skills can contribute to advancing the state of the art of visual analytics.
Interaction Design for Online Video and Television BIBAFull-Text 959-960
  David Geerts; Pablo Cesar; Marianna Obrist
This course will teach attendees how to design and evaluate interaction with online video and television. It provides attendees a pragmatic toolset, including techniques and guidelines, which can be directly applied in practice. The different tools will be contextualized based on current developments, giving participants a complete overview of the state of the art and industry.
An Introduction to Automotive User Interfaces BIBAFull-Text 961-964
  Bastian Pfleging; Nora Broy; Andrew L. Kun
The objective of this course is to provide newcomers to Automotive User Interfaces with an introduction and overview of the field. The course will introduce the specifics and challenges of In-Vehicle User Interfaces that set this field apart from others. We will provide an overview of the specific requirements of AutomotiveUI, discuss the design of such interfaces, also with regard to standards and guidelines. We further outline how to evaluate interfaces in the car, discuss the challenges with upcoming automated driving and present trends and challenges in this domain.
Introduction to Creating Musical Interfaces BIBAFull-Text 965-968
  Michael J. Lyons; Sidney Fels
This course provides a general, gentle, and fun introduction to the theory and practice of interface design for creating and performing music. Participants will learn key aspects of the theory and practice of musical interface design by studying case studies and live demonstrations mostly sourced from the leading conference in this area, "New Interfaces for Musical Expression" (NIME).
Mobile UX: Breaking the Glass to Richer User Experiences BIBAFull-Text 969-972
  Simon Robinson; Matt Jones
Apps are changing the world. If you work for a bank, an airline, an art gallery or a even a local coffee shop, you'll probably have helped create an app to connect and transact with your customers and visitors. As users, we consume these bite-sized chunks of digital goodness voraciously, with some estimates putting total app downloads to date at over 100 billion. People find apps effective, satisfying and enjoyable. Meeting their needs, filling dead time, solving their problems. So, why are we organising a course that argues for some new thinking? We celebrate the success that is apps, services and the ecology of mobile devices; but, we want to ask the question: what do the current approaches to mobile interaction overlook? Is there more to user experience than can be expressed through today's heads-down, glass blunted and me-centred reality? We have both have had the great fortune to work and collaborate with research labs, practitioners and industry. The aim of this course is to connect the great app innovation that is out there with the sorts of alternative thinking that have been brewing in university and industry labs for several years. It seems obvious how things should develop in the mobile market-more apps, better screens, longer battery life, faster and faster networks, drawing us more and more towards the tempting pool that leads us to digital worlds that offer so much. We want to help undermine this certainty by challenging attendees to step back and look at alternative perspectives; changing the future but starting now.
User Story Mapping: The Hands-on Course BIBAFull-Text 973-975
  Stephanie Foehrenbach; Christian Heldstab
Agile development practice breaks requirements down into small building blocks that are used to steer development and product progress. However, with this pile of small blocks it can be challenging to keep the big picture of what the product should provide and what is needed for users to conduct their task flows. User story mapping [1] addresses this challenge. It is a method and a visual representation that further helps building a bridge between scenario oriented usability methods and the fragmentation of requirements. This hands-on course introduces user story mapping with a balanced combination of up front presentation and group exercises.
Designing and Assessing Interactive Systems Using Task Models BIBAFull-Text 976-979
  Philippe Palanque; Celia Marinie
This two-part course takes a practical approach to introduce attendees to the principles, methods and tools for task modelling. Part 1: A non-technical introduction demonstrates that task models can be the corner stone of successful design of interactive systems. Part 2: A more technical interactive hands-on exercise of how to "do it right", such as: How to go from task analysis to task models? How to assess (through analysis and simulation) that a task model is correct? How to identify complexity of user tasks and how to reduce it? How to identify tasks that are good candidate for migration either towards automation or other users? How to take into account user errors in task modelling? And more...
Make This!: Introduction to Electronics Prototyping Using Arduino BIBAFull-Text 980-983
  David Sirkin; Nikolas Martelaro; Wendy Ju
This course is a hands-on introduction to interactive electronics prototyping for people with a variety of backgrounds, including those with no prior experience in electronics. Familiarity with programming is helpful, but not required. Participants learn basic electronics, microcontroller programming and physical prototyping using the Arduino platform, then use digital and analog sensors, LED lights and motors to build, program and customize a small paper robot.
Advances in Participatory Design BIBAFull-Text 984-987
  Susanne Bødker; Christian Dindler; Kim Halskov; Ole Sejer Iversen
In this course participants are introduced to the theory and practice of Participatory Design. The course offers an overview of state of the art Participatory Design literature, practices and methods, and provides participants with the opportunity to work practically on a Participatory Design case. The instructors have substantial experience in Participatory Design research and practice and have been active members of the PDC community for several decades.
Designing Technology to Foster Psychological Wellbeing BIBAFull-Text 988-991
  Rafael A. Calvo; Dorian Peters
As the focus in HCI has moved from functionality to usability to the user experience, we have moved toward greater human-centerdness. In a newest iteration, we are beginning to acknowledge the psychological impact that our pervasive technologies have on us. Rather than assuming negative impact is inevitable, as designers we are in a position to actively recruit digital experience to help us thrive. By turning to well-established methods in fields such as psychology, neuroscience, and economics, we can begin to design, and develop new technologies to foster psychological wellbeing and human potential -- an area of research and practice we have referred to as "positive computing" [1]. In this course we will explore approaches to evaluating and designing for wellbeing determinants like autonomy [3,5], competence [5], connectedness [5], meaning [4], and compassion [2], as a first step towards a future in which all digital experience supports flourishing.
Speech-based Interaction: Myths, Challenges, and Opportunities BIBAFull-Text 992-995
  Cosmin Munteanu; Gerald Penn
HCI research has for long been dedicated to better and more naturally facilitating information transfer between humans and machines. Unfortunately, humans' most natural form of communication, speech, is also one of the most difficult modalities to be understood by machines -- despite, and perhaps, because it is the highest-bandwidth communication channel we possess. While significant research efforts, from engineering, to linguistic, and to cognitive sciences, have been spent on improving machines' ability to understand speech, the CHI community (and the HCI field at large) has been relatively timid in embracing this modality as a central focus of research. This can be attributed in part to the relatively discouraging levels of accuracy in understanding speech, in contrast with often-unfounded claims of success from industry, but also to the intrinsic difficulty of designing and especially evaluating speech and natural language interfaces. As such, the development of interactive speech-based systems is mostly driven by engineering efforts to improve such systems with respect to largely arbitrary performance metrics. Such developments have often been void of any user-centered design principles or consideration for usability or usefulness. The goal of this course is to inform the CHI community of the current state of speech and natural language research, to dispel some of the myths surrounding speech-based interaction, as well as to provide an opportunity for researchers and practitioners to learn more about how speech recognition and speech synthesis work, what are their limitations, and how they could be used to enhance current interaction paradigms. Through this, we hope that HCI researchers and practitioners will learn how to combine recent advances in speech processing with user-centred principles in designing more usable and useful speech-based interactive systems.
Empirical Research Methods for Human-Computer Interaction BIBAFull-Text 996-999
  I. Scott MacKenzie; Steven J. Castellucci
In this two-session course, attendees will learn how to conduct empirical research in human-computer interaction (HCI). This course delivers an A-to-Z tutorial on designing a user study and demonstrates how to write a successful CHI paper. It would benefit anyone interested in conducting a user study or writing a CHI paper. Only a general HCI knowledge is required.
Interactive Biotechnology: Building your own Biotic Game Setup to Play with Living Microorganisms BIBAFull-Text 1000-1002
  Honesty Kim; Lukas C. Gerber; Ingmar H. Riedel-Kruse
The advancement of biotechnology enables interactivity with living microorganisms, i.e., turning classic observational microscopy into an interactive experience. This new field of "interactive biotechnology" enables many media such as educational biology cloud labs, museum exhibits, or biotic video games. In this course we will give an overview of our recent approaches to interactive biology. We will then demonstrate a biotic video game that enables real time play with living cells. We will instruct participants how they can replicate (and modify) this setup, which consists of a DIY microscope containing additionally four LEDs controlled by a joystick to stimulate single celled phototactic organisms. We invite the community to develop games and other interactive applications on this platform, and to bring it to maker spaces and classrooms.
Tools for Designing for Home Entertainment: Gesture Interfaces, Augmented Reality, and Smart Spaces BIBAFull-Text 1003-1006
  Radu-Daniel Vatavu
We are witnessing major developments in sensing, processing, and communications that have led toward an integrated composition of the world, in which physical and digital intertwiningly coexist, environments emanate intelligent presence, and interactions dissolve into human behavior in the form of gestures that manipulate the new physical-digital space. This course explores the ways in which home entertainment systems benefit from such technological advances, in the quest to design highly-interactive smart home entertainment spaces. Attendees will be introduced to the fundamental principles of smart spaces and ambient intelligence, augmented reality, and gesture interface design by falling back on examples of designs and applications for home entertainment. Notions such as context awareness, mixed reality, and naturalness of gesture interaction will be clarified for participants in the context of home entertainment. Practical aspects of augmented reality and gesture sensing and recognition technology will be explained and accompanied by examples from research and industry. It is the my hope that this course will prove a valuable source of inspiration for practitioners interested in prototyping novel, highly-interactive smart spaces toward designing our future home entertainment experience.
User Interface Design In Agile Projects BIBAFull-Text 1007-1010
  Karri-Pekka Laakso; Tuomas Husu; Mikko Romppainen; Janina Fagerlund; Marju Kettunen; Toni Standell
In this enhanced version of our well-received tutorial in NordiCHI'14 we will teach the way we design UIs at Reaktor and share our lessons learned from more than 10 years of design in agile projects. No previous knowledge of UI design is required, but the participants should know at least the basics of agile development in order to follow the examples and discussion in the second part. The course has two parts: First we will teach how to create straightforward UI designs in a systematical fashion. This part focuses on demos and hands-on exercises with a minimal amount of theory, talk and slides. It is based on the GUIDe method and UI design courses that have been taught to hundreds of students at the University of Helsinki and developed further at Reaktor. In the second part we will present our current state of the art in combining design activities (conceptual design, UI design, graphics design, ...) with agile development. In the past 10 years, we have tried out many different approaches. We will show practical examples of real projects with their results and illustrate, what practices worked, what did not and why. This part is an interactive lesson -- the participants are most welcome to ask a lot of questions during the session. The instructors are all designers at Reaktor, a Finland-based software consultancy with offices in New York, Tokyo and Helsinki. Most of them have been teaching at University of Helsinki, Dept. of Computer Science. Today, they make sure that the software built at Reaktor solves meaningful and financially viable problems. In practice, they find out what parts of the users' work would benefit most of software support and draw straightforward UI solutions for them.
Designing for an Aging Population: Toward Universal Design BIBAFull-Text 1011-1012
  Kate Finn; Jeff Johnson
This course describes age-related factors that affect ability to use the Web, and presents Web design guidelines that reflect the capabilities, usage patterns, and preferences of older Web users. The course also explains the value of testing websites on older adults.
Practical UX Research Methodologies BIBAFull-Text 1013-1015
  Sarah E. Garcia; Laura Hammond
Half-Day course on the practical research methods used to understand the changing technology climate. Experts from UEGroup, a Silicon Valley research and design company, will lead an interactive discussion and give practical suggestions for developing methodologies including: Ethnography, Out of Box Experiences, and Usability Testing.
A Dummy's Guide to your Next EXPeriment: Experimental Design and Analysis Made Easy BIBAFull-Text 1016-1019
  Shengdong Zhao; Xiaojun Meng; Pin Sym Foong; Simon Perrault
Experiment design is a challenging task for novice and sometimes even more advanced HCI researchers. This course will introduce the field of experimental design and analysis to participants. Participants will be able to design an experiment, implement the experiment, gather data and analyze data during the course. By grounding the course in a real-life exemplar, participants will be able to have practical experience in running a controlled experiment in HCI. The course will be run by a group of HCI researchers and educators who come from a wide range of research traditions including psychology and computer science. They have worked and taught in both educational and industrial institutions.
Creative Worthwhile Interaction Design BIBAFull-Text 1020-1023
  Gilbert Cockton
Over the last two decades, creative and strategic design approaches have become increasingly prevalent in the development of interactive technologies, but tensions exist with longer established approaches such as human factors engineering and user-centered design. These tensions can be harnessed productively by giving equal status in principle to creative, business and engineering practices and developing approaches and resources that can balance and integrate a range of multidisciplinary design practices.
Presumptive Design: Design Thinking In Service of Research BIBAFull-Text 1024-1027
  Leo Frishberg; Charles Lambdin
Working in small groups, professionals from across the UX spectrum will learn Presumptive Design (PrD), a design-research technique for capturing the unmet and/or unspoken needs of stakeholders, while revealing and vetting the assumptions of the project team. This course covers the theoretical framework of PrD, provides attendees with hands-on experience applying the process to a design problem, introduces the PrD "Creation Session," has attendees engage external participants with the artifact in "Engagement Sessions" and introduces post-engagement analysis activities.
Research Methods for HCI: Understanding People Using Interactive Technologies BIBAFull-Text 1028-1031
  Duncan P. Brumby; Ann Blandford; Anna L. Cox; Sandy J. J. Gould; Paul Marshall
This course will provide an introduction to methods used in Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) research. An equal focus will be given to both the quantitative and qualitative research traditions used to understand people and interactional contexts. We shall discuss these major philosophical traditions along with their contemporary framings (e.g., in-the-wild research and Interaction Science). By the end of the course attendees will have a detailed understanding of how to select and apply methods to address a range of problems that are of concern to contemporary HCI researchers.

Panel Outlines

On the Future of Personal Assistants BIBAFull-Text 1032-1037
  Phil Cohen; Adam Cheyer; Eric Horvitz; Rana El Kaliouby; Steve Whittaker
The purpose of this panel is to explore issues that will arise in building future personal assistants (PAs), especially for family use. In this regard, we will consider implications of being an "assistant" and those of being "personal." The target timeframe is 3-10 years out, so that very near-term products will not be discussed. We will elaborate briefly on the kinds of communicative and inferential capabilities such PAs will need, and then examine their social and emotional capabilities. We will discuss pros and cons for their evolution and deployment. In this regard, we will discuss the kinds of support that could be provided by the HCI community in building personal assistant systems that are useful, delightful, functional, controllable, educational, ethical, and secure.
The Future of Robotic Telepresence: Visions, Opportunities and Challenges BIBAFull-Text 1038-1042
  Susan C. Herring; Susan R. Fussell; Annica Kristoffersson; Bilge Mutlu; Carman Neustaedter; Katherine Tsui
This panel will bring together experts on robotic telepresence from HCI and related fields. Panelists will engage the audience in a discussion of visions, opportunities and challenges for the future of telepresence robots.
Design Leadership for Business Innovation BIBAFull-Text 1043-1046
  Janaki Kumar; Irene Au; Margaret Stewart; Todd Lefelt; Katie Dill
The Design Management Institute released a report that shows clear positive correlation between design driven organizations and share holder-value. It shows that design-centric organizations have outperformed the S&P by 219% over the past 10 years. The report further notes that such companies go beyond using design as a service and see it as a catalyst for organizational changes and for driving business strategy and innovation. This shift in perspective is placing experience design center stage in the organizational transformation, and placing new demands on design teams and their leaders. This panel will focus on the changing role and responsibilities of design leaders. What are the new skills needed for success? How do leaders attract and nurture a high performance team? How do we articulate the value of design to the larger organization to maximize their impact? We will discuss these questions and more and share best practices, tips and tricks for success.
Science and Service, Innovation and Inspiration: Celebrating the Life of John Karat BIBAFull-Text 1047-1050
  Susan M. Dray; Clare-Marie Karat; John (Jack) Carroll; Lorrie Cranor; Robin Jeffries; Zhengjie Liu; Arnold (Arnie) Lund; Ben Shneiderman; Gerrit van der Veer
This panel will highlight and celebrate the life and work of John Karat, who passed away from pancreatic cancer last year. We will discuss his many contributions to the SIGCHI community, as well as the wider international community of people doing work in this area, focusing on both his scientific achievements and service contributions.
Boundary Troubles: Here, There, Design, Make, Research BIBAFull-Text 1051-1056
  Jeffrey Bardzell; Shaowen Bardzell; Lilly Irani; Silvia Lindtner; Kaiton Williams; John Zimmerman
We stage a dialogue between two areas of growing interest in HCI: making cultures and research through design. Both have only recently gained momentum, and so each of their proponents are demarcating -- often too sharply -- who and what is to be included in their programs to legitimate their work as a concern of and contribution to HCI. Drawing from diverse engagements with making and research through design, the panelists and discussant will explore positions concerning the relationship between research, design, and making. An underlying goal of the panel is to revisit the inclusionary and exclusionary impulses central to the necessary activities of research agenda formation, theory and methodology construction, and legitimation for both making and research through design.
Algorithmic Authority: the Ethics, Politics, and Economics of Algorithms that Interpret, Decide, and Manage BIBAFull-Text 1057-1062
  Caitlin Lustig; Katie Pine; Bonnie Nardi; Lilly Irani; Min Kyung Lee; Dawn Nafus; Christian Sandvig
This panel will explore algorithmic authority as it manifests and plays out across multiple domains. Algorithmic authority refers to the power of algorithms to manage human action and influence what information is accessible to users. Algorithms increasingly have the ability to affect everyday life, work practices, and economic systems through automated decision-making and interpretation of "big data". Cases of algorithmic authority include algorithmically curating news and social media feeds, evaluating job performance, matching dates, and hiring and firing employees. This panel will bring together researchers of quantified self, healthcare, digital labor, social media, and the sharing economy to deepen the emerging discourses on the ethics, politics, and economics of algorithmic authority in multiple domains.
Beyond The Pipeline: Addressing Diversity In High Tech BIBAFull-Text 1063-1068
  Karen Holtzblatt; Aruna Balakrishnan; Troy Effner; Emily Rhodes; Tina Tuan
An ongoing stream of news reports heralds the dearth of women and minorities in technology; these stories are supported by numerous studies from industry and government sources. Now companies are investing resources to "fill the pipeline." While this is needed, it alone won't solve the diversity or gender challenge. Once they're in the workplace, research shows that women leave tech careers at a much higher rate than their male counterparts. While there are many reasons for this phenomenon, research indicates that daily workplace factors, along with the realities of what women want for their lives, contribute most significantly to women leaving tech careers. HCI is also affected by this phenomenon and the CHI community has been tackling the issue in several different ways. A panel of HCI professionals from different backgrounds will share personal insights, react to the research on challenges, suggest solutions, and solicit perspectives from the audience.

SIG Meetings

Multiple Views on Safety-Critical Automation: Aircrafts, Autonomous Vehicles, Air Traffic Management and Satellite Ground Segments Perspectives BIBAFull-Text 1069-1072
  Michael Feary; Célia Martinie; Philippe Palanque; Manfred Tscheligi
This SIG focuses on the engineering of automation in interactive critical systems. Automation has already been studied in a number of (sub-) disciplines and application fields: design, human factors, psychology, (software) engineering, aviation, health care, games. One distinguishing feature of the area we are focusing on is that in the field of interactive critical systems properties such as reliability, dependability, fault-tolerance are as important as usability, user experience or overall acceptance issues. The SIG targets at two problem areas: first the engineering of the user interaction with (partly-) autonomous systems: how to design, build and assess autonomous behavior, especially in cases where there is a need to represent on the user interface both autonomous and interactive objects. An example of such integration is the representation of an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) (where no direct interaction is possible), together with aircrafts (that have to be instructed by an air traffic controller to avoid the UAV). Second the design and engineering of user interaction in general for autonomous objects/systems (for example a cruise control in a car or an autopilot in an aircraft).
Refugees and HCI SIG: The Role of HCI in Responding to the Refugee Crisis BIBAFull-Text 1073-1076
  Reem Talhouk; Syed Ishtiaque Ahmed; Volker Wulf; Clara Crivellaro; Vasilis Vlachokyriakos; Patrick Olivier
The recent refugee crisis has escalated and expanded in to a global challenge. In their flight from hostility, refugee populations face challenges in accessing services that are often compounded by political and social tensions. The urgency and complexity of the situation calls for HCI researchers to contribute to the management of this crisis. This SIG aims to bring to the surface the challenges faced by refugees and elicit the experiences of the authors. It also calls for forming a collaborative network of researchers that have an interest in innovatively addressing issues surrounding refugee populations.
Diversity In High Tech: Retaining Employees Once They're In the Door BIBAFull-Text 1077-1080
  Carol Farnsworth; Karen Holtzblatt
High tech continues to be a sector where job opportunities exist, and where positions go unfilled. At the same time, women and other populations continue to be underrepresented as high tech workers as compared to their numbers in the overall workforce. Many companies recognize they must diversify their workforce and have taken significant steps to recruit underrepresented populations. However, once inside the organization these groups continue to face challenges not encountered by White or Asian male counterparts. Now companies must understand and address the experiences of daily life for underrepresented groups so they stay, advance, and thrive. This SIG creates a forum for participants to discuss diversity issues, share experiences, and identify potential solutions. To frame the dialog, the SIG organizers will also share their findings from their initial field research and survey into this area. Participants will share their experience, interact with the data, and generate possible solutions.
Special Interest Group on Transparent Statistics in HCI BIBAFull-Text 1081-1084
  Matthew Kay; Steve Haroz; Shion Guha; Pierre Dragicevic
Transparent statistics is a philosophy of statistical reporting whose purpose is scientific advancement rather than persuasion. We propose a SIG to discuss problems and limitations in statistical practices in HCI and options for moving the field towards clearer and more reliable ways of writing about experiments.
Technology for Disabled and Older People: What Have We Achieved, Where are We Going? BIBAFull-Text 1085-1087
  Helen Petrie; Gerhard Weber
Research on technology for disabled and older people has expanded considerably in the past 25 years. This meeting will critically review that research and the role human computer interaction has played in it. It will then consider how human computer interaction research can positively contribute to the further development of the area and what directions research can most usefully follow.
SIGCHI Games: The Scope of Games and Play Research at CHI BIBAFull-Text 1088-1091
  Lennart E. Nacke; Anna Cox; Regan L. Mandryk; Paul Cairns
The games research community at CHI has become an ever-growing significant part of the conference, demonstrated by the SIGCHI-sponsored CHI PLAY conference and the inclusion of a games subcommittee at CHI 2016. Given the increase in quantity and variety of submissions, and the involvement and engagement of practitioners within the community, it is important for the community to have this SIG as a forum. We plan to give a brief overview of the history of game research at CHI as well as its current state. Then, we want to engage the community in a discussion about the scope that games research at CHI should have and where we want to take this community from here. We want to vibrantly explore new outlets for academic dissemination, community outreach, and collaborations with practitioners.
Mind the Gap: A SIG on Bridging the Gap in Research on Body Sensing, Body Perception and Multisensory Feedback BIBAFull-Text 1092-1095
  Aneesha Singh; Ana Tajadura-Jimez; Nadia Bianchi-Berthouze; Nic Marquardt; Monica Tentori; Roberto Bresin; Dana Kulic
People's perceptions of their own body's appearance, capabilities and position are constantly updated through sensory cues [10,14] that are naturally produced by their actions. Increasingly cheap and ubiquitous sensing technology is being used with multisensory feedback in multiple HCI areas of sports, health, rehabilitation, psychology, neuroscience, arts and games to alter or enhance sensory cues to achieve many ends such as enhanced body perception and body awareness. However, the focus and aims differ between areas. Designing more effective and efficient multisensory feedback requires an attempt to bridge the gap between these worlds. This interactive SIG with minute madness technology presentations, expert sessions, and multidisciplinary discussions will: (i) bring together HCI researchers from different areas, (ii) discuss tools, methods and frameworks, and (iii) form a multidisciplinary community to build synergies for further collaboration.
Digital Civics: Citizen Empowerment With and Through Technology BIBAFull-Text 1096-1099
  Vasillis Vlachokyriakos; Clara Crivellaro; Christopher A. Le Dantec; Eric Gordon; Pete Wright; Patrick Olivier
The current economic crisis has thrown the relationship between citizens, communities and the state into sharp relief. Digital Civics is an emerging cross-disciplinary area of research that seeking to understand the role that digital technologies can play in supporting relational models of service provision, organization and citizen empowerment. In particular, how digital technologies can scaffold a move from transactional to relational service models, and the potential of such models to reconfigure power relations between citizens, communities and the state. Through examples of Digital Civics systems. that question conventional models of service provision, this SIG aims to bring together researchers and practitioners to critically discuss and explore the theoretical underpinnings, development and deployment of digital tools, platforms and processes within a Digital Civics research agenda.
SIG on the State of Accessibility at CHI BIBAFull-Text 1100-1103
  Jennifer Rode; Erin Brady; Erin Buehler; Shaun K. Kane; Richard Ladner; Kathryn E. Ringland; Jennifer Mankoff
In this document, we as representatives of the SIGCHI Accessibility Community lay out a request and plan for a SIG Meeting at CHI, in conjunction with AccessComputing, addressing the accessibility of participation in the CHI conference. We describe our organizations, our expected attendees, our approach and schedule of topics for the conducting the SIG, and our recruitment plan. The primary goal of this meeting is to provide a forum for discussing needs of CHI participants with disabilities, and to discuss unmet needs that act as barriers for conference attendance.
Usability of Programming Languages: Special Interest Group (SIG) Meeting at CHI 2016 BIBAFull-Text 1104-1107
  Brad A. Myers; Andreas Stefik; Stefan Hanenberg; Antti-Juhani Kaijanaho; Margaret Burnett; Franklyn Turbak; Philip Wadler
Programming languages form the interface between programmers (the users) and the computation that they desire the computer to execute. Although studies exist for some aspects of programming language design (such as conditionals), other aspects have received little or no human factors evaluations. Designers thus have little they can rely on if they want to make new languages highly usable, and users cannot easily chose a language based on usability criteria. This SIG will bring together researchers and practitioners interested in increasing the depth and breadth of studies on the usability of programming languages, and ultimately in improving the usability of future languages.
Leading Design Teams and Organizations BIBAFull-Text 1108-1110
  Carola Thompson; Janice Rohn
This SIG will serve multiple purposes: as a forum to share the results from previous CHI leadership and management panels, workshops and current trends, and also as a forum for the management community to discuss topics of interest.
The Master's Degree in HCI at 20: Issues and Trends BIBAFull-Text 1111-1114
  Richard L. Henneman; Laura Ballay; Linda Wagner
Over the past 20 years, professional HCI programs at the Master's level have emerged and evolved at a number of universities, providing academic training to future HCI practitioners. Demand for these programs by students and demand for graduates by industry has increased considerably. In this SIG, representatives from such programs, current students, alumni, and representatives from hiring companies will discuss emerging trends, tools and technologies that will influence the future structure of these programs. Industry attendees will identify how current programs meet their needs and identify where gaps exist. Attendees will also consider ways to build a community of support for those involved in delivering HCI education at the Master's level.
Design Thinking Beyond Post-Its Notes BIBAFull-Text 1115-1118
  Carol Farnsworth; Sally Lawler Kennedy; Janaki Kumar
Experienced practitioners of design thinking know there is more to design thinking than post-it notes covering the walls. It spans the gambit of activities including: Preparing for a successful workshop, Conducting a successful workshop, Collecting and documenting artifacts post workshop, Preparing for the next phase of the project In each stage, design thinking practitioners face interesting challenges and hurdles to overcome. In addition, teams successfully using the method often find that scalability is an issue. The purpose of the SIG is to collect such challenges faced by experienced design thinking practitioners and brainstorm potential solutions.
Jogging at CHI BIBAFull-Text 1119-1122
  Florian "Floyd" Mueller; Joe Marshall; Rohit Ashok Khot; Stina Nylander; Jakob Tholander
HCI is increasingly paying attention to sports, and more and more CHI attendees are aiming to maintain being physically active while attending CHI. In response, we offer a SIG on the topic of sports-HCI and conduct it in a sportive way: we will go out of the conference venue and jog around San Jose while discussing the role of HCI in relation to sports. The goal is to actively shape the future of the field of sports-HCI.
Child-Computer Interaction SIG: New Challenges and Opportunities BIBAFull-Text 1123-1126
  Juan Pablo Hourcade; Glenda Revelle; Anja Zeising; Ole Sejer Iversen; Narcis Pares; Tilde Bekker; Janet C. Read
This SIG will provide child-computer interaction researchers and practitioners an opportunity to discuss four topics that represent new challenges and opportunities for the community. The four areas are: interactive technologies for children under the age of five, technology for inclusion, privacy and information security in the age of the quantified self, and the maker movement.
Conflict & HCI: Preventing, De-Escalating and Recovering BIBAFull-Text 1127-1130
  Juan Pablo Hourcade; Lisa Nathan; Panayiotis Zaphiris; Yoram Chisik; Cuauhtémoc Rivera-Loaiza; Jason C. Yip
The fragmentation of the state and civil war in parts of Africa and the Middle East, the rise of xenophobic nationalistic fervor in some Western countries, and military intervention to change international borders have brought to the forefront the challenge and consequences of armed conflict. The ubiquity of interactive technologies, and their influence on how we communicate, get informed, and make decisions, give the HCI community an opportunity to play a positive role to address this challenge. This SIG is an opportunity for the HCI community to discuss its role.
Rethinking Mobile Interfaces for Older Adults BIBAFull-Text 1131-1134
  Neil Charness; Mark Dunlop; Cosmin Munteanu; Emma Nicol; Antti Oulasvirta; Xiangshi Ren; Sayan Sarcar; Chaklam Silpasuwanchai
This SIG advances the study of mobile user interfaces for the aging population. The topic is timely, as the mobile device has become the most widely used computer terminal and at the same time the number of older people will soon exceed the number of children worldwide. However, most HCI research addresses younger adults and has had little impact on older adults. Some design trends, like the mantra "smaller is smarter", contradict the needs of older users. Developments like this may diminish their ability to access information and participate in society. This can lead to further isolation (social and physical) of older adults and increased widening of the digital divide. This SIG aims to discuss mobile interfaces for older adults. The SIG has three goals: (i) to map the state-of-art, (ii) to build a community gathering experts from related areas, and (iii) to raise awareness within the SIGCHI community. The SIG will be open to all at CHI.

Late-Breaking Works: Collaborative Technologies

GazeTorch: Enabling Gaze Awareness in Collaborative Physical Tasks BIBAFull-Text 1151-1158
  Deepak Akkil; Jobin Mathew James; Poika Isokoski; Jari Kangas
We present GazeTorch, a novel interface that provides gaze awareness during remote collaboration on physical tasks. GazeTorch uses a spotlight to display gaze information of the remote helper on the physical task space of the worker. We conducted a preliminary user study to evaluate user's subjective opinion on the quality of collaboration, using GazeTorch and a camera-only setup. Our preliminary results suggest that the participants felt GazeTorch made collaboration easier, made referencing and identifying of objects effortless, and improved the worker's confidence that the task was completed accurately. We conclude by presenting some novel application scenarios for the concept of augmenting real-time gaze information in the physical world.
Electronic Posters to Support Formative Assessment BIBAFull-Text 1159-1164
  Salman Cheema; Kurt VanLehn; Hugh Burkhardt; Daniel Pead; Alan Schoenfeld
Formative Assessment is difficult to apply in real-world classrooms due to the requirement for extensive interaction between students and teachers. We have constructed a distributed system called FACT for in-class use that facilitates the use of popular Classroom Challenges (CCs) developed by the Mathematics Assessment Project. FACT lets students work on Android tablets equipped with styli, and enables a teacher to manage the class and to orchestrate the activities required by the CCs. In this work, we discuss the design of our system and our rationale for choosing its interaction metaphors.
LockDoll: Providing Ambient Feedback of Smartphone Usage within Social Interaction BIBAFull-Text 1165-1172
  Seungwoo Choi; Hayeon Jeong; Minsam Ko; Uichin Lee
In group activities, members often could hurt others' feelings by using smartphones more than expected due to the lack of awareness on smartphone usage. Other members can remind them of their usage by asking not to use their smartphones, but our survey results show that explicit asking could bring about negative experiences in a group. To overcome this, we designed LockDoll, a tangible artifact that provides ambient feedback of smartphone usage to help members manage their usage. By following an ambient design pattern of symbolic sculptural display, we expect LockDoll to softly and yet, effectively intervene with smartphone usage in the group context. In this paper, we present the preliminary working prototype and discuss further design issues through a pilot study.
Improving Plagiarism Detection in Coding Assignments by Dynamic Removal of Common Ground BIBAFull-Text 1173-1179
  Christian Domin; Henning Pohl; Markus Krause
Plagiarism in online learning environments has a detrimental effect on the trust of online courses and their viability. Automatic plagiarism detection systems do exist yet the specific situation in online courses restricts their use. To allow for easy automated grading, online assignments usually are less open and instead require students to fill in small gaps. Therefore solutions tend to be very similar, yet are then not necessarily plagiarized. In this paper we propose a new approach to detect code re-use that increases the prediction accuracy by dynamically removing parts in assignments which are part of almost every assignment -- the so called common ground. Our approach shows significantly better F-measure and Cohen's Kappa results than other state of the art algorithms such as Moss or JPlag. The proposed method is also language agnostic to the point that training and test data sets can be taken from different programming languages.
"That Neighborhood is Sketchy!": Examining Online Conversations about Social Disorder in Transitioning Neighborhoods BIBAFull-Text 1180-1186
  Sheena Erete; Love Nicole; Jesse Mumm; Anfal Boussayoud; Ihudiya Finda Ogbonnaya-Ogburu
In this paper, we examine online conversations about a Chicago neighborhood that is currently transitioning from a lower to a higher socioeconomic population (otherwise known as "gentrifying"). Based on patterns identified in the online conversations, we present our findings related to social disorder as it was one of the most prevalent topics. Our results suggest that comments about social disorder were mostly based on perception of safety rather than personal experience or real data, where online respondents who had negative comments shared mostly anecdotal information, while positive comments were heavily legitimized and supported with more persuasive arguments.
Feelbook: A Social Media App for Teens Designed to Foster Positive Online Behavior and Prevent Cyberbullying BIBAFull-Text 1187-1192
  Mingyue Fan; Liyue Yu; Leanne Bowler
This project presents a prototype for a stand-alone social media application designed for teenage users in order to prevent and mitigate mean and cruel online behavior. The purpose of the app is to create a nurturing environment where teenagers use a variety of features designed to help raise self-awareness of their own online behavior, seek support when needed, and learn to control and, when possible, correct aggressive behavior. The prototype is framed by four design principles: design for reflection, design for empathy, design for empowerment, and design for the whole. We conclude by outlining the next steps in our project to develop an application that helps to improve the online experiences of young people. This work has implications for the CHI community because it applies software solutions to tackle a critical social problem that can affect the health and well being of young people.
Task-Based Focus and AdHoc-Focus-Territory: Novel Concepts for Shared Interactive Surfaces BIBAFull-Text 1193-1200
  Mirko Fetter; David Bimamisa; Tom Gross
Shared Interactive Surfaces allow co-located users to collaboratively work on a task. As current technology often is not able to distinguish between different users, there is a potential for concurrent conflicting actions of multiple users, leading to unwanted results and accordingly frustration. With our concepts for Task-Based Focus and AdHoc-Focus-Territory we provide light-weight solutions Integrated in our toolkit TUIOFX -- for designers of multi-user, multi-touch applications. Our solution helps to overcome some of the problems of anonymous touch input, without an immediate need for more heavy-weight mechanisms like user identification.
StreamBED: Training Citizen Scientists to Make Qualitative Judgments Using Embodied Virtual Reality Training BIBAFull-Text 1201-1207
  Alina Striner; Jenny Preece
Environmental citizen science frequently relies on experience-based assessment, however volunteers are not trained to make qualitative judgments. Embodied learning in virtual reality (VR) has been explored as a way to train behavior, but has not fully been considered as a way to train judgment. This preliminary research explores embodied learning in VR through the design, evaluation, and redesign of StreamBED, a water quality monitoring training environment that teaches volunteers to make qualitative assessments by exploring, assessing and comparing virtual watersheds.
User Reviews and Language: How Language Influences Ratings BIBAFull-Text 1208-1214
  Scott A. Hale
The number of user reviews of tourist attractions, restaurants, mobile apps, etc. is increasing for all languages; yet, research is lacking on how reviews in multiple languages should be aggregated and displayed. Speakers of different languages may have consistently different experiences, e.g., different information available in different languages at tourist attractions or different user experiences with software due to internationalization/localization choices. This paper assesses the similarity in the ratings given by speakers of different languages to London tourist attractions on TripAdvisor. The correlations between different languages are generally high, but some language pairs are more correlated than others. The results question the common practice of computing average ratings from reviews in many languages.
Understanding Roles of Social Media in Academic Engagement and Satisfaction for Graduate Students BIBAFull-Text 1215-1221
  Kyungsik Han; Svitlana Volkova; Courtney D. Corley
Research indicates positive effects of social media on academia and education. However its main populations have been faculty, teachers, high school or college students, and its primary context has been a course or classroom. We realized that there exists a lack of studies on how Ph.D. (broadly graduate) students use social media for academic purposes and how its use is associated with academic motivation, engagement, and satisfaction, which are salient factors for the success of their graduate degrees and life. Based on the survey responses from 91 current Ph.D. students, our study results highlight that (1) students mainly use social media for broadcasting and keeping up with up-to-date academic and research information; yet, making connections and developing professional networks is one of the primary reasons, and (2) social media use is positively associated with their academic engagement and satisfaction. We discuss implications and future work of our study.
PerSoN-Vis: Visualizing Personal Social Networks (Ego Networks) BIBAFull-Text 1222-1228
  Hafez Ezaiza; Shah Rukh Humayoun; Ragaad AlTarawneh; Achim Ebert
Recently, we witness a high usage of social media platforms for different purposes, from contacting with friends and colleagues to raising voice for different causes. Many times, on such social media platforms people are also interested to see and analyze the connections not only with their connected people but also the connections between these connected people (called the ego network of a user). Hereby they want to find out different behavioral patterns and interesting findings. In this work, we introduce our developed visualization tool, called PerSoN-Vis (Personal Social Network Visualizer). It visualizes intuitively people ego-networks and enables them to explore interactively their social contacts and the relations between these contacts. Further, it allows them to filter the resulting visualization based on several collected features. A preliminary evaluation study shows that participants performed much better in our PerSoN-Vis tool compared to Socialab social-network visualization tool.
SlideQA: Supporting Effective Q&A in an Offline Academic Presentation BIBAFull-Text 1229-1235
  Juyoun Kim; Yoochan Kim; Sangkeun Park; Uichin Lee
We aim to design a tool that can facilitate Q&A activities in offline academic presentations. We first identify several problems associated with current offline Q&A practices. We then address these problems with SlideQA that supports real-time textual Q&A and slide reviewing online. Our preliminary evaluation results show that SlideQA greatly helped users to understand the presentation content and effectively increased the participation of Q&A activities.
HandVis: Visualized Gesture Support for Remote Cross-Lingual Communication BIBAFull-Text 1236-1242
  Kuan-Yu Lin; Seraphina Yong; Shuo-Ping Wang; Chien-Tung Lai; Hao-Chuan Wang
Effective communication between those who are not fluent in a non-native language can potentially be quite difficult. The common language selected to be used throughout an exchange can encumber those who might not speak it as proficiently as others. Remote communication further heightens the difficulty since less channels are available for communication. We introduce HandVis, a video conferencing interface that visualizes elements of hand gesture, such as trajectory and amount. Gesture is intended to be a communicative tool that can compensate for language deficits. The results of a user study indicate how HandVis can be utilized constructively by less-proficient speakers during cross-lingual communication.
Team Dating: A Self-Organized Team Formation Strategy for Collaborative Crowdsourcing BIBAFull-Text 1243-1249
  Ioanna Lykourentzou; Shannon Wang; Robert E. Kraut; Steven P. Dow
Online crowds have the potential to do more complex work in teams, rather than as individuals. However, at such a large scale, team formation can be difficult to coordinate. (How) can we rely on the crowd itself to organize into effective teams? Our research explores a strategy for "team dating", a self-organized crowd team formation approach where workers try out and rate different candidate partners. In two online experiments, we find that team dating affects the way that people select partners and how they evaluate them. We use these results to draw useful conclusions for the future of team dating and its implications for collaborative crowdsourcing.
Exploring the Potential of Children in Crowdsourcing BIBAFull-Text 1250-1256
  Stefan Manojlovic; Katerina Gavrilo; Jan de Wit; Vassilis-Javed Khan; Panos Markopoulos
Recently, companies and academia have turned to crowdsourcing to stimulate creativity and innovation. Although children's creative nature has been well documented in the design process in co-creation for new products and/or services, this has not yet extended to crowdsourcing. With this paper, we investigate -- through crowdsourcing -- the gap between children and crowdsourcing. To gather a diverse sample of participants we used CrowdFlower, a crowdsourcing platform, to generate, evaluate and rank ideas and concepts. Results show that 93% of parents and 80% of non-parents would involve children in crowdsourcing. The most valued concept of the crowd was the collaboration between parents and children, who are innovating for companies. This concept involves publishing companies requesting drawings from children for book illustrations.
Empathy Glasses BIBAFull-Text 1257-1263
  Katsutoshi Masai; Kai Kunze; Maki sugimoto; Mark Billinghurst
In this paper, we describe Empathy Glasses, a head worn prototype designed to create an empathic connection between remote collaborators. The main novelty of our system is that it is the first to combine the following technologies together: (1) wearable facial expression capture hardware, (2) eye tracking, (3) a head worn camera, and (4) a see-through head mounted display, with a focus on remote collaboration. Using the system, a local user can send their information and a view of their environment to a remote helper who can send back visual cues on the local user's see-through display to help them perform a real world task. A pilot user study was conducted to explore how effective the Empathy Glasses were at supporting remote collaboration. We describe the implications that can be drawn from this user study.
Exploring Editorial Content Optimization for Websites through a Statistical Ranking of Articles BIBAFull-Text 1264-1271
  Dan Sarkar; Brynne McGarry
This study describes an online content optimization ranking system for editorial teams. Research on online content optimization has either focused on developing serving schemes for large online news and aggregation websites or complex algorithms for user generated content-based websites. An unexplored area in this domain was the development of a content optimization technique for smaller, editorially-focused sites that creates a long-term brand value that inspires visitors to engage with websites. The results of a study on 276 online articles and associated web metrics show that images within an article, the number of times visitors viewed an article and if they reached the article through a search engine were significant positive predictors of the time they spent with articles. However, the percentage of single-page visits to an article and the number of times visitors clicked a link outside of an article were significant negative predictors for the time they spent with articles. These factors were utilized to develop a statistical rank for content optimization, which shows some initial promising results.
Among the Machines: Human-Bot Interaction on Social Q&A Websites BIBAFull-Text 1272-1279
  Alessandro Murgia; Daan Janssens; Serge Demeyer; Bogdan Vasilescu
With the rise of social media and advancements in AI technology, human-bot interaction will soon be commonplace. In this paper we explore human-bot interaction in STACK OVERFLOW, a question and answer website for developers. For this purpose, we built a bot emulating an ordinary user answering questions concerning the resolution of git error messages. In a first run this bot impersonated a human, while in a second run the same bot revealed its machine identity. Despite being functionally identical, the two bot variants elicited quite different reactions.
Understanding Participatory Hashtag Practices on Instagram: A Case Study of Weekend Hashtag Project BIBAFull-Text 1280-1287
  Changhoon Oh; Taeyoung Lee; Yoojung Kim; SoHyun Park; Bongwon Suh
Instagram, a popular global mobile photo-sharing platform, involves various user interactions centered on posting images accompanied by hashtags. Participatory hashtagging, one of these diverse tagging practices, has great potential to be a communication channel for various organizations and corporations that would like to interact with users on social media. In this paper, we aim to characterize participatory hashtagging behaviors on Instagram by conducting a case study of its representative hashtagging practice, the Weekend Hashtag Project, or #WHP. By conducting a user study using both quantitative and qualitative methods, we analyzed the way Instagram users respond to participation calls and identified factors that motivate users to take part in the project. Based on these findings, we provide design strategies for any interested parties to interact with users on social media.
First-time Security Audits as a Turning Point?: Challenges for Security Practices in an Industry Software Development Team BIBAFull-Text 1288-1294
  Andreas Poller; Laura Kocksch; Katharina Kinder-Kurlanda; Felix Anand Epp
Software development is often accompanied by security audits such as penetration tests, usually performed on behalf of the software vendor. In penetration tests security experts identify entry points for attacks in a software product. Many development teams undergo such audits for the first time if their product is attacked or faces new security concerns. The audits often serve as an eye-opener for development teams: they realize that security requires much more attention. However, there is a lack of clarity with regard to what lasting benefits developers can reap from penetration tests. We report from a one-year study of a penetration test run at a major software vendor, and describe how a software development team managed to incorporate the test findings. Results suggest that penetration tests improve developers' security awareness, but that long-lasting enhancements of development practices are hampered by a lack of dedicated security stakeholders and if security is not properly reflected in the communicative and collaborative structures of the organization.
Exploring the Use of Visual Annotations in a Remote Assistance Platform BIBAFull-Text 1295-1300
  Mark Rice; Shue Ching Chia; Hong Huei Tay; Marcus Wan; Liyuan Li; Jamie Ng; Joo Hwee Lim
In this paper, we report on the evaluation of a remote assistance platform (RAP) that is designed to enable an expert to remotely assist a field operator. A user study with 16 participants was conducted to evaluate its usability with two assembly tasks that varied in their complexity. As part of the assessment, we compared the interaction behavior of our platform with a commercial instant messaging application, which lacked the ability to augment or view video imagery. The results identified differences in the completion times between the two conditions, as we examined the use of visual augmentation, including recommendations to improve the platform.
You Can't Always Get What You Want: Challenges in P2P Resource Sharing BIBAFull-Text 1301-1307
  Ross McLachlan; Claire Opila; Neha Shah; Emily Sun; Mor Naaman
Peer to peer sharing of physical goods in local communities seems like a promising concept, but platforms that offer these services have not yet reached critical mass. Based on a preliminary analysis of 15 interviews with residents of NYC about sharing in the local community, our results suggest that there is a disconnect between the kind of items that people would like to borrow and those that people would be willing to share. While people are most interested in expensive, infrequently used items, they indicated concern over liability for damages and trust of strangers. We discuss the trade-offs of introducing insurance through the platforms themselves and suggest potential alternate ways of facilitating exchanges of these items.
The use of Digital Technology to Evaluate School Pupils' Grasp of Energy Sustainability BIBAFull-Text 1308-1314
  Christopher Weeks; Charles Delalonde; Chris Preist
This paper discusses the implementation of a smartphone application designed to help develop school pupils' knowledge in relation to a number of energy sustainability questions. This was then used as a method for collecting both quantitative and qualitative data from teachers to help us better understand the school pupils' levels of knowledge, engagement and awareness of energy sustainability. The paper then takes a critical review of the application and shows that it succeeded in spreading the expert knowledge of EDF Energy's staff members, but failed to generate new habitual sustainable behaviours in the school pupils.
An Analysis of Cognitive Learning Context in MOOC Forum Messages BIBAFull-Text 1315-1321
  Jian-Syuan Wong; Bart Pursel; Anna Divinsky; Bernard J. Jansen
In this research, we analyze a large number of discussions of forum messages from three MOOC courses using a keyword taxonomy approach to identify learning processes occurring among the students. We conduct analysis on more than 100,000 forum messages from 14,647 forum threads from three MOOCs, with a combined 200,000+ enrollment. We map messages to six levels of Bloom's Taxonomy for cognitive learning. The results of this research indicate that learning processes of particular cognitive learning levels could be observed within discussions on MOOC forums. Results imply that different types of forum communications have features associated to particular learning levels, and the volume of higher levels of cognitive learning domains increase as the course progresses.
Practical Study of Positive-feedback Button for Brainstorming with Interjection Sound Effects BIBAFull-Text 1322-1328
  Natsuko Yoshida; Shogo Fukushima; Daiya Aida; Takeshi Naemura
There are three key factors that can reduce the productivity of brainstorming. In this study, we focus on evaluation apprehension, whereby the fear of negative evaluations from other members prevents subjects from generating and presenting their ideas. To mitigate evaluation apprehension problem, we propose a novel approach that reduces the effort required to give positive feedback. We introduce a physical analogue to Facebook's "Like" button, enabling people to give positive feedback expressly and casually with a physical button in face-to-face brainstorming. We examined how this system can be used "in the wild."
Designing a Trip Planner Application for Groups: Exploring Group Tourists? Trip Planning Requirements BIBAFull-Text 1329-1336
  Lanyun Zhang; Xu Sun
Due to the consistent growing number of tourists around the world and the increasing use of online services to plan trips, this paper investigates the group tourists' trip planning requirements and how technology might support this group planning process. We investigated 12 groups' real trip planning behaviour and requirements through a diary study and a follow-up interview. The experiment was designed and analysed based on Activity Theory, a theoretical construct commonly applied in human computer interaction (HCI) and computer supported cooperative work (CSCW). From our preliminary findings, we report group's trip planning requirements in three aspects: division of labour & information search, intra-group communication, and culture difference (i.e., Chinese users' characteristics). To facilitate group tourists' planning experience, this paper concludes HCI design implications from three perspectives: tourism information presentation, facilitating intra-group communication, and requirements from Chinese users.
Online Dating Coaches' User Evaluation Strategies BIBAFull-Text 1337-1343
  Douglas Zytko; Sukeshini A. Grandhi; Quentin Jones
Users of online dating systems want to evaluate each other to predict who they will be attracted to in-person. Prior research into evaluation of online dating profiles has shown how users struggle to evaluate physical attractiveness and demographic traits because of deception. Yet we have little knowledge about successful user evaluation strategies, or evaluation of other traits known to influence attraction like personality. We addressed these gaps in knowledge through an interview study of professional online dating coaches (n=27) to extract their self-proclaimed successful user evaluation strategies for 3 categories of traits derived from attraction literature: physical appearance, demographics & values, and personality. We then interpreted these strategies through the lens of theories germane to attraction -- Nisbett and Wilson's theory of introspection, Asch's theory of person perception, and Signaling theory.

Late-Breaking Works: Designing Interactive Systems

Investigating the Impact of Feedback on Gaming Performance on Motivation to Interact with Public Displays BIBAFull-Text 1344-1351
  Jiamin Shi; Daniel Buschek; Florian Alt
This paper investigates the influence of feedback about users' performance on their motivation as they interact with games on displays in public space. Our research is motivated by the fact that games are popular among both researchers and practitioners, due to their ability to attract many users. However, it is widely unclear, which factors impact on how much people play and whether they leave personal information on the display. We investigate different forms of feedback (highscore, real-time score and real-time rank during gameplay) and report on how they influence the behavior of users. Our results are based on data from the deployment of an interactive game in a public space.
The Dial: Exploring Computational Strangeness BIBAFull-Text 1352-1358
  Kristina Andersen; Peter Knees
This paper describes the process of a computational idea emerging from a process of user engagement: algorithmic recommendations as artistic obstructions in creative work. Through a collaboration between HCI and Music Information Retrieval, we conducted open-ended interviews with professional makers of Electronic Dance Music. We describe how the idea emerged from this process, and consider how algorithmic recommendation systems could be re-considered as tools for artistic inspiration. We propose the concept of a "Strangeness Dial," which allows the gradual adjustment of the degree of desired otherness, which is tested through the use of a non-functional prop and a series of interviews.
Designing Children's Digital-Physical Play in Natural Outdoors Settings BIBAFull-Text 1359-1366
  Jon Back; Caspar Heeffer; Susan Paget; Andreas Rau; Eva-Lotta Sallnäs Pysander; Annika Waern
Children's outdoor play is fluent and fluctuating, shaped by environmental features and conditions. The article reports on a project where interaction designers and landscape architects work together to develop solutions for integrating interactive play in outdoor environments. Here we report on a schoolyard trial, where interactive play technology was installed as an integral part of the schoolyard environment, and discuss the interplay between technology and the environment. We highlight in particular how the interactive technology contributed to the versatility of play activities, but also how the nature setting and the availability of natural materials contributed to the play activities around the interactive artefacts.
Transcendhance: A Game to Facilitate Techno-Spiritual Design BIBAFull-Text 1367-1374
  Elizabeth Buie
This late-breaking work describes the design and application of a game to facilitate techno-spiritual design. In it I report the results of 24 interviews with people of diverse spiritual perspectives and three "Transcendhance" design game workshops involving 12 participants; I describe design fictions arising from these activities; and I discuss issues and challenges of designing a game to enable people to explore indescribable experiences and create design ideas in an atmosphere of fun and play. My work bridges the domains of user experience and spiritual experience, aiming to gain insight into design for enhancing experiences of something beyond oneself. Spiritual experiences are tricky to define, difficult to discuss, impossible to predict, and challenging to address in design, so I used a game to explore the design space.
Sharing a Robotic Pet as a Maintenance Strategy for Romantic Couples in Long-Distance Relationships.: An Autobiographical Design Exploration BIBAFull-Text 1375-1382
  Wei-Chi Chien; Marc Hassenzahl; Julika Welge
Furfur is a robotic pet, designed to create feelings of closeness and togetherness for couples in long-distance relationships. Over a period of 200 days, the first author developed different versions of Furfur and applied it to his own long-distance relationship in the sense of an autobiographical design exploration. The paper summarizes key findings and reflects upon the design process itself.
Beyond the Blandscape: Utilizing Aesthetics in Digital Cartography BIBAFull-Text 1383-1388
  Adrian Gradinar; Jonny Huck; Paul Coulton; Lara Salinas
Despite the rich design history within the field of cartography, the majority of digital maps exhibit a dominant aesthetic that is primarily designed to serve the usability and utility requirements of turn-by-turn urban navigation producing a so-called 'blandscape' of map design. In this research we consider not only how to produce more visually appealing digital maps, but also how the cartographic decisions made in the production of maps can influence behavior, particularly with regard to the encouragement of explorative experiences. Novel cartographic and technological solutions are therefore presented, which address exploration using digital maps in the context of location based gaming and tourism. These examples demonstrate the potential of digital cartography to influence behavior and the importance of aesthetics in the cartographic process.
Design Frictions for Mindful Interactions: The Case for Microboundaries BIBAFull-Text 1389-1397
  Anna L. Cox; Sandy J. J. Gould; Marta E. Cecchinato; Ioanna Iacovides; Ian Renfree
Design frictions, a term found in popular media articles about user experience design, refer to points of difficulty occurring during interaction with technology. Such articles often argue that these frictions should be removed from interaction flows in order to reduce the risk of user frustration and disengagement. In this paper we argue that, in many scenarios, designing friction into interactions through the introduction of microboundaries, can, in fact, have positive effects. Design frictions can disrupt "mindless" automatic interactions, prompting moments of reflection and more "mindful" interaction. The potential advantages of intentionally introduced frictions are numerous: from reducing the likelihood of errors in data-entry tasks, to supporting health-behaviour change.
Design Fiction Film-Making: A Pipeline for Communicating Experiences BIBAFull-Text 1398-1406
  Marco Gilardi; Patrick Holroyd; Carly Brownbridge; Phil L. Watten; Marianna Obrist
The use of films in early stages of the design of technology is a practice that is becoming increasingly common. However, the focus of these films is usually centered on exploring the technology and its specifications rather than on the experiences that the technology can potentially create for its user. Previous research emphasises the relevance of experiences created by the technology in the users arguing that the emotions should be taken into account during early design stages and made part of the design itself. In this paper we provide a step-by-step production pipeline on how to make your own design fiction film, and how you can get the experiences across. For this purpose we focus on the experiences and emotions that a specific interaction medium elicits. We gained inspiration from the increased exploration of olfactory experiences in HCI. We used a classification of smell experiences as a starting point to produce a design fiction film for the automotive context, not limited by technology but inspired by experiences.
CoPRA: a Design Exemplar for Habitable, Cyber-physical Environment BIBAFull-Text 1407-1414
  Yixiao Wang; Keith E. Green; Ian D. Walker
This paper introduces the concept of "Compressed-Pattern, Robotic Architecture" (CoPRA), a design exemplar for purposeful, inhabitable, intelligent physical environments, spatially reconfigured by means of robotics. CoPRA is inspired by Christopher Alexander's notion of a "Compressed-Pattern Architecture," in which a single living space is reorganized to become many different, functional rooms. In our exemplar, however, this reorganization is not performed by inhabitants manually, but instead by robotics actuated in response to human activity. CoPRA represents a productive conceptual model for a growing research community within CHI focused at the interface of architectural design and embedded systems.
Investigating User Needs for Bio-sensing and Affective Wearables BIBAFull-Text 1415-1422
  Mariam Hassib; Mohamed Khamis; Stefan Schneegass; Ali Sahami Shirazi; Florian Alt
Bio-sensing wearables are currently advancing to provide users with a lot of information about their physiological and affective states. However, relatively little is known about users' interest in acquiring, sharing and receiving this information and through which channels and modalities. To close this gap, we report on the results of an online survey (N=109) exploring principle aspects of the design space of wearables such as data types, contexts, feedback modalities and sharing behaviors. Results show that users are interested in obtaining physiological, emotional and cognitive data through modalities beyond traditional touchscreen output. Valence of the information, whether positive or negative affects the sharing behaviors.
Computational Layout Perception using Gestalt Laws BIBAFull-Text 1423-1429
  Janin Koch; Antti Oulasvirta
We present preliminary results on computational perception of interactive layouts. Our goal is to algorithmically estimate how users perceive a layout. Potential applications range from automated usability evaluation to computer-generated and adaptive interfaces. Layout perception is challenging, however, because of diverse features, combinatorial complexity, and absence of approaches. We have explored Gestalt laws as parsing heuristics. Our approach finds a parametrization that optimally resolves conflicts among competing interpretations of a layout. The output is a hierarchical grouping of main elements. The results are promising: an implementation of just four Gestalt laws enables hierarchical grouping that presents promising results in 90% of our (realistic) test cases.
Motion, Emotion, and Form: Exploring Affective Dimensions of Shape BIBAFull-Text 1430-1437
  Edward Melcer; Katherine Isbister
In this paper, we present a study examining how individuals embody emotion within form. Our findings provide a general taxonomy of affective dimensions of shape consistent with and extending previous literature. We also show that ordinary people can reasonably construct embodied shapes using affective dimensions, and illustrate that emotion is conveyed through both visual dimensions and tactile manipulations of shape. Participants used three distinct strategies for embodiment of emotion through shape: the look of a shape (visual representation), creation of a shape symbolizing the experience of an intended emotion (metaphor), and by evoking the intended emotion in the creator through affective movements and manipulations during construction (motion). This work ties together and extends understanding around emotion and form in HCI subdomains such as tangible embodied interaction, emotional assessment, and user experience evaluation.
"Hold My Hand, Baby": Understanding Engagement through the Illusion of Touch between Human and Agent BIBAFull-Text 1438-1444
  David Jan Mercado; Gilles Bailly; Catherine Pelachaud
This paper explores the quality of engagement between human and agent in large displays. We designed a musical application and introduced the illusion of touch as a novel interaction concept where the user and the agent interact through mediated virtual touch. We conducted a lab study to better understand the users' behaviors and engagement with our system. Our main findings from the design exploration are: 1) users are engaged in the interaction with an interactive agent even though the agent is not perceived as engaged by the user; 2) users are more involved in the experience when the agent is interactive; and 3) the agent's gaze is effective in grabbing the user's attention. These findings provide initial insights on designing for engagement in displays that make use of embodied agents and should be validated with a field study.
As Simple as Possible but No Simpler: Creating Flexibility in Personal Informatics BIBAFull-Text 1445-1452
  Dawn Nafus; Pete Denman; Lenitra Durham; Omar Florez; Lama Nachman; Saurav Sahay; Evan Savage; Sangita Sharma; Devon Strawn; Rita H. Wouhaybi
Personal informatics has become a widespread practice, yet even expert users still face challenges in synthesizing and making sense of data. We suggest that these challenges are related to the complexities introduced once personal context is taken seriously. Through ethnographic research in the Quantified Self community, and an iterative software design process for a project called Data Sense, we offer early indications of what those challenges are, and describe how we approached solving them. We found that users had an easier time of working with data when they could use their own files, when temporal recurrences were surfaced and reminded them of other patterns, and when they could "grab" data directly from visualizations. However, the system did require more user learning than we anticipated.
COPPA COMPLIANCE: A Cooperative Inquiry Perspective BIBAFull-Text 1453-1458
  Zachary Pease; Greg Walsh
This proposal records a cooperative inquiry investigation of possible technological solutions to help facilitate compliance with the mandates of the Children's Online Privacy Protection Act. It details the results of a session conducted by KidsteamUB at the University of Baltimore, and details the possible implications of the findings.
Embodied Reading: A Multisensory Experience BIBAFull-Text 1459-1466
  Susana Sanchez; Tilman Dingler; Heng Gu; Kai Kunze
Reading fiction is a silent activity, where readers come to know imaginary worlds and characters from the book's pages. However, we perceive the natural world with more than our eyes, and literature should be no different. Thus, an embodied reading experience is proposed, adding sound effects and haptic feedback to allow readers to listen and feel the narrative text. This paper presents a preliminary prototype for multisensory narratives and an experimental methodology to measure embodiment in literature. Results for the subjective assessment of immersion and user experience from 15 participants in three modalities: haptic, sound, both combined are discussed.
Constructivist Design for Interactive Machine Learning BIBAFull-Text 1467-1475
  Advait Sarkar
Interactive machine learning systems allow end-users, often non-experts, to build and apply statistical models for their own uses. Constructivism is the view that learning occurs when ideas and experiences interact. I argue that the objectives of interactive machine learning can be interpreted as constructivist. By so characterising them, I show how constructivist learning environments pose critical questions for the design of interactive machine learning systems.
Keep Calm and Carry On: Exploring the Social Determinants of Indoor Environment Quality BIBAFull-Text 1476-1482
  Stephen Snow; Anna Soska; Shre Kumar Chatterjee; m.c. schraefel
Poor Indoor Environment Quality (IEQ) in office environments leads to worker discomfort and lost productivity. This paper provides a unique perspective into the specifically social determinants of IEQ in naturally ventilated offices and our work toward designing technology that might improve it. Based on 15 qualitative interviews we explore the rituals, practices and negotiations involved in opening windows and thermostat adjustment. We find that a wish to maintain status quo results in workers putting up with discomfort with IEQ factors well before requesting a change. In closing, we introduce our future design work aimed at drawing attention to existing office practices and encouraging a broader participation in negotiations around IEQ factors in the workplace.
SubjectBook: Hypothesis-Driven Ubiquitous Visualization for Affective Studies BIBAFull-Text 1483-1489
  Salah Taamneh; Malcolm Dcosta; Kyeong-An Kwon; Ioannis Pavlidis
Analyzing affective studies is challenging because they feature multimodal data, such as psychometric scores, imaging sequences, and signals from wearable sensors, with the latter streaming continuously for hours on end. Meaningful visual representations of such data can greatly facilitate insights and qualitative analysis. Various tools that were proposed to tackle this problem provide visualizations of the original data only; they do not support higher level abstractions. In this paper, we introduce SubjectBook, an interactive web-based tool for synchronizing, visualizing, exploring, and analyzing affective datasets. Uniquely, SubjectBook operates at three levels of abstraction, mirroring the stages of quantitative analysis in hypothesis-driven research. The top level uses a grid visualization to show the study's significant outcomes across subjects. The middle level summarizes, for each subject, context information along with the explanatory and response measurements in a construct reminiscent of an ID card. This enables the analyst to appreciate within subject phenomena. Finally, the bottom level brings together detailed information concerning the inner and outer state of human subjects along with their real-world interactions -- a visualization fusion that supports cause and effect reasoning at the experimental session level. SubjectBook was evaluated on a case study focused on driving behaviors.
Enabling Designers to Sketch Immersive Fulldome Presentations BIBAFull-Text 1490-1496
  Danwei Tran Luciani; Jonas Lundberg
Sketching is an integral part of a designer's creative process, especially in the early phase of a project and in particular when exploring an unfamiliar medium. Traditional design principles does not seem to apply when designing presentations for a fulldome. Surprisingly, interviews with local creative professionals revealed that sketching was a challenge when designing fulldome presentations, which made it more difficult for them to understand the characteristics of this unfamiliar medium. This challenge has also been affirmed by the first author's own experience of creating a fulldome presentation. This paper describes the challenges in designing for a fulldome and discusses the work in progress by imagining new variations of sketching media that are being created as early design concepts, which will be tried out by a reference group. The aim is to identify characteristics a sketching medium needs to have in order for a designer to successfully express and explore early ideas for a fulldome presentation.
Designing with Concrete For Enhancing Everyday Interactions BIBAFull-Text 1497-1502
  Yanan Wang; Shuai Liu; Yujia Lu; Jun Duan; Cheng Yao; Fangtian Ying
Concrete is a composite material that has mostly been used for buildings and road surfaces since early human history. It is also applied to contemporary product design, as it has rather interesting aesthetic properties. In this late-breaking work, we present a series of small-scale explorations of concrete: first in which we exploited its hydroscopicity to create an ephemeral and dynamic display, and second, where we conducted a tangible interface design to showcase the material's unique surface textures. By applying craft-based methodology to this project, we investigated the ways in which fabricating this material with digital technologies provides innovations within the HCI community. Most importantly, we attempted to discover fabrication techniques that facilitate artistic experiences and interactions with concrete without sacrificing its existing properties.

Late-Breaking Works: Engineering of Interactive Systems

Eye Movement Biometrics on Wearable Devices: What Are the Limits? BIBAFull-Text 1503-1509
  Evgeniy Abdulin; Ioannis Rigas; Oleg Komogortsev
This paper presents a study of the perspectives of eye tracking on wearable devices and their use to perform eye movement biometrics. In such devices, the reduction in power consumption is very important, and can be partially achieved by reducing the size of the eye-tracking imaging sensor. In this preliminary work, we conduct two experiments: first we investigate the limits of the captured eye-image resolution to achieve acceptable eye-tracking precision, and then, we explore the effects from degradation in precision, simulated via the addition of dithering noise, on the applied scenario of eye movement biometrics. Our results provide detailed insights for the expected behavior of eye movement biometrics in resource-constraint systems.
Towards Augmented Fabrication: Combining Fabricated and Existing Objects BIBAFull-Text 1510-1518
  Daniel Ashbrook; Shitao Stan Guo; Alan Lambie
One of the main uses for digital fabrication systems is fabrication for use with existing objects. We call this paradigm "augmented fabrication." In this paper, we discuss the types of augmented fabrication activities that can take place, situate previous work into this context, and introduce Printy, an augmented fabrication system that allows novice users to fabricate fully-functional Internet-connected objects.
On the Verge: Voluntary Convergences for Accurate and Precise Timing of Gaze Input BIBAFull-Text 1519-1525
  Dominik Kirst; Andreas Bulling
The problem of triggering input accurately (with a small temporal offset) and precisely (with high repeatability) at a specific point in time has so far been largely ignored in gaze interaction research. We explore voluntary eye convergences as a novel interaction technique for precise and accurate timing of gaze input and a solution to the 'Midas touch' problem, i.e. the accidental triggering of input when looking at an interface. We introduce a novel clock paradigm to study input timing and demonstrate that voluntary convergences are significantly more accurate and precise than common gaze dwelling. Our findings suggest that voluntary convergences are well-suited for applications in which timing of user input is important, thereby complementing existing gaze techniques that focus on speed and spatial precision.
SPLASH: Smart-Phone Logging App for Sustaining Hydration Enabled by NFC BIBAFull-Text 1526-1532
  Xu Luo; Przemyslaw Woznowski; Alison Burrows; Mo Haghighi; Ian Craddock
Maintaining good hydration is crucial for adequate physical and mental performance for all human beings. In this paper we present SPLASH, an Android app that enables users to set daily goals and to keep track of their liquid intake through a combination of smart-phone NFC technology and NFC-tagged cups. We conducted several experiments to verify the robustness of the technology, which indicated that the selected NFC tags had acceptable robustness, operational distance and good penetration ability to meet the intended requirements for monitoring hydration. To further assess the feasibility of our concept, we evaluated SPLASH with ten users who gave feedback on its usability. We discuss the current prototype's advantages and limitations, as well as possible improvements and potential capabilities. At the end of this paper, we propose additional healthcare application scenarios for our concept.
iBeacon and HCI in Special Education: Micro-Location Based Augmentative and Alternative Communication for Children with Intellectual Disabilities BIBAFull-Text 1533-1539
  Rosanna Yuen-Yan Chan; Xue Bai; Xi Chen; Shuang Jia; Xiao-hong Xu
Daily communication is essential for everyone, including people with communication difficulties. While a number of augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) technologies have been developed for users with complex communication needs, their usage still remains a challenge for those with cognitive impairments. This extended abstract presents our work in AAC for non-verbal students with intellectual disabilities. We enhance existing AAC solutions with iBeacon-based ranging and micro-location detection capabilities to reduce user's cognitive load when interacting with the user interface. Our system has been piloted in a special education school for students with moderate intellectual disability. We report our contextual field studies, system design, and implementation experience; and hope to engender further discussions on HCI in special education.
Recommending Movies Based on Mise-en-Scene Design BIBAFull-Text 1540-1547
  Yashar Deldjoo; Mehdi Elahi; Paolo Cremonesi; Franca Garzotto; Pietro Piazzolla
In this paper, we present an ongoing work that will ultimately result in a movie recommender system based on the Mise-en-Scène characteristics of the movies. We believe that the preferences of users on movies can be well described in terms of the mise-en-scène, i.e., the design aspects of movie making influencing aesthetic and style. Examples of mise-en-scène characteristics are lighting, colors, background, and movements. Our recommender system opens new opportunities in the design of new user interfaces able to offer a personalized way to search for interesting movies through the analysis of film styles rather than using the traditional classifications of movies based on explicit attributes such as genre and cast.
InspectorWidget: A System to Analyze Users Behaviors in Their Applications BIBAFull-Text 1548-1554
  Christian Frisson; Sylvain Malacria; Gilles Bailly; Thierry Dutoit
We propose InspectorWidget, an opensource application to track and analyze users' behaviors in interactive software. The key contributions of our application are: 1) it works with closed applications that do not provide source code nor scripting capabilities; 2) it covers the whole pipeline of software analysis from logging input events to visual statistics through browsing and programmable annotation; 3) it allows post-recording logging; and 4) it does not require programming skills. To achieve this, InspectorWidget combines low-level event logging (e.g. mouse and keyboard events) and high-level screen features (e.g. interface widgets) captured though computer vision techniques. InspectorWidget benefits end users, usability experts and HCI researchers.
InstructableCrowd: Creating IF-THEN Rules via Conversations with the Crowd BIBAFull-Text 1555-1562
  Ting-Hao Kenneth Huang; Amos Azaria; Jeffrey P. Bigham
In this paper, we introduce InstructableCrowd, a system that allows end-users to instruct the crowd to create trigger-action ("if, then") rules based on their needs. We create a framework which enables users to converse with the crowd using their phone and describe a problem which they might have. We create an interface for a crowd worker to both chat with the user and compose a rule with an "IF" part connected to the user's phone sensors (e.g. incoming emails, GPS location, meeting calendar, weather information etc.), and a "THEN" part connected to user's phone effectors (e.g. sending an email, creating an alarm, posting a tweet, etc.). The system then sends the rules created by the crowd to the user's phone in order to help the user solve his problem.
Immersive Terrestrial Scuba Diving Using Virtual Reality BIBAFull-Text 1563-1569
  Dhruv Jain; Misha Sra; Jingru Guo; Rodrigo Marques; Raymond Wu; Justin Chiu; Chris Schmandt
SCUBA diving as a sport has enabled people to explore the magnificent ocean diversity of beautiful corals, striking fish, and mysterious wrecks. However, only a small number of people are able to experience these wonders as diving is expensive, mentally and physically challenging, needs a large time investment, and requires access to large bodies of water. Most existing SCUBA diving simulations in VR are limited to visual and aural displays. We propose a virtual reality system, Amphibian that provides an immersive SCUBA diving experience through a convenient terrestrial simulator. Users lie on their torso on a motion platform with their outstretched arms and legs placed in a suspended harness. Users receive visual and aural feedback through the Oculus Rift head-mounted display and a pair of headphones. Additionally, we simulate buoyancy, drag, and temperature changes through various sensors. Preliminary deployment shows that the system has potential to offer a high degree of presence in VR.
The Brain Matters: A 3D Real-Time Visualization to Examine Brain Source Activation Leveraging Neurofeedback BIBAFull-Text 1570-1576
  Thomas Kosch; Mariam Hassib; Albrecht Schmidt
As Brain-Computer Interfaces become available to the consumer market, this provides more opportunities in analyzing brain activity in response to different external stimuli. Current output modalities often generate a lot data, such as an electroencephalogram which only displays electrode measurements. We introduce a three-dimensional real-time brain data visualization based on the measured values received by a brain-computer interface. Instead of visualizing the collected voltages by electrodes, we calculate a current density distribution to estimate the origin of electrical source which is responsible for perceived values at electrodes. Understanding where the centers of activation in the brain are allows to better understand the relationship between external stimuli and brain activity. This could be relevant in the context of information presentation for doctors to analyze pathological phenomena. A pilot study was conducted using Virtual Reality as input stimulus. Results indicate visible changes in real-time regarding brain activation.
ThermoTouch: Design of a High Dynamic Temperature Range Thermal Haptic Display BIBAFull-Text 1577-1582
  Sven Kratz; Anthony Dunnigan
We describe a novel thermal haptic output device, ThermoTouch, that provides a grid of thermal pixels. Unlike previous devices which mainly use Peltier elements for thermal output, ThermoTouch uses liquid cooling and electro-resistive heating to output thermal feedback at arbitrary grid locations. We describe the design of the prototype, highlight advantages and disadvantages of the technique and briefly discuss future improvements and research applications.
High-Volume Hypothesis Testing for Large-Scale Web Log Analysis BIBAFull-Text 1583-1590
  Sana Malik; Eunyee Koh
Time-stamped event sequence data is being generated across many domains: shopping transactions, web traffic logs, medical histories, etc. Oftentimes, analysts are interested in comparing the similarities and differences between two or more groups of event sequences to better understand processes that lead to different outcomes (e.g., a customer did or did not make a purchase). CoCo is a visual analytics tool for Cohort Comparison that combines automated high-volume hypothesis testing (HVHT) with and interactive visualization and user interface for improved exploratory data analysis. This paper covers the first case study of CoCo for large-scale web log analysis and the challenges that arise when scaling a visual analytics tool to large datasets. The direct contributions of this paper are: (1) solutions to 7 challenges of scaling a visual analytics tool to larger datasets, and (2) a case study with three real-world analysts with these solutions implemented.
Integrated Driving Aware System in the Real-World: Sensing, Computing and Feedback BIBAFull-Text 1591-1597
  Jung Wook Park; SeungJun Kim; Anind Dey
We have developed an integrated driving-aware system that allows us to effectively conduct driving user experience (UX) studies. Our system senses driver and vehicle status, analyzes the collected data, and makes a decision about what feedback to provide a driver in a single Android application. We also propose a graphical experimental authoring tool to plan driving routes and manage UX experimental factors. This research with real-world experiments should have great positive impact on further driving-related UX studies.
FreeTop: Finding Free Spots for Projective Augmentation BIBAFull-Text 1598-1606
  Jan Riemann; Mohammadreza Khalilbeigi; Martin Schmitz; Sebastian Doeweling; Florian Müller; Max Mühlhäuser
Augmenting the physical world using projection technologies or head-worn displays becomes increasingly popular in research and commercial applications. However, a common problem is interference between the physical surface's texture and the projection. In this paper, we present FreeTop, a combined approach to finding areas suitable for projection, which considers multiple aspects influencing projection quality, like visual texture and physical surface structure. FreeTop can be used in stationary and mobile settings for locating free areas in arbitrary physical settings suitable for projective augmentation and touch interaction.
Drill Sergeant: Supporting Physical Construction Projects through an Ecosystem of Augmented Tools BIBAFull-Text 1607-1614
  Eldon Schoop; Michelle Nguyen; Daniel Lim; Valkyrie Savage; Sean Follmer; Björn Hartmann
Mapping techniques from software tutorials onto physical craft processes can assist novices in building multi-material assemblies. By providing in-situ step instructions and progress tracking, generating dynamic feedback on technique, and adapting tutorial content to a user's specific context and preferences, an ecosystem of smart tools can guide users through complete project tutorials. We demonstrate how such techniques can be enabled by augmenting common workshop tools (drill/driver, saw, router) with measurement, state sensing and interactive feedback; and by sequencing instructions across multiple tools. We validate the benefits of a smart tool ecosystem through reflections on a series of author-created design examples and informal feedback from four fab lab users.
Co-Viewing Room: Mobile TV Content Sharing in Social Chat BIBAFull-Text 1615-1621
  Pei-Yun Tu; Mei-Ling Chen; Chi-Lan Yang; Hao-Chuan Wang
TV watching is a common leisure activity, and people often use the opportunity of TV watching to socialize with other co-watchers. However, when potential TV co-watchers like friends or family members are distributed in different locations, the social function of TV watching is disrupted. In this paper, we present a mobile TV content sharing system called Co-Viewing Room, which enables distributed users to share three types of TV content, including it whole video sharing, video clips sharing and it snapshots sharing during an online chat. We evaluated the system by comparing the influence of the three types of content sharing on users' experience and social interactions. Our results showed that people were satisfied with remote TV sharing support, and tended to be more responsive to lightweight shared content like snapshots and video clips. Also, people regarded snapshots sharing as a useful support for efficient social chat.
Minerva II: A Novel Entity Discovery Tool BIBAFull-Text 1622-1628
  Andrew Jie Zhou; Hui Yang; Hongkai Wu
Entity discovery is a long-lasting interest in governments, enterprises, and the research community. It is a complex task that requires retrieving, extracting, linking, and displaying entities. Algorithms to support entity discovery have been proposed across disciplines including Information Retrieval (IR), Information Extraction (IE), Natural Language Processing (NLP), and Data Mining (DM). However, there is little study on User Interface (UI) for supporting effective entity discovery. This paper presents Minerva II, a novel entity discovery tool, to tackle this challenge. In the paper, we illustrate the UI design and how it effectively supports the typical work flow when a user performs entity discovery. We also describe a new visualization algorithm for entity networks. Our user study shows that Minerva II is able to greatly increase users' efficiency.

Late-Breaking Works: Extending User Capabilities

Movement Fluidity Analysis Based on Performance and Perception BIBAFull-Text 1629-1636
  Stefano Piana; Paolo Alborno; Radoslaw Niewiadomski; Maurizio Mancini; Gualtiero Volpe; Antonio Camurri
In this work we present a framework and an experimental approach to investigate human body movement qualities (i.e., the expressive components of non-verbal communication) in HCI. We first define a candidate movement quality conceptually, with the involvement of experts in the field (e.g., dancers, choreographers). Next, we collect a dataset of performances and we evaluate the perception of the chosen quality. Finally, we propose a computational model to detect the presence of the quality in a movement segment and we compare the outcomes of the model with the evaluation results. In the proposed on-going work, we apply this approach to a specific quality of movement: Fluidity. The proposed methods and models may have several applications, e.g., in emotion detection from full-body movement, interactive training of motor skills, rehabilitation.
Using Psychophysiological Parameters to Support Users in Setting Effective Activity Goals BIBAFull-Text 1637-1646
  Katja Herrmanny; Nils Beckmann; Katrin Nachbar; Hanno Sauer; Jürgen Ziegler; Aysegül Dogangün
Goal-setting has shown some promise in promoting physical activity behavior change among adults. In this context, adaptive goal setting has been identified as a relevant future research area. However, it is not yet addressed in research sufficiently. We present a theoretical approach for adaptively supporting users in goal-setting. We explore potentials of using heart rate variability (HRV) for tailoring goal-setting in activity tracking applications. In consideration of intrapersonal variance in HRV, we suggest strategies for adaptively supporting goal-setting. We indicate the potential of HRV as a parameter for designing supportive activity tracking applications.
Sonification Platform for Interaction with Real-Time Particle Collision Data from the ATLAS Detector BIBAFull-Text 1647-1653
  Juliana Cherston; Ewan Hill; Steven Goldfarb; Joseph A. Paradiso
This paper presents a platform that enables composers to generate unique auditory representations of real-time particle collision data from the ATLAS experiment at CERN. An associated web page then enables the public to listen to real-time experimental data through the aesthetic lens of selected artists. The current tool is built in collaboration with the ATLAS Outreach team and is designed to increase public engagement in high energy physics by exposing the data through a novel interaction mode. More broadly, it is part of a larger vision to better harness audio as a medium to interact with big data from ever more prevalent real-time sensors.
Clocks, Bars and Balls: Design and Evaluation of Alternative GNomon Widgets for Children with Disabilities BIBAFull-Text 1654-1660
  Sebastián Aced López; Fulvio Corno; Luigi De Russis
Children that rely on the use of single switches to access electronic devices, due to physical impairments, can play dynamic video games as their normally developing peers thanks to GNomon: one of the first framework for creating dynamic one-switch video games. However, children with physical impairments that also have cognitive disabilities find additional difficulties in using the current GNomon-based interface. To compensate these difficulties, the "classical" GNomon widget must be rethought and simplified. This paper proposes a parallel between three different widgets specifically designed for GNomon-based interfaces. Each widget employs metaphor in a different way and it has been evaluated with six children with motor and cognitive disabilities. The results are encouraging: a widget, based on the "big and small" concept, is preferred by children and is a candidate to make single-switch games easier to approach.
Attending to Attention: Detecting and Combating Mind Wandering during Computerized Reading BIBAFull-Text 1661-1669
  Sidney D'Mello; Kristopher Kopp; Robert Earl Bixler; Nigel Bosch
Mind wandering (MW) is a ubiquitous phenomenon that has a negative influence on performance and productivity in many contexts. We propose that intelligent interfaces should have some mechanism to detect and respond to MW in real-time. Towards this end, we developed an interface that automatically detects MW from eye-gaze during computerized reading. When MW is detected, the interface intervenes by asking just-in-time questions and encouraging re-reading as needed. After multiple rounds of iterative refinement, we summatively compared the interface to a yoked control condition in a randomized control trial with 104 participants. Preliminary results suggest that the system was successful in correcting comprehension deficits attributed to MW, thereby highlighting the potential for intelligent interfaces that improve performance by "attending to attention."
Using Sound to Help Visually Impaired Children Play Independently BIBAFull-Text 1670-1676
  Euan Freeman; Stephen Brewster
Play is important in the early development of young children, as it encourages them to explore the world, develop skills and learn to socialise with their peers. Blind and visually impaired children face challenges that can stop them becoming involved in play activities at nursery and school, leading to dependence on adults and reducing the benefit of playtime. We are exploring the use of an audio bracelet for young children, which uses sound to help them overcome these challenges through better awareness of their surroundings. We describe the design and prototyping of our system and present scenarios which demonstrate its use.
Scented Material: Changing Features of Physical Creations based on Odors BIBAFull-Text 1677-1683
  Olivia Jezler; Elia Gatti; Marco Gilardi; Marianna Obrist
Communication between designer and user is a challenge when designing for a wider spectrum of experiences and interfaces (e.g., tangible, multimodal, multisensory interaction). Our research aims to explore non-verbal communication methods for expressing olfactory experiences. In this paper, we present preliminary findings on the effect of scented material on physical creations using scented and unscented modeling clay. We compare features of abstract creations of three groups (i.e., vanilla scented, lemon scented, or unscented material). Our preliminary results confirm pre-existing mappings across shapes and scents. We discuss the various properties of the creations and discuss their relevance based on previous work and in particular its potential for HCI in the design of future interactive experiences.
Using Brain Signals in Adaptive Smart Spaces for Disabled Children BIBAFull-Text 1684-1690
  Franca Garzotto; Mirko Gelsomini; Alessandro Pappalardo; Claudio Sanna; Erica Stella; Michele Zanella
Our research explores new forms of technology-enhanced interventions for children with Intellectual Disability (ID). The paper presents an innovative smart space called Magic K-Room, which has been designed in cooperation with ID specialists and provides multisensory stimuli exploiting full-body interaction with various kinds of smart objects and ambient features. Using brain signals acquired through a wearable EEG headset, the space is responsive to a particular child's levels of relaxation and attention, automatically adapting the stimuli to the child's state, and allows therapists to automatically collect a child's data for diagnosis purposes or to fine tune their therapy.
MiLa: An Audiovisual Instrument for Learning the Curwen Hand Signs BIBAFull-Text 1691-1697
  Matt H. Y. Hong; William S. Hicks; Michael S. Horn
We present a novel musical system for learning the Curwen-Kodaly hand signs, which stand for solfege syllables and pitches (do, re, mi, etc.). These hand postures comprise a system of musical notation typically used in sight-singing training to familiarize with patterns of musical tones. Therefore, what concerns us is music literacy as opposed to practice with any particular instrument. Our system uses a Leap motion sensor to recognize the hand signs and produce corresponding user-recorded sounds. For each hand sign, the system also displays a natural 3D scenery, which is intended to match the metaphorical nature of the tone and has a resemblance to the hand posture (e.g. mi is a steady or calm tone, so the hand sign is an open hand with palm downwards and the scenery is a calm but moving ocean).
Toward Real-time Brain Sensing for Learning Assessment: Building a Rich Dataset BIBAFull-Text 1698-1705
  Shelby Keating; Erin Walker; Anil Motupali; Erin Solovey
By integrating real-time brain input into personalized learning environments, it would be possible to capture a learner's changing cognitive state and adapt the learning experience appropriately. Working toward this goal, we aim to develop a robust system that can classify a user's cognitive state during a learning activity, using brain data collected with functional near-infrared spectroscopy, an emerging non-invasive neuroimaging tool. This paper describes preliminary steps we have taken toward this objective as well as the underlying vision and research goals. This work has implications for online education as well as the growing fields of brain-computer interfaces and physiological computing.
MAGIC-Pointing on Large High-Resolution Displays BIBAFull-Text 1706-1712
  Lars Lischke; Valentin Schwind; Kai Friedrich; Albrecht Schmidt; Niels Henze
Display space in offices constantly increased in the last decades. We believe that this trend will continue and ultimately result in the use of wall-sized displays in the future office. One of the most challenging tasks while interacting with large high-resolution displays is target acquisition. The most important challenges reported in previous work are the long distances that need to be traveled with the pointer while still enabling precise selection as well as seeking for the pointer on the large display. In this paper, we investigate if MAGIC-Pointing, controlling the pointer through eye gaze, can help overcome both challenges. We implemented MAGIC-Pointing for a 2.85m x 1.13m large display. Using this system we conducted a target selection study. The results show that using MAGIC-Pointing for selecting targets on wall-sized displays decreases the task completion time significantly and it also decreases the users' task load. We therefore argue that MAGIC-Pointing can help to make interaction with wall-sized displays usable.
Embodied Interactions for Novel Immersive Presentational Experiences BIBAFull-Text 1713-1720
  Fabrice Matulic; Lars Engeln; Christoph Träger; Raimund Dachselt
In this work, we introduce and propose a preliminary realisation of a concept to enhance live multimedia presentations, where presenters are directly integrated in their presentation content as interactive avatars. Using multimodal input, especially body gestures, presenters control those embedded avatars through which they can interact with the virtual presentation environment in a fine-grained fashion, i.e. they are able to manipulate individual presentation elements and data as virtual props. The goal of our endeavour is to create novel immersive presentational experiences for live stage performances (talks, lectures etc.) as well as for remote conferencing in more confined areas such as offices and meeting rooms.
Hajukone: Developing an Open Source Olfactory Device BIBAFull-Text 1721-1728
  David McGookin; Dariela Escobar
In comparison to our other senses, there has been relatively little work on how our sense of smell can be effectively utilised in a Human-Computer Interface. We argue that the lack of easy access to 'off-the-shelf' computer controlled scent delivery devices restricts research in this area, and that without understanding what smell can be used for, there is little commercial case to make such devices available. In considering these issues, we have developed Hajukone: a smell delivery device that is both open source and can be built with low technical skills, yet provides high quality olfactory capabilities. We outline the design of Hajukone, showing how it overcomes critical design requirements that have restricted prior research, before outlining our future plans for its development and use.
Multiwave: Doppler Effect Based Gesture Recognition in Multiple Dimensions BIBAFull-Text 1729-1736
  Corey Pittman; Pamela Wisniewski; Conner Brooks; Joseph J., Jr. LaViola
We constructed an acoustic, gesture-based recognition system called Multiwave, which leverages the Doppler Effect to translate multidimensional movements into user interface commands. Our system only requires the use of two speakers and a microphone to be operational. Since these components are already built in to most end user systems, our design makes gesture-based input more accessible to a wider range of end users. By generating a known high frequency tone from multiple speakers and detecting movement using changes in the sound waves, we are able to calculate a Euclidean representation of hand velocity that is then used for more natural gesture recognition and thus, more meaningful interaction mappings. We present the results of a user study of Multiwave to evaluate recognition rates for different gestures and report accuracy rates comparable to or better than the current state of the art. We also report subjective user feedback and some lessons learned from our system that provide additional insight for future applications of multidimensional gesture recognition.
Towards the Creation of Interspecies Digital Games: An Observational Study on Cats' Interest in Interactive Technologies BIBAFull-Text 1737-1743
  Patricia Pons; Javier Jaen
There is growing interest in developing playful experiences for animals within the field of Animal-Computer Interaction (ACI). These digital games aim to improve animals' wellbeing and provide them with enriching activities. However, little research has been conducted to analyze the factors and stimuli that could lead animals to engage with a specific game. These factors could vary among different animal species, or even between individuals of the same species. Identifying the most appropriate artifacts to attract the attention of an animal species would help in the development of engaging playful activities for them. This paper describes early findings of an observational study on cats, which evaluated their interest in different kinds of technologically-based stimuli and interaction modalities. This study and further exploration of its results would inform the development of suitable and engaging playful experiences for cats.
Evaluating Haptic Feedback on a Steering Wheel in a Simulated Driving Scenario BIBAFull-Text 1744-1751
  Gözel Shakeri; Stephen A. Brewster; John Williamson; Alexander Ng
This paper investigates how perceivable haptic feedback patterns are using an actuated surface on a steering wheel. Six solenoids were embedded along the surface of the wheel, creating three bumps under each palm. The solenoids can be used to create a range of different tactile patterns. As a result of the design recommendation by Gallace et al. [Gallace2006a] maximally four of the six solenoids were actuated simultaneously, resulting in 57 patterns to test. A simulated driving study was conducted to investigate (1) the optimal number of actuated solenoids and (2) the most perceivable haptic patterns. A relationship between number of actuated solenoids and pattern identification rate was established. Perception accuracy drops above three active solenoids. Haptic patterns mirrored symmetrically on both hands were perceived more accurately. Practical applications for displaying tactile messages on the steering wheel are e.g. dead angles, upcoming road conditions, navigation information (i.e. conveying information discretely to the driver).
Toward a Systematic Understanding of Children's Touchscreen Gestures BIBAFull-Text 1752-1759
  Alex Shaw; Lisa Anthony
This paper presents ongoing work toward characterizing children's touchscreen surface gesture interactions. We report a preliminary analysis of gestures elicited from children ages 5 to 10. We focus specifically on the differences among gestures made by children of various ages and grade levels. Continuation of this project will consist of more in-depth analysis and systematic characterization of these gestures to help create a deeper understanding of the way children make gestures and, in turn, to motivate new ways in which we can design better touchscreen interactions and gesture recognition algorithms for children.
Pactolus: A Method for Mid-Air Gesture Segmentation within EMG BIBAFull-Text 1760-1765
  Yineng Chen; Xiaojun Su; Feng Tian; Jin Huang; Xiaolong (Luke) Zhang; Guozhong Dai; Hongan Wang
Mid-air gestures have become an important interaction technique in natural user interfaces, especially in augmented reality and virtual reality. Supporting a set of continuous gesture-based commands in mid-air gesture interaction systems, such as selecting and moving then placing an object, however, remains to be a challenge. This is largely because these intentional command gestures are connected through transitional, meaningless gestures, which are often misleading for gesture recognition systems. The inability to separate unintentional movements from intentional command gestures, also called the Midas problem, limits the application of mid-air gestures. This paper addresses the Midas problem via a physiological computing approach. With the help of sensors that capture physiological signals, we present a novel method, Pactolus, for segmenting mid-air gestures using arm electromyography. User studies demonstrate the high accuracy of our approach in segmenting mid-air gestures interleaved by transitional hand or finger movements.
Interactive Cheek Haptic Display with Air Vortex Rings for Stress Modification BIBAFull-Text 1766-1771
  Ryoko Ueoka; Mami Yamaguchi; Yuka Sato
We conducted preliminary evaluation on how people perceive haptic stimuli generated by air vortex rings of different intensity and how these stimuli affect their emotional experience with respect to stress. We developed a prototype cheek haptic display that generates an air vortex ring at two types of intensity of air pressure to present a different haptic stimulus on the cheek when a subject feels stress while performing a task. Using the system, we conducted a preliminary experiment to evaluate cognitive awareness using task performance, physiological awareness using changes in autonomic activity, and subjective feelings using a visual analog scale test of three stress feelings for quantitative evaluation of emotional experience. Although further experiments are needed, the results show that it is a promising method for effectively reducing stress and modifying emotional experience.
Designing for Interactive Loving and Kindness Meditation on Mobile BIBAFull-Text 1772-1778
  Ralph Vacca
Despite an increased interest in loving-kindness meditation (LKM) as a practice to cultivate compassion, there has been limited research in digital approaches that go beyond traditional digital audio-based guides. Our research explores the use of an interactive guided loving-kindness meditation focused on providing external visualizations. This paper describes a pilot study that sought to understand the potential for such an interactive design approach. Participants engaged with a mobile app over a week and completed both quantitative and qualitative measures. Our findings suggest that an interactive approach that uses external guided visualizations inline with traditional LKM scripts, can cultivate compassion. Yet our findings suggest the use of externalized visualizations may deter from a focus on physiological sensations accompanying internal visualizations. In addition, a mobile approach may present new opportunities to provide situated forms of extending ones contemplative practice into everyday life through reminders and notifications.
Mapping Abstract Visual Feedback to a Dimensional Model of Emotion BIBAFull-Text 1779-1787
  Graham Wilson; Pietro Romeo; Stephen A. Brewster
Recent HCI research has looked at conveying emotions through non-visual modalities, such as vibrotactile and thermal feedback. However, emotion is primarily conveyed through visual signals, and so this research aims to support the design of emotional visual feedback. We adapt and extend the design of the "pulsing amoeba" [29], and measure the emotion conveyed through the abstract visual designs. It is a first step towards more holistic multimodal affective feedback combining visual, auditory and tactile stimuli. An online survey garnered valence and arousal ratings of 32 stimuli that varied in colour, contour, pulse size and pulse speed. The results support previous research but also provide new findings and highlight the effects of each individual visual parameter on perceived emotion. We present a mapping of all stimulus combinations onto the common two-dimensional valence-arousal model of emotion.
Prototyping the Machine-Human Dialogues in a Smartphone Voice Call Application With Task Resumption Support BIBAFull-Text 1788-1793
  W. L. Yeung; Simon Y. W. Li
Our on-going work concerns the effectiveness of voice-based task resumption support for smartphone users. This Late-Breaking Work presents results of a prototyping exercise involving a questionnaire-based survey and a quasi-experiment. In the quasi-experiment, participants were required to perform some manual tasks in a controlled environment while being interrupted by various voice calls. The effectiveness of different prototypes of a voice call application was tested. Subjective ratings of the prototypes were collected from the participants as a usability measurement. The results reveal some diverse views on the design of the dialogue interface for the voice call application.
HeartPlotter: Visualizing Bio-data by Drawing on Paper BIBAFull-Text 1794-1799
  Bin Yu; Rogier Arents; Mathias Funk; Jun Hu; Loe M. G. Feijs
This paper reintroduces pen plotting to interaction and visualization design through the project of HeartPlotter. The HeartPlotter collects the user's heartbeat data, maps the data into the pen movements, then presents the real-time variations in heart rate through its mechanical movements and sounds, and finally delivers the overall HRV information in a compact form as one drawing on paper. In this pilot study, we experimented with three basic mappings between data and visualizations by controlling the pen movement in speed, path and pen-down timing. The results show that the pen's speed could present changing heart rate data in real-time and the pen's path mainly affects the data visualization and the aesthetic of the plotted drawings. Finally, we discuss the possibility and limitations of the pen plotter used in information display and interaction design.

Late-Breaking Works: Games & Playful Interaction

WaterCoaster: A Device to Encourage People in a Playful Fashion to Reach Their Daily Water Intake Level BIBAFull-Text 1813-1820
  Pascal Lessel; Maximilian Altmeyer; Frederic Kerber; Michael Barz; Cornelius Leidinger; Antonio Krüger
In this paper, we present WaterCoaster, a mobile device and a mobile application to motivate people to drink beverages more often and more regularly. The WaterCoaster measures the amount drunk and reminds the user to consume more, if necessary. The app is designed as a game in which the user needs to take care of a virtual character living in a fish tank, dropping the water level if the user does not consume beverages in a healthy way. We report results of a pilot study (N=17) running three weeks suggesting that our approach is appreciated and subjectively influences participants. Based on the results, we look forward to evaluating the system in a long-term study in the next iteration.
e-Seesaw: A Tangible, Ludic, Parent-child, Awareness System BIBAFull-Text 1821-1827
  Yingze Sun; Matthew P. Aylett; Yolanda Vazquez-Alvarez
In modern China, the pace of life is becoming faster and working pressure is increasing often leading to pressure on families and family interaction. 23 pairs of working parents and their children were asked what they saw as their main communication challenges and how they currently used communication technology to stay in touch. The mobile phone was the dominant form of communication despite being poorly rated by children as a way of enhancing a sense of connection and love. Parents and children were presented with a series of design probes to investigate how current communication technology might be supported or enhanced with a tangible and playful awareness system. One of the designs, the e-Seesaw, was selected and evaluated in a lab and home setting. Participant reaction was positive with the design provoking a novel perspective on remote parent-child interaction allowing even very young children to both initiate and control communication.
Invasion of the Energy Monsters: A Family Board Game about Energy Consumption BIBAFull-Text 1828-1834
  Amartya Banerjee; Michael S. Horn; Pryce Davis
We present Invasion of the Energy Monsters, a board game that attempts to highlight the role of family practices in household energy consumption. While household energy management activities -- such as controlling heating and cooling systems -- tend to be adult centric, we believe that children and adolescents have a meaningful role to play in helping their families move toward more sustainable ways of living. To that end, Energy Monsters has been designed to scaffold interactions between family members and encourage conversations about electricity consumption and waste. In this paper we provide an overview of our current design and a brief summary of results from our playtesting sessions with five families, and a description of versions that are under development.
Player Type Models: Towards Empirical Validation BIBAFull-Text 1835-1841
  Marc Busch; Elke Mattheiss; Rita Orji; Peter Fröhlich; Michael Lankes; Manfred Tscheligi
Player type models -- such as the BrainHex model -- are popular approaches for personalizing digital games towards individual preferences of players. Although several player type models have been developed and are currently used in game design projects, there is still a lack of data on their validity. To close this research gap we currently investigate the psychometric properties (factor structure, reliability, stability) and predictive validity (if player type scores can predict player experience) of the player type model BrainHex in an ongoing project. Results of two online studies (n1=592, n2=243) show that the psychometric properties of the BrainHex model could be improved. We suggest to improve the according questionnaire and sketch how the predictive validity could be investigated in future studies.
Playing with the Artworks: Engaging with Art through an Augmented Reality Game BIBAFull-Text 1842-1848
  Klen äopic Pucihar; Matjaz Kljun; Paul Coulton
In the majority of cases our experiences of artworks in galleries and museums is as passive observers. While this is widely accepted practice in terms artwork preservation it limits the engagement potential with younger visitors. In this paper, we present the results of a focus group with nine K-6 children revealing their opinions about (i) art, (ii) museums and galleries, and (iii) standard engagement practices in these venues. Participants stressed the importance of art and museums, showed a high respect for artworks and artists, depicted interactive activities they liked at museums, and described how they would liven up art venues. In addition, we explored a way of using augmented reality (AR) technology to create an engaging and personal art experience for a young audience. To achieve this, we built a prototype for a treasure hunt style game where participants coloured a contour drawing not knowing what exactly they are colouring. However, they were told that if this coloured drawing is placed correctly, it should wrap around a 3D object (statue) or overlay a 2D canvas (picture) somewhere in the gallery.
3D Virtual Tracing and Depth Perception Problem on Mobile AR BIBAFull-Text 1849-1856
  Leo Gombac; Klen Copic Pucihar; Matjaz Kljun; Paul Coulton; Jan Grbac
Mobile Augmented Reality (AR) is most commonly implemented using a camera and a flat screen. Such implementation removes binocular disparity from users' observation. To compensate, people use alternative depth cues (e.g. depth ordering). However, these cues may also get distorted in certain AR implementations, creating depth distortion which is problematic in situations where precise hand interaction within AR workspace is required such as when transcribing augmented instructions to physical objects (e.g. virtual tracing -- creating a physical sketch on a 2D or 3D object given a virtual image on a mobile device). In this paper we explore how depth distortion affects 3D virtual tracing by implementing a first of its kind 3D virtual tracing prototype and run an observational study. Drawing performance exceeded our expectations suggesting that the lack of visual depth cues, whilst holding the object in hand, is not as problematic as initially predicted. However, when placing the object on the stand and drawing with only one hand (the other is used for holding the phone) their performance drastically decreased.
Data-driven Prediction Games BIBAFull-Text 1857-1864
  Gabriel Dzodom; Frank Shipman
More datasets are becoming available on the web. This provides new opportunities for data-driven systems that can entertain and inform. We introduce prediction games, data-driven games modeled after fantasy sports. We hypothesize that prediction games can motivate people to explore and analyze online datasets in order to develop their own understanding of the data's domain and to improve their data analysis skills. The mechanics of prediction games revolve around activities where players analyze historical data and information resources to make predictions about future events. This paper describes the iterative design of a prediction game engine and one of its implementations: Fantasy Climate.
Remote Heart Rate Sensing and Projection to Renew Traditional Board Games and Foster Social Interactions BIBAFull-Text 1865-1871
  Jérémy Frey
While physiological sensors enter the mass market and reach the general public, they are still mainly employed to monitor health -- whether it is for medical purpose or sports. We describe an application that uses heart rate feedback as an incentive for social interactions. A traditional board game has been "augmented" through remote physiological sensing, using webcams. Projection helped to conceal the technological aspects from users. We detail how players reacted -- stressful situations could emerge when users are deprived from their own signals -- and we give directions for game designers to integrate physiological sensors.
Gameplay as Exercise BIBAFull-Text 1872-1878
  Kristoffer Hagen; Konstantinos Chorianopoulos; Alf Inge Wang; Letizia Jaccheri; Stian Weie
We designed and evaluated an exertion video game in order to overcome two challenges that are preventing exergames from becoming a viable sustained exercise alternative; insufficient physical exertion and player retention. This was achieved by implementing common features shared by the most popular video games and seamlessly merging them with the exertion found in exergames. A user study was performed where the exergame was played 132 times over three days by 8 participants. Compared to the control condition, a moderately paced walk, the exergame scored better on both subjective enjoyment and degree of physical activity. Further research could consider alternative versions of exergames, as well as different user groups.
Diary Methods in AAA Games User Research BIBAFull-Text 1879-1885
  Serena Hillman; Tad Stach; Jason Procyk; Veronica Zammitto
In this paper we present lessons learned from a diary study completed for Electronic Arts' AAA video game NHL16 in August 2015. Key findings suggest that while there is high risk to use the method, there is also great benefit in terms of impact via actionable data and ability to collect rich artifacts to tell the users' stories. To reduce the risk, this work presents a series of suggested guidelines for conducting a diary study in games user research, which has not been investigated in past work. We lay a foundation for diary methods in GUR and how to further improve the method by providing examples and real results through an AAA game example.
Applying Exergaming Input to Standard Commercial Digital Games BIBAFull-Text 1886-1895
  Matthew Hudson
Exergaming has been shown to motivate users to adhere to exercise, encourage greater physical effort during exercise, and improve the cognitive benefits of exercise. However the benefits of exergaming have been shown to reduce as the novelty of the game wears off. Standard commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) digital games present a potential solution to this issue by offering a huge variety games. This paper reviews the current literature on the potential benefits of both standard digital games and exergaming in a fitness and healthcare context. The review also highlights a gap in the current literature, finding little research has explored the potential of combining standard COTS digital games and exergaming to provide a more engaging, motivating and enduring user experience.
Exploring the Impact of Avatar Color on Game Experience in Educational Games BIBAFull-Text 1896-1905
  Dominic Kao; D. Fox Harrell
The color red has been shown to hinder performance, motivation, and affect in a variety of contexts involving cognitively demanding tasks. Teams wearing red have been shown to impair the performance of opposing teams, present even in online gaming. Although color is strongly contextual (e.g., red-failure association), its effects are posited to be sub-conscious and operate powerfully even on nonhuman primates, e.g., Rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) take food significantly less often from an experimenter wearing red. Here, we present one of the first studies on avatar color in a single-player game. We compared players using a red avatar to players using a blue avatar. Using the Game Experience Questionnaire (GEQ), we find that players using a red avatar had a decrease in competence, immersion and flow. Our results are of consequence to how we design and choose colors in single-player contexts.
Exploring the Effects of Encouragement in Educational Games BIBAFull-Text 1906-1914
  Dominic Kao; D. Fox Harrell
Encouragement (e.g., 'You're doing well') given at regular intervals improves performance in a variety of sporting domains. This improvement is regardless of the actual performance of participants. However, it has not been studied how this type of encouragement can affect players of video games. In the current study (N = 662), we look at the following encouragement conditions: (1) Positive (e.g., 'You're doing good'), (2) Negative (e.g., 'You're doing badly'), (3) Neutral (e.g., 'You're doing average'), and (4) None. Via the Game Experience Questionnaire (GEQ), participants in the Neutral condition had significantly improved flow, immersion, and affect than participants in the None condition. Moreover, participants in both the Positive and Neutral conditions had the highest overall GEQ ratings. These findings are directly relevant to educational games.
Evaluation of StarCraft Artificial Intelligence Competition Bots by Experienced Human Players BIBAFull-Text 1915-1921
  Man-Je Kim; Kyung-Joong Kim; SeungJun Kim; Anind K. Dey
StarCraft is one of the most successful real-time strategy (RTS) games and is also actively being researched by artificial intelligence (AI) communities. Since 2010, game AI researchers have hosted annual AI competition events to develop human-level RTS AIs using StarCraft. It ranks the AI bots by their winning ratio from thousands of AI vs. AI matches without human involvement. It is questionable whether successful AI bots are also competitive and preferable to human players. In this study, we invited 20 experienced players with varying expertise to evaluate skill levels, overall performance and human likeness of AI bots. Results show that human's ranking of AI bots are not identical to the current one from AI competitions. It suggests the need for developing new AI competitions that consider human factors ("human-likeness" or "adaptation"). Also, it revealed that the expertise levels of human players have high impact on overall performance and human-likeness evaluations of AI bots. It supports the concept of dynamically adjusting AI bots to satisfy different levels of human players. The outcomes of this study will also be useful to incorporate human factors in other active video AI competitions (e.g., Angry Birds, Fighting Game, and General Game Playing).
Sonic-Badminton: Audio-Augmented Badminton Game for Blind People BIBAFull-Text 1922-1929
  Shin Kim; Kun-pyo Lee; Tek-Jin Nam
How to enhance the quality of life for the blind, in particular through sports or entertainment? HCI researchers have investigated physical games, but there is a lack of methods to improve blind people's social interaction and self-esteem through the physical exercise. To address this issue, we present Sonic-Badminton, an audio-augmented badminton game. It uses a virtual shuttlecock implied by audio feedback. We conducted a preliminary user study with the blind and sighted participants to examine the game is enjoyable to both type of participants. The results indicated that both can enjoy the game and play in a similar level. The use of real badminton racket and simple stereo sound to guide virtual shuttlecock help them enjoying the game. Based on the result, we discuss implications for further audio-based augmented badminton and other ball-based sports for the blind.
Psychophysiology of Challenge in Play: EDA and Self-Reported Arousal BIBAFull-Text 1930-1936
  Madison Klarkowski; Daniel Johnson; Peta Wyeth; Cody Phillips; Simon Smith
Measuring the video game player experience is a distinctly challenging task. As the experience of 'fun' in games is imprecise and multi-faceted, various psychological and experiential phenomena have been investigated in an effort to evaluate and quantify aspects of the player experience. Psychophysiology provides a useful lens through which to objectively and quantitatively measure and evaluate these phenomena. This study reports current electrodermal activity (EDA) findings from a large-scale ongoing study investigating the psychophysiology of play using electrodermal activity, electroencephalography, electromyography, and electrocardiography. Initial EDA results point to greater arousal the more challenging the play experience. Findings also indicate that EDA potentially reports arousal with greater real-time accuracy than a subjective arousal measure. Ultimately, with this work, we aim contribute to a greater understanding of the psychophysiological evaluation and impact of play.
Lights Out: An Interactive Tangible Game for Training of Post-Stroke Reaching BIBAFull-Text 1937-1944
  Pan Wang; Raymond K. C. Koh; Christian Gilles Boucharenc; Ching-Chiuan Yen
We present a work-in-progress design of an interactive game to support the training of upper limb reaching for elderly post-stroke survivors so as to improve their motivation and adherence toward rehabilitation exercises. Consisting of 64 tactile buttons and 64 Red, Green, Blue (RGB) Light-Emitting Diodes (LEDs) that are equally distributed across a (8 x 8) grid structure of translucent acrylic cubes, the gameplay guides players to perform directional reaching motions for therapeutic effect through the selective or randomized controlled lighting of cubes across the physical board. This is immediately followed by pressing each of them to turn them off. Varied LED colors provide additional playful or cognitive challenges, e.g. using each hand for a specific color. The user interface of the game prototype was tested by four elderly stroke survivors with initial feedback indicating that it may be sufficiently intuitive to create engaging rehabilitation experiences for this user base.
Designing and Utilizing Biofeedback Games for Emotion Regulation: The Case of Nevermind BIBAFull-Text 1945-1951
  Adam Lobel; Marientina Gotsis; Erin Reynolds; Michael Annetta; Rutger C. M. E. Engels; Isabela Granic
Biofeedback games have the potential to make gaming a deeply personal experience by linking the gamespace to each player's physiological state. First, this paper describes the psycho-educational potential of the horror-themed biofeedback game Nevermind. In Nevermind, players' heart rate is continuously read into the game which in turn adapts to the player's momentary levels of negative affective arousal. Greater negative arousal causes the game and its horror-themed settings to become more disturbing. As a result, Nevermind challenges players to improve their emotion regulation skills by encouraging them to healthily down-regulate their negative affective states in the face of stressful situations. Second, Nevermind implements valuable design practices, practices which we share here. Finally, we describe a recent study conducted on 47 players. We discuss potential physiological metrics which may be useful for understanding how behaviors in the real world relate to those in biofeedback games like Nevermind.
CustomConsole: A Framework for Supporting Cross-device Videogames BIBAFull-Text 1952-1958
  Asier Marzo
Nowadays it is increasingly common to own multiple devices such as laptops, smartphones or tablets. Distributed User Interfaces (DUS) leverage the simultaneous use of various devices to interact with different applications. However, no previous work has studied the use of DUS for videogames. Videogames are one of the largest industry but have requirements different from those of regular applications. CustomConsole is a framework to interconnect multiple devices and create custom gaming systems. CustomConsole games define different roles; each role has associated inputs and outputs: pointing or buttons are inputs whereas views or listeners are outputs. Players can select their role and distribute the associated inputs and outputs across the available devices. We present an initial design of the framework and a use case of a CustomConsole game.
TwitchViz: A Visualization Tool for Twitch Chatrooms BIBAFull-Text 1959-1965
  Rui Pan; Lyn Bartram; Carman Neustaedter
Twitch.tv is a flagship platform for live game streaming between players and viewers. It allows players to broadcast their gameplay to a public audience where viewers chat with each other and discuss gameplay. Current tools for analyzing live game streaming and chat rooms are limited. In this paper, we describe the design of TwitchViz: a new visualization tool with the goal of helping both players and game designers to better understand the relationship between gameplay and Twitch viewers' chatting behaviors. An initial feasibility study showed that TwitchViz supports novel ways to get an insight of gameplay issues from the patterns of chatting behaviors of viewers and highlighted design issues to address in subsequent versions of the tool.
Studying the Impact of Spatial Involvement on Training Mental Rotation with Minecraft BIBAFull-Text 1966-1972
  Anna Nguyen; Stefan Rank
Previous research demonstrates a shift from negative behavioral consequences to positive cognitive development in understanding the effects of computer gameplay across multiple age groups. However, there are still questions about which aspects of gameplay have an impact on those positive consequences. This work-in-progress focuses on the role of spatial involvement via different control schemes by implementing a training regimen through Minecraft for mental rotation in order to understand the impact of aspects of involvement on the training outcome. The project utilizes Minecraft to recreate a proven engaging experience for players, making training mental rotation more accessible. Comparing different levels of spatial involvement will be used to understand factors of the experience's impact. Further, the work extends game training endeavors in psychology using digital media. A target outcome is an improved understanding of what aspects of digital games are relevant for successful training applications.
Evaluating Physical Movement as Trigger for Transitioning Between Environments in Virtual Reality BIBAFull-Text 1973-1979
  Josh Kohn; Stefan Rank
Virtual reality allows users to experience unusual immersive environments. There are still several aspect of design for virtual reality that need more investigation, such as transitioning between environments. Multiple studies have shown that physical movement in a virtual environment supports immersion and presence. Our setup will allow the comparative study of the coupling of virtual camera movements with simultaneous physical movements of the user in terms of user preference and comfort. This work-in-progress uses a within-subject experimental design for evaluating interaction prototypes based on the Oculus Rift DK2 where participants will be tasked with transitioning between different environments; once using physical motion to merely trigger the transition and once with the virtual camera movement being coupled to the physical motion. Qualitative and quantitative data will be collected utilizing questionnaires and in-game metrics. Pretests of a similar setup were used to establish minimal levels of comfort.
Are We in Flow Neurophysiological Correlates of Flow States in a Collaborative Game BIBAFull-Text 1980-1988
  Élise Labonté-LeMoyne; Pierre-Majorique Léger; Beverly Resseguier; Marie-Christine Bastarache-Roberge; Marc Fredette; Sylvain Sénécal; François Courtemanche
Playing video games with a partner can be fun, but are the players in flow? The study of flow, a state of intense immersion in an activity, is an important element of game research. Recently, partners in multiplayer games have been shown to impact a player's flow state. However, as flow can be difficult to assess during a game, brain activity, measured with electroencephalography, has recently been employed as a tool to evaluate flow state continuously and without bias. Thus, this paper investigates the relationship between two partners' flow states and brain activity. We carried out a preliminary empirical study in which participants played doubles in a tennis game, while EEG data and psychometric measures were acquired. Our results show an interaction between a player's neurophysiological activity and a partner's flow state. In the long run, this work opens the door for games designed to optimize positive emotional contagion.
DEEP: A Biofeedback Virtual Reality Game for Children At-risk for Anxiety BIBAFull-Text 1989-1997
  Marieke van Rooij; Adam Lobel; Owen Harris; Niki Smit; Isabela Granic
Anxiety disorders are among the most frequently diagnosed mental health problems in children, leading to potentially devastating outcomes on a personal level and high costs for society. Although evidence-based interventions are readily available, their outcomes are often disappointing and variable. In particular, existing interventions are not effective long-term nor tailored to differences in individual responsiveness. We therefore need a new approach to the prevention and treatment of anxiety in children and a commensurate scientific methodology to uncover individual profiles of change. We argue that applied games have a great deal of potential for both. The current paper presents results from a recent pilot study using a biofeedback virtual reality game (DEEP). DEEP integrates established therapeutic principles with an embodied and intuitive learning process towards improved anxiety regulation skills.
betaCube: Enhancing Training for Climbing by a Self-Calibrating Camera-Projection Unit BIBAFull-Text 1998-2004
  Frederik Wiehr; Felix Kosmalla; Florian Daiber; Antonio Krüger
In rock climbing, discussing climbing techniques with others to master a specific route and getting practical advice from more experienced climbers is an inherent part of the culture and tradition of the sport. Spatial information, such as the position of holds, as well as learning complex body postures plays a major role in this process. A typical problem that occurs during advising is an alignment effect when trying to picture orientation-specific knowledge, e.g. explaining how to perform a certain self-climbed move to others. We propose betaCube, a self-calibrating camera-projection unit that features 3D tracking and distortion-free projection. The system enables a life-sized video replay and climbing route creation using augmented reality. We contribute an interface for automatic setup of mobile distortion-free projection, blob detection for climbing holds, as well as an automatic method for extracting planar trackables from artificial climbing walls.
Time Pressure as Video Game Design Element and Basic Need Satisfaction BIBAFull-Text 2005-2011
  Irem Gökçe Yildirim
In this experimental study, the relationships between time pressure in games and autonomy and competence were observed with two conditions (with and without time limit). Mediating effects of autonomy and competence between time pressure and intrinsic motivation, flow, engagement, performance, and enjoyment were also investigated. No significant difference was revealed except from flow where the participants in the experimental condition experienced more flow than those in the control condition. However, there were significant differences in flow and engagement between a subgroup of the experimental condition who failed to complete the goal in the game within the specified time limit, and other subgroups in both conditions who successfully completed it. The findings suggest that there may be an optimal time limit in which autonomy and competence are maximized, and thus intrinsic motivation, flow, engagement, performance, and enjoyment are promoted.

Late-Breaking Works: Interaction in Specific Domains

Negotiation as an Interaction Mechanism for Deciding App Permissions BIBAFull-Text 2012-2019
  Tim Baarslag; Alper T. Alan; Richard C. Gomer; Ilaria Liccardi; Helia Marreiros; Enrico H. Gerding; m.c. schraefel
On the Android platform, apps make use of personal data as part of their business model, trading location, contacts, photos and more for app use. Few people are particularly aware of the permission settings or make changes to them. We hypothesize that both the difficulty in checking permission settings for all apps on a device, along with the lack of flexibility in deciding what happens to one's data, makes the perceived cost to protect one's privacy too high. In this paper, we present the preliminary results of a study that explores what happens when permission settings are more discretional at install time. We present the results of a pilot experiment, in which we ask users to negotiate which data they are happy to share, and we show that this results in higher user satisfaction than the typical take-it-or-leave-it setting. Our preliminary findings suggest negotiating consent is a powerful interaction mechanism that engages users and can enable them to strike a balance between privacy and pricing concerns.
Rekindling Imagination in Dementia Care with the Resonant Interface Rocking Chair BIBAFull-Text 2020-2026
  Peter Bennett; Heidi Hinder; Kirsten Cater
In this paper we present the Resonant Interface Rocking Chair, interactive furniture designed for sparking the imagination of residents in dementia care. We show how the chair, sitting at the intersection of slow technology, reminiscence research and elder care, creates an environment that encourages storytelling, interaction and conversation between care home residents, family and staff. Our aim is to develop the resonant home, envisioning a future care environment that draws upon current research into resonant user interfaces to create an environment that is alive with subtle, playful and engaging interactions that support and stimulate memories and storytelling.
Endorsement, Prior Action, and Language: Modeling Trusted Advice in Computerized Clinical Alerts BIBAFull-Text 2027-2033
  Debaleena Chattopadhyay; Jon D. Duke; Davide Bolchini
The safe prescribing of medications via computerized physician order entry routinely relies on clinical alerts. Alert compliance, however, remains surprisingly low, with up to 95% often ignored. Prior approaches, such as improving presentational factors in alert design, had limited success, mainly due to physicians' lack of trust in computerized advice. While designing trustworthy alert is key, actionable design principles to embody elements of trust in alerts remain little explored. To mitigate this gap, we introduce a model to guide the design of trust-based clinical alerts-based on what physicians value when trusting advice from peers in clinical activities. We discuss three key dimensions to craft trusted alerts: using colleagues' endorsement, foregrounding physicians' prior actions, and adopting a suitable language. We exemplify our approach with emerging alert designs from our ongoing research with physicians and contribute to the current debate on how to design effective alerts to improve patient safety.
Let's Get Lost: Exploring Social Norms In Predominately Blind Environments BIBAFull-Text 2034-2040
  William Easley; Michele A. Williams; Ali Abdolrahmani; Caroline Galbraith; Stacy M. Branham; Amy Hurst; Shaun K. Kane
The ability for one to navigate independently can be essential to maintaining employment, taking care of oneself, and leading a fulfilling life. However, for people who are blind, navigation-related tasks in public spaces -- such as locating an empty seat -- can be difficult without appropriate tools, training, or social context. We present a study of social norms in environments with predominately blind navigators and discuss how these may differ from what sighted people expect. Based on these findings, we advocate for the creation of more pervasive technologies to help bridge the gap between social norms when people with visual impairments are in predominately sighted environments.
My Scrawl Hides It All: Protecting Text Messages Against Shoulder Surfing With Handwritten Fonts BIBAFull-Text 2041-2048
  Malin Eiband; Emanuel von Zezschwitz; Daniel Buschek; Heinrich Hußmann
We present a novel concept for protecting text messages (e.g. notifications) on mobile devices from shoulder surfing. We propose to display the text in the user's handwriting, assuming that people can read their own handwriting easier and faster than strangers. Our approach was evaluated in a proof-of-concept user study that revealed significant differences in reading time: Participants were indeed slower when reading the unfamiliar handwriting of the other participants compared to their own, and they tended to make more errors. Even though this effect was not present for all participants, we argue that our results may provide the basis for protection mechanisms applicable in real-world scenarios.
VapeTracker: Tracking Vapor Consumption to Help E-cigarette Users Quit BIBAFull-Text 2049-2056
  Abdallah El Ali; Andrii Matviienko; Yannick Feld; Wilko Heuten; Susanne Boll
Despite current controversy over e-cigarettes as a smoking cessation aid, we present early work based on a web survey (N=249) that shows that some e-cigarette users (46.2%) want to quit altogether, and that behavioral feedback that can be tracked can fulfill that purpose. Based on our survey findings, we designed VapeTracker, an early prototype that can attach to any e-cigarette device to track vaping activity. We discuss our future research on vaping cessation, addressing how to improve our VapeTracker prototype, ambient feedback mechanisms, and the future inclusion of behavior change models to support quitting e-cigarettes.
MelissAR: Towards Augmented Visual Analytics of Honey Bee Behaviour BIBAFull-Text 2057-2063
  Ulrich Engelke; Holly Hutson; Huyen Nguyen; Paulo de Souza
We present the design and current prototype implementation of MelissAR, an augmented reality system for visual analytics of honey bee behaviour in the field. The system is intended to support bee keepers and other relevant users to monitor honey bee populations and to make effective decisions based on their status. The implementation of MelissAR is based on informed design choices with regard to usability in the field, effective communication of relevant information, and robustness to varying outdoor conditions.
Practicing DIYBiology In An HCI Setting BIBAFull-Text 2064-2071
  Piyum Fernando; Matthew Pandelakis; Stacey Kuznetsov
Alongside an expanding community of non-professional biologists, DIYbio is beginning to emerge as a fledgling sub-domain of HCI. However, this emerging subdomain is yet to be in the focal point of a long-term investigation to identify the challenges and opportunities of designing interactive systems and tools to facilitate biological practices outside of professional setups. As the first step towards this direction, we carried out an autoethnographic study to practice DIYbiology, by setting up a functional DIYbio space inside our HCI design studio. In this paper we reflect on our auto-biographical experiences in practicing DIYbiology inside our lab space and discuss the challenges and opportunities for further HCI research in this particular subdomain.
ReWear: Early Explorations of a Modular Wearable Construction Kit for Young Children BIBAFull-Text 2072-2080
  Majeed Kazemitabaar; Liang He; Katie Wang; Chloe Aloimonos; Tony Cheng; Jon E. Froehlich
We present, ReWear, a modular 'plug-and-play' construction kit for retrofitting existing textiles (e.g., hats, scarfs, shirts) with interactive electronic and computational behaviors without sewing or the creation of code. While a range of well-designed e-textile toolkits exist (e.g., LilyPad), they cater primarily to adults and older children and present a high barrier of entry for some users. ReWear is part of a larger research agenda, called MakerWear, that is aimed at engaging younger children (ages 4-12) in the creative design, play, and customization of e-textiles/wearables. We discuss our initial ReWear prototype, contrast it with past work, and describe a preliminary evaluation.
Shop Together, Search Together: Collaborative E-commerce BIBAFull-Text 2081-2087
  Yanjun Gao; Madhu Reddy; Bernard J. Jansen
We present research on the development of a collaborative searching system for ecommerce shopping, based on domain specific requirements of retail shopping. We describe the design rationale for the system development and inclusion of collaborative search features, including search, chat, clipboard, product suggestions, shared views, and shopping cart. Our research goal is to understand whether collaborative searching tools are useful in supporting actual collaborative shopping tasks. In addition to describing the system development, we report findings from some preliminary user study. The findings highlight that collaborative search systems for domain specific areas such as online shopping can support collaborative searching, shared views, and group communication to aid in the completion of collaborative tasks.
Bending Blindly: Exploring Bend Gestures for the Blind BIBAFull-Text 2088-2096
  Matthew Ernst; Audrey Girouard
This paper explores the novel context of using bend gestures as a primary method of interaction for the blind. Our preliminary study assesses if this more tactile experience could enhance the usability and accessibility of technology for blind users, by comparing bend and touch interactions with simulated blind participants. Both input techniques showed similar results, indicating that bend gestures have potential in this context. We identify results that can help shape future research in this accessibility area, and potentially increase the overall interaction experience for screen reader based smartphones.
Exploring Haptics for Learning Bend Gestures for the Blind BIBAFull-Text 2097-2104
  Matthew Ernst; Audrey Girouard
This paper explores the use of haptic stimuli as non-visual affordances to assist in learnability of bend gestures. We tested 48 haptic Tactons with simulated blind participants to understand what haptic sensation could intuitively map to bend location and direction. We identify that a short, single motor Tacton indicates reliably a bend location, while participants agreed that the combination of two motors with varying intensities could indicate bend direction. This work is the first to explore the use of Tactons to communicate bend gesture location and direction, to eventually create a tactile interaction method for blind smartphone users.
Season's Greetings: An Analysis of Christmas Card Use BIBAFull-Text 2105-2111
  Daniel Gooch; Ryan Kelly
Christmas is the time of year when people reaffirm social connections through the medium of Christmas cards. Although much communication in the modern age is conducted via electronic means, many people continue to send and receive paper-based cards during the festive season. With a view to understanding practices surrounding the use of digital and paper-based media, this paper explores the use of paper-based and electronic Christmas cards among a sample of university students. We describe students' practices regarding Christmas cards, examining motivations of use and perceptions of value associated with paper and electronic cards. Our analysis leads to a number of potential opportunities for enhancing the perception of electronic alternatives to paper-based cards.
Identifying Opportunities to Support Family Caregiving in Chile BIBAFull-Text 2112-2118
  Francisco J. Gutierrez; Sergio F. Ochoa; Julita Vassileva
Once older adults become less self-sufficient, one or more adult children often assume the role of family caregiver. Unfortunately, this situation is usually perceived as stressful by caregivers. To better understand this process, we interviewed intergenerational triads: older adults, their adult children acting as caregivers, and their grandchildren. The study results show that the commitment of caregivers is quite strong regardless of the place where they live. In addition, the gender of older adults and caregivers affects the dynamics and complexity of the process. Through this study we aim to identify opportunities to support family caregiving, respecting the preexisting relations, attitudes, needs, and expectations of the involved stakeholders.
Towards Computer Assisted Crowd Aware Architectural Design BIBAFull-Text 2119-2125
  Brandon Haworth; Muhammad Usman; Glen Berseth; Mahyar Khayatkhoei; Mubbasir Kapadia; Petros Faloutsos
We present a preliminary exploration of an architectural optimization process towards a computational tool for designing environments (e.g., building floor plans). Using dynamic crowd simulators we derive the fitness of architectural layouts. The results of the simulation are used to provide feedback to a user in terms of crowd animation, aggregate statistics, and heat maps. Our approach automatically optimizes the placement of environment elements to maximize the flow of the crowd, while satisfying constraints that are imposed by the user (e.g., immovable walls or support bearing structures). We take steps towards user-in-the-loop optimization and design of an environment by applying an adaptive refinement approach to reduce the search space of the optimization. We perform a small scale user study to obtain early feedback on the performance and quality of our method in contrast with a manual approach.
Can DiCoT Improve Infection Control?: A Distributed Cognition Study of Information Flow in Intensive Care BIBAFull-Text 2126-2133
  Mustafa Hussain; Nadir Weibel
Inhibited information flow in Intensive Care Units (ICUs) can degrade patient wellbeing and expose hospital staff to hazardous conditions. To identify areas for improvement, we applied the Distributed Cognition for Teamwork (DiCoT) methodology and representational framework in a large hospital in the Southeastern US. We conducted ethnographic observations and interviews for 4 months, discovering systemic information flow barriers. This paper focuses on patient isolation status, which is put into place when a communicable disease is discovered, and how status propagation is sometimes delayed, increasing risk of Hospital-Acquired Infection (HAI). We use DiCoT to navigate the solution space, and propose introducing digital signs. Our main contribution is describing how DiCoT principles quickly led us to solutions to improving information flow in critical care. In future work, we will conduct further investigation, with additional design iterations.
BITxBIT: Encouraging Behavior Change with N=2 Experiments BIBAFull-Text 2134-2140
  Natasha Jaques; Travis Rich; Karthik Dinakar; Niaja Farve; Weixuan 'Vincent' Chen; Pattie Maes; Rosalind Picard; Kevin Slavin
In this work we introduce an experimental methodology and open-sourced web application designed to promote behavior change and wellbeing within a workplace environment. Colleagues are paired together and asked to design a Behavioral Intervention Technology (BIT) uniquely customized to suit their partner's behavior change goal. We present the results of a preliminary evaluation of the experiment, and suggest ways to further improve and expand our experiment design.
Evaluating Item-Item Similarity Algorithms for Movies BIBAFull-Text 2141-2147
  Lucas Colucci; Prachi Doshi; Kun-Lin Lee; Jiajie Liang; Yin Lin; Ishan Vashishtha; Jia Zhang; Alvin Jude
Recommender systems such as those used in e-commerce or Video-On-Demand systems generally show users a list of "similar items." Many algorithms exist to calculate item-item similarity and we wished to evaluate how users perceive these numerically expressed similarity. In our experiment, we performed a user study with four similarity algorithms to evaluate perceived correctness in item-item similarity as it relates to movies. We implemented three algorithms: collaborative filtering with Pearson, collaborative filtering with cosine, and content-filtering with TF-IDF. A pre-generated similarity list from TheMovieDB.org (TMDb) was used as the baseline. Our experiment showed that TMDb has the highest perceived similarity, followed by cosine and TF-IDF, while Pearson was practically unusable for users. A by-product of our experiment was a set of similar movie pairs, which we intend to use for offline evaluation.
Digital Neighborhood Watch: To Share or Not to Share? BIBAFull-Text 2148-2155
  Cristina Kadar; Yiea-Funk Te; Raquel Rosés Brüngger; Irena Pletikosa Cvijikj
In this paper we survey HCI research relevant to crime prevention technology and identify a research gap towards validating the hypothesis that technology supporting social interaction between users is more effective than pure information-based crime prevention systems. Towards this end, we implement two versions of a crime prevention information system called SALUS, and present the design and first results of a field study aimed to evaluate how variations in the functionality of such crime prevention technology can influence: (1) citizens' safety perception, (2) the local crime levels, and (3) user interaction and satisfaction with the system.
GazeTouchPass: Multimodal Authentication Using Gaze and Touch on Mobile Devices BIBAFull-Text 2156-2164
  Mohamed Khamis; Florian Alt; Mariam Hassib; Emanuel von Zezschwitz; Regina Hasholzner; Andreas Bulling
We propose a multimodal scheme, GazeTouchPass, that combines gaze and touch for shoulder-surfing resistant user authentication on mobile devices. GazeTouchPass allows passwords with multiple switches between input modalities during authentication. This requires attackers to simultaneously observe the device screen and the user's eyes to find the password. We evaluate the security and usability of GazeTouchPass in two user studies. Our findings show that GazeTouchPass is usable and significantly more secure than single-modal authentication against basic and even advanced shoulder-surfing attacks.
EcoMeal: A Smart Tray for Promoting Healthy Dietary Habits BIBAFull-Text 2165-2170
  Jaejeung Kim; Joonyoung Park; Uichin Lee
Dietary habits greatly influence one's health. Particularly, for the patients who suffer from metabolic syndrome, maintaining a healthy dietary habit is crucial to their health. In this paper, we aim to study the dietary behavior of such patients and design a system that can support their difficulties during food plating and eating process. We implemented a prototype to support the patient's eating speed, food portion control and calorie/sodium management. The preliminary evaluation results show both positive and negative aspects of our approach.
Investigating Instructional Pacing Supports for Teaching Students with Intellectual Disability BIBAFull-Text 2171-2177
  Rodrigo Laiola Guimarães; Andrea Britto Mattos; Carlos Henrique Cardonha
In this paper, we consider the use of technological instructional pacing supports to teach students with intellectual disability (ID). Based on a qualitative field study where 11 participants used our mobile-based educational platform, we found that although technology may help the instructor control the pace of the class, it also poses barriers to the development of students' autonomy and self-esteem. Our preliminary results also suggest that the balance between instructor-led and self-paced instruction based on technology is promising and would better fit both instructor's and students' needs. These findings provide insights into challenges and opportunities for the design of educational initiatives targeted at people with ID.
Helping Users Set Rules for Defining Short-Term Activity Goals BIBAFull-Text 2178-2184
  Jisoo Lee; Eric B. Hekler; Emil Chiauzzi; Auriell Towner; Marcy Fitz-Randolph
Goal-setting is a valuable behavior change strategy. For patients with multiple sclerosis, a variety of factors such as symptoms (e.g., pain, fatigue), environmental factors (e.g., weather), and mood can all greatly influence a person's ability to meet daily goals. Based on this, these patients and others with chronic pain, would likely benefit from strategies that could aid them in developing their own personalized physical activity goals that can take into account these factors dynamically. The purpose of this formative study was to explore this problem space via interviews and early formative prototyping of possible protocols to aid people in developing their own personalized and adaptive goals. Results from this work suggest interest in tools to support rules to help individuals define their "sweet spot" target for physical activity and further work appears warranted with longer studies.
ToPIN: A Visual Analysis Tool for Time-anchored Comments in Online Educational Videos BIBAFull-Text 2185-2191
  Ching-Ying Sung; Xun-Yi Huang; Yicong Shen; Fu-Yin Cherng; Wen-Chieh Lin; Hao-Chuan Wang
Online videos are widely used to share content for a variety of entertainment, educational and other purposes. To support social interaction, several video-sharing websites Including Ustream, niconico, and Twitch -- allow users to post messages while they are watching videos. As users' comments can be sorted according to the timecode of each video, this is known as time-anchored commenting. We propose a novel visualization method, ToPIN, which is able to analyze and categorize the topics and content types of users' time-anchored comments. We have also developed a visualization interface that combines the visualization techniques of ToPIN and ThemeRiver to generate additional valuable insights for analysts seeking to make sense of time-anchored comments. To test the utility of our approach, we visualized time-anchored commenting data from two online course videos and invited the course instructors to evaluate our system.
ReHappy: The House Elf that serves your Rehabilitation Exercises BIBAFull-Text 2192-2199
  Karin Coninx; Tom De Weyer; Ryanne Lemmens; Kris Luyten
Intense and frequent motor training is essential in persons with neurological disorders as there are MS and stroke. Technology-based rehabilitation has been proven to be beneficial for specific patient groups, as it shows to be effective on muscle strength and active range of motion of the upper limbs. Personalized training in technology-supported rehabilitation setups using motivational techniques such as serious games have the potential to make repetitive training efforts more endurable. Most neurological rehabilitation approaches suffer from a strict separation between training scenarios and activities in daily living, but have difficulties to bridge the gap between exercising on a functional level and performing on the level of activities in daily living. To improve the integration of motor skill training in a daily living context we propose an approach and proof-of-concept implementation of the training device ReHappy, a tangible character that engages patient in performing additional training that complements the daily activities.
Differences in Perceived Impact of Person-Centered Technology on Older Adults' Quality of Life BIBAFull-Text 2200-2208
  Galina Madjaroff; Helena Mentis; Judah Ronch
In this paper, we present findings from a survey of technology needs and perceptions of older adults that differ in their life course and current level of care needs. By using a framework from the aging sciences that focuses on supporting abilities and caring relationships of older adults, we examine six technologies, ranging from health to communication and social to creative. Our findings indicated that, although similar in age, participants' needs varied in level of interest in technology to support biological needs to those of social and spiritual needs. This highlights a culture shift that should occur within the technology for aging sphere as well -- one that addresses varying needs based on life course and other 'person-centered' characteristics as opposed to simply age-based.
SeismoTracker: Upgrade any Smart Wearable to enable a Sensing of Heart Rate, Respiration Rate, and Microvibrations BIBAFull-Text 2209-2216
  Marian Haescher; Denys J. C. Matthies; John Trimpop; Bodo Urban
In this paper we present a method to enable any smart Wearable to sense vital data in resting states. These resting states (e.g. sleeping, sitting calmly, etc.) imply the presence of low-amplitude body-motions. Our approach relies on seismocardiography (SCG), which only requires a built-in accelerometer. Compared to commonly applied technologies, such as photoplethysmography (PPG), our approach is not only tracking heart rate (HR), but also respiration rate (RR), and microvibrations (MV) of the muscles, while being also computational inexpensive. In addition, we can calculate several other parameters, such as HR variability and RR variability. Our extracted vital parameters match with the vital data gathered from clinical state-of-the art technology. These data allow us to gain an impression on the user's activity, quality of sleep, arousal and stress level over the whole day, week, month, or year. Moreover, we can detect whether a device is actually worn or doffed, which is crucial when connecting such data with health services. We implemented our method on two current smartwatches: a Simvalley AW420 RX as well as on a LG G Watch R and recorded user data for several months. A web platform enables to keep track of one's data.
Simplifying Overviews of Temporal Event Sequences BIBAFull-Text 2217-2224
  Matthew Louis Mauriello; Ben Shneiderman; Fan Du; Sana Malik; Catherine Plaisant
Beginning the analysis of new data is often difficult as modern datasets can be overwhelmingly large. With visual analytics in particular, displays of large datasets quickly become crowded and unclear. Through observing the practices of analysts working with the event sequence visualization tool EventFlow, we identified three techniques to reduce initial visual complexity by reducing the number of event categories resulting in a simplified overview. For novice users, we suggest an initial pair of event categories to display. For advanced users, we provide six ranking metrics and display all pairs in a ranked list. Finally, we present the Event Category Matrix (ECM), which simultaneously displays overviews of every event category pair. In this work, we report on the development of these techniques through two formative usability studies and the improvements made as a result. The goal of our work is to investigate strategies that help users overcome the challenges associated with initial visual complexity and to motivate the use of simplified overviews in temporal event sequence analysis.
Bridging the Physical Divide: A Design Framework for Embodied Learning Games and Simulations BIBAFull-Text 2225-2233
  Edward F. Melcer; Katherine Isbister
Existing embodied learning games and simulations utilize a large breadth of design approaches that often result in the creation of seemingly unrelated systems. This becomes problematic when trying to critically evaluate the usage and effectiveness of embodiment within embodied learning designs. In this paper, we present our work on combining differing conceptual and design approaches for embodied learning systems into a unified design framework. We describe the creation process for the framework, explain its dimensions, and provide two examples of its use. Our embodied learning games and simulations framework will benefit HCI researchers by providing a unifying foundation for the description, categorization, and evaluation of embodied learning systems and designs.
Using Persuasive Mobile Apps to Enhance Children's Health and Well Being: A Sri Lankan Experience BIBAFull-Text 2234-2240
  Omar Mubin; Jayathri Wijayarathne; Muneeb Imtiaz Ahmad; Athula Ginige; Roshan Hewapathirana
In this paper we claim that therein lies great potential in employing the use of persuasive mobile technology to improve nutrition and development monitoring of young children. A study based on urban Sri Lankan families was conducted to support the capability of a mobile app to supplement the existing paper based health record book. A number of interventions were deduced through user research that aimed to facilitate the self-efficacy of Sri Lankan parents. We present initial design concepts as software wireframes and the results from evaluating them with a set of 5 Sri Lankan parents. Our results show that parents were willing to comply with the recommendations of the mobile app. We conclude with future directions of the digital health book.
Not All Who Wander Are Lost: Smart Tracker for People with Dementia BIBAFull-Text 2241-2248
  Joy Ng; Haixun Kong
Wandering is a prevalent behavior for people with Dementia (PwD). Existing tracker designs disempower PwD as objects to be monitored by the caregivers. Inspired by human-centered multimedia computing (HCMC) that advocates the adaptation of machine with the user, we design a smart GPS tracker that will analyze human activity, adapt to individual wandering patterns, and subsequently employ Artificial Intelligence (AI) to facilitate safe and independent outdoor walking. With the system design also inspired by person-centered dementia care (VIPS) paradigm; this work-in-progress paper highlights the need to consider PwD as valuable individual that can engage in social participation through smart assistive technology. We describe the system design in this paper and highlight several design implications including the transfer of caregiver's power to the employed AI.
Effects of Simple Personalized Goals on the Usage of a Physical Activity App BIBAFull-Text 2249-2256
  Ashik Khatri; Dvijesh Shastri; Panagiotis Tsiamyrtzis; Ilyas Uyanik; Ergun Akleman; Ioannis Pavlidis
Walking is the most ubiquitous physical activity. Natural walking and other physical activity opportunities, however, have been declining in developed societies. This decline has been linked to the rise of obesity. Smartphone health and fitness apps aim to reverse this trend by motivating people to be more physically active. The core philosophy in many of these applications is to either promote user competition or set universal goals and overwhelm the user with information. We present a physical activity app design that is closer to a goal oriented approach but with a twist. This new design is based on minimalism, where simple targets are set in a personalized manner and social comparison takes a secondary role. Specifically, the app gives to the user a daily caloric goal to consume by walking or biking. The formula that computes this goal is based on the user's food intake, Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR), and Body Mass Index (BMI). Our hypothesis is that methods emphasizing simple and precise personalized directions have better chance than pure competition methods to keep users engaged. Results from a pilot comparative study render initial support to this hypothesis.
Dynamic and Interactive Lighting for Fashion Store Windows BIBAFull-Text 2257-2263
  Paolo Cremonesi; Antonella Di Rienzo; Franca Garzotto; Luigi Oliveto; Pietro Piazzolla
Smart light technology offers new dynamic and interactive capabilities that extend the potential of traditional lighting systems of attracting people and affecting their mood, emotions, and behavior. Our research explores smart lights in the context of shopping windows. The paper describes an extensive empirical study that has been performed for 5 weeks in a fashion store located a top-level shopping area in Milan (Italy). The data automatically collected from over 1 million people passing by or stopping in front of the 3 shopping windows of the store in three different lighting conditions (static, dynamic, and interactive) enable us to provide some empirical evidence of the potential of smart light technology to enhance the shopping experience in brick-and-mortar stores.
PaperQuest: A Visualization Tool to Support Literature Review BIBAFull-Text 2264-2271
  Antoine Ponsard; Francisco Escalona; Tamara Munzner
The literature review is a key component of academic research, which allows researchers to build upon each other's work. While modern search engines enable fast access to publications, there is a lack of support for filtering out the vast majority of papers that are irrelevant to the current research focus. We present PaperQuest, a visualization tool that supports efficient reading decisions, by only displaying the information useful at a given step of the review. We propose an algorithm to find and sort papers that are likely to be relevant to users, based on the papers they have already expressed interest in and the number of citations. The current implementation uses papers from the CHI, UIST, and VIS conferences, and citation counts from Google Scholar, but is easily extensible to other domains of the literature.
Keeping Watch: Exploring Wearable Technology Designs for K-12 Teachers BIBAFull-Text 2272-2278
  Rebecca Quintana; Chris Quintana; Cheryl Madeira; James D. Slotta
Emerging wearable technologies (or wearables) are promising in different contexts, but continuing research is needed to explore their utility. One such context is K-12 classrooms where teachers engage in "classroom orchestration" to manage activities and information, monitor student activity, and track their own curricular plans. In order to explore how wearables might support teachers with classroom orchestration, we used the Apple Watch as a technology probe where we co-designed three use cases with teachers. These use cases involved sending teachers activity notifications about student activity, lesson reminders about teachers' pedagogical activity, and allowing moment capture, where teachers photographed classroom events for further study. The technology probe illustrates how the watch fits with teachers' practice, and details teachers' new ideas for supporting classroom orchestration. We also outline design implications and objectives for wearable design.
Comparing Three Task Guidance Interfaces for Wire Harness Assembly BIBAFull-Text 2279-2284
  Mark Rice; Hong Huei Tay; Jamie Ng; Calvin Lim; Senthil Kumar Selvaraj; Ellick Wu
In this paper, we describe a user study that compared the design of three visual interfaces (i.e. Text, AR and a 2D Schematic view) to support the wire harness assembly of electrical wires in modern aircraft. Displayed on a portable iPad, 18 participants were instructed to route three sets of wires on a commercial aerospace formboard. Through video analysis, the results identified significant differences in the mapping time, and number of visual references made in viewing information on the three interfaces. In particular, a lack of graphical information in the Text, and camera alignment issues in the AR conditions demonstrated noticeable limitations in interaction. We briefly discuss these findings.
Design of a Human-Machine Interface for Truck Platooning BIBAFull-Text 2285-2291
  Shadan Sadeghian Borojeni; Thomas Friedrichs; Wilko Heuten; Andreas Lüdtke; Susanne Boll
Despite the advantages that truck platooning has for fuel consumption, road safety, and use of existing road infrastructure, it does not simplify the job for the drivers. Truck drivers have to maintain a reasonable level of situation awareness while having a very limited vision of the road and dealing with considerable amount of information. This paper presents the first iteration of the development process of a platooning human-machine interface (HMI). The results indicate what information is required to be presented to the drivers at each phase of platooning.
Multivariate Networks: A Novel Edge Visualization Approach for Graph-based Visual Analysis Tasks BIBAFull-Text 2292-2298
  Sebastian Schöffel; Johannes Schwank; Jan Stärz; Achim Ebert
Providing insight in complex networks or graphs with multivariate data is one of the main challenges for visual analysis today. Much work has been done for visualizing information on nodes, but the space in between has mostly not been used yet. We present the current progress of our approach for using this free space to visualize additional information. We developed two techniques called Partially filled Bars and Bars of Varying Height. Both techniques enable presenting multiple attribute values on the edges of a network simultaneously. We briefly discuss first use cases for such interfaces as well as advantages and disadvantages of both techniques. For proof the concept, a preliminary evaluation has been performed. The results show, that both techniques are promising for many use cases.
Supporting Pakistani Farmers Through Digital Means: An Exploratory Study BIBAFull-Text 2299-2305
  Syed Ali; Harris Durrani; Muhammad Naeem; Waleed Riaz; Suleman Shahid
This study identifies the core agricultural information needs of the farmers of central Punjab. A lean model is adopted to develop an image based touch application with minimal text to deliver information such as weather forecast, pesticides and fertilizer information. The usage of the application was then evaluated and results show that such an application is a viable option to deliver agro-information.
Sonifying Internet Security Threats BIBAFull-Text 2306-2313
  Akbar Siami Namin; Rattikorn Hewett; Keith S. Jones; Rona Pogrund
The Internet enables users to access vast resources, but it can also expose users to harmful cyber-attacks. It is imperative that users be informed about a security incident in a timely manner in order to make proper decisions. Visualization of security threats and warnings is one of the effective ways to inform users. However, visual cues are not always accessible to all users, and in particular, those with visual impairments. This late-breaking-work paper hypothesizes that the use of proper sounds in conjunction with visual cues can better represent security alerts to all users. Toward our research goal to validate this hypothesis, we first describe a methodology, referred to as sonification, to effectively design and develop auditory cyber-security threat indicators to warn users about cyber-attacks. Next, we present a case study, along with the results, of various types of usability testing conducted on a number of Internet users who are visually impaired. The presented concept can be viewed as a general framework for the creation and evaluation of human factor interactions with sounds in a cyber-space domain. The paper concludes with a discussion of future steps to enhance this work.
Is This Good or Bad?: Redesigning Visual Displays of Medical Test Results in Patient Portals to Provide Context and Meaning BIBAFull-Text 2314-2320
  Jacob Solomon; Aaron M. Scherer; Nicole L. Exe; Holly O. Witteman; Angela Fagerlin; Brian J. Zikmund-Fisher
We describe an ongoing effort to improve communication of medical test results directly to patients by providing important contextual information about the test results in a graphical format that is well suited to online patient portals. We undertook an iterative, user-centered design process to explore ways to design meaningful representations of test results. We present findings from this process that have important design implications for communicating test results via online patient portals.
In the Eye of the Beholder: The Impact of Frame Rate on Human Eye Blink BIBAFull-Text 2321-2327
  Benjamin Tag; Junichi Shimizu; Chi Zhang; Kai Kunze; Naohisa Ohta; Kazunori Sugiura
We introduce a study investigating the impact of high frame rate videos on viewer's eye blink frequency. A series of videos with varying combinations of motion complexities and frame rates were shown to participants, while their eye blinks were counted with J!NS MEME (smart eye wear). Lower frame rates and lower motion complexity caused higher blink frequencies, which are markers for stress and emotional arousal.
CompuWoven: A Computer-Aided Fabrication Approach to Hand-Woven Craft BIBAFull-Text 2328-2333
  Ye Tao; Nannan Lu; Caowei Zhang; Guanyun Wang; Cheng Yao; Fangtian Ying
Weaving is a traditional technology for making everyday products by hand that involves interlacing planar pieces to endow tough and pliable properties, (e.g., bamboo and stiff paper) to create 3D shapes. The technique has been extensively applied throughout history by various means, and is favored due to its low cost, accessibility, and environmental friendliness. Traditional weaving technology, however, requires accumulated craft expertise and actual production through numerous iterations, which is generally very time-consuming -- this limits its design aesthetic and ubiquitous use. Inspired by these problems, we present a novel hand-woven fabrication approach called CompuWoven to customize and weave 3D objects from planar pieces. The key idea is to establish an approach for producing 3D objects that is similar to weaving tradition, but without the need for manual experience. In addition, CompuWoven eliminates the former need for supporting structures, reduces actual physical material waste and allows for more complicated and irregular designs.
Lernanto: Using an Ambient Display During Differentiated Instruction BIBAFull-Text 2334-2340
  Erik van Alphen; Saskia Bakker
The emerging field of Learning Analytics (LA) promises to provide teachers with all types of data gathered real-time during lessons. This data could support teachers during differentiated instruction. A potential pitfall of providing teachers with such data on a screen-based dashboard, is information overload: comprehending the overload of information might decrease the valuable time available to attend to students. We present a pilot study in which data from Learning Analytics is provided to two secondary school teachers by means of an ambient display, called Lernanto. Semi-structured interviews, after a ten-week testing period, reveal that immediate access to learning analytics through an ambient display, next to using a LA dashboard, could result in teachers being able to distribute their attention more efficiently during lessons.
Mythologies of Business Intelligence BIBAFull-Text 2341-2347
  Nitya Verma; Amy Voida
We present results from a case study of the use of business intelligence (BI) systems in a human services organization. In their organizational trajectory towards a "culture of data," our informants perceived four values associated with BI: data-driven, predictive and proactive, shared accountability, and inquisitive. Each value corresponds to a mythology of big data and BI. For each, we highlight the ways in which the enactment of the mythology is problematized by disconnects between aggregate and drill-down views of data that often impede the desired actionability. Our findings contribute initial empirical evidence of the ways in which the epistemological biases of BI systems influence organizations. We suggest design implications for better enabling data-driven decision making.
A Wearable Social Interaction Aid for Children with Autism BIBAFull-Text 2348-2354
  Peter Washington; Catalin Voss; Nick Haber; Serena Tanaka; Jena Daniels; Carl Feinstein; Terry Winograd; Dennis Wall
Over 1 million children under the age of 17 in the US have been identified with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). These children struggle to recognize facial expressions, make eye contact, and engage in social interactions. Gaining these skills requires intensive behavioral interventions that are often expensive, difficult to access, and inconsistently administered.nWe have developed a system to automate facial expression recognition that runs on wearable glasses and delivers real time social cues, with the goal of creating a behavioral aid for children with ASD that maximizes behavioral feedback while minimizing the distractions to the child. This paper describes the design of our system and interface decisions resulting from initial observations gathered during multiple preliminary trials.
Smartphone Notifications in Context: a Case Study on Receptivity by the Example of an Advertising Service BIBAFull-Text 2355-2361
  Tilo Westermann; Ina Wechsung; Sebastian Möller
Notifications on smartphones are ubiquitous; they are providing a broad range of information, from rather technical (e.g. app updates) to interpersonal (e.g. a message from a friend). The disruptive nature poses the challenge of finding opportune moments for delivery of notifications, and receptivity to notifications depends on various factors that include perceived urgency and time of delivery. This paper presents a case study with 126,000 participants investigating the effect of the factor time on receptivity to notifications on smartphones in the context of an advertising service. Results show significant differences for weekdays and time of day regarding response times and number of notification-triggered application launches. We conclude with a discussion on the key findings and propose design implications for push notification campaigns.
Tableur: Handwritten Spreadsheets BIBAFull-Text 2362-2368
  Emanuel Zgraggen; Robert Zeleznik; Philipp Eichmann
The need for back-of-the-envelope calculations, such as rough projections or simple budget estimations, occurs frequently and oftentimes while being away from desktop computers. While major software vendors have optimized their spreadsheet applications for mobile environments their generality still makes them heavyweight for such tasks. We have built Tableur a spreadsheet-like pen- & touch-based system targeted towards these use cases. Our design revolves around handwriting recognition -- all data is represented as digital ink -- and gestural commands. Through a rethought cell referencing system and by incorporating standard math notation recognition Tableur allows for simple formula creation and we experiment with techniques that support pattern-based prefilling of cells (Smart Fill) and exploration of what-if scenarios (Reverse Editing).

Late-Breaking Works: Novel Interactions

Tangible Interface for Controlling Toys-To-Life Characters Emotions BIBAFull-Text 2387-2394
  Marc Antonijoan; David Miralles
The emerging games-to-life genre is gaining popularity in the computer games market. This type of games makes use of physical figurines that represent in-game characters, and permits the control of certain aspects of the game. This makes it possible for designers to create new types of game play that blend physical and virtual space. Play can be classified as intervention or performative [apperley2006genre]. In existing games-to-life games, the interactions that entail both spaces are performed only during intervention play. In contrast, interactions during performative play are still performed with standard controllers. This work presents a novel interface to be used in performative play. This interface is composed by a physical toy with an attached sensor device, and enables users to control the emotions of a virtual character. The interface has been evaluated with a user test. Results shows that it performs at least as well as a standard touch interface in several usability aspects.
Input Techniques to the Surface around a Smartphone using a Magnet Attached on a Stylus BIBAFull-Text 2395-2402
  Tetsuya Abe; Buntarou Shizuki; Jiro Tanaka
We present input techniques for smartphones using a stylus based on magnetism. Our techniques use a magnet attached on a stylus and a three-axis internal magnetic sensor in a smartphone. Using our techniques, users can input into a smartphone using a stylus on the surface on which the smartphone is placed. This enables users to employ a wider surface than the display of the smartphone for input. In addition, our techniques require no additional sensors on the smartphone. In this paper, we present two input techniques: nonelectric and electric ones. In addition, we describe our stylus for use with each technique and a coordinates-estimation algorithm we implemented. We also describe two applications: a digit recognizer and a paint application.
ThumbSlide: An Interaction Technique for Smartwatches using a Thumb Slide Movement BIBAFull-Text 2403-2409
  Shuhei Aoyama; Buntarou Shizuki; Jiro Tanaka
We present ThumbSlide, which is an interaction technique for a smartwatch that prevents occlusion caused by the user's finger; the technique realizes continuous manipulation by estimating the moving amount of the thumb. Combining with any determining operation (e.g., clench of the hand), our technique enables the user to select a target by only the hand that is wearing a smartwatch. Our system estimates the moving amount of the thumb by muscles' expansion caused by its movement. The muscle expansion is measured by a specially designed wrist-worn sensor device. Moreover, the device can recognize the clench of the hand as an instantaneous change of the wrist's contour. In this paper, we show the implementation of ThumbSlide and its example applications.
U ok?: Txt me the Colour of ur Mood! BIBAFull-Text 2410-2416
  Andra Balta; Janet C. Read
This paper describes a low-tech exploration of a mobile phone and wall display installation intended for use by teenagers to share moods and feelings using colours sent over a social installation. The exploration was with 22 teenagers who 'played' the installation using low-tech propos and then answered questions. The study found that the hidden meanings of the conveyed colours was one of the most attractive aspects for the proposed design and the wall display one of the least attractive items. The paper concludes with design pointers for the installation.
Privacy Itch and Scratch: On Body Privacy Warnings and Controls BIBAFull-Text 2417-2424
  Vikram Mehta; Arosha K. Bandara; Blaine A. Price; Bashar Nuseibeh
In the age of ubiquitous computing increasing amounts of personal data are being logged and shared, making privacy management a challenging task that must be integrated into our daily lives. In this paper, we explore the metaphors of 'privacy itch' for warnings and 'privacy scratch' for control of privacy preferences through real time, on-body, haptic interaction technologies. To assess the utility of these concepts, we implemented a forearm wearable prototype: the Privacy Band, and conducted a small lab-based user study.
SoundFORMS: Manipulating Sound Through Touch BIBAFull-Text 2425-2430
  Aubrey Colter; Patlapa Davivongsa; Donald Derek Haddad; Halla Moore; Brian Tice; Hiroshi Ishii
SoundFORMS creates a new method for composers of electronic music to interact with their compositions. Through the use of a pin-based shape-shifting display, synthesized waveforms are projected in three dimensions in real time affording the ability to hear, visualize, and interact with the timbre of the notes. Two types of music composition are explored: generation of oscillator tones, and triggering of pre-recorded audio samples. The synthesized oscillating tones have three timbres: sine, sawtooth and square wave. The pre-recorded audio samples are drum tracks. Through the use of a gestural vocabulary, the user can directly touch and modify synthesized waveforms.
PressTact: Side Pressure-Based Input for Smartwatch Interaction BIBAFull-Text 2431-2438
  Rajkumar Darbar; Prasanta Kr Sen; Debasis Samanta
Smartwatches have gained a lot of public interest as one of the most popular wearable devices in recent times, but their diminutive touch screens mar the user experiences. The small screen of watch suffers from visual occlusion and the fat finger problem. To address these issues, we present PressTact that extends interaction space beyond the watch surface to the sides of the device. It augments smartwatches with four pressure sensors -- two sensors on the left side of a watch and another two on the right side. It enables users to input different levels of pressure that can be used for bi-directional navigation (zooming, scrolling, rotation) on smartwatches. In this paper, we explore the pressure event based input vocabulary set. Our preliminary user study shows that participants can input different pressure levels (light press, medium press, and strong press) in discrete and continuous mode with an acceptable accuracy. Finally, we develop several example applications to illustrate the potential of the proposed technique.
Unconstrained Pedestrian Navigation based on Vibro-tactile Feedback around the Wristband of a Smartwatch BIBAFull-Text 2439-2445
  David Dobbelstein; Philipp Henzler; Enrico Rukzio
We present a bearing-based pedestrian navigation approach that utilizes vibro-tactile feedback around the user's wrist to convey information about the general direction of a target. Unlike traditional navigation, no route is pre-defined so that users can freely explore the surrounding. Our solution can be worn as a wristband for smartwatches or as a standalone device. We describe a mobile prototype with four tactors and show its feasibility in a preliminary navigation study.
The Interaction Material Profile: Understanding and Inspiring How Physical Materials Shape Interaction BIBAFull-Text 2446-2453
  Tanja Döring
This paper presents the interaction material profile, a novel structural approach that supports a material-centered analysis of how physical materials affect human-computer interaction from different perspectives and on different levels. Inspired by material dimensions as discussed in product design and in a material-iconographic approach to understand how materials create meanings in artworks, this profile defines a micro and a macro perspective on interaction materials and includes general as well as application-specific material aspects. It builds a model to compare and discuss the role of physical materials in existing user interfaces and serves as a structure to build a catalogue of selected interaction materials.
VRSurus: Enhancing Interactivity and Tangibility of Puppets in Virtual Reality BIBAFull-Text 2454-2461
  Ruofei Du; Liang He
We present VRSurus, a smart device designed to recognize the puppeteer's gestures and render tactile feedback to enhance the interactivity of physical puppets in virtual reality (VR). VRSurus is wireless, self-contained, and small enough to be mounted upon any physical puppets. Using machine-learning techniques, VRSurus is able to recognize three gestures: swiping, shaking and thrusting. Actuators (e.g., solenoids, servos and vibration motors) assist with the puppetry visible to the audience and provide tactile feedback on the puppeteer's forearm. As a proof of concept, we implemented a tangible serious VR game using VRSurus that aimed at inspiring children to protect the environment and demonstrated it at the ACM UIST 2015 Student Innovation Contest. Our 3D models, circuitry and the source code are publicly available at www.vrsurus.com.
Interacting with Connected Devices through a Drawable User Interface BIBAFull-Text 2462-2466
  Marc Exposito; David Miralles
The massive increase in connected devices and the opportunities they present makes it essential to give users a tool to manage the complexity of such systems. This new landscape creates the need to memorize multiple relations and connections, between different objects and their functionalities. Thus, a big mental load is required for the user in order to interact with these devices. In this paper, we present a novel approach using a drawable user interface. We explain the capabilities of drawing to interact with connected devices and how they empower users to define the functions of their system based on their personal, local and often task-specific needs. We also explore different applications for this type of interaction as well as its implementation. Finally, we discuss how to use our concept in order to design a drawable programming language.
User Attention with Head-Worn Displays BIBAFull-Text 2467-2473
  Niaja Farve; Tal Achituv; Pattie Maes
Recently there has been a surge of interest in wearable devices both in industry and academia. This includes the introduction of head-worn devices into everyday life. Head-worn devices have the advantage of containing a screen that is easily seen by the wearer at all times, in contrast with other device screens, which can be hidden in pockets or simply easily ignored. However, during certain activities it can be difficult to get the wearer to notice messages even when presented through head-worn devices. For certain applications, it may be important that the user does not miss a particular notification or warning. Not much is known about which methods work best to attract the users' attention in such situations. We describe results from two user studies to determine the best method to catch the attention of a user with a head-worn display.
MarkAirs: Around-Device Interactions with Tablets Using Fiducial Markers -- An Evaluation of Precision Tasks BIBAFull-Text 2474-2481
  Fernando Garcia-Sanjuan; Javier Jaen; Geraldine Fitzpatrick; Alejandro Catala
This paper evaluates MarkAirs, an interaction technique that uses fiducial markers to perform mid-air interactions. MarkAirs offers several advantages: the proposed technique does not require any tracking external hardware other than the front camera of a mobile device; it is robust even when the markers are partially occluded; and it enables precise 2D manipulations (translation, rotation and scaling). An evaluation study points to the feasibility and precision of the proposed technique and the perceived usability and subjective workload impressions of the participants.
FlexStylus: A Deformable Stylus for Digital Art BIBAFull-Text 2482-2489
  Nicholas Fellion; Alexander Keith Eady; Audrey Girouard
The FlexStylus is a prototype system that embeds sensors measuring analog flex input in a computer stylus. Through fiber optic sensing, the device detects both absolute extent and angle of flexion. The device was designed to allow these two channels of analog input, as well as derived parameters such as rate and relative motion, to augment the basic x/y functionality of a computer stylus. The goal of this augmentation is to improve a digital artist's ability to control their work through tactile manipulation, as well as expand the artist's range of expression and effects. We also introduce the use of flex input to create an additional pointing space, allowing for the execution of gestural drawing commands without moving the tip of the pen.
Projected Fiducial Markers for Dynamic Content Display on Guided Tours BIBAFull-Text 2490-2496
  Jonna Häkkilä; Juho Rantakari; Lasse Virtanen; Ashley Colley; Keith Cheverst
In this paper, we present a novel interaction technique -- combining mobile projection and visible, fiducial marker based information display. We envision it to be suitable for small groups e.g. for narrative playful experiences and for guiding in places where physical tags would be disturbing. This interaction technique, where one person (the guide) is projecting a marker and other users can read it with their mobile devices, enables in situ information delivery where the guide can control the dynamics of the situation. We present an example use case of using the interaction technique on a guided tour, and preliminary results from the user evaluation.
Grabrics: A Foldable Two-Dimensional Textile Input Controller BIBAFull-Text 2497-2503
  Nur Al-huda Hamdan; Florian Heller; Chat Wacharamanotham; Jan Thar; Jan Borchers
Textile interfaces can be ubiquitously integrated into the fabrics that already surround us. So far, existing interfaces transfer concepts, such as buttons and sliders, to the textile domain without leveraging the affordances and qualities of fabric. This paper presents Grabrics, a two-dimensional textile sensor that is manipulated by grabbing a fold and moving it between your fingers. Grabrics can be integrated invisibly into everyday clothing or into textile objects, like a living room sofa, while minimizing accidental activation. We describe the construction and the fold-based interaction technique of our Grabrics sensor. A preliminary study shows that Grabrics can be folded and manipulated from any arbitrary position, and it can detect 2D stroke gestures.
SolidNoise: Making Musical Robots BIBAFull-Text 2504-2510
  Jiffer Harriman; Matthew Bethancourt; Abhishek Narula; Michael Theodore; Mark Gross
This late breaking work submission describes the development of tools and techniques aimed to simplify the development and use of musical robots. We describe these tools and techniques as utilized to produce an event known as SolidNoise. The event showcased a series of automated instruments and musical compositions created for the robotic ensemble. Our developments are motivated by historical examples of automated instruments and our vision for musical robots in the future.
Evaluation of Callout Design for Ultra-small Touch Screen Devices BIBAFull-Text 2511-2518
  Akira Ishii; Buntarou Shizuki; Jiro Tanaka
Ultra-small touch screen devices tend to suffer from occlusion or the fat finger problem owing to their limited input area. Callout design, a design principle that involves the placement of a callout in a non-occluded area in order to display the occluded area, could eliminate occlusion. However, callout designs for ultra-small touch screen devices have not yet been explored. In this study, we conducted an experiment to examine eight callout designs for ultra-small touch screen devices. The results show that the selection speed was higher when the content of the callout was changed continuously, the error rate decreased when a pointer was displayed to indicate the touched position within the callout, and the workload decreased when the content was changed continuously. Further, the score that subjectively evaluates the performance decreased when the position of the callout was fixed.
Reporting and Visualizing Fitts's Law: Dataset, Tools and Methodologies BIBAFull-Text 2519-2525
  Alvin Jude; Darren Guinness; G. Michael Poor
In this paper we compare methods of reporting and visualizing Fitts regressions. We show that reporting this metric using mean movement time per user over accuracy-adjusted Index of Difficulty (IDe) produces more descriptive visualization. This method displays variance, which is more useful in understanding the interfaces, than an aggregated means-of-means approach using Index of Difficulty. We demonstrate that there is little difference in slope and intercept between the two methods, but has the potential to uncover wider goodness-of-fit coefficients which could allow for better comparison across experiments. We propose the use of quantile regression to report central tendencies as a trend, rather than box plots. The tools released with this paper can be used with any pointing device evaluation done with the FittsStudy program. The dataset released with this paper contains almost 25,000 samples, which can be used in future research for reporting or visualizing Fitts regressions.
Follow the Force: Steering the Index Finger towards Targets using EMS BIBAFull-Text 2526-2532
  Oliver Beren Kaul; Max Pfeiffer; Michael Rohs
In mobile contexts guidance towards objects is usually done through the visual channel. Sometimes this channel is overloaded or not appropriate. A practicable form of haptic feedback is challenging. Electrical muscle stimulation (EMS) can generate mobile force feedback but has a number of drawbacks. For complex movements several muscles need to be actuated in concert and a feedback loop is necessary to control movements. We present an approach that only requires the actuation of six muscles with four pairs of electrodes to guide the index finger to a 2D point and let the user perform mid-air disambiguation gestures. In our user study participants found invisible, static target positions on top of a physical box with a mean 2D deviation of 1.44 cm from the intended target.
HapticHead: 3D Guidance and Target Acquisition through a Vibrotactile Grid BIBAFull-Text 2533-2539
  Oliver Beren Kaul; Michael Rohs
Current generation virtual reality (VR) and augmented reality (AR) head-mounted displays (HMDs) usually include no or only a single vibration motor for haptic feedback and do not use it for guidance. We present HapticHead, a system utilizing 20 vibration motors distributed in three concentric ellipses around the head to give intuitive haptic guidance hints and to increase immersion for VR and AR applications. Our user study indicates that HapticHead is both faster (mean=3.7s, SD=2.3s vs. mean=7.8s, SD=5.0s) and more precise (92.7% vs. 44.9% hit rate) than auditory feedback for the purpose of finding virtual objects in 3D space around the user. The baseline of visual feedback is as expected more precise (99.9% hit rate) and faster (mean=1.5s, SD=0.6s) in comparison but there are many applications in which visual feedback is not desirable or available due to lighting conditions, visual overload, or visual impairments.
Investigating Interaction Techniques for State-of-the-Art Smartwatches BIBAFull-Text 2540-2547
  Frederic Kerber; Tobias Kiefer; Markus Löchtefeld
We present initial results from a comparative study targeting three different input techniques for smartwatches. We developed a prototype capable of two different mechanical input techniques, namely digital crown and rotatable bezel, as well as touch input. In a user study with 14 participants, we analyzed task completion time, error rate and perceived usability in a one-dimensional list selection task. Our results show that touch and digital crown are perceived as significantly more usable. Also, the digital crown technique is ranked significantly higher than the rotatable bezel in terms of user preference. Regarding task completion time, the rotatable bezel is significantly inferior to touch. In terms of error rate, no significant difference is observable. Overall, 9 of 14 participants preferred interaction with the digital crown.
Building Blocks for Designing Future Multi-Device Interaction BIBAFull-Text 2548-2554
  Yongkwan Kim; Hanbit Kim; Seok-Hyung Bae; SangJeong Lee; Chul-Joo Kim
The paradigm of the Internet of Things predicts that not only typical computing devices but also mundane objects will soon cooperate to achieve certain goals and communicate with users. In this paper we present a new way of designing multi-device interaction to accommodate diverse types of devices and relations among them. We first held a design workshop wherein participants created new multi-device interaction ideas by using device cards. We then analyzed the ideas in terms of the roles of devices, relations of devices with the user/environment, data type and data flow direction. Based on the findings, we identified 10 device roles and developed the corresponding diagram building blocks, each of which clearly visualizes its interaction partner and data flow characteristics. Our own investigation and additional design workshop showed that the building blocks along with device cards can help quickly create and improve multi-device interaction ideas with completeness.
Exploring the Layered Use of Transparent Display on a Large Tabletop Display BIBAFull-Text 2555-2562
  Chang Min Kim; Tek-Jin Nam
To extend the utility of a large tabletop display, in particular, to explore interaction opportunities using space-above-tabletop, we present an exploratory prototype TransLayer, a floating layered transparent display. It uses a transparent touch display held by an extensible arm structure to make a position adjustable floating transparent layer. TransLayer creates a unique in-between interaction space above tabletop display, where both physical objects and virtual data can be visually associated. We introduce hardware and software configurations of TransLayer and describe key features and explored applications which relates to medical data, architecture and graphic editing tasks. Based on our design experience and the preliminary study result, we discuss implications for extending the tabletop interface and further improvement. This work contributes to proposing and exploring the potential of a new type of transparent interface device for the tabletop computing environment.
Slowee: A Smart Eating-Speed Guide System with Light and Vibration Feedback BIBAFull-Text 2563-2569
  Joohee Kim; Kwang-Jae Lee; Mankyung Lee; Nahyeon Lee; Byung-Chull Bae; Genehee Lee; Juhee Cho; Young Mog Shim; Jun-Dong Cho
In this paper we introduce Slowee, a smart eating-speed guide system with light and vibration. Slowee aims to improve the user's eating habits by delivering right feedback in real time to the user while eating. We designed and implemented our system, Slowee, and conducted a pilot study to investigate the usability of Slowee and obtain feedbacks from the users. Although the number of the participants is rather small (n=10), the participants gave positive feedbacks on the potentials of Slowee. We expect that our device can help maintaining appropriate eating speed and chewing numbers for patients (e.g., those who have undergone esophageal resection) as well as for those who eat fast or chew less than the recommended number of times. As future work, we plan to conduct a long-term period study to evaluate the effectiveness of Slowee on the formation of an eating habit beyond immediate action improvements.
Natural Voting Interactions for Collaborative Work with Mobile Devices BIBAFull-Text 2570-2575
  Romina Kühn; Mandy Korzetz; Lukas Büschel; Christina Korger; Philip Manja; Thomas Schlegel
In collocated collaborative creativity work, such as mind mapping or other brainstorming sessions, a group of persons has to solve different tasks as well as discuss and decide on one of the various proposed solutions at the same place. Since mobile devices are increasingly used in collaborative work, these tasks also can be performed digitally. This work addresses the process of voting for one solution out of several proposals. We provide intuitive multi-device interactions for a seamless ranking and voting using multiple mobile devices. They each represent one solution to a given task. Our proposed voting interactions include turning devices and rearranging their order according to their ratings. We demonstrate the feasibility of our interactions by implementing an application prototype. They facilitate the involvement of mobile devices in collaborative work as well as the support of users during voting and ranking processes.
Finger Placement and Hand Grasp during Smartphone Interaction BIBAFull-Text 2576-2584
  Huy Viet Le; Sven Mayer; Katrin Wolf; Niels Henze
Smartphones are currently the most successful mobile devices. Through their touchscreens, they combine input and output in a single interface. A body of work investigated interaction beyond direct touch. In particular, previous work proposed using the device's rear as an interaction surface and the grip of the hands that hold the device as a means of input. While previous work provides a categorization of grip styles, a detailed understanding of the preferred fingers' position during different tasks is missing. This understanding is needed to develop ergonomic grasp-based and Back-of-Device interaction techniques. We report from a study to understand users' finger position during three representative tasks. We highlight the areas that are already covered by the users' hands while using the on-screen keyboard, reading a text, and watching a video. Furthermore, we present the position of each of the user's fingers during these tasks. From the results, we derive interaction possibilities from an ergonomic perspective.
Exploring the Front Touch Interface for Virtual Reality Headsets BIBAFull-Text 2585-2591
  Jihyun Lee; Byungmoon Kim; Bongwon Suh; Eunyee Koh
In this paper, we propose the front touch interface: a new HMD-embedded interface where users interact with the virtual world via a touchpad placed in front of the VR headset. To demonstrate the feasibility of the interface, we built a prototype device, and performed a user study on a selection task using a simple menu layout. Two new selection techniques, Two-Finger and Drag-n-Tap, were also explored to find the appropriate input method for the front touch interface. As a low-cost, light-weight, and low power-budget technology, a touch sensor can make an ideal interface for a mobile VR headset. With this novel front touch interface, we have devised a new design space of VR interactions.
Smart Ubiquitous Projection: Discovering Surfaces for the Projection of Adaptive Content BIBAFull-Text 2592-2600
  Fabrice Matulic; Wolfgang Büschel; Michael Ying Yang; Stephan Ihrke; Anmol Ramraika; Carsten Rother; Raimund Dachselt
Ubiquitous projection or "display everywhere" is a popular paradigm, according to which regular rooms are augmented with projected digital content in order to create immersive interactive environments. In this work, we revisit this concept, where instead of considering every physical surface and object as a display, we seek to determine areas that are suitable for the projection and interaction with digital information. After determining a set of requirements that such surfaces need to fulfil, we describe a novel computer vision-based technique to automatically detect rectangular surface regions that are deemed adequate for projection and mark those areas as available placeholders for users to use as "clean" displays. As a proof of concept, we show how content can be adaptively laid out in those placeholders using a simple tablet UI.
CubeLendar: Design of a Tangible Interactive Event Awareness Cube BIBAFull-Text 2601-2608
  Andrii Matviienko; Sebastian Horwege; Lennart Frick; Christoph Ressel; Susanne Boll
CubeLendar is an interactive calendar in the form of a cube, which provides an overview of the events, weather, time, and date. It is a computer device that integrates an attractive design and exploits rotation as an interaction technique to access different types of information presented on each side of the cube. CubeLendar is aimed to notify about calendar events via light and represent potential situations for spontaneous communication with remote co-workers. Moreover, due to its appealing design CubeLendar nicely integrates into the office environment as a pleasant enhancement. In this paper, we outline the design concept of CubeLendar, hardware design, and first usability feedback. In our future research we aim to extend the feedback modalities for our CubeLendar prototype and build a network of such awareness devices to facilitate spontaneous communication in spatially distributed groups.
Tangible Interfaces for Interactive Evolutionary Computation BIBAFull-Text 2609-2616
  Thomas Mitchell; Peter Bennett; Sebastian Madgwick; Edward Davies; Philip Tew
Interactive evolutionary computation (IEC) is a powerful human-machine optimisation procedure for evolving solutions to complex design problems. In this paper we introduce the novel concept of Tangible Interactive Evolutionary Computation (TIEC), leveraging the benefits of tangible user interfaces to enhance the IEC process and experience to alleviate user fatigue. An example TIEC system is presented and used to evolve biomorph images, with a recreation of the canonical IEC application: The Blind Watchmaker program. An expanded version of the system is also used to design visual states for an atomic visualisation platform called danceroom Spectroscopy, that allows participants to explore quantum phenomena through movement and dance. Initial findings from an informal observational test are presented along with the results from a pilot study to evaluate the potential for TIEC.
ProxiWatch: Enhancing Smartwatch Interaction through Proximity-based Hand Input BIBAFull-Text 2617-2624
  Florian Müller; Sebastian Günther; Niloofar Dezfuli; Mohammadreza Khalilbeigi; Max Mühlhäuser
Smartwatches allow ubiquitous and mobile interaction with digital contents. Because of the small screen sizes, traditional interaction techniques are often not applicable. In this work, we show how the degree of freedom offered by the elbow joint, i.e., flexion and extension, can be leveraged as an additional one-handed input modality for smartwatches. By moving the watch towards or away from the body, the user is able to provide input to the smartwatch without a second hand. We present the results of a controlled experiment focusing on the human capabilities for proximity-based interaction. Based on the results, we propose guidelines for designing proximity-based smartwatch interfaces and present ProxiWatch: a one-handed and proximity-based input modality for smartwatches alongside a prototypical implementation.
Using a Mobile Device Fingerprint Sensor as a Gestural Input Device BIBAFull-Text 2625-2631
  Anna Ostberg; Mohamed Sheik-Nainar; Nada Matic
With the spread of mobile device fingerprint sensors, there is an opportunity to allow interaction beyond biometric authentication on the same device. The fingerprint sensor can detect simple gestures, enabling an additional gestural input method. We conducted user research sessions with ten people to understand the usefulness of a fingerprint sensor that also functions as a gestural input device. We identified general user perceptions as well as reactions to specific gestures and interactions. We find that this concept has promise and point to gestures and interactions that can provide a compelling and useful new input method.
Exploring Interactions with a Flexible Tactile Device for Multi-Context Interaction BIBAFull-Text 2632-2639
  Sabrina Panëels; Steven Strachan; Hanna Yousef; Sylvain Bouchigny
The use of touch-based interaction now dominates the market as it enables a more natural form of interaction with our devices, but is largely limited to flat and rigid surfaces. The increasing availability of flexible interactive technologies offers us the opportunity to design devices that adapt to their context of use and opens up new avenues for the design of interaction on a flexible device for 'multi-context interaction'. In this paper, we present initial work in this direction through an explorative pilot study. Interestingly, the participants were rather influenced by standard tactile input gestures and envisioned using these for interaction while taking advantage of the flexible properties of the device for adaptation instead, either to the context or the object to which the device is attached (e.g. pressure input, positioning of the device and deformation).
Ringteraction: Coordinated Thumb-index Interaction Using a Ring BIBAFull-Text 2640-2647
  Sarthak Ghosh; Hyeong Cheol Kim; Yang Cao; Arne Wessels; Simon T. Perrault; Shengdong Zhao
The thumb has the unique property of being opposable to the other fingers and is thus used to perform specific tasks such as grasping objects, which cannot be done otherwise. In this paper we present an interactive ring that takes advantage of this biomechanical advantage, by enabling thumb-index interaction. We propose a set of gestures involving the coordinated movement of the thumb against the proximal phalanx of the index finger that we call bi-digit interaction. Further, we present several scenarios where performing bi-digit interaction is quick, easy and advantageous for users.
GazeLaser: A Hands-Free Highlighting Technique for Presentations BIBAFull-Text 2648-2654
  Oleg Špakov; Harri Siirtola; Howell Istance; Kari-Jouko Räihä
Presentation aids, such as the laser pointer, are commonly used in lectures and public speeches. Their effect on the audience has not been properly studied. We present an experiment that compares several pointer alternatives. One of them is GazeLaser, a new solution that does not need a manually operated pointer, but is based on the lecturers' gaze. It fares well in comparison, but comes second to the pointing tool available in PowerPoint. The experiment brings up issues that need to be taken into account when developing GazeLaser further.
Force Attraction Pen: A Haptic Pen with Variable Attraction Force BIBAFull-Text 2655-2660
  James Burnside; Ben Elgar; Sam Healer; Alexander Hill; Zac Ioannidis; Luke Mitchell; Paul Worgan; Anne Roudaut
We present the Force Attraction Pen, a haptic stylus that encourages the users to move in a particular direction by providing variable attraction force feedback based on their actions. The tip of the stylus is augmented with an electromagnet that can repel or attract the stylus to a metallic surface. By altering the polarity and voltage, we change the amount and direction of the force produced. The tactile expressions of the stylus may enable a higher grain of control during tasks such as tracing an image, performing selection, and other high precision tasks. In this paper we present the design and implementation of such a system, along with a formative study as a preliminary investigation into the haptic feedback generated by our system.
IStage: An Interactive Stage System BIBAFull-Text 2661-2666
  Christos Chacholiades; Cesar Flores Cano; Yuying Wang; Eman Meldah; Themis Omirou; Anne Roudaut
At present, performers need a technical team of experts to control lights, on-stage displays, and to actuate multiple devices simultaneously. All these activities have to be arranged in a complex choreography in order to allow the audience to experience the illusion of the interaction between these devices and the performer's movements. IStage is an interactive system that allows controlling the on-stage equipment through the use of body movements and gestures. The aim is to enhance the performance on-stage and at the same time to enrich the audience's overall engagement with the show. The project contributes by presenting a generic toolkit for artists; to enable interactive performances, as well as that it is cost-effective, easy-to-use, and easy-to-install. The initial prototype involves a Microsoft Kinect 2 used as the primary sensing device to track the body gestures, in combination with a sound impact sensor. IStage uses a set of output devices: a projector, led strips, a bubble machine and audio. Lastly, we also present the results of a formative study.
NotiFall: Ambient Sonification System Using Water BIBAFull-Text 2667-2672
  Alex Harman; Hristo Dimitrov; Ruisha Ma; Sam Whitehouse; Yiu Li; Paul Worgan; Themis Omirou; Anne Roudaut
This paper presents NotiFall, an experimental prototype of an ambient auditory notification system. NotiFall uses the sound of falling water to subtly notify users for non-urgent matters, such as weather alerts or emails in an unobtrusive manner. These sounds are controlled and altered in order to convey a wider range of auditory cues and information. Traditionally, ambient notification systems are application specific and are limited in the way they can transmit information. In comparison, NotiFall is easily programmable, suitable for a wide range of home and work environments, and makes use of both visual and audio cues in order to impart information.
DooBoo: Pet-Like Interactive Dashboard towards Emotional Electric Vehicle BIBAFull-Text 2673-2680
  Yea-Kyung Row; Chang Min Kim; Tek-Jin Nam
Research on electric vehicle (EV) has focused on technological issues, such as energy, physical structure and self-driving. It is important to consider how to enhance emotional user experience for the new generation of EV. In this paper, we propose a vehicle-applicable pet-morphic design strategy and a concept validation prototype, 'DooBoo' to support an emotional user experience of a personal EV. DooBoo is a pet-like dashboard system that applies the interactive characteristics of pet dogs. We illustrate three key potential scenarios: personal security, safe driving assistance, and vehicle information guidance. The preliminary user feedback showed the possibility of helping emotional driving experience with EV; they felt togetherness as it is another passenger, affection with the vehicle could grow, and it offered means of intuitive and visceral communication. We discuss implications of our prototype and study results for guiding emotional interactions with EV.
SPOCK: A Smooth Pursuit Oculomotor Control Kit BIBAFull-Text 2681-2687
  Simon Schenk; Philipp Tiefenbacher; Gerhard Rigoll; Michael Dorr
Gaze holds great potential for fast and intuitive hands-free user interaction. However, existing methods typically suffer from the Midas touch problem, i.e. the difficult distinction between gaze for perception and for user action; proposed solutions have required custom-tailored, application-specific user interfaces. Here, we present SPOCK, a novel gaze interaction method based on smooth pursuit eye movements requiring only minimal extensions to button-based interfaces. Upon looking at a UI element, two overlaid dynamic stimuli appear and tracking one of them triggers activation. In contrast to fixations and saccades, smooth pursuits are not only easily performed, but also easily suppressed, thus greatly reducing the Midas touch problem. We evaluated SPOCK against dwell time, the state-of-the-art gaze interaction method, in a simple target selection and a more challenging multiple-choice scenario. At higher task difficulty, unintentional target activations were reduced almost 15-fold by SPOCK, making this a promising method for gaze interaction.
Liquido: Embedding Liquids into 3D Printed Objects to Sense Tilting and Motion BIBAFull-Text 2688-2696
  Martin Schmitz; Andreas Leister; Niloofar Dezfuli; Jan Riemann; Florian Müller; Max Mühlhäuser
Tilting and motion are widely used as interaction modalities in smart objects such as wearables and smart phones (e.g., to detect posture or shaking). They are often sensed with accelerometers. In this paper, we propose to embed liquids into 3D printed objects while printing to sense various tilting and motion interactions via capacitive sensing. This method reduces the assembly effort after printing and is a low-cost and easy-to-apply way of extending the input capabilities of 3D printed objects. We contribute two liquid sensing patterns and a practical printing process using a standard dual-extrusion 3D printer and commercially available materials. We validate the method by a series of evaluations and provide a set of interactive example applications.
Force-enabled TouchPad in Cars: Improving Target Selection using Absolute Input BIBAFull-Text 2697-2704
  Mohamed Sheik-Nainar; Jochen Huber; Raja Bose; Nada Matic
Current automotive interfaces rely heavily on touchscreen interfaces which leverage simple and intuitive direct touch interaction. Since input and output are co-located, displays have to be positioned within hand's reach. When the display is outside the reach envelope, a touchpad has been used as a control device. Current implementation of touchpads in cars rely on a relative input method that requires a visual cursor and is known to cause distraction from primary driving task. Newer touchpads with force sensing ability are getting introduced in notebook computers. We propose to use a force-enabled touchpad with absolute mapping for target selection. We performed a controlled experiment as a first step towards assessing whether absolute mapped force input target selection performance can be comparable to direct touch input. Results show that target selection performance is not significantly different from direct touch input making a case for force-enabled touchpad usage in scenarios where the display is outside the reach envelope.
Investigating Accuracy of Tilting Operation on Wrist-worn Devices with Touchscreens BIBAFull-Text 2705-2711
  Keigo Shima; Kazusa Onishi; Ryosuke Takada; Takuya Adachi; Buntarou Shizuki; Jiro Tanaka
The tilting operation has been shown to be useful in expanding the input vocabulary of a small device; therefore, this operation could also be useful in expanding the input vocabulary of wrist-worn devices. In this study, in order to explore new design guidelines of GUI and operation methods for smartwatches, we have investigated the accuracy of the tilting operation for smartwatches. We conducted an experiment using a cursor whose position is determined according to the direction and angle of tilt. The result shows that the deviation in the x-axis (i.e., the inclination of the arm) direction ranges from -0.10 degrees to +0.07 degrees and from -0.10 degrees to +0.07 degrees under Seating and Standing condition, respectively; the deviation in the y-axis (i.e., the rotation of the wrist) direction from -0.12 degrees to +0.10 degrees and from -0.12 degrees to +0.09 degrees.
Towards a Pattern Language for Distributed User Interfaces BIBAFull-Text 2712-2718
  Ilya Shmorgun; David Lamas; Eduardo Mercer
Design patterns were initially proposed in architecture and later appropriated in software engineering and HCI. Over the years they have proved to be useful for modelling design experience in these domains. We introduce patterns for designing distributed user interfaces (DUIs) as an aid for HCI researchers and practitioners. The patterns are foreseen to work as building blocks meant for scaffolding the design process. We describe the procedure for collecting the patterns, as well as the effort undertaken towards development of a pattern language by identifying relationships between individual patterns and organising them into a hierarchy. Finally, an overview is given of the future steps for assessing the expressiveness of this pattern language for analysing existing and specifying new DUIs.
INTACT: Instant Interaction with 3D Printed Objects BIBAFull-Text 2719-2725
  Charles Hudin; Sabrina Panëels; Steven Strachan
The INTACT platform enables the instant addition of interactivity to any 3D printed object, with the aim of enriching and enhancing the interaction design process by eliminating the need to incorporate potentially obstructive sensor technologies. Using a system of force sensing combined with a digital model of the object; the system is capable of detecting a single touch, its position and the corresponding force of that touch anywhere on the object. In order to aid and encourage other practitioners to use such technology we demonstrate how to build such a system and describe two illustrative examples.
What can Doodles on the Arm teach us about On-Body Interaction? BIBAFull-Text 2726-2735
  Paul Strohmeier; Juan Pablo Carrascal; Kasper Hornbæk
The use of the skin as interaction surface is gaining popularity in the HCI community. To offer an alternative perspective on how we might design on-body interactions, we conducted a questionnaire asking if, how, and why people mark their skin. We found that visibility and ease of access were important factors for choosing to mark the body. We also found that while some participants consider marking the body as a private activity, most participants perceive such markings as a public display. This tension between the personal nature of on-body interaction and the skin as a public display, as well as hedonic uses of body markings, present interesting design challenges.
MonoTouch: Single Capacitive Touch Sensor that Differentiates Touch Gestures BIBAFull-Text 2736-2743
  Ryosuke Takada; Buntarou Shizuki; Jiro Tanaka
We show a capacitive touch sensor called MonoTouch, which differentiates taps, swipe gestures, and swipe directions. MonoTouch consists of only an electrode and a circuit. To differentiate touch gestures with a single electrode, we designed the electrode's layout to satisfy the following two requirements: (1) The number of responses is different between the gestures; (2) The response time is different between swipe directions. We then developed an electrode that differentiates taps and four directional swipe gestures. When our MonoTouch electrode is downsized, gesture differentiation accuracy decreases because a finger might cross two or more conductive parts. To solve this "Multiple Crossing Problem", we added embossments on the electrode surface. Our evaluation of the MonoTouch sensor indicates that using the embossments solved the "Multiple Crossing Problem".
Purpose-Centric Appropriation of Everyday Objects as Game Controllers BIBAFull-Text 2744-2750
  Kashyap Todi; Donald Degraen; Brent Berghmans; Axel Faes; Matthijs Kaminski; Kris Luyten
Generic multi-button controllers are the most common input devices used for video games. In contrast, dedicated game controllers and gestural interactions increase immersion and playability. Room-sized gaming has opened up possibilities to further enhance the immersive experience, and provides players with opportunities to use full-body movements as input. We present a purpose-centric approach to appropriating everyday objects as physical game controllers, for immersive room-sized gaming. Virtual manipulations supported by such physical controllers mimic real-world function and usage. Doing so opens up new possibilities for interactions that flow seamlessly from the physical into the virtual world. As a proof-of-concept, we present a 'Tower Defence' styled game, that uses four everyday household objects as game controllers, each of which serves as a weapon to defend the base of the players from enemy bots. Players can use 1) a mop (or a broom) to sweep away enemy bots directionally; 2) a fan to scatter them away; 3) a vacuum cleaner to suck them; 4) a mouse trap to destroy them. Each controller is tracked using a motion capture system. A physics engine is integrated in the game, and ensures virtual objects act as though they are manipulated by the actual physical controller, thus providing players with a highly-immersive gaming experience.
Mobile Phone Usage Cycles: A Torus Topology for Spherical Visualisation BIBAFull-Text 2751-2757
  Julie R. Williamson; John Williamson; Vassilis Kostakos; Keith Hamilton; Jeremy Green
In this paper we present a novel technique for visualising cyclical data on a spherical display. We developed a visualisation that represents axes such as weekly and hourly cycles with an interaction that is topologically toroidal but visually spherical. This is used to develop a natural, continuous interaction for exploring temporal patterns on a spherical display. We describe our implementation of this visualisation, explore a practical data set that captures longitudinal mobile phone usage [4], and discuss the advantages of spherical visualisation.

Late-Breaking Works: People and Contexts

Privacy-Enhancing of User's Behaviour Toward Privacy Settings in Social Networking Sites BIBAFull-Text 2758-2765
  Abdulhadi Alqarni; Srinivas Sampalli
Social Networking Sites (SNSs) are applications that allow users to create personal profiles to interact with friends or public and to share data such as photos and short videos. The amount of these personal disclosures has raised issues and concerns regarding SNSs' privacy. Users' attitudes toward privacy and their sharing behaviours are inconsistent because they are concerned about privacy, but continue sharing personal information. Also, the existing privacy settings are not flexible enough to prevent privacy risks. In this paper, we propose a novel model called Privacy Settings Model (PSM) that can lead users to understand, control, and update SNSs' privacy settings. We believe that this model will enhance their privacy behaviours toward SNSs' privacy settings and reduce privacy risks.
ABC: Using Object Tracking to Automate Behavioural Coding BIBAFull-Text 2766-2773
  Aitor Apaolaza; Robert Haines; Amaia Aizpurua; Andy Brown; Michael Evans; Stephen Jolly; Simon Harper; Caroline Jay
Video data of people interacting with devices contains rich information about human behaviour that can be used to design or improve user experience. As a first step, it must be interpreted -- or coded -- into a form that can be analyzed systematically. The coding process is currently performed manually, and it can be slow and difficult, and biased by subjectivity. This is particularly problematic when trying to obtain data that should be objective, such as the movements of a user in relation to a device. We describe Automated Behavioural Coding (ABC), an open source object tracking technique designed to log user and device movements, and then output positional data that can be used to model interaction. We validate the technique in a study of dual screen TV viewing, and show that the ABC tool is able to correctly classify the direction of gaze to the TV or tablet up to 95% of the time, in a fraction of the time it takes to capture this data manually.
Reflections on 5 Years of Personal Informatics: Rising Concerns and Emerging Directions BIBAFull-Text 2774-2781
  Amid Ayobi; Paul Marshall; Anna L. Cox
The real world use and design of personal informatics has been increasingly explored in HCI research in the last five years. However, personal informatics research is still a young multidisciplinary area of concern facing unrecognised methodological differences and offering unarticulated design challenges. In this review, we analyse how personal informatics has been approached so far using the Grounded Theory Literature Review method. We identify a (1) psychologically, (2) phenomenologically, and (3) humanistically informed stream and provide guidance on the design of future personal informatics systems by mapping out rising concerns and emerging research directions.
Thinking in Stories: Narrative-based Design for Higher-Level Thinking BIBAFull-Text 2782-2789
  Sourabh Bhangaonkar; Sharon Lynn Chu; Francis Quek
This paper addresses the use of storytelling as a frame-work to design systems that support high-level thinking. Specifically, we examine whether narrative-based visual design may help students to perform better in literature review & synthesis. A prototype system 'StoryTree' was developed to enable a user study with tertiary students. Initial results showed promise of the approach of narrative-based design for cognitive tools.
Design Opportunities for Supporting Informal Caregivers BIBAFull-Text 2790-2797
  Lilian Bernadina Josefina Bosch; Marije Kanis
This paper highlights key opportunities for technology design for informal caregivers who provide long-term in-home care. For this purpose, a study with informal caregivers was conducted, including interviews (N=4) and online questionnaires (N=34) based on holistic analysis of supportive technologies. These investigations provide a deeper understanding of the key opportunities in the design of technologies to support the caregiver, namely (1) making caregivers better informed and more aware of existing solutions (2) increasing awareness of the caregivers' own wellness; (3) cherishing the valuable, positive moments of caregiving (e.g. by capturing precious moments) and (4) encouraging meaningful social interactions among caregivers for strengthening social ties.
Crowdsourced Facial Expression Mapping Using a 3D Avatar BIBAFull-Text 2798-2804
  Crystal Butler; Lakshmi Subramanian; Stephanie Michalowicz
Facial expression mapping is the process of attributing signal values to a particular set of muscle activations in the face. This paper proposes the development of a broad lexicon of quantifiable, reproducible facial expressions with known signal values using an expressive 3D model and crowdsourced labeling data. Traditionally, coding muscle movements in the face is a time-consuming manual process performed by specialists. Identifying the communicative content of an expression generally requires generating large sets of posed photographs, with identifying labels chosen from a circumscribed list. Consequently, the widely accepted collection of configurations with known meanings is limited to six basic expressions of emotion. Our approach defines mappings from parameterized facial expressions displayed by a 3D avatar to their semantic representations. By collecting large, free-response label sets from naïve raters and using natural language processing techniques, we converge on a semantic centroid, or single label quickly and with low overhead.
Towards Understanding How Speech Output Affects Navigation System Credibility BIBAFull-Text 2805-2812
  Benjamin R. Cowan; Derek Gannon; Jenny Walsh; Justin Kinneen; Eanna O'Keefe; Linxin Xie
Navigation systems are widely used yet little is understood about how aspects of the interaction impact our assessment of these systems. Our work focuses on the speech output, exploring how accent and system errors affect our credibility judgements. Findings from a small-scale pilot study show that destination errors significantly affect user trust and competence assessments of a navigation system. People also rate navigation systems using speech output with a similar accent to their own as more trustworthy than a system using a different accent, irrespective of destination errors made. Future work looks to increase the scale of the study and add further conditions to explore the role of user nationality, accent and the geographical location being navigated on system credibility.
Smile or Cry?: The Impact of a Victim's Facial Expression on Helping Behavior in Emergency Applications BIBAFull-Text 2813-2820
  André Dahlinger; Felix Wortmann
Today's wide spread of smartphones bares high potential for the effectiveness of emergency or helping applications. But helping is a complex psycho-social process. This has important implications for the UI design of such applications. In our research, we tested the effect of a victim's facial expression (sad vs. happy) on a potential helper's willingness to help in an online scenario. We further investigated, how the facial expression interacts with another well researched social phenomenon: the bystander effect. The results of this early research were mostly not as expected, but reveal interesting insights that are discussed and that open an exciting research avenue with important practical implications when it comes to the design of digital helping systems.
Beyond Smartphone Overuse: Identifying Addictive Mobile Apps BIBAFull-Text 2821-2828
  Xiang Ding; Jing Xu; Guanling Chen; Chenren Xu
Current research on smartphone addiction has mainly focused on addiction at the device level. This motivated us to explore more specifically on app addiction. We investigate smartphone usage for college students using surveys, logged data, and interviews. Specifically, we adapted existing smartphone addiction assessment instruments to measure app addiction. The analysis of our data shows that social and communication apps are the top 2 most addictive categories among participants. Female and male participants show no significant difference in terms of smartphone addiction. However, female participants tend to report that they are addicted to more apps. The psychological factors associated with app addiction are different between app categories. For example, compared to communication apps, participants report that it is easier to withdraw from social apps, but more difficult to control time spent on them. Correlation analysis between app usage features and app addictiveness scores reveals that compulsive open times, usage duration, and regularity of usage are good indicators of app addiction, though response time to notifications has limited predictive power.
SoundGuides: Adapting Continuous Auditory Feedback to Users BIBAFull-Text 2829-2836
  Jules Françoise; Olivier Chapuis; Sylvain Hanneton; Frédéric Bevilacqua
We introduce SoundGuides, a user adaptable tool for auditory feedback on movement. The system is based on a interactive machine learning approach, where both gestures and sounds are first conjointly designed and conjointly learned by the system. The system can then automatically adapt the auditory feedback to any new user, taking into account the particular way each user performs a given gesture. SoundGuides is suitable for the design of continuous auditory feedback aimed at guiding users' movements and helping them to perform a specific movement consistently over time. Applications span from movement-based interaction techniques to auditory-guided rehabilitation. We first describe our system and report a study that demonstrates a 'stabilizing effect' of our adaptive auditory feedback method.
User Disbelief in Privacy Paradox: Heuristics that determine Disclosure BIBAFull-Text 2837-2843
  Andrew Gambino; Jinyoung Kim; S. Shyam Sundar; Jun Ge; Mary Beth Rosson
We conducted a series of in-depth focus groups wherein users provided rationales for their own online privacy behaviors. Our data suggest that individuals often take action with little thought or evaluation, even showing surprise when confronted with their own behaviors. Our analysis yielded a battery of cognitive heuristics, i.e., mental shortcuts / rules of thumb, that users seem to employ when they disclose or withhold information at the spur of the moment. A total of 4 positive heuristics (promoting disclosure) and 4 negative heuristics (inhibiting disclosure) were discovered. An understanding of these heuristics can be valuable for designing interfaces that promote secure and trustworthy computing.
Exploring Interaction Modalities and Task Allocation for Household Robotic Arms BIBAFull-Text 2844-2850
  Sascha Herr; Tom Gross; Michael Gradmann; Dominik Henrich
Human-robot interaction in private households demands easy and natural interfaces, as well as an understanding of areas of application. Two fundamental issues are multimodal interaction (i.e., multifarious ways of communication with the robot) and task allocation (i.e., division of labour between the user and the robot). We report on an explorative interview study that gathered users' requirements for multimodal interaction and gained understanding for task allocation in private households.
Three Personas of Potential High-Resolution Music Users BIBAFull-Text 2851-2856
  Hyejin Im; Nam Wook Kim
With advances in audio technology, high-resolution audio is becoming more affordable and gaining in popularity. This work qualitatively investigates on how people would experience high resolution music. We had a focus group discussion with music experts to identify six motivations for listening music and conducted an online survey with a hundred people who were asked several music behavioral questions for each motivation. We classified the participants into similar groups and finally selected 14 participants from the groups as diverse as possible, which include five high-resolution music users. From the diary studies and in-depth interviews with the selected participants, we constructed three personas of potential users of high-resolution music: 1) Leisurely listener who listens to hi-res music as a new hobby, 2) Music explorer who listens to hi-res music as a way of knowing the music, and 3) Artist maniac who listens to hi-res music when their favorite artist releases an hi-res version of the music. We also discuss design implications for high-resolution music download and streaming services.
Social or Financial Goals?: Comparative Analysis of User Behaviors in Couchsurfing and Airbnb BIBAFull-Text 2857-2863
  Jiwon Jung; Susik Yoon; SeungHyun Kim; SangKeun Park; Kun-Pyo Lee; Uichin Lee
Uber and Airbnb, two well-known sharing economy services, are facing conflicts with traditional taxi and hotel companies because these services have monetary benefits but are free from legacy regulations. However, non-monetary-based sharing services, represented by Couchsurfing, Inc., are free from such conflict and still successful. We investigated the distinctive user participation motivation of non-monetary-based sharing services versus monetary-based ones. Specifically, a comparative analysis of Couchsurfing with Airbnb was conducted via affinity diagramming from host profiles and guest review data. The human relationship, rather than a house, is discovered as the primary shared asset and the primary satisfaction feature for Couchsurfing users. This study gives an insight to prioritize human relationships as the main design concern while developing non-monetary based sharing economy services.
The WEAR Scale: Developing a Measure of the Social Acceptability of a Wearable Device BIBAFull-Text 2864-2871
  Norene Kelly; Stephen Gilbert
The factors affecting the social acceptability of wearable devices are not well understood, yet they have a strong influence on whether a new wearable succeeds or fails. Factors uniquely affecting wearable acceptability as compared to other technology include manners, moral codes, the symbolic communication of dress, habits of dress, fashion, context of use, form, and aesthetics. This paper describes the development of the WEarable Acceptability Range (WEAR Scale), designed to predict acceptance of a particular wearable. First, the construct "social acceptability of a wearable" was defined using literature and an interview study. Second, the WEAR Scale's item pool was composed, and reviewed by experts. Third, the resulting scale was administered to sample respondents along with validation measures. The data will be evaluated for reliability and validity, and the scale's length will be adjusted, culminating in a validated WEAR Scale useful to both industry and academia.
Exploring Motivations for Bitcoin Technology Usage BIBAFull-Text 2872-2878
  Irni Eliana Khairuddin; Corina Sas; Sarah Clinch; Nigel Davies
This paper presents an exploratory study focusing on user experience with Bitcoin technology. We describe interviews with 9 Bitcoin users and report findings related to users' motivations for buying and using bitcoins. Our initial findings capture three main motivations such as Bitcoin's predicted role in a monetary revolution, users' increased empowerment, and their perception of a real value of Bitcoin currency. We conclude with reflections on the value of these findings for HCI researchers.
Conflict Management in Multi-user Applications for People with Disabilities BIBAFull-Text 2879-2885
  Claudia Loitsch; Diana Hille; Gerhard Weber
This paper addresses the problem of personalizing user interfaces to individual needs and preferences of multiple users regarding accessibility. We present a study on conflicting configuration policies that need to be detected and resolved when devices and user interfaces are automatically adapted to multiple users to enable cooperative usage. 6 resolution strategies for setting conflicts are proposed and a validation with experts is described.
Supporting Retirement Socially and Musically by Technology: An Ethnographic Study of Local Community Musicians BIBAFull-Text 2886-2892
  Mao Mao; Alan F. Blackwell; Johanna M. Lukate; David A. Good
This paper describes an ethnography conducted to understand how people making the transitions to retirement engage in community music. We reflect on how people learn music and new technologies, how they interact, and what values they share within musical communities. We find that community music fosters social learning, and identify contexts in which time, space, individual differences and technology interact. The findings provide an understanding of musical and social practices of community music and the role of technology in retirement communities.
The Web Is Flat: The Inflation of Uncommon Experiences Online BIBAFull-Text 2893-2899
  Danaë Metaxa-Kakavouli; Gili Rusak; Jaime Teevan; Michael S. Bernstein
People populate the web with content relevant to their lives, content that millions of others rely on for information and guidance. However, the web is not a perfect representation of lived experience: some topics appear in greater proportion online than their true incidence in our population, while others are deflated. This paper presents a large scale data collection study of this phenomenon. We collect webpages about 21 topics of interest capturing roughly 200,000 webpages, and then compare each topic's popularity to representative national surveys as ground truth. We find that rare experiences are inflated on the web (by a median of 7x), while common experiences are deflated (by a median of 0.7x). We call this phenomenon novelty bias.
Does Social Endorsement Influence Physiological Arousal? BIBAFull-Text 2900-2905
  Soo Youn Oh; Soohee Kim
Endorsement cues on social media (e.g., "Trending", "Like"s or "Retweet"s) lead to greater interest in the content [6]. This preliminary study explores how the perceived social endorsement of both stimulating and non-stimulating content influences physiological arousal (skin conductance level). Stimulating pictures triggered more physiological arousal than non-stimulating pictures, but only when the picture was framed as a "trending" picture. When the picture was labeled as a "non-trending" picture, non-stimulating pictures induced higher levels of physiological arousal than stimulating pictures. The present study lends insight into how people respond to endorsement cues on social media from an affective level. More importantly, it shows that endorsement on social media is not the panacea for receiving attention; the inherent nature of the content plays a critical role in how social cues are perceived.
Running: A Flexible Situated Study BIBAFull-Text 2906-2914
  Elizaveta Temir; Aisling Ann O'Kane; Paul Marshall; Ann Blandford
This paper describes a situated study of personal informatics applications for running that had to be conducted in a flexible and pragmatic way to adjust for the context of use. A qualitative situated study highlighted important differences in runners' motivations, uncovering markedly different uses and preferences between people who run either for health or for pleasure, but also underscored how the physical nature of the interaction impacted data collection. By adjusting the method to be sensitive to the physical nature of the interaction and the preferences of the participants, a pragmatic situated approach provided insights into how these technologies are actually used.
Towards Reusable Personas for Everyday Design BIBAFull-Text 2915-2922
  Ciarán O'Leary; Fred Mtenzi; Claire McAvinia
Personas are artificial character based representations of user goals, attitudes, motivations and abilities which enable designers to focus their design efforts on key, targeted users. The success of personas in design is due to their capacity to enable designers to empathize with users and understand user goals. Persona development is rooted in the rigorous collection and analysis of data specifically related to the design project being undertaken. New design projects thus require the development of new personas. Since redevelopment is not always achievable attention has turned towards reuse of personas and the underlying data. This paper reports on ongoing research into the development of reusable personas for use by non-expert, everyday designers. Such designers are regularly faced with small scale but diverse design challenges for which they cannot carry out user research and modelling. They can, however, make use of general, reusable personas developed independently of their current design project.
Accept the Banana: Exploring Incidental Cognitive Bias Modification Techniques on Smartphones BIBAFull-Text 2923-2931
  Charlie Pinder; Rowanne Fleck; Rosa Lilia Segundo Díaz; Russell Beale; Robert J. Hendley
Cognitive Bias Modification (CBM) techniques show promise in psychology as an attitude, affect and/or behaviour change technique, but have yet to be implemented or evaluated extensively on smartphones. We present a pilot study exploring appropriate gestures for accepting and rejecting healthy eating stimuli on smartphones and apply them in an incidental, unobtrusive way within a smartphone screen shown at unlock time. Our main finding is evidence that a short course of incidental smartphone CBM alters some measures of food attitudes. We suggest a programme of future research to explore the area further, informed by our results and a related user survey.
Don't Kick the Habit: The Role of Dependency in Habit Formation Apps BIBAFull-Text 2932-2939
  Ian Renfree; Daniel Harrison; Paul Marshall; Katarzyna Stawarz; Anna Cox
Habit formation apps are intended to help instigate and maintain new behaviors. Prior research has established that these apps mostly do not support the theoretical 'habit' construct defined in psychology, yet are generally popular and well reviewed in app stores. This apparent mismatch between theory and 'in-the-wild' usage has not been investigated to date. Through an in-depth qualitative study of a popular application Lift, this research establishes that common techniques such as reminders and streaks are effective at supporting repetition of new behaviors, but at the same time create a dependency: on-going app use is often required to achieve lasting change. This dependency introduces fragility in users' attempts to change their behavior, as they often abandon the app and subsequently disengage with their new behaviors.
Measuring Trust: The Simpler the Better? BIBAFull-Text 2940-2946
  Denise Christine Rieser; Orlando Bernhard
To this date the majority of the existing instruments to measure trustworthiness in an online context are based on Likert scaling [1,3,11]. These however are somewhat restricted in applicability. Statements formed in Likert scaling are typically addressing one specific website. Therefore, adjusting these statements for other websites can be accompanied with a loss of validity. To meet these limitations, we propose to use semantic differential. Research has shown that using semantic differential is appropriate to measure multidimensional constructs [8,12] such as trust. Our novel approach in measuring trustworthiness exceeds Likert based scaling in its effortless application in different online context and its better translatability. After one pre-study and two online-studies with a total of 554 participants we achieved to develop a questionnaire with nine items which is comparable to other existing questionnaires in terms of reliability and internal consistency. But it overcomes the limitation of Likert scale based questionnaire.
Life Review in End of Life Care: A Practitioner's Perspective BIBAFull-Text 2947-2953
  Corina Sas; Shuang Ren; Alina Coman; Sarah Clinch; Nigel Davies
This paper presents an exploratory study of life review as a therapeutic technique performed in the end of life care. We describe interviews with four therapists practicing life review and discuss initial findings showing the benefits of closure and empowerment for patients' emotional wellbeing. Findings also highlight the importance of reflective remembering in life review, together with the challenge of recalling details of significant life events, and of their emotional processing. Another finding relates to the current limited use of technology for end of life review, with an emphasis of printed photos, music and significant objects for supporting recall of key events. Our findings led to design implications for supporting the construction of life review and the recording of life review process. We conclude with a discussion of the challenges of life review in end of life care and of the need to explore such digital tools to support it.
Understanding Colour Impact on Warning Messages: Evidence from US and India BIBAFull-Text 2954-2960
  Mario Silic
The objective of this work in progress is to understand how colour affects users' decision-making processes in the context of warning banner messages. So far, little research has examined this complex process wherein the psychology of colour can play an important role in the relationship between the warning message and the user's decision-making process. More precisely, we intend to understand how different colors (black, blue, yellow, red, green, white) influence users' attention in two different cultural settings (US and India). We conducted online experiments and evaluated user actual behaviours through survival techniques. Our work aims to offer important new insights on the role of colour in the human-warning interaction across different cultures.
Investigating Effects of Exergames on Exercise Intentions among Young-Old and Old-Old BIBAFull-Text 2961-2968
  Xuexin Xu; Yin-Leng Theng; Jinhui Li; Pham Tan Phat
This study examined the effects of exergames have on the elderly's exercise intentions, and analyzed the difference between young-old and old-old cohorts. A three-week quasi-experiment (N=24) was conducted. Results of a two-way ANOVA showed a significant positive change in exercise intentions among the young-old after playing exergames, whereas exercise intentions among the old-old remained unchanged. Another two-way ANOVA showed little significant interaction effects between exergames and gender. The paper further discussed the design implications and appropriate interventions which promote active ageing via exergames for the young-old and old-old cohorts.

Late-Breaking Works: Usable, Useful, and Desirable

Confirmation Responses: In-context, Visible, & Predictable Design versus Popup Windows BIBAFull-Text 2969-2975
  Evgeniy Abdulin; Dorrit Billman
Protecting users and the systems they use from slips is an open problem, which popup windows have not solved. We propose a new approach to action confirmation or cancellation based on three key design principles: in-context presentation, predictability, and visibility. In an experiment that compared an initial design based on this approach to traditional popup windows, this design reduced execution time without significant increase in slips. Providing information in accord with the proposed principles and application to preventing slips should be explored in future research.
Understanding Nurses' Perception Regarding the Use of NFC Application During Medication Administration BIBAFull-Text 2976-2983
  Maali Alabdulhafith; Abdulhadi Alqarni; Srinivas Sampalli
Near Field Communication is an effective short-range wireless technology that has been used to securely identify objects. While many healthcare domains have benefited from the use of NFC, it currently is in limited use in medication administration in hospitals. The long-term objectives of this research are to ease and enhance the process of medication administration through designing an NFC-based framework for checking the five rights of medication administration. Before we can design such a framework, we must first understand the nurses' perception regarding the use of the NFC technology during the medication administration process. Second, we must gather recommendations that can be used as guidelines to design the framework. Therefore, in this paper we present a usability testing of a small sample of the framework to help reach these objectives.
Usability and Effectiveness Evaluation of Adaptivity in E-Learning Systems BIBAFull-Text 2984-2991
  Mohammad Alshammari; Rachid Anane; Robert J. Hendley
Designing effective and usable adaptive e-learning systems represents a challenge because of the complexity which arises when meeting the needs of learners. This is compounded by the lack of well-designed experimental evaluations of adaptive e-learning systems in general, and of their usability and effectiveness in particular. This paper offers an experimental evaluation of the effect of adaptation, taking into account both the perceived usability level and learning effectiveness. A controlled experiment was conducted with 75 participants and produced significant results. They indicate that an adaptive version has a significantly higher level of perceived usability and of learning effectiveness than a non-adaptive version.
A Phrase Set for Bengali Text Entry Evaluations Based on Actual Text Messages BIBAFull-Text 2992-2998
  Ahmed Sabbir Arif; Sarah Fardeen
User studies evaluating text entry techniques usually require participants to transcribe phrases. Yet at present, there is no dataset available for Bengali text entry research that includes phrases entered on mobile devices. This forces researchers to collect phrases from various sources, compromising the external validity of the work. In this paper, we present a set of Bengali phrases composed by real users on actual mobile devices. Through an analysis of the dataset, we show that it contains phrases with varying lengths, symbols, and numbers.
Comparison of Kansei Engineering and AttrakDiff to Evaluate Kitchen Products BIBAFull-Text 2999-3005
  Nigel Bevan; Zhengjie Liu; Cathy Barnes; Marc Hassenzahl; Weijie Wei
Kansei Engineering can be used to create scales to measure perceptions and evaluations of products in a particular context. To what extent do specifically constructed Kansei scales reveal more information about a product than a more generic, prestructured instrument, such as AttrakDiff? This case study identified relevant affective and pragmatic Kansei attributes that influence the purchase of a range hood (cooker hood). 102 customers rated the extent to which each of 10 range hoods possessed these attributes. In addition, AttrakDiff was used to measure hedonic and pragmatic quality perceptions. There was a general high correspondence between AttrakDiff and Kansei. While Kansei provided richer and more specific feedback, it was more resource intensive to carry out.
Between the Lines: A Comparative Study of Freeform-Based Knowledge-Map-Creation with Paper and Tablet BIBAFull-Text 3006-3012
  Marius Brade; Anja Sehl; Rainer Groh
Our research question is: can digital media work as a substitute for traditional pen-and-paper, and can it enhance or support our thinking process? Affordances of paper versus digital and in particular around sketching have been largely discussed in the past. People often prefer pen and paper or whiteboards to software when it comes to the early stages of sensemaking tasks. Nowadays pen-enabled tablet-PCs are supposed to offer a sketching experience similar to pen and paper with good computation power and the ability to respond in real-time to user interactions. Therefore the question arises: how should pen-based interaction and user interfaces be designed to be more productive than pen and paper? We created a prototype tablet application called SketchViz focusing on easy restructuring of information for users and conducted a study comparing both the interactions and visual representations of 25 participants performing a given task using either pen and paper or SketchViz. The results show, that the visual representations made using the prototype were very similar to those made using pen and paper. Users especially liked the way the application allowed them to change size and position of drawn objects on the virtual canvas (which is different from current tools). They also mentioned having a better possibility to switch between detail and overview. Mainly due to technical problems, working with pen and paper was rated easier and was less time consuming. We conclude that if these problems are fixed, SketchViz will offer an interesting starting point for a digital alternative to pen and paper for the early stages of sensemaking tasks.
Identifying Experience Categories to Design for Positive Experiences with Technology at Work BIBAFull-Text 3013-3020
  Katharina M. Zeiner; Magdalena Laib; Katharina Schippert; Michael Burmester
In order to create positive experiences with technology at work we have go gain a better understanding of positive experiences at work in general. Here we describe how experience interviews can be used to distill experience categories that capture the essence of clusters of positive experiences at work. These experience categories can then form the basis of new positive experiences with technology at work. This process allows practitioners to draw from the wealth of positive experiences in areas that easily lend themselves to those experiences and apply them to areas that might not have been the focus of positive design so far. We find 21 distinct experience categories for situations at work and show how they can be applied when creating concepts for situations involving technology.
Using the Kano Model to Balance Delight and Frustration for an Enterprise Application BIBAFull-Text 3021-3027
  Jinghui Cheng; James Mulholland; Anil Shankar
We evaluated the Kano model to directly incorporate user opinion and perception to prioritize usability issues in two user studies for an enterprise application. Our analysis shows that the Kano measure of delight versus frustration provided richer and more actionable information when compared to traditional usability metrics such as task times, task success, and the ranking of usability issues based on severity. We also found that comparing to the one-dimensional view of the self-stated importance ratings, the Kano method was able to create richer conversation when analyzing the value of fixing the usability issues. Based on these findings, we recommend that product design practitioners incorporate end-user delight and frustration with the Kano method to help prioritize usability issues.
Correcting Exercise Form Using Body Tracking BIBAFull-Text 3028-3034
  Caleb Conner; Gene Michael Poor
In the past twenty years, there have been little to no advances in technology used for free weight exercises. However, with the advances of computer vision and the availability of technology such as the XBox Kinect, having computer assisted exercises are a definite possibility for gym experiences. In this paper we examine the possibility of using a real-time correcting tool for a user's form while performing a free weight exercise. The squat exercise was chosen because it is easily track-able due to its rigid and specific set of form specifications that allow it to be easily corrected. Through our pilot study we showed that a user could learn how to correctly perform an exercise and correct their form by using the feedback provided by our software.
Misplaced Trust: A Bias in Human-Machine Trust Attribution -- In Contradiction to Learning Theory BIBAFull-Text 3035-3041
  Dan Conway; Fang Chen; Kun Yu; Jianlong Zhou; Richard Morris
Human-machine trust is a critical mitigating factor in many HCI instances. Lack of trust in a system can lead to system disuse whilst over-trust can lead to inappropriate use. Whilst human-machine trust has been examined extensively from within a technico-social framework, few efforts have been made to link the dynamics of trust within a steady-state operator-machine environment to the existing literature of the psychology of learning. We set out to recreate a commonly reported learning phenomenon within a trust acquisition environment: Users learning which algorithms can and cannot be trusted to reduce traffic in a city. We failed to replicate (after repeated efforts) the learning phenomena of "blocking", resulting in a finding that people consistently make a very specific error in trust assignment to cues in conditions of uncertainty. This error can be seen as a cognitive bias and has important implications for HCI.
Automatic Body Part Measurement of Dressed Humans Using Single RGB-D Camera BIBAFull-Text 3042-3048
  Camila Dorin; Barak Hurwitz
In the near future online shopping might be the main channel to purchase clothes. However, it is often problematic to buy clothes without trying them first. We present a novel methodology to measure human body parts that allows users to wear loose clothes during this process. This allows anyone at home or on the go to measure themselves and use the results with their 3D model to comfortably shop online. Reducing the risk of buying clothes that will not fit and making the online shopping experience more satisfying. We first scan the user on a single pose that allows better visualization of the waist and then measure four parts: chest, waist and low hip girths and height. Then, we use an API to compute the rest of the measurements. Clothes sizes differ in 4 to 5 cm and our results indicate an offset error of less than 4 cm. Hence, meeting our target immersive shopping use cases.
cTed: Advancing Selection Mechanisms in Web Browsers BIBAFull-Text 3049-3055
  Philipp Eichmann; Hyunchang Song; Emanuel Zgraggen
Selecting fragments of content on websites, such as text, lists, tables and images, and copying them to note-taking applications or word processors is a common task for information workers. However, web browsers only offer crude support for selections due to the restrictive underlying HTML/CSS model, making it difficult and sometimes even impossible for users to select and copy content. In this paper, we present cTed, a web browser plugin that allows for selection gestures to be drawn directly onto websites. Our plugin intelligently maps selection gestures to underlying HTML content and thereby enables users to more intuitively mark and extract regions of websites while preserving textual and semantic information.
Usability of Lightweight Defibrillators for UAV Delivery BIBAFull-Text 3056-3061
  Mathias Fleck
This case study describes a usability assessment of lightweight automated external defibrillators (AEDs) in an exploration of how AEDs might safely integrate within an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) delivery system to rapidly treat victims of cardiac arrest. Untrained laypersons were asked to use an AED in a simulated cardiac arrest scenario in either standard or UAV-delivery scenarios. The impact of device-specific customization of emergency operator instruction was also evaluated.
Presentation Strategies for Micro-Navigation in the Physical World BIBAFull-Text 3062-3068
  Nur Al-huda Hamdan; Marcel Lahaye; Christian Corsten; Jan Borchers
This work provides first insights into supporting hierarchical micro-navigation in the physical world in a manner relevant to AR systems. In this paper, we study the performance of two presentation strategies in tasks that involve navigating to an object inside a hierarchy of physical containers within the user's reach. We consider two types of navigation aids: Those that provide route knowledge via step-by-step instructions, using simple graphical overlays, and those that provide survey knowledge via map-like overviews, using 3D depth visualizations. We performed a user study using a cardboard mock-up of a spatial display. Our experiment shows that in shallow hierarchies route aids and survey aids perform comparably in terms of navigation time and accuracy. When a target is embedded deeper into a structure, the performance of survey aids is affected negatively, while route aids maintain a consistent performance. Users reported that survey aids helped them understand a container hierarchy, but route aids required less processing time and effort, and thus, were more preferred. We found no significant effect of aid type on users' preference. Accordingly, we recommend considering the depth of task when employing these presentation strategies.
Evaluating Severity Rating Scales for Heuristic Evaluation BIBAFull-Text 3069-3075
  Sascha Herr; Nina Baumgartner; Tom Gross
The heuristic evaluation is a widely applied discount usability evaluation method. Experts use the method to identify usability issues in interfaces and to rate their severity in order to establish a prioritization of resource allocation. However, in practice, there are often large discrepancies between the individual severity ratings of experts, indicating challenges with the rating process and doubtful accuracy of ratings. This paper discusses these challenges by drawing from research on psychometrics, proposes solutions and reports preliminary findings of an empirical online study.
Designing a Literacy-Based Mobile Application for Adult Learners BIBAFull-Text 3076-3083
  Jennifer Hill; Rahul Simha
In this paper, we discuss the design of CAPITAL Words, an educational Android application to help low-literacy adults improve their phonemic awareness. We discuss our design choices concerning iconography, linearity, consistency, robustness, interactivity, and visibility when creating mobile software usable by illiterate users. We conducted a usability study with 11 adult learners at a local literacy center to determine how successfully users are able to interact with our interface. Results show that the majority of our design choices were intuitive for low-literacy adults with prior smartphone experience and highly learnable for inexperienced u