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ACHI Tables of Contents: 0809101112131415

Proceedings of the 2011 International Conference on Advances in Computer-Human Interactions

Fullname:Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Advances in Computer-Human Interactions
Editors:Leslie Miller; Silvana Roncagliolo
Location:Gosier, Guadeloupe, France
Dates:2011-Feb-23 to 2011-Feb-28
Publisher:IARIA
Standard No:ISBN: 978-1-61208-117-5
Papers:48
Pages:279
Links:Conference Website | Proceedings
Summary:The Fourth International Conference on Advances in Computer-Human Interaction, ACHI 2011, was proposed as a result of a paradigm shift in the most recent achievements and future trends in human interactions with increasingly complex systems. Adaptive and knowledge-based user interfaces, universal accessibility, human-robot interaction, agent-driven human computer interaction, and sharable mobile devices are a few of these trends. ACHI 2011 brings also a suite of specific domain applications, such as gaming, e-learning, social, medicine, teleconferencing and engineering.
    The ACHI 2011 continues a series of events targeting traditional and advanced paradigms for computer-human interaction in multi-technology environments. The conference covers also fundamentals on interfaces and models, and highlights new challenging industrial applications and research topics.
  1. MODELS: Principles, Theories, and Models
  2. USER: User Modeling and User Focus
  3. ACCESS: Usability and Universal Accessibility
  4. INTER: Interfaces I
  5. INTER: Interfaces II
  6. Design & Evaluation, Haptic Interfaces
  7. Interactive Systems, Interaction Devices
  8. Social, Apps
  9. Applications in Medicine, Games
  10. HUM-ROBOTS: Human-Robot Interaction I
  11. HUM-ROBOTS: Human-Robot Interaction II
  12. Education and Training

MODELS: Principles, Theories, and Models

Designing Healthcare Information System in Non-urban Area Using Neuroscientific Approach BIBAKFull-TextPDF 1-4
  Karim Fraoua; Christian Bourret
We will present at the beginning the situation of the Healthcare System in a non-urban area, and how to design a new conceptual framework in a Healthcare Information System. We will describe all the parameters of a significant good Healthcare System as viewed by a consumer. We will focus our works of what nowadays is known as human behavior or neuroscience. The analyses of information system must take into account much more the neuroscience approach, than limiting this analysis to the system components. We will focus our study to the non-urban people's interaction with an information system in a Healthcare area. We use a new approach especially neuroscience to represent the expected reactions in the human behavior and the impact expected in a medical healthcare information system. This consideration is due because of the wide range of motivators, and rewards that may induce irrational reactions that people show when they face to any new situation, especially those in non-urban area.
Keywords: Information System; HCI: Human Computer Interaction; neuroscience; non-urban area; healthcare
Selecting the Right Task Model for Model-Based User Interface Development BIBAKFull-TextPDF 5-11
  Gerrit Meixner; Marc Seissler
This paper presents a taxonomy allowing for the evaluation of task models with a focus on their applicability in model-based user interface development processes. It further supports the verification and improvement of existing task models, and provides developers with a decision-making aid for the selection of the most suitable task model for their development process or project. Furthermore the taxonomy is applied on the Useware Markup Language 1.0. The results of the application are briefly described in this paper which led to the identification of substantial improvement potentials.
Keywords: Task model, Taxonomy, Useware Markup Language, Model-based User Interface Development, MBUID
Discourse-based Interaction Models for Recommendation Processes BIBAKFull-TextPDF 12-15
  Dominik Ertl; Hermann Kaindl; Edin Arnautovic; Jürgen Falb; Roman Popp
Manually creating recommendation processes and their user interfaces usually requires a lot of effort. Therefore, we propose high-level interaction design and automated generation of user interfaces for building dialogue-based product advisors. For this purpose, this work introduces discourse models as interaction models used for modeling recommendation processes. Such discourse models refer to domain-of-discourse models, which represent, among other concepts, the products (and their related product categories) that are to be recommended. So, this paper presents how discourse-based interaction models and their corresponding domain-of-discourse models can be used for modeling recommendation processes.
Keywords: Interaction design; discourse model; recommendation process
Combining agile methods and user-centered design to create a unique user experience: An empirical inquiry BIBAKFull-TextPDF 16-21
  Cynthia Y. Lester
With the advent of the Internet and websites, many people believe that website development is as easy as dragging an icon here, placing a menu there, and adding a picture. However, there is more to website design than many people believe especially if you desire to develop a website that meets the needs of the user and follows software engineering principles. While there are many software process models and human-computer interaction activities that focus on the user, the integration of these activities is quite difficult, especially as it relates to website development. This paper presents the results of an empirical investigation that combined one activity of human-computer interaction, user-centered design, and one software engineering method, agile development into a small-scale development exercise that specifically focused on website development. The results from the study suggest that using the hybrid approach for small-scale projects is easy to implement, but is not without challenges.
Keywords: agile development; human-computer interaction; software engineering; user-centered design

USER: User Modeling and User Focus

Personality and Mental Health Assessment: A Sensor-Based Behavior Analysis BIBAKFull-TextPDF 22-27
  Javier Eguez Guevara; Ryohei Onishi; Hiroyuki Umemuro; Kazuo Yano; Koji Ara
The purpose of this study was to estimate personality and mental health through behavior data measured by acceleration and voice intensity sensors. Results showed significant correlations between behavior and all personality and mental health traits studied except for openness. This methodology ascertained an effortless assessment of personality and mental health, which respects employee's privacy, and keeps up-to-date companies' workforce information.
Keywords: human behavior, sensory technology, mental health, personality
Unpacking the Contents -- A Conceptual Model for Understanding User Experience in User Psychology BIBAKFull-TextPDF 28-34
  Rebekah Rousi; Pertti Saariluoma; Jaana Leikas
Paradigm shifts can be noted to have taken place in several areas of user-technology research. The most obvious have been in terms of including users within the design process, either in terms of usability studies or user experience design. There have also been shifts towards viewing human-technology interaction as not only an optical experience, but also an embodied one. When exploring these factors it is easy to prioritize the physical over the psychological. User interactions with systems are more easily measured in terms of concrete outcomes rather than by subjective feelings and perceptions of interaction. Through the conference theme: user modeling and user focus, this study's purpose has been to uncover mental contents present during the moments of human-system interaction. The study has employed a range of design stimuli for users to encounter and evaluate, giving a holistic idea of the psychological components involved in the interactions. The article describes a conceptual model which has derived from a study of mobile phone icons in the context of their graphical user interfaces. This study shows that users draw on multiple dimensions of mental information contents when experiencing technology, these include: cognitive, practical, aesthetic and emotional. Although the dimensions somewhat overlap, shifts can be seen between the dominance of the dimensions when the experience is positive or negative.
Keywords: user experience; mental contents; user psychology; conceptual model
Query Cluster: A Method for Web Search Behavior BIBAKFull-TextPDF 35-42
  Jinyoung Kim; Moonsung Kim; Joongseek Lee
There have been intensive research on user web search behavior since the late 1990s. Previous researchers collected data from search engines and analyzed explicit data (queries) to understand the characteristics of the user's search process, while other researchers analyzed the data of recruited subjects under experimental settings to understand the behavioral patterns in web usage. Although these researches provided an understanding of what users are searching for and how they are searching, both approaches did not provide rich user contexts that capture the reason why users are motivated to search, how long users' tasks (session) last, and other factors affecting user's search behavior. In this paper, we propose 'Clustered Query' as the unit of analysis in web search behavior studies. We found that users make their own Clustered-queries that yield better overview on their web search pattern, yet detailed individual web traces intact. The methodology consists of three phases and Log Catcher, Query Cluster, Monitoring tool, and Retrospective Interview technique are used in each phase. At the end of this paper, we also illustrate the process of the pilot and main study where the methodology is modified and validated.
Keywords: Web search behavior; Methodology; User Intent; User Context
Temporal Aspects of Human-machine Interaction in the Perception of Visual Information BIBAKFull-TextPDF 43-47
  Igor Petukhov
The vision system is one of the major sensory systems in the process of human-machine interaction. To improve the quality of interaction it is necessary to evaluate optimal parameters for the speed of perception and volume of visual information. New methods of evaluating the time of visual perception as well as the time of recovery and lability of the vision system are elaborated determining the inertia of the vision system and its ability to perceive visual information. New data on the temporal parameters of visual information processing are obtained through experimental research. The inertia of visual perception is ascertained to depend on the operator's fatigue in the working process.
Keywords: human-machine interaction; visual perception; inertia

ACCESS: Usability and Universal Accessibility

Application of User Involvement and Quality Function Deployment to Design Intelligent Service Systems BIBAKFull-TextPDF 48-52
  Víctor Acinas Garzón
This paper presents a new method for capturing user needs in product design. The method links user needs to product design by combining user involvement techniques together with Quality Function Deployment (QFD). The methodology is applicable for product development as well as the design of novel products that cannot base its design on incremental improvements of existing products. The methodology is illustrated through application to the design of a novel intelligent service system that aims to create channels for communication and interaction between people with some kind of special need and their environment.
Keywords: intelligent service system design; user involvement; quality function deployment; accessibility; inclusion
Usability Heuristics for Grid Computing Applications BIBAKFull-TextPDF 53-58
  Cristian Rusu; Silvana Roncagliolo; Gonzalo Tapia; Danae Hayvar; Virginica Rusu; Dorian Gorgan
Usability evaluation for applications based on emerging information technology brings new challenges. Grid Computing is a relatively new, distributed computing technology, based on sharing different types of computational resources, located in various geographic locations. Technical knowledge of grid users is expected to decrease in the future; that is why the usability of Grid Computing applications will become a main issue. There is a need for new usability evaluation methods or at least for the use of traditional evaluations in novel ways. A set of heuristics is proposed and validated, in order to help the heuristic evaluations of Grid Computing applications.
Keywords: usability; usability heuristics; grid computing applications
A Methodology to Establish Usability Heuristics BIBAKFull-TextPDF 59-62
  Cristian Rusu; Silvana Roncagliolo; Virginica Rusu; Cesar Collazos
Usability evaluation for applications based on emerging information technology brings new challenges. Is it the classical concept of usability still valid? Which are the dimensions of the (new) usability? How can it be measured? How should we develop for (better) usability? A methodology to develop usability heuristics for emerging applications is proposed. The methodology was fully checked in the case of Grid Computing applications, and partially applied in the case of Interactive Digital Television and Virtual Worlds.
Keywords: usability; usability evaluations; usability heuristics; grid computing; interactive digital television; virtual worlds
Exploring a Map Survey Task's Sensitivity to Cognitive Ability BIBAKFull-TextPDF 63-68
  Kofi Whitney; Georgi Batinov; Les Miller; Sarah Nusser; Kathleen Ashenfelter
The present work discusses an exploratory study aimed at understanding how users' cognitive abilities influence performance and method during a series of address verification tasks. College students were given a paper map and asked to verify seven residential addresses scattered throughout a neighborhood. This approach, as opposed to using a mobile device as the verification medium, allotted participants more freedom with respect to address verification style and map interaction. The study methodology and results are discussed. The key contribution of the work described in the paper has been the identification of map usage behaviors that are sensitive to visualization and perspective taking.
Keywords: human-computer; interaction, individual differences; location-based; usability component
A Graphical Interface for User Authentication on Mobile Phones BIBAKFull-TextPDF 69-74
  Sarosh Umar; Qasim Rafiq
Recently, mobile phones have become an important tool to carry out financial transactions besides the normal communication. They are increasingly being used to make payments, access bank accounts and facilitate other commercial transactions. In view of their increased importance there is a compelling need to establish ways to authenticate people on the mobile phones. The current method for authentication uses alphanumeric username and password. The textual password scheme is convenient but suffers from various drawbacks. Alphanumeric passwords are most of the times easy to guess, vulnerable to brute force attacks and are easily forgotten. With financial transactions at stake, the need of the hour is a collection of robust schemes for authentication. Graphical passwords are one of such schemes which offer a plethora of options and combinations. We are proposing a scheme which is simple, secure and robust. The proposed graphical password scheme will provide a large password space and at the same time will facilitate memorability. It is suitable to implement on all touch sensitive mobile phones.
Keywords: User authentication; graphical password; mobile phone security; usability

INTER: Interfaces I

PuppetAnimator: A Performative Interface for Experiencing Shadow Play BIBAKFull-TextPDF 75-78
  Yue Shi; Yue Suo; Shang Ma; Yuanchun Shi
We present PuppetAnimator, a novel interface that enables non-expert users to experience funny shadow play and create puppet animation by manipulating the character with simple pointing device. Inspired by the real shadow puppet performance, we employ the "sticks from hands to the puppet" metaphor for interaction and design a set of motion modes including Translation, Swing, Drag, Rotation and Two-joint Drive. Based on motions modes' combination, several puppet templates are prebuilt for the user to customize the skin with images and control channels with input devices. Then the user can manipulate the puppet to arrange actions. Features such as recording the user's performance, replaying and saving as video files are also provided. This paper describes the system design rationale and implementation. We demonstrate PuppetAnimator with several puppet actions and pilot study shows that with the system, users can easily make animation of a shadow puppet's action for storytelling.
Keywords: multi-point; performative interface; shadow puppet
Exploring temporal ego networks using small multiples and tree-ring layouts BIBAKFull-TextPDF 79-88
  Michael Farrugia; Neil Hurley; Aaron Quigley
Many of the current dynamic network visualisations methods or techniques rely on node-link force-based models that were originally developed for visualising static network snapshots. In this study, we diverge from this traditional layout approach and develop a layout for ego networks that places the time dimension in the foreground, by turning time into an element of shape. In addition to this we develop an interactive system that enables the visualisation of multiple networks simultaneously by employing small multiples. Using the proposed layout and analytical system as a grounding visual structure, we visually characterise dynamic network events in 3 different networks; the evolution of the biotechnology field, a phone call data set and a network of passenger connections of an airline. From this analysis we propose a range of ego network visual motifs that can be used as templates to identify and characterise events that are occurring in a dynamic network.
Keywords: Dynamic networks, Ego networks, Small Multiples, Graph Drawing
A Case Study of Prototyping a Multimodal User Interface for a Media Annotation Tool BIBAKFull-TextPDF 89-94
  Dominik Ertl; Marie Kavallar; David Raneburger
Media annotation is the process of adding annotations to media, like audio or video data. Annotations are, e.g., emotion descriptions of human emotions. The manual creation of annotations typically requires to repeat small tasks many times. Manual annotation is time-consuming and erroneous because user interfaces (UI) for such annotation tools often lack the possibility of multimodal interaction. In this work, we present a case study were we prototyped multimodal UIs for media annotation. First, we identified time-consuming tasks in the process of media annotation. Then we studied the human-computer interaction, to find out which modality combinations fit well for these tasks. This led us to suitable variants for modality combinations, like speech input, mouse gestures, earcons and an adapted GUI. We used the OpenInterface platform to implement prototypes of these multimodal UI variants for an existing GUI-based media annotation tool. Our prototyping approach allows easy change and adaptation of the multimodal UI. This supports the designer during the multimodal UI development and leads to UIs for media annotation tools that have a well-balanced set of modalities for interaction purposes.
Keywords: Multimodal, Media Annotation, Prototyping
Interaction Patterns for Designing Visual Feedback in Secure Websites BIBAKFull-TextPDF 95-100
  Jaime Muñ-Arteaga; Eduardo B. Fernandez; René Santaolaya-Salgado
In a website, it is essential to offer accessible and secure online services for end users. In general, usefulness and usability aspects are taken into account during design of website, but security issues normally are put aside. The specification of visual feedback helps the analysis and design of websites. This paper proposes a set of best practices of visual feedback for designing websites where the user task can be made secure and usable.
Keywords: secure website; interaction patterns; visual feedback; software architectures

INTER: Interfaces II

Back-to-Back: A Novel Approach for Real Time 3D Hand Gesture Interaction BIBAKFull-TextPDF 101-105
  Mingming Fan; Yuanchun Shi
In this paper, we present Back-to-Back, a novel real time hand gesture interface for 3D interaction based on double cameras. Back-to-Back dexterously makes use of the geometric complement of two back-to-back cameras. Held in hand, Back-to-Back could deduce hand's 3D motion in real time. The basic idea is to extract good corner points from the image sequences captured by two cameras separately and track them while moving. By comparing the motions of two groups of points, the hand's translation and rotation could be deduced accurately as well as other motion parameters. Back-to-Back is a prototype for gestural interaction on mobile devices equipped with two cameras. To further demonstrate its usability, we then analyze the requirements of 3D navigation task and design a strategy to navigate in 3D Space naturally by using Back-to-Back.
Keywords: Double Cameras, Hand Gesture, 3D Interaction, Natural User Interface, Real Time Interaction
Learning Displacement Experts from Multi-band Images for Face Model Fitting BIBAKFull-TextPDF 106-111
  Christoph Mayer; Bernd Radig
Models are often used to gain information about real-world objects. Their parameters describe various properties of the modeled object, such as position or deformation. In order to fit the model to a given image, displacement experts serve as an update function on the model parameterization. However, building robust displacement experts is a non-trivial task, especially in real-world environments. We propose a novel approach that learns displacement experts from a multi-band image representation which is specifically tuned towards the task of face model fitting. We provide the fitting algorithm not only the original image but an image representation that reflects the location of several facial components within the face. To demonstrate its capability to work robustly not only in constrained conditions, we integrate the Labeled Faces In The Wild database, which consists of images that have been taken outside lab or office environments. Our evaluation demonstrates, that the information provided by this image representation significantly increases the accuracy of the model parameter estimation.
Keywords: face model fitting; computer vision; human-machine-interaction
An Interface for Visual Information-Gathering During Web Browsing Sessions: BrainDump -- A Versatile Visual Workspace for Memorizing and Organizing Information BIBAKFull-TextPDF 112-119
  Marius Brade; Joerg Heseler; Rainer Groh
We propose a new method for visualizing the strength of associations based on a fluid metaphor and cell structure. This enables users to place gathered information visually in relation, while solving complex information tasks. Both, vague and precise relations can be visualized. We applied our approach to a scenario of information retrieval during web browsing sessions. In this paper we describe our novel visual information-gathering system called BrainDump. To support the user's sensemaking process, this system provides the possibility to change the initial associations, follow links back to the source of information, annotate content and hierarchically group collected items. A preliminary user test was designed and conducted.
Keywords: graphical user interface; visual information gathering; visual sensemaking; personal web information system
Navigation and Interaction in the Virtual Reconstruction of the Town of Otranto in the Middle Ages BIBAKFull-TextPDF 120-124
  Lucio Tommaso De Paolis; Giovanni Aloisio; Massimo Manco
The main goal of the Human-Computer Interaction technology is to improve interactions between users and computers by making computers more usable and receptive to the user's needs. This paper focuses on an application of navigation and interaction in a virtual environment using the Wiimote and the Balance Board of Nintendo. The aim is to make the interaction easier for users without any experience of navigation in a virtual world and more efficient for trained users. The application has been developed for the navigation and interaction in the virtual environment of the MediaEvo project. The MediaEvo Project aims at developing a multi-channel and multi-sensory platform for edutainment in Cultural Heritage.
Keywords: user interface, cultural virtual heritage, Nintendo WiiMote, Nintendo Balance Board

Design & Evaluation, Haptic Interfaces

Using Different Gestural-Input Methods for Personal and Public Touchscreen Devices BIBAKFull-TextPDF 125-131
  Jiyoung Kang; Jung-hee Ryu
User interfaces for personal communication devices or public devices are a flourishing research area. This article begins with a brief history of the current user interfaces of personal communication devices and public devices. Key factors in introducing different types of interfaces for different types of devices are presented, including their experiment methodology. Important factors to consider are identified and elaborated, such as focus of attention, text-related symbols versus simple linear symbols, novice versus expert performance, stressful versus stressless process, and the speed-accuracy trade-off.
Keywords: User interface; personal device; public device; text-related symbol; simple linear symbol
From Individual Personas to Collective Personas BIBAKFull-TextPDF 132-135
  Alain Giboin
Personas are user models that are represented as specific, realistic humans. Initially focused on the modeling of individual users, the Persona method (see, e.g., Cooper) is gradually changing towards the inclusion of collectives of users (groups, communities, etc.). In other words, a "Collective Personas" trend is emerging. This paper reports a literature review reflecting this emerging trend. It synthesizes some issues and avenues related to collective personas development.
Keywords: personas, collective personas, interaction design, social interaction design, user modeling, group modeling
Enhanced Stability of Three-Users Multirate Distributed Haptic Cooperation via Coordination to Average Peer Position BIBAKFull-TextPDF 136-141
  Ramtin Rakhsha; Daniela Constantinescu
Distributed networked haptic cooperation may become unstable when the number of interacting users increases because the effective coordination gain for the shared virtual object increases. The average position coordination strategy maintains the coordination gain of the shared virtual object constant regardless of the number of cooperating participants. Therefore, the average position strategy is expected to increase the stability region of networked haptic cooperation among multiple users. This paper confirms through analysis and experiments that AP coordination maintains the three-users haptic cooperation stable for larger coordination gains than traditional virtual coupling coordination. The stability analysis is performed in a multirate control framework. Multirate control is deployed to support high sampling rate of the peer force feedback loops in the presence of a low network update rate. The experiments report a one degree of freedom manipulation of a virtual cube by three cooperating users.
Keywords: Networked haptic cooperation; distributed control; multirate control; coordination to averaged position
Design of a Wearable Direct-driven Optimized Hand Exoskeleton Device BIBAKFull-TextPDF 142-146
  Jamshed Iqbal; Nikos Tsagarakis; Darwin Caldwell
This work introduces a hand exoskeleton that allows full range of motion and can exert bi-directional forces on the finger phalanges. The link lengths and structure of the proposed mechanism have been emerged as a result of kinematics-based optimization criteria. It is an under-actuated mechanism allowing 4 DOF/finger with one active degree. The selection of the actuator has been based on human hand capabilities to accomplish common daily life activities. An initial un-actuated finger prototype has been developed to analyze the mechanism functionality and to confirm the optimization results. Results have demonstrated that the device covers the complete operational range of motion of a human hand.
Keywords: Hand exoskeleton System, Wearable robotics, Haptic device, Optimized robotic mechanism

Interactive Systems, Interaction Devices

Road-based Adaptation of In-Car-Infotainment Systems BIBAKFull-TextPDF 147-152
  Sandro Rodriguez Garzon; Kristof Schütt
This paper introduces a prototype of a highly adaptive in-car-infotainment system. The prototype processes historical user interactions in order to discover regular sequences of interaction events within similar environments. The discovered environments in form of road segments and the activities will be used to adapt the human-machine interface (HMI) in case the car approaches an environment that is likely to contain a known activity. Temporal event patterns as well as grouping criteria need to be prespecified to control the detection of characteristical activities and to define the way two road segments are declared to be similar. Furthermore, a brief technical introduction of the automotive specific process of location information preprocessing is given, which is used by the prototype to interpret its environment or to group road segments. The use cases of a button that changes its size depending on the probability of being pressed at a certain road as well as a HMI that automatically switches to a certain radio station based on historical user initiated radio station changes at similar road segments will be discussed in detail.
Keywords: context awareness, personalization, adaptation, intelligent user interface
Virtual Reality Technologies: a Way to Verify Dismantling Operations BIBAKFull-TextPDF 153-157
  Caroline Chabal; Alexandre Proietti; Jean-François Mante; Jean-Marc Idasiak
Dismantling is a major challenge for nuclear companies, which are faced with the clean-up of former nuclear sites. In order to increase efficiency, optimize costs and planning, intervention designers must verify scenario key points, take into account unexpected situations and provide technical answers. Simulation is a good means of visualizing and therefore understanding constraints, of testing different alternatives, and a way to train workers prior to interventions. This paper describes an application of such a technology: dismantling a chemical cell in the APM (Marcoule Pilot Workshop) facility at Marcoule (France). This highly radioactive cell will be dismantled by a remote handling system using the Maestro slave arm. An immersive room has been used to design the dismantling scenarios. For these, the Maestro slave arm has been coupled with a haptic interface and, thanks to force feedback and visual immersion, accessibility, operational trajectories and maintainability on the carrier have been verified. If problems are found, updates of the carrier design are carried out before its final construction to guarantee the system will work properly. We describe the processes of building the 3D model and verifying scenarios. Finally, we present the first results, which are encouraging, and the perspectives for the project.
Keywords: virtual reality; dismantling operation; haptic interface; accessibility study; remote handling; collision detection; interactivity; real-time
Contextual Spaces with Functional Skins as OpenSocial Extension BIBAKFull-TextPDF 158-163
  Evgeny Bogdanov; Christophe Salzmann; Denis Gillet
Portability, flexibility and extensibility are essential features of social media platforms. When such Web platforms are able to take user's context into account, they provide better user experience and enhance the effectiveness of users' actions. In this paper, we discuss an extension to OpenSocial standard, namely contextual space, that shapes the framework, in which people carry out online activities. The proposed contextual space extension defines how a set of OpenSocial widgets are aggregated as a Web environment for a given purpose and with a given functional skin as a user interface. Additionally it allows to create contextualized widgets. In this paper we discuss the proposed extension in details and provide the examples of its use based on real life scenarios. Finally, we detail an implementation scheme.
Keywords: context, contextualized widget, contextual space, functional skins, portability, OpenSocial, social media platform, Web application, Web environment
Gathering Interaction, Interface and Aesthetics Considerations in Product Design. Analyzing devices related to the accessibility of heritage BIBAKFull-TextPDF 164-169
  Marina Puyuelo Cazorla; Mónica Val Fiel; Francisco Felip Miralles
Interaction aesthetics is a substantial part of the design process of products and devices, especially those related to enhance the accessibility of heritage. This paper offers a perspective on the breadth of the concept interactivity through an extensive literature review and analysis of some of the areas closely linked to the concept: the wayfinding experiences, the visual and tactile perception of devices and the computers' user interfaces. All these will help to evaluate the efficiency of existing products, in order to outline some directions that allow designers to develop new devices that make information and cultural content accessible to all users. We analyzed the most common devices used in cultural heritage sites, based on various parameters relating to the level of interactivity. The main results show that most devices are dynamic and designed to facilitate mobility, but they are not interactive. Therefore, designers must continue their work in this direction.
Keywords: aesthetics; interactivity; interface design; product design; built environment

Social, Apps

Digital Reconstruction of a Historical and Cultural Site Using AR Window BIBAKFull-TextPDF 170-175
  Jiyoung Kang; Jung-hee Ryu
There are many historical and cultural sites which have been demolished due to the reckless urban development projects. 'Pimatgol' is one of those with meaningful history and culture. There were many attempts to reconstruct the sites using technology to remember the important places. AR Window is an Augmented Reality application for reconstructing 'Pimatgol' for smart phones. User can see the past scenes over the present scenes through AR Window. User can attempt multiple interactions like blowing a breath, wiping with a finger and touching buttons on a phone. We concentrated on how the multiple interactions affect interests and level of awareness of the users. AR Window will open a new path of digital reconstruction for smart phones through the multiple interactions.
Keywords: Case studies; Multiple interaction; Emotional effect; AR
Creating Added Value for Smart Card Applications: the University as a Case Study BIBAKFull-TextPDF 176-181
  Hsiao-Chi Wu; Jen Wel Chen; Ching-Cha Hsieh
Studies on smart card applications, in addition to focusing on instrumentality and practicality, should also consider the importance of social construction. The implications of actors with different roles on technology directly influence the developmental direction of smart card applications. This study examines smart card applications, using a private university in Taiwan as a case study. It attempts to understand and interpret how the university handles problems arising from smart card applications, from the perspective of schools and suppliers, during the planning and design phases of implementation. Additionally, it uses the Social Construction of Technology (SCOT) as an analytic lens. The results of this study show that when the university developed a new interpretation of smart card applications, it focused on value-added e-services. This emerged and unexpected consequences arose from actual work-practice situations; smart student ID cards were not merely tools for identification and payment, but also the means to shape student lifestyles.
Keywords: smart card application, SCOT, e-service, university
An Architecture of Adaptive Product Data Communication System for Collaborative Design BIBAKFull-TextPDF 182-187
  Bernadetta Kwintiana Ane; Dieter Roller
Today, designers and engineers on collaborative design environments often work in parallel and independently using different tools distributed at separate locations. Due to unique characteristic of engineering design, interaction during product development is difficult to support. As the information and communication technologies advances, computer supported collaborative design (CSCD) becomes more promising. Nevertheless, a potential problem remains between the product design and manufacturing, which mainly lies on the geometric shape of products that exists inherent in mass-customization. Meanwhile, CAD/CAM technologies have their own authoring tools, which govern the use of independent language and format for expressing various features and geometry. This condition creates incompatibility and has significant impact to the product costs. This paper is to address the incompatibility problem by introducing an architecture of the adaptive product data communication system. The adaptive system has a capability for autonomous tracking of design changes. The tracking model supports forward and backward tracking of constraint violation during the collaborative design transactions.
Keywords: Computer supported collaborative design; product data communication; adaptive
Towards Implicit Enhancement of Security and User Authentication in Mobile Devices Based on Movement and Audio Analysis BIBAKFull-TextPDF 188-191
  Hamed Ketabdar; Mehran Roshandel; Daria Skripko
In this work, we present initial investigations towards analysing movements of a mobile device as well as ambient audio captured by the mobile device for enhancing security functionalities in the device. We present a few scenarios which can lead to security threats related to data or services on a mobile device (e.g., a phone being lost or stolen). We show how unexpected movements or ambient audio captured by the device can deliver information which can be important considering security issues, and reveal those scenarios. In addition, we present how the identity of a user can be verified (or identified) by his mobile device based on pattern of his regular physical activities such as walking. This allows for implicit and continuous re-identification of the user. The implicit process does not require active participation of user, and allows for authentication during regular daily activities. The proposed method can also be used to complement regular authentication techniques to protect for example an open account on a mobile phone. It can also help to reduce number of re-authentications by verifying that the mobile device is continuously operated by the same user since the last regular authentication. Our final goal is to come up with a correlation model describing the relationship between movements of a mobile device as well as ambient audio, and security related issues.
Keywords: Security; Mobile Devices; Motion and Audio Analysis; Embedded Sensors; Unexpected Events; Implicit Authentication

Applications in Medicine, Games

An Augmented Reality Application for the Enhancement of Surgical Decisions BIBAKFull-TextPDF 192-196
  Lucio Tommaso De Paolis; Giovanni Aloisio; Marco Pulimeno
The practice of Minimally Invasive Surgery is becoming more and more widespread and is being adopted as an alternative to the classical procedure. This technique has some limitations and comes at a cost to the surgeons. In particular, the lack of depth in perception and the difficulty in estimating the distance of the specific structures in laparoscopic surgery can impose limits on delicate dissection or suturing. The availability of new systems for the pre-operative planning can be of great help to the surgeon. The developed application allows the surgeon to gather information about the patient and her/his pathology, visualizing and interacting with the 3D models of the organs built from the patient's medical images, measuring the dimensions of the organs and deciding the best insertion points of the trocars in the patient's body. This choice can be visualized on the real patient using the Augmented Reality technology.
Keywords: user interface; Augmented Reality; medical image processing
Interactive System for Medical Interventions Based on Magnetic Resonance Targeting BIBAKFull-TextPDF 197-201
  Sylvain Martel; Manuel Vonthron
Magnetic Resonance Targeting (MRT) is a new approach that aims at navigating untethered therapeutic or diagnostic micro-entities through the vascular network until a specific targeted location is reached. The platform used for such intervention is referred to as a Magnetic Resonance Navigation (MRN) system and it typically takes the form of a clinical Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scanner upgraded with special software and hardware modules to allow such platform to perform MRN in an effective manner. Considering the complexity of MRN operations and the speed at which real-time operations are being performed, an interactive system capable of providing a proper interface to allow an interventional radiologist or the like to properly interact and use such platform becomes an essential, yet a critical component for the success of this new medical interventional approach. Here, this paper presents for the first time an overview of a new interactive system for MRN operations suitable to conduct preliminary interventions.
Keywords: Magnetic resonance imaging; targeted interventions; cancer therapy; user interface
A Framework for Computer Based Training to In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) Techniques BIBAKFull-TextPDF 202-205
  Andrea Abate; Michele Nappi; Stefano Ricciardi
This paper presents a visual-haptic framework for the simulated training to some key procedures of the In Vitro Fertilization techniques which are become very popular to address several infertility conditions. Two of the most crucial procedures typically involved in the fertilization process, the Intra Cytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI) and the Embryo Transfer (ET) are integrated in the system proposed. The aim is simulating them both at the visual and kinesthetic level by means of a specifically developed virtual environment. This environment includes the human egg, the selected sperm and the micro needles required during the ICSI as well as the catheter, the womb and the embryo involved in ET. The proposed approach exploits a two hand-based haptic devices mimicking the force feedback of the actual manipulation gear and a visual-haptic engine simulating the shape and the dynamic behavior of the main components involved in the two aforementioned stages of the artificial fertilization process.
Keywords: visual-haptic interface; 3D object manipulation; virtual training
Real Time Drunkness Analysis Through Games Using Artificial Neural Networks BIBAKFull-TextPDF 206-211
  Audrey Robinel; Didier Puzenat
In this paper, we describe a blood alcohol content estimation prototype based on a comportment analysis performed by artificial neural networks. We asked to subjects that had drunk alcohol to play a video-game after having measured their blood alcohol content with a breathalyser. A racing game was modified so that it could provide various data related to the use of the controls by the player. Using the collected data, we trained our neural network in order to be able to determine whether or not the subject had exceeded a blood alcohol content threshold. We also succeeded in estimating this blood alcohol content with a mean error of 0.1g/l. We could perform those estimations independently of the track played among the two ones used. It was also performed in "real time", e.g., using only the data collected within the last 10 seconds of playing.
Keywords: User interfaces; Games; Neural network applications; Cognitive sciences; Psychology; Human factors

HUM-ROBOTS: Human-Robot Interaction I

Tactile Sensing for Safe Physical Human-Robot Interaction BIBAKFull-TextPDF 212-217
  Norbert Elkmann; Markus Fritzsche; Erik Schulenburg
Human-robot interaction in a shared workspace permits and often even requires physical contact between humans and robots. A key technology for a safe physical human-robot interaction is the monitoring of contact forces by providing the robot with a tactile sensor as an artificial skin. This paper presents a pressure-sensitive skin for the mobile assistant robot LiSA (Life Science Assistant). It can be adapted to complex geometries and it can reliably measure contact on the entire robot body. The sensitive skin is equipped with integrated cushioning elements reducing the risk of dangerous injuries in physical human-robot interaction. Besides its safety function, the sensitive skin offers touch-based robot motion control that simplifies human-robot interaction. In the paper we describe the sensor setup and the hardware implementation on the mobile assistant robot LiSA and explain the strategies for a safe human-robot interaction. Beyond that we describe the algorithms enabling direct touch-based robot control and present some fundamental results from our evaluation experiments.
Keywords: artificial skin; human-robot interaction; mobile robot; tactile sensor
A Walking Aid Integrated in a Semi-Autonomous Robot Shopping Cart BIBAKFull-TextPDF 218-221
  Hermann Kaindl; Bernhard Putz; Dominik Ertl; Helge Hüttenrauch; Cristian Bogdan
Challenged and/or elderly people experiencing limited mobility impairment may want to get support for walking. In public, e.g., in a supermarket, they may want to get this support without it being immediately visible. Therefore, we integrated walking aid functionality into a robot shopping cart. It can support a customer to lean on the cart while the walking pace is controlled to follow a user-determined setting. More precisely, the user of the cart can get walking assistance by holding specifically designed handle bars supporting both arms. This construction is fully integrated in a prototypical robot designed as a shopping cart.
Keywords: Walking aid; semi-autonomous robot shopping cart
Towards Automated Human-Robot Mutual Gaze BIBAKFull-TextPDF 222-227
  Frank Broz; Hatice Kose-Bagci; Chrystopher L. Nehaniv; Kerstin Dautenhahn
The role of gaze in interaction has been an area of increasing interest to the field of human-robot interaction. Mutual gaze, the pattern of behavior that arises when humans look directly at each other's faces, sends important social cues communicating attention and personality traits and helping to regulate conversational turn-taking. In preparation for learning a computational model of mutual gaze that can be used as a controller for a robot, data from human-human pairs in a conversational task was collected using a gaze-tracking system and face-tracking algorithm. The overall amount of mutual gaze observed between pairs agreed with predictions from the psychology literature. But the duration of mutual gaze was shorter than predicted, and the amount of direct eye contact detected was, surprisingly, almost nonexistent. The results presented show the potential of this automated method to capture detailed information about human gaze behavior, and future applications for interaction-based robot language learning are discussed. The analysis of human-human mutual gaze using automated tracking allows further testing and extension of past results that relied on hand-coding and can provide both a method of data collection and input for control of interactive robots.
Keywords: mutual gaze; human-robot interaction; psychology; Markov model
Towards a General Communication Concept for Human Supervision of Autonomous Robot Teams BIBAKFull-TextPDF 228-235
  Karen Petersen; Oskar von Stryk
Towards a general concept for human supervision of autonomous robot teams supporting the specific strengths of humans and robots, a communication concept between robots and a human supervisor is presented in this paper. The communication goal is to let the supervisor control a robot team with high-level commands, e. g., by adapting mission details and influencing task allocation in a manner that is applicable to different task allocation methods in general. For this purpose, the supervisor needs a high-level overview of the current state of mission and robots, which can be obtained with the presented approach. Relevant, important events are detected by the robots using complex event processing, and are labeled by topic and priority. A policy system controls the amount of messages that are sent to the supervisor. Notifications are used to inform the supervisor about the mission progress, unexpected events and errors. Queries are used to transfer decisions to the supervisor, to make use of implicit knowledge and experience in critical situations. The robots' level of autonomy can be adapted using policies, that require decisions to be either taken autonomously by the robots, or with support by the supervisor, using different query modes. Example scenarios from different applications including urban search and rescue will be used for validating the proposed concept.
Keywords: human-robot team interaction; supervisory control; complex event processing; policies

HUM-ROBOTS: Human-Robot Interaction II

Disentangling the Effects of Robot Affect, Embodiment, and Autonomy on Human Team Members in a Mixed-Initiative Task BIBAKFull-TextPDF 236-241
  Paul Schermerhorn; Matthias Scheutz
Many future robotic scenarios will require robots to work with humans in teams. It is thus critical to ensure that those robots will be able to work effectively with humans. While various dimensions of robots such as autonomy, embodiment or interaction style have been investigated separately, no previous study has looked at those three dimensions together. In this paper, we report results from extensive experiments showing that all three dimensions interact in complex ways, thus demonstrating the insufficiency of exploring these dimensions individually. Based on the results, we conclude with suggestions for interaction designs and for future studies.
Keywords: human-robot interaction; adjustable autonomy; embodiment; robot; simulation; affect; user study
Effects of Automation on Situation Awareness in Controlling Robot Teams BIBAKFull-TextPDF 242-248
  Michael Lewis; Katia Sycara
Declines in situation awareness (SA) often accompany automation. Some of these effects have been characterized as out-of-the-loop, complacency, and automation bias. Increasing autonomy in multi-robot control might be expected to produce similar declines in operators' SA. In this paper we review a series of experiments in which automation is introduced in controlling robot teams. Automating path planning at a foraging task improved both target detection and localization which is closely tied to SA. Timing data, however, suggested small declines in SA for robot location and pose. Automation of image acquisition, by contrast, led to poorer localization. Findings are discussed and alternative explanations involving shifts in strategy proposed.
Keywords: human-robot interaction; robot teams; situation awareness
An Architectural Model for Designing Multicultural Learning Objects BIBAKFull-TextPDF 249-253
  Jaime Muñoz-Arteaga; Jean Vanderdonckt; Juan Manuel González-Calleros; Michael Orey
Learning objects are considered as educational resources that can be employed in technology support learning. They are a digital pieces of knowledge to put together in order to form courses on line. Considering cultural aspects is possible to reuse them in different context for a large diversity of community of users. Nevertheless, the design and development of graphical user interface for this kind of objects become more complex since the multiples representations and the large diversity of resources. This work proposes the use of architectural models to try to mitigate the design of user interfaces for multicultural learning objects.
Keywords: multicultural context; learning object; Presentation-Abstraction-Control; architectural pattern; usability

Education and Training

Rotoscopy-Handwriting Interface for Children with Dyspraxia BIBAKFull-TextPDF 254-259
  Muhammad Fakri Othman; Wendy Keay-Bright
We discuss the design and development of computer-animated interface for children with dyspraxia using a specialist animation technique known as Rotoscopy. The technique may provide an engaging environment for children with dyspraxia to improve their handwriting skills, thus increase their motivation and self-esteem towards learning.
Keywords: Animation technique, prototyping, learning difficulties
An Emotional System for Effective and Collaborative e-Learning BIBAKFull-TextPDF 260-266
  Nirmal Kumar Sivaraman; Lakshmisri Lakshmi Narayana Rao; Kittanakere Lakshminarasimhamurthy Nitin
Though e-learning is being debated to have some advantages over person to person teaching, the latter is considered to be superior with respect to the effectiveness of teaching. One of the reasons for this advantage of human expert tutors is their ability to deal with the emotional aspects of the learner. We introduce an emotion sensitive e-learning model which is sensitive to both emotional aspects as well as the learning ability of the learner. This is a major difference with the other similar attempts to make effective e-learning systems and the preliminary analyses indicate considerable promise. We hope this would complement the effectiveness of e-learning.
Keywords: e-learning; emotional systems; emotional e-learning
E-book Reader and the Necessity of Divergence from the Legacy of Paper Book BIBAKFull-TextPDF 267-273
  Alma Leora Culen; Andrea Gasparini
The traditional paper-based book as we know it has been read and loved for hundreds of years. The first generation of e-book readers, based on electronic ink, attempted to emulate the traditional paper-based book, both in content and functionality. In this paper we discuss how the reading of e-books starts to diverge from the legacy of paper books. Many still favor the sensory experience of touching an actual book, smelling the paper, and hearing the sound of turning pages. However, huge memory, easy readability, the possibility of sharing text between users (such as Nook allows), the multi-functionality (such as iPad has) and the ease of downloading books, all make e-book readers increasingly popular. Based on insights gained from ethnographic studies, workshops, focus groups, and questionnaires, we discuss some advantages and disadvantages of e-book readers, speculate on how they may change the way we read, in particular actively, and propose some guidelines for future e-book reader functionality design specifically aimed at the student population. The first prototype resulting from co-design work with primary school students is presented as an example of our design approach.
Keywords: digital libraries; e-book readers; HCI; interface; co-design
Exploring Trust in Personal Learning Environments BIBAKFull-TextPDF 274-279
  Na Li; Maryam Najafian-Razavi; Denis Gillet
The design of effective trust and reputation mechanisms for personal learning environments (PLEs) is believed to be a promising research direction. In this paper, we propose a 4-dimensional trust model that complies with the specific requirements of PLEs. Trust is explored in four dimensions: trustor, trustee, context and visibility. The importance of these four dimensions is investigated through a number of scenarios. The model is implemented in a PLE platform named Graaasp. Preliminary evaluation of usefulness is conducted through a user study and some interesting findings are discussed in the end.
Keywords: trust, reputation, personal learning environment, rating, ranking