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ACHI Tables of Contents: 0809101112131415

Proceedings of the 2010 International Conference on Advances in Computer-Human Interactions

Fullname:Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Advances in Computer-Human Interactions
Editors:Ray Jarvis; Cosmin Dini
Location:Saint Maarten, Netherlands, Antilles
Dates:2010-Feb-10 to 2010-Feb-16
Publisher:IARIA
Standard No:ISBN: 978-0-7695-3957-7
Papers:36
Pages:214
Links:Conference Website | Proceedings
Summary:The Third International Conference on Advances in Computer-Human Interaction, ACHI 2010, was proposed as a result of a paradigm shift in the most recent achievements and future trends in human interactions with increasingly complex systems. Adaptive and knowledge-based user interfaces, universal accessibility, human-robot interaction, agent-driven human computer interaction, and sharable mobile devices are a few of these trends. ACHI 2010 brings also a suite of specific domain applications, such as gaming, e-learning, social, medicine, teleconferencing and engineering.
    The ACHI 2010 continues a series of events targeting traditional and advanced paradigms for computer-human interaction in multi-technology environments. The conference covers also fundamentals on interfaces and models, and highlights new challenging industrial applications and research topics.
  1. USER
  2. DESIGN & EVAL
  3. HUM-ROBOTS I
  4. HUM-ROBOTS II
  5. INTER
  6. GAMES I
  7. GAMES II
  8. HAPTIC
  9. EDUCATION I
  10. EDUCATION II
  11. SYSTEMS

USER

Qualitative Spatial Modelling of Human Route Instructions to Mobile Robots BIBAKFull-Text 1-6
  Hui Shi; Cui Jian; Bernd Krieg-Brückner
This paper describes our work on improving interaction between humans and mobile robots on navigation tasks. To represent and reason about humans' route instructions, a user-centered qualitative spatial model -- the Conceptual Route Graph -- is introduced. Three reasoning strategies based on this conceptual model are discussed, which enable a mobile robot to generate different clarification responses if spatial mismatches are detected in route instructions. Moreover, results of an empirical study to evaluate and compare their effects on people's navigation activities are presented.
Keywords: qualitative spatial representation and reasoning, human-robot interaction, mode confusion, user focus
A Preliminary Framework for Differentiating the Paradigms of Human-Technology Interaction Research BIBAKFull-Text 7-12
  Hannu Karvonen; Pertti Saariluoma; Tuomo Kujala
The purpose of this paper is to clarify the differences between approaches in the research field of human-technology interaction. We are especially interested in individuating user psychology from the more traditional paradigms. Therefore, we suggest a preliminary theoretical framework of criteria for distinguishing and individuating the different interaction research paradigms. The framework consists of five dimensions in which the paradigms may vary from each other. In this paper, we also discuss how ubiquitous computing is related to some of the dimensions. In addition, we focus on defining the new elements user psychology can bring to the discussion and analysis of human-technology interaction. To demonstrate the usage of the framework, we apply it to differentiate user psychology from traditional HCI research.
Keywords: human-technology interaction, user psychology, human-computer interaction, paradigms, psychological and metascientific foundations for designing human-technology interaction
Multi-language Ontology-Based Search Engine BIBAKFull-Text 13-18
  Leyla Zhuhadar; Olfa Nasraoui; Robert Wyatt; Elizabeth Romero
One of the first Multi-Language Information Retrieval (MLIR) systems was implemented in 1969 by Gerard Salton who enhanced his SMART system to retrieve multilingual documents in two languages, English and German. However, the research field of MLIR is still struggling since the majority of information retrieval systems are monolingual and more precisely English-based, even though only 6% of the world's population native language have as English [14]. This paper presents a Multi-Language Information Retrieval (MLIR) approach that falls into the area of Domain Specific Information Retrieval (E-learning being the domain). The approach we followed is a synergistic approach between (1) Thesaurus-based Approach and (2) Corpus-based Approach. This research has been implemented on a real platform called HyperManyMedia1 at Western Kentucky University.
Keywords: multi-language information retrieval; cross language, information retrieval; search engine; ontology; elearning

DESIGN & EVAL

Towards Cognitively Accessible Web Pages BIBAKFull-Text 19-24
  Till Halbach
Considering the design of inclusive interfaces of static and dynamic webpages, this work focuses on the group of users with cognitive/intellectual disabilities, while simultaneously accounting for the needs of users with mobility and sensory deficits. A number of specific universal design principles are derived from a variety of cognitive disabilities, such as problems with linguistics (text and language), learning and problem solving, orientation, focus and attention span, memory, and visual comprehension. The principles have been implemented and evaluated by means of personas testing with results showing that a much more universally accessible solution of a login mechanism to a web service could be achieved as compared to today's solution.
Keywords: Cognitive disabilities, intellectual deficits, impairement, deficiencies, accessibility, e-inclusion, universal design, web pages
Simulating On-the-Road Behavior Using a Driving Simulator BIBAKFull-Text 25-31
  Andreas Riener
In this paper, we summarize the initial results with regard to the question to what extent driving simulators can be used to serve as cheap and easy realizable environments for simulating on-the-road behavior. The aim of these first studies was to determine whether or not it is possible to replace real driving studies with experiments and furthermore, to identify parameters and/or restrictions for a second experimental series with improved settings. We have conducted two studies comparing the driver's reaction time in real and simulated environments with the final goal to provide a universal metric describing the differences in reaction time. The events were, in the case of simulation, triggered trace-driven or, in the real driving experiment, manually activated by the experimenter and notifications were forwarded to the driver using either a visual, auditory, or haptic sensory channel. The comparison of the two studies showed that (i) both settings provide similar results for the order of average response using the three feedback modalities and (ii) the experiment using a simulator performed, for the measure of reaction time, better in the range of 13% compared to the real driving study (the reason for this result is most likely caused by the fact that driving in a real world environment is much more challenging than in a driving simulator).
Keywords: driving experiments, trace-driven simulation, driver-vehicle interaction (DVI), feedback modalities, performance evaluation, user-centered design
Evaluating the Usability of Transactional Web Sites BIBAKFull-Text 32-37
  Renato Otaiza; Cristian Rusu; Silvana Roncagliolo
Most of the usability evaluation methods may be used in order to evaluate transactional web applications. The problem arises when deciding which usability evaluation methods bring more information. A study has been done in order to develop a methodology for the usability evaluation of transactional web applications. The methodology was developed and validate trough a number of case studies.
Keywords: Usability Evaluations, Evaluation Methodology, Transactional Web Applications
Human Tactile Ability to Discriminate Variations in Small Ridge Patterns through a Portable-Wearable Tactile Display BIBAKFull-Text 38-43
  Nadia Garcia-Hernandez; Nikos G. Tsagarakis; Darwin G. Caldwell
This work presents a quantitative evaluation of subjects' tactile ability to discriminate small virtual ridge patterns through a portable'wearable tactile device. The virtual patterns have been recreated by controlling the vertically moving pins of the device. Psychophysical experiments were performed to measure subjects' thresholds for spatial variation discrimination of ridge patterns. Moreover, for comparison reasons, further psychophysical experiments were performed with real ridge patterns using a non-actuated version of the tactile device and touching directly with the bear finger. During experiments, the exploration velocity was monitored. The present results help to understand, compare and characterize the tactile display when rendering small ridge patterns. The output of the presented study can also assist in the development of new tactile systems.
Keywords: tactile device, tactile discrimination, psychophysical experiments

HUM-ROBOTS I

The Influence of Telemanipulation-Systems on Fine Motor Performance BIBAKFull-Text 44-49
  Lena Geiger; Michael Popp; Berthold Färber; Jordi Artigas; Philipp Kremer
Extravehicular activities (EVAs) are a hazardous and expensive procedural method to operate in outer space. A possible support or alternative for manned missions in terms of on-orbit servicing are telemanipulation-systems. Whether or not such systems can actually achieve the efficiency of suited astronauts remains a central issue in telemanipulation research. Both scenarios, extravehicular activities as well as telemanipulation-systems, are restricted by different environmental factors, especially in terms of tasks that require fine motor skills. For suited astronauts, different factors, such as restricted mobility and reduced tactile feedback through the gloves, as well as a restricted field of view, impair fine motor skills. On the other hand, time delay, limited degrees of freedom and restricted haptic and visual feedback are amongst the factors, which may cause impairment of performance during the work with telemanipulation-systems. In order to compare the efficiency of both scenarios, a testbed equipped with typical mounting tasks was developed. An experimental study showed that the testbed is a valid measure of fine motor skills. In two follow-up studies, the influence of some factors debilitating fine motor performance in telemanipulation-systems and simulated extra-vehicular activities was analysed and compared.
Keywords: fine motor skills; gloves; on-orbit servicing; telemanipulation
Multiple Parallel Vision-Based Recognition in a Real-Time Framework for Human-Robot-Interaction Scenarios BIBAKFull-Text 50-55
  Tobias Rehrl; Alexander Bannat; Jürgen Gast; Frank Wallhoff; Gerhard Rigoll; Christoph Mayer; Zadid Riaz; Bernd Radig; Stefan Sosnowski; Kolja Kühnlenz
Every day human communication relies on a large number of different communication mechanisms like spoken language, facial expressions, body pose and gestures, allowing humans to pass large amounts of information in short time. In contrast, traditional human-machine communication is often unintuitive and requires specifically trained personal. In this paper, we present a real-time capable framework that recognizes traditional visual human communication signals in order to establish a more intuitive human-machine interaction. Humans rely on the interaction partner's face for identification, which helps them to adapt to the interaction partner and utilize context information. Head gestures (head nodding and head shaking) are a convenient way to show agreement or disagreement. Facial expressions give evidence about the interaction partners' emotional state and hand gestures are a fast way of passing simple commands. The recognition of all interaction queues is performed in parallel, enabled by a shared memory implementation.
Keywords: real-time image processing, gesture recognition, human-robot interaction, facial expressions
Terrain-Aware Path Guided Mobile Robot Teleoperation in Virtual and Real Space BIBAFull-Text 56-65
  Ray Jarvis
This paper concerns the development of a force feedback enhanced teleoperation system for outdoor robotic vehicles navigating in rough terrain where true-colour 3D virtual world models of the working environment, created from laser and colour image scans collected offline, can be explored by walk-throughs both before and during the robot navigation mission itself. In other words, the physical mission planned can be partially rehearsed in cyberspace. Further, during a mission, the location and orientation of the vehicle are continually determined and global collision-free paths to selected goal locations made available as advice to the operator, who can follow or ignore such advice at will. Live (real-time) 3D laser range data also provides an up-to-date scan of the volume immediately surrounding the vehicle as it moves so that dynamic obstacles can be avoided. Local terrain-roughness is taken into account in the provision of local collision-free paths, the sub-goals of which, are operator determined. This live range data is matched with the pre-scanned range data to calculate the accurate robot vehicle localisation (position and orientation) which is provided continuously during the navigation mission. A force feedback 3D joystick reflects terrain roughness as a vibration in one axis and the other two axes are used to provide a 2D force to attract the operator towards following the local optimal collision-free path, but this attraction can be easily overridden by the operator. The instrumentation and methodologies used are presented, together with some preliminary experimental results.

HUM-ROBOTS II

Transparency Trade-Offs for a 3-Channel Controller Revealed by the Bounded Environment Passivity Method BIBAKFull-Text 66-72
  Bert Willaert; Brecht Corteville; Dominiek Reynaerts; Hendrik Van Brussel; Emmanuel B. Vander Poorten
In this paper, the Bounded Environment Passivity method [1] is applied to a 3-channel controller. This method enables the design of teleoperation controllers that show passive behaviour for interactions with a bounded range of environments. The resulting tuning guidelines, derived analytically, provide interesting tuning flexibility, which allows to focus on different aspects of transparency. As telesurgery is the motivation behind this work, the focus lies on correctly reflecting the stiffness properties of the environment. A comparison between the transparency and stability properties of this 3-channel controller and the same properties of the Position-Force controller demonstrates the interesting properties of the 3-channel controller. The theoretical results are verified experimentally on a 1 d.o.f. master-slave setup.
Keywords: Teleoperation, human-robot interaction, transparency, passivity
Theatre as a Discussion Tool in Human-Robot Interaction Experiments -- A Pilot Study BIBAKFull-Text 73-78
  Amiy R. Chatley; Kerstin Dautenhahn; Mick L. Walters; Dag S. Syrdal; Bruce Christianson
In the field of Human-Robot Interaction (HRI), a novel experimental methodology is presented for carrying out studies which uses a theatrical presentation with an actor interacting and cooperating with robots in realistic scenarios before an audience. This methodology has been inspired by previous research in Human-Computer Interaction. The actor also stays in role for a post-theatre session, answering questions and encouraging the audience to discuss their respective opinions and viewpoints relating to the HRI scenario enactment. The development and running of a first exploratory pilot experiment using the new Theatre HRI (THRI) methodology is presented and critically reviewed. Based on this review and the associated findings from the audience discussion session, it is concluded that the Theatre-based HRI (THRI) methodology is viable for performing HRI user studies.
Keywords: Theatre, Human-Robot Interaction, User Evaluation, Robot Performance, Usability, Scenarios
A Simulation Framework for Human-Robot Interaction BIBAKFull-Text 79-84
  Norbert Schmitz; Jochen Hirth; Karsten Berns
The development of human-robot interaction scenarios is a strongly situation-dependent as well as an extremely dynamic task. Humans interacting with the robot directly react on observed stimuli; changes in the environment are not avoidable. Therefore it is impossible to test and verify interaction scenarios in real environments in a repeatable manner. In this paper, we propose a robot development framework that is able to simulate all required modules of the robot, its sensor system as well as its environment including persons. The simulation is able to represent all actuators of a humanoid robot like body, head and arm movements as well as facial expression. Besides the simulation of actuators all sensors are modeled directly in the framework. It is possible to integrate cameras, microphones, distance sensors, and RFI D tags and reader. These sensors provide the input for the robot control system based on the environmental situation including static elements like furniture and walls as well as movable objects like humans. The implementation of human movements is based on the H-Anim standard and a modeling tool which enables the user to record and integrate self-designed motions.
Keywords: Human-Robot Interaction, Simulation, Software Framework

INTER

Semi-automatically Configured Fission for Multimodal User Interfaces BIBAKFull-Text 85-90
  Dominik Ertl; Jürgen Falb; Hermann Kaindl
Fission of several output modalities poses hard problems, and (semi-)automatically configuring it is even more difficult. However, it is important to address the latter in order to broaden the scope of providing user interfaces semi-automatically. Our approach starts from a high-level discourse model created by a human interaction designer. It is modality-independent, so a modality-annotated discourse model is semi-automatically generated. Based on it, our fission is semiautomatically configured. It currently supports output modalities graphical user interface, (canned) speech output, and a new modality that we call movement as communication. The latter involves movements of a semi-autonomous robot in 2D-space for reinforcing the communication of the other modalities.
Keywords: Multimodal fission, movement as communication, interaction design
Enhanced Synthesized Text Reader for Visually Impaired Users BIBAKFull-Text 91-94
  Jaka Sodnik; Grega Jakus; Sašo Tomazic
In this paper we propose a prototype of a spatialized text reader for visually impaired users. The basic functions of the system are reading arbitrary files, converting text into speech using different synthesized voices and spatializing synthesized speech. Visually impaired users can thus listen to the content of a file read by various synthesized voices at different spatial positions. Some metadata (e.g. pre-inserted tags) has to be added to the file before processing in order to define the voice, pitch, reading rate and originating spatial position for any part of the content. We believe such a way of electronic book reading can be a significant improvement for visually impaired users if compared to mundane and dull screen readers. The core of the system is based on Java platform using FreeTTS speech synthesizer and JOAL positioning library. The latter is improved by the external MIT Head Related Impulse Response (HRIR) library. The use of headphones is obligatory in order to perceive spatial sound correctly. The system is a work in progress and is currently under evaluation by twelve visually impaired test subjects.
Keywords: Visually impaired users; speech synthesis; spatial positioning; HRIR library
Facilitating the Design of Multi-channel Interfaces for Ambient Computing BIBAKFull-Text 95-100
  José Rouillard; Xavier Le Pallec; Jean-Claude Tarby; Raphaël Marvie
Ambient computing is one of the more significant recent advances in computer-human interactions. With the ambient intelligence paradigm, computers become embedded in our natural surroundings. As they are context sensitive and adaptable, they better provide smart services to humans. But ambient computing requires communication between several heterogeneous components that are not supposed to communicate each other. This paper describes how we use a workflow to facilitate the design of multichannel interfaces for ambient computing. Our results show that different devices (such as Wiimote, multi-touch screen, telephone, etc.) can be managed in order to activate real things (such as lamp, fan, robot, webcam, etc.). A smart digital home case study illustrates a possible implementation of our approach and shows how it allows redesigning easily some parts of the ambient system just by modifying the workflow.
Keywords: Pervasive computing, ubiquitous computing ambient intelligence, multi-channel interaction, workflow, smart digital home
Results of the Improvement on Synthesis System's Speech Quality for Spanish Using Adaptive Automatas BIBAKFull-Text 101-106
  Rosalia Caya; Claudia Zapata
This article presents the experimentation and results of applying the Adaptive Automata technique to a Spanish voice synthesizer looking for its improvement. It shows a review of the design and implementation of the proposed solution, both aspects are fully explained in a previous work. It also highlights the formal methods available to measure the improvement on the voice quality, specially the naturalness feature. Lastly, it presents the results of experimentation with users for both versions, the original and modified system. These results show that significant improvement can be made in understanding the meaning of read texts by incorporating linguistic concepts through the use of adaptive technology.
Keywords: adaptive automata, natural language interfaces, speech synthesis

GAMES I

Detecting Self-Collisions Using a Hybrid Bounding Volume Algorithm BIBAKFull-Text 107-112
  F. A. Madera; Stephen D. Laycock; Andy M. Day
A discrete collision detection algorithm to detect self-collisions between deformable objects is presented, this is built up using a Bounding Volume Hierarchy (BVH) and a Feature-based method. The deformations are represented by the features of the mesh, which are within the bounding volumes and consequently the updating time for the BVH is reduced. The algorithm compares the minimum bounded geometry, the 1-ring, with the other spheres of the hierarchy in order to cull away Bounding Volumes (BV) that are far apart. The 3D objects utilised are surface-based and are deformed by warping, control points of splines, and a mass-spring model.
Keywords: collision detection, deformable models, computer graphics, Bounding Volume Hierarchy
FLEXIBLE RULES: A Player Oriented Board Game Development Framework BIBAKFull-Text 113-118
  Fulvio Frapolli; Amos Brocco; Apostolos Malatras; Béat Hirsbrunner
When comparing digital board games with their traditional counterparts, it becomes clear that certain features such as graphics, mundane task automation or saving and restoring the state of the game have been greatly improved. Nonetheless, the transition to a digital environment leads to a loss of the flexibility that makes traditional board games inherently popular. While modifying aspects of the game is straightforward in traditional board games, achieving such a level of customization in the digital domain requires deep knowledge of and access to the game source code. In this paper we focus on board games and by means of an in-depth online survey we validate our previous observation, namely that enhancements should be made to digital board games by incorporating gaming facets found in the physical environment, e.g. support for flexibility by means of house rules. To this end, we introduce a conceptual model for the design of digital boardgames, which is supported by a set of visual programming tools to enable game development according to the principles set out by our proposed model. The set of the tools along with the underlying intuitive model comprise the FLEXIBLERULES framework, which enables and facilitates flexible and extensible game design and development.
Keywords: Games, Survey, Development Framework, Human-Computer Interaction
Design and Development of 3D Mobile Games BIBAKFull-Text 119-124
  M. Zameer Jhingut; Ibtihaaj M. Ghoorun; Soulakshmee D. Nagowah; Raj Moloo; Leckraj Nagowah
A major issue arising nowadays is the lack of entertainment due to up-going level of stress. In this era of technology, where mobile has become more of a necessity than a luxury, a new form of distraction has taken birth, that of mobile games. Mobile games are one of the primary entertainment applications at present. These games provide a means of relaxation and help to draw users' attention away from routine tensions. However, mobile game development is more difficult than desktop application development because of scarce resources. Performance is one of the critical requirements for mobile games. With the advancement in technology, mobile multiplayer games have started to evolve. This paper discusses about 3D mobile games development for both single player and multiplayer and also evaluates two different APIs namely MIDP 2.0 GAME API and M3G API.
Keywords: 3D games, mobile games, MIDP 2.0 game API, M3G API

GAMES II

Music Box: An Algorithm for Producing Visual Music BIBAKFull-Text 125-129
  Lindsay Grace
This research proposes a method for producing music via visual composition in a computer-game like environment. This is accomplished through the development of artificial intelligence software that applies the visual rules of standard emergent behaviors to the algorithmic arrangement of musical tones. This research presents the proposed system, defining the algorithm and demonstrating its implementation.
Keywords: User Interfaces, Music, computer graphics, computer games
A Game-Based 3D Simulation of Otranto in the Middle Ages BIBAKFull-Text 130-133
  Lucio T. De Paolis; Giovanni Aloisio; Maria G. Celentano; Luigi Oliva; Pietro Vecchio
In educational sense, the Virtual Reality shows its value when the user can actively participate in the creation and development of his knowledge. According to the MediaEvo Project and with the multiplayer educational game realized, the paper shows that the Entertainment Games Platforms can also be used to develop platforms for multi-channel and multi-sensory cultural edutainment. Herein we present the process for collecting and processing data, the methodology and the tools used in the work and the multi-playing and Artificial Intelligence models implemented in the project. At the moment the MediaEvo Project is working in progress.
Keywords: 3D Game, Edutainment, Virtual Cultural Heritage
Behavior Analysis through Games Using Artificial Neural Networks BIBAKFull-Text 134-138
  Didier Puzenat; Isabelle Verlut
This paper demonstrates that a human being using an interface can be efficiently evaluated -- in real time -- by embedding basic measurements in the interface and using a suitable trained artificial neural network. The approach is introduced through video games but is suitable for any machine capable of valuable measurements on user actions. Of course, the quality of the "diagnostic" depends of the learnability of the task and of the size and quality of the learning base. Typical applications include the detection of fatigue, stress, emotions, the influence of a drug or of medical treatments; screening a deficit or adequateness to a task, etc. Two successful prototypes are presented, one to predict the mental age of children through a set of simple basic games, and the other to detect if a subject is right-handed of left-handed through a racing car simulation.
Keywords: User interfaces, Games, Neural network applications, Cognitive science, Psychology, Human factors

HAPTIC

Hapto-visual Virtual Reality as a Tool in Psychophysical Research on Roughness Sensitivity BIBAKFull-Text 139-142
  Marcos Hilsenrat; Miriam Reiner
In this study, we present a method for psychophysical measurements of surface roughness sensitivity by indirect touch, using a 3D hapto-visual virtual reality (VR) device. In a texture-difference-recognition test subjects glided a pen-like stylus on a virtual surface. The surface was divided into five areas: one central, and four surrounding areas. The roughness of the central area was kept constant throughout the experiment. In each run, three of the four surrounding areas were kept at the same roughness as the central surface, and one, randomly, was different. From run to run, surface roughness was changed following a binary search paradigm. If a subject recognized the portion of the surface with a different roughness, then the roughness was reduced by half; if not, the roughness increased, and so on, until the desired number of steps was achieved. This approach allows us to take advantage of the programmable capabilities of a VR, so that the limit of aware recognition between surfaces with different roughness can be measured with more precision than in conventional methods. To illustrate this paradigm, results from a preliminary study are presented.
Keywords: haptics; psychophysics; indirect touch; roughness sensitivity
A Framework for Abstract Representation and Recognition of Gestures in Multi-touch Applications BIBAKFull-Text 143-147
  Martin Thomas Görg; Michael Cebulla; Sandro Rodriguez Garzon
Tangible user interfaces allowing multiple simultaneous contacts are by now well known as multi-touch devices. They add new dimensions to input possibilities compared with traditional single-pointer devices. At the same time, complexity of input interpretation increases, as well. Particularly recognition of predefined gestures requires sophisticated techniques to cope with multiple points of interaction. In this paper we present a novel approach for recognition of multi-touch gestures by means of a mathematical rule calculus. It allows abstract definition of multi-touch gestures. We further outline how to implement a framework to encapsulate the recognition algorithm, and demonstrate its success through a practical example obtained from an existing application.
Keywords: Human-computer interface, human-machine interface, gesture recognition, gesture representation, multi-touch
The Effectiveness of Commercial Haptic Devices for Use in Virtual Needle Insertion Training Simulations BIBAKFull-Text 148-153
  Timothy Richard Coles; Nigel W. John
A needle insertion is a widely performed procedure used either to inject fluids, to retrieve samples or as an introducing conduit for more advanced procedures. Needle insertions, like most medical procedures, pose an inherent risk of complication to the patient. This risk has prompted the development of a variety of haptic training simulators to aid in the education of practitioners before they attempt needle procedures upon a human. A common trend in needle insertion simulation is to use and possibly modify pre-existing commercial haptic solutions, saving on development cost and time. This study reviews current needle inserting simulations, focusing on the haptic hardware solutions used. Five commercially available haptic devices (SensAble Technologies Omni, Desktop and Premium 1.5 6 DOF, Novint's Falcon and Mimics Mantis), are then tested to evaluate their effectiveness for use in needle insertion simulations. A conclusion is drawn, with advice for those producing needle insertion simulation solutions.
Keywords: Needle insertion; Simulation; Training; Analysis; Evaluation; Haptic; Omni; Desktop; Premium; Falcon; Mantis; Linkage; Tension
Vibrotactile Display of Music on the Human Back BIBAKFull-Text 154-159
  Carmen Branje; Michael Maksimouski; Maria Karam; Deborah I. Fels; Frank Russo
We present an experiment designed to reveal characteristics of a tactile display that presents vibrations representing music to the back of the body. Based on the model human cochlea, a sensory substitution system aimed at translating music into vibrations, we are investigating the use of larger contactor sizes (over 10mm in diameter) as an effective device for the detection of signals originating from music. Using the method of limits, we measured ability to discriminate the frequency of vibrotactile stimuli across a wide range of frequencies common to western classical harmonic music. Vibrotactile stimuli were presented to artificially deafened participants using a large contactor applied to the back. Between 65 Hz (C2) and 1047 Hz (C6), frequency difference limens (FDL) were consistently less than 1/3 of an octave and as small as 200 cents. These findings suggest that vibrotactile information can be used to support the experience of music even in the absence of sound, and that voice coils are effective in presenting some characteristics of sound as vibrations.
Keywords: Tactile displays, sensory aids, psychology, user interfaces

EDUCATION I

Collaborative Educational System Analysis and Assessment BIBAKFull-Text 160-165
  Ion Ivan; Cristian Ciurea; Daniel Milodin
The paper presents definitions of collaborative systems, their classification and the study of collaborative systems in education. It describes the key concepts of collaborative educational systems. There are listed main properties and quality characteristics of collaborative educational systems. It analyzes the application for the assessment of text entities orthogonality within a collaborative system in education, represented by a virtual campus. It implements a metric for evaluating the orthogonality.
Keywords: collaborative system; education; virtual campus; evaluation; orthogonality
OpenSurg: An Ibero-American Project for the Teaching in Medical Robotics BIBAKFull-Text 166-168
  Jose María Sabater; Oscar Andrés Vivas Alban
This article presents the Ibero-American Open-Surg project, that attempts to develop several medical robotic applications, based on open source software. This project expects that the developed software tools can be extensively used on teaching techniques about medical procedures in Ibero-America. Objectives and advances of this project are presented in this document.
Keywords: medical robotics; open software; computer teaching techniques
A Mixed-Reality Training System for Teleoperated Biomanipulations BIBAKFull-Text 169-174
  Leonardo Mattos; Darwin G. Caldwell
This paper presents a mixed-reality system for the training of operators (biologist/neuroscientists) on fully teleoperated biomanipulations. These tasks are traditionally performed via direct manual control of the biomanipulation equipment while looking through the binoculars of a microscope. However, direct manual control makes the conventional systems susceptible to even very small operator errors, and extensive training is normally required to attain a satisfactory proficiency. To improve this area, a fully teleoperated biomanipulation system has been previously developed, but efficient operation of that system also requires some training. Therefore, the system presented here has been created to help new operators became familiar with the teleoperated system environment, introducing them to the system controls and joysticks functions. Two mixed-reality training games were designed, implemented and tested for this purpose: A "move-and-shoot" game focused on precise positioning training; and a trajectory following game intended to develop precise motion control skills on new operators. Preliminary experiments performed with 20 totally novice operators demonstrated that this new training system is effective in terms of the initial development of control skills for real teleoperated biomanipulations. Experimental metrics demonstrated an exponential learning curve for these novice operators, who achieved good performance values after only two practice runs on the system. In addition, training here was proven safe and inexpensive since no real cells, biochemical products, or several pipettes were needed for this initial training phase.
Keywords: mixed-reality, teleoperation, biomanipulation, micromanipulation

EDUCATION II

Using Rotoscopy Technique to Assist the Teaching of Handwriting for Children with Dyspraxia BIBAKFull-Text 175-178
  Muhammad Fakri Othman; Wendy Keay-Bright
The paper will report on work in progress that aims to give children with dyspraxia a playful and physical experience in developing handwriting skills using the specialist animation technique known as rotoscopy. This technique has been investigated in order to identify whether motivation and engagement can be increased by using a performance-led approach which would allow children to practice handwriting using gross motor skills, for example bodily movement and gesture. A user-centred methodology is being used to identify requirements of dyspraxic children and a pedagogical context for the rotoscopy prototypes.
Keywords: Rotoscopy, handwriting, dyspraxia, inclusive design
The 3A Interaction Model: Towards Bridging the Gap between Formal and Informal Learning BIBAKFull-Text 179-184
  Sandy El Helou; Na Li; Denis Gillet
This paper discusses the adoption of bottom-up social software tools in formal learning environments. This is believed to enhance the learning experience of today's young generation characterized by being technology savvy and keen on social networking. As a first step towards this objective, the 3A interaction model that aims at aiding the design of personal and collaborative learning platforms is presented. It accounts for interaction paradigms widely used in Web 2.0 applications and builds on Distributed Cognition and Activity Theory while remaining at the right level of abstraction to be easily "translatable" into tangible applications supporting both formal and informal learning.
Keywords: collaborative learning, CSCW, CSCL, Web 2.0, interaction model, social software
Training Undergraduate Students in User-Centered Design BIBAKFull-Text 185-190
  Cynthia Y. Lester
Computer software is typically developed according to software engineering methodologies. However, it has been noted that many software development projects fail to achieve their goals. Further it has been stated that some estimates of the failure rate to produce a software product is as high as 60 percent. Many of these problems can be attributed to poor communication between customers and system developers or between end-users and developers. However, many software development life cycles do not focus on understanding the business needs of an organization or how organizational issues may influence system development. As educators of the next generation of computing professionals it is our responsibility to train students in development methodologies where careful attention is paid to understanding the needs of stakeholders. The aim of this paper is to present a conceptual framework for training undergraduate.
Keywords: human computer interaction, software engineering, user-centered design, undergraduate students

SYSTEMS

Model-Based Personalization within an Adaptable Human-Machine Interface Environment that is Capable of Learning from User Interactions BIBAKFull-Text 191-198
  Sandro Rodriguez Garzon; Michael Cebulla
The paper describes a multimodal interface architecture that is capable of automatic adaptation to the user by learning from the user's interaction patterns. The introduced architecture consists of a general way to specify multimodal HMI systems based on models with modes, transitions and guards as well as a mechanism to apply adaptations during the runtime process. Adaptations are defined as modifications of models which are specified during the specification process and used during the runtime process to control the program flow. To provide the developer with a flexible but secure way to define personalization uses cases in form of adaption rules. we introduce modification boundaries that are defined as an additional model based on the same formalism as the models used for the program flow. The framework will be discussed by means of an example: Analyzing the interaction of the user after a recognition of a yet unknown speech command to infer and apply adequate modifications of the model to connect the unknown speech command with a typical user interaction.
Keywords: Modeling, Adaptation, Personalization, Human-Machine Interface, Learning
HyPhIVE: A Hybrid Virtual-Physical Collaboration Environment BIBAKFull-Text 199-204
  Senaka Buthpitiya; Ying Zhang
Virtual world conferences have been shown to give users an increased sense of presence in a collaboration as opposed to teleconferences, video-conferences and web-conferences. Such telepresence encourages remote participants to engage in the collaboration. Current virtual world collaboration applications rely on mouse/keyboard interfaces to create pure-virtual collaborations. In this paper we propose HyPhIVE, a system to address hybrid collaboration between the physical world and virtual worlds. In hybrid collaboration scenarios, a group of people collaborate in the real world and others join them remotely via a virtual world. HyPhIVE uses non-intrusive mobile sensors to detect real world users' collaboration context such as their position, direction of gaze, gestures and voice. HyPhIVE projects the sensed real world collaboration into a virtual world in a way that collaboration patterns are preserved. Remote users join the collaboration using virtual world clients and interact with other users' avatars. User studies have shown that HyPhIVE effectively projects real world collaborations into a virtual world and it improves users' experience of remote collaboration.
Keywords: collaborative virtual environments, ubiquitous computing, mobile computing
Synergistic Annotation of Multimedia Content BIBAKFull-Text 205-208
  Chris Creed; Peter Lonsdale; Robert Hendley; Russell Beale
We describe work in progress toward a new approach for multimedia annotation in which the system and user work synergistically together. This work in progress is particularly focused on enabling journalists to efficiently annotate articles for submission to news agencies. Initial work on gathering user requirements is detailed along with several interesting findings that resulted from this process: capturing mood and emotion is needed as well as descriptive content. Important areas for future research are also highlighted and discussed.
Keywords: video, annotation, intelligent, user study, multimedia, user centered design
A Combined Relevance Feedback Approach for User Recommendation in E-commerce Applications BIBAKFull-Text 209-214
  Vincenzo Moscato; Antonio Picariello; Antonio M. Rinaldi
Recommender systems in e-commerce applications help consumers with information useful to decide which products to purchase, suggesting products, services, and information items to potential consumers. Nowadays recommender systems interfaces are more oriented to technical people than to normal consumer, that are really not necessarily expert of statistic, scores and so on. In this paper we propose to join the capabilities of relevance feedback with recommendation strategies in a more useful architecture based on 3D navigation systems. A general framework is described, together with novel techniques oriented to an effective human-computer interaction. An example of the proposed system is also discussed.
Keywords: Human-Computer interaction, 3D interface; relevance feedback, recommendation systems