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ACHI Tables of Contents: 0809101112131415

Proceedings of the 2008 International Conference on Advances in Computer-Human Interactions

Fullname:Proceedings of the First International Conference on Advances in Computer-Human Interaction
Editors:Petre Dini; Sergiu Dascalu; Alf Inge Wang
Location:Sainte Luce, Martinique
Dates:2008-Feb-10 to 2008-Feb-15
Publisher:IARIA
Standard No:ISBN: 978-0-7695-3086-4
Papers:50
Pages:314
Links:Conference Website | Proceedings
Summary:The inaugural conference on Advances in Computer-Human Interaction, ACHI 2008, is a result of a paradigm shift in the most recent achievements and future trends in human interactions with increasingly complex systems. Adaptive and knowledge-based user interfaces, universal accessibility, human-robot interaction, agent-driven human computer interaction, and sharable mobile devices are a few of these trends. ACHI 2008 brings also a suite of specific domain applications, such as gaming, e-learning, social, medicine, teleconferencing and engineering.
    The ACHI 2008 initiates a series of events targeting traditional and advanced paradigms for computer-human interaction in multi-technology environments. The conference covers also fundamentals on interfaces and models, and highlights new challenging industrial applications and research topics.
  1. Interface I
  2. Interface II
  3. Interface III
  4. Interface IV
  5. Interface V
  6. Applications
  7. Education
  8. Design & Evaluation
  9. Human robotos & agents
  10. User
  11. Access
  12. Systems

Interface I

Focusing Graphical User Interfaces in Model-Driven Software Development BIBAKFull-Text 3-8
  Stefan Link; Thomas Schuster; Philip Hoyer; Sebastian Abeck
To meet fast changing demands on modern software architectures the ambition to shorten and improve software development processes has increased. The approach of model-driven software development focuses models as specification of software and on transformations of those models to finally get source code. The advantage of the model-driven approach still has to be proven because a continuous tool-supported transformation process from model to source code with regard to all aspects of a software system is not yet possible. This paper concentrates on the aspect of user interaction by presenting an easy to apply approach allowing for a tool-supported, model-driven software development of graphical user interfaces for any kind of platform. A case study demonstrates the usage and benefit of our model-driven approach applied to a common software development process.
Keywords: Graphical User Interfaces (GUI), Model-Driven Architecture (MDA), Model-Driven Software Development (MDSD), Software Engineering
Studying Input Device Performance: An End-User Driven Experiment in wearIT@work BIBAKFull-Text 9-15
  Hendrik Witt; Ernesto Morales Kluge
Interaction and usability aspects of software systems are critical software quality measures. This paper reports on work done in the European funded wearable computing project wearIT@work. Utilizing user centered design, we present the results of a user study conducted to evaluate different wearable input devices for menu-selection tasks in aircraft maintenance. Due to access to end users provided by wearIT@work, study participants could be recruited from both real maintenance workers and university students to study performance and group differences. Results already exhibit strong group differences. An unfamiliar data glove device using gestures was found to outperform natural speech command interaction. A familiar mouse device exhibited best performance and quick learnability but was judged inappropriate by maintainers for their daily work. Besides suffering from handling problems, speech interaction was found inapplicable for maintainers due to their language ability. Our results suggest and emphasize the necessity to include real end-users in projects to reasonably study industrial wearable computing applications and their constraints.
Keywords: wearable computing, subject selection, experiment design, user centered design
A Convivial Interface for the Transfer of Medical Images BIBAFull-Text 16-20
  Joséphine Kohlenberg; Anissa Abdejelil; Philippe Taguom Fogang; Moustapha Kane; Steve Pone Nguemdjom; Ion Valentin Vlasceanu
With the growing need of information sharing between entities geographically distant and the networks of machines for an exploitation distributed of the images, the development of tools for handling the digitized images became a major stake for the medical universe. The project of standardization in the field of the medical imagery, known as DICOM, supports the development of applications related to the model client/server with an aim of leading to systems distributed and heterogeneous, able to adapt to the current context. This article presents a software application which allows the medical images transfer, having a simple and convivial interface. The French expressions present in pictures are explained in the appendix.
Intelligent Camera Interface (ICI): A Challenging HMI for Disabled People BIBAKFull-Text 21-25
  Malek Baklouti; Serge Couvet; Eric Monacelli
This paper presents key points of a Human Machine Interface (HMI) for disabled people suffering from tetraplegia. It proposes an original HMI based on a monocular camera that controls an exoskeletal orthosis for the upper limb. The aim of this paper is to identify innovative research paths in Intelligent Camera Interface (ICI). It shows how far can a camera be used as a control Interface and its application to a 4 axis exoskeletal orthosis. Two methods are presented: head control using planar face detection and 3D face modelling and mouth expression control. The preliminary results show that the Intelligent Camera Interface can be an effective issue in Human Machine Interaction especially for disabled people since commonly used HMI are difficult to use, unreliable or tiring.
Keywords: Human Machine Interface, Rehabilitation robots, Human-friendly control, Human disability, Face detection, Lips extraction

Interface II

An Interactive and Immersive 3D Game Simulation Provided with Force Feedback BIBAKFull-Text 26-30
  Lucio T. De Paolis; Marco Pulimeno; Giovanni Aloisio
Performance improvements in graphics hardware and the diffusion of the low cost haptic interfaces have made it possible to visualize complex virtual environments and provided opportunities to interact with these in a more realistic way. In this paper a Virtual Reality application of a game of billiards is presented. By means of a commercial haptic interface a force feedback is provided, thus rendering the interaction realistic and exciting to the user. The introduction of the force feedback makes it possible to obtain a realistic simulation as it is possible to strike the billiard ball and to feel the contact between cue and ball. The virtual environment has been built using the development environment XVR and rigid body dynamics have been simulated utilizing the ODE library. Since in the real game it is possible to use the left hand when aiming and striking the ball, in the play modality it is possible to fix the cue movement in the desired direction in order to allow a more careful aim and a more stable interaction in the virtual environment. In addition it is possible to choose the force with which the ball is hit.
Keywords: Computer Game, Force Feedback, Simulation, Virtual Reality
Evaluating the Significance of the Desktop Area in Everyday Computer Use BIBAKFull-Text 31-38
  Akrivi Katifori; George Lepouras; Alan Dix; Azrina Kamaruddin
Computers have become part of our homes and day-to-day lives. This paper presents selected results of an interview-based user study focused on information management on the personal computer. We focus on the Desktop, confirming results of previous studies as well as revealing new issues and ensuing design suggestions. While even basic competence users inventively appropriated the desktop, some features, in particular user-defined shortcuts, appeared counter-intuitive, and were underused. Users are still dissatisfied with their information organization and the challenge is to provide tools that support rather than replace the users' flexible and creative use of the current desktop.
Keywords: desktop area, user study
NALP: Navigating Assistant for Large Display Presentation Using Laser Pointer BIBAKFull-Text 39-44
  Liang Zhang; Yuanchun Shi; Boliang Chen
In this paper, we present NALP (Navigating Assistant using Laser Pointer), a novel interaction technique for large display presentation control. NALP is based on laser dot detection, track recognition and space segmentation, allowing users to manipulate the presentation software (such as PowerPoint™) directly and freely using any kind of common laser pointer. Demanding users only to sweep the pointer to and fro on display, this technique to a large extent solved the problems caused by hand jitter, latency and detection errors existing in other navigation assistant systems. Report on evaluation experiments shows that when delivering an electronic and interactive presentation with large displays, NALP can effectively meet the need and is preferred over other laser pointer interactive methods.
Keywords: Large Display, Direct Interaction, Space Segmentation, Laser Pointer, Presentation Control
InfoCruise: Information Navigation Presenting a Focus Facet Based on Context BIBAKFull-Text 45-52
  Izumi Kohno; Yoji Miyazaki; Masaki Hara; Teruya Ikegami
In order to find desired information on mobile phones, it is necessary to set search keywords easily and to explore a search if a user's information needs are not well defined. We propose an information navigation method to help users succeed in finding information on mobiles. Our proposal method presents to users a focus facet by analyzing context about contents, users and dialog. The focus facet is presented each time users refine a search. Users can select their desired keyword from the facet, and check the search results, and then users can define their ambiguous needs through interaction. We evaluated our method compared to a traditional search method. In our experiments, a user's load for setting some keywords of our method is lower than the traditional search method. Users can experience greater search success and satisfaction using our method than the traditional search method.
Keywords: information retrieval, user interface, faceted navigation

Interface III

A MATLAB GUI for the Analysis and Exploration of Signal and Image Data of an Ultrasound Computer Tomograph BIBAFull-Text 53-58
  T. Hopp; G. F. Schwarzenberg; M. Zapf; N. V. Ruiter
At Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, a new imaging system for early diagnosis of breast cancer is currently developed. The 3D Ultrasound Computer Tomography (USCT) is based on approx. 2000 ultrasound transducers which produce 20 GB of raw data consisting of 3.5 mio. A-scans (amplitude scans) for one image. The large number of A-scans, the large amount of data and the complex relationship between raw data and reconstructed image makes analysis, understanding and further development difficult for the scientists and especially for new employees and students. For this reason, an interactive graphical user interface (GUI) was developed using MATLAB. It integrates existent analysis methods and is easily extendable with new functionality via a plugin concept. The software provides several visualization functions for the raw data, the reconstructed 3D images, the USCT aperture and the relationships between them. The software shows the capability of MATLAB as programming language for numerical solutions as well as GUIs and complex software systems. It has a large benefit to the working group by integrating analysis methods and sharing them. The GUI and the visualization of the complex relationships of the USCT reduces the training period for new employees and students.
The Development of Automatic Speech Recognition Software for Portable Devices BIBAKFull-Text 59-62
  Myoung-Wan Koo; Joon-Ki Choi; Young-Myoung Kim
In this paper, we show some the implementation issues of automatic speech recognition (ASR) for portable devices. First, we propose free-running speech recognition software which does not need to push the button before saying voice command and is always running for detecting key-words under real environment. Second, we propose a method for detecting keyword and rejecting out-of-vocabularies (OOV). It consists of filler-modeling technique and utterance verification. And finally, we implement the ASR software on PDAs (Samsung SPH-M4300 and HP iPAQ-RW6100), one kind of portable devices. It works in 54.7% of real-time with the recognition accuracy of 88.3%.
Keywords: automatic speech recognition, ASR, portable devices, PDA
Multimodal Interaction -- Improving Usability and Efficiency in a Mobile GIS Context BIBAKFull-Text 63-68
  Julie Doyle; Michela Bertolotto; David Wilson
The context of mobility raises many issues for GIS applications. Mobile device limitations, including pen input whilst in motion, result in interfaces which are difficult to navigate and interact with. However, comparatively little research has been conducted to address the interface mobility problem for GIS. We are particularly concerned with the limited interaction techniques available to users of mobile GIS which play a primary role in contributing to the complexity of using such an application whilst mobile. Our research focuses on multimodal interfaces as a means to present users with a wider choice of modalities for interacting with GIS applications. The focus of this paper concerns a comprehensive user study which demonstrates the benefits, in terms of usability and efficiency, of a multimodal interface for the CoMPASS mobile GIS which we have developed.
Keywords: multimodal, mobile, GIS, usability
Spatial Auditory Interface for an Embedded Communication Device in a Car BIBAKFull-Text 69-76
  Jaka Sodnik; Saso Tomazic; Christina Dicke; Mark Billinghurst
In this paper we evaluate the safety of the driver when using an embedded communication device while driving. As a part of our research, four different tasks were preformed with the device in order to evaluate the efficiency and safety of the drivers under three different conditions: one visual and two different auditory conditions. In the visual condition, various menu items were shown on a small LCD screen attached to the dashboard. In the auditory conditions, the same menu items were presented with spatial sounds distributed on a virtual ring around the user's head. The same custom-made interaction device attached to the steering wheel was used in all three conditions, enabling simple and safe interaction with the device while driving. The auditory interface proved to be as fast as the visual one, while at the same time enabling a significantly safer driving and higher satisfaction of the users. The measured workload also appeared to be lower when using the auditory interfaces.
Keywords: visual interface, auditory interface, spatial sound, driving simulator

Interface IV

Texture and Shape Information Fusion for Facial Action Unit Recognition BIBAKFull-Text 77-82
  Irene Kotsia; Stefanos Zafeiriou; Nikolaos Nikolaidis; Ioannis Pitas
A novel method that fuses texture and shape information to achieve Facial Action Unit (FAU) recognition from video sequences is proposed. In order to extract the texture information, a subspace method based on Discriminant Nonnegative Matrix Factorization (DNMF) is applied on the difference images of the video sequence, calculated taking under consideration the neutral and the most expressive frame, to extract the desired classification label. The shape information consists of the deformed Candide facial grid (more specifically the grid node displacements between the neutral and the most expressive facial expression frame) that corresponds to the facial expression depicted in the video sequence. The shape information is afterwards classified using a two-class Support Vector Machine (SVM) system. The fusion of texture and shape information is performed using Median Radial Basis Functions (MRBFs) Neural Networks (NNs) in order to detect the set of present FAUs. The accuracy achieved in the Cohn-Kanade database is equal to 92.1% when recognizing the 17 FAUs that are responsible for facial expression development.
Keywords: Facial Action Unit Recognition, Discriminant Non-negative Matrix Factorization, Support Vector Machines, Radial Basis Functions Neural Networks, Fusion
Comprehension of Visualization Systems -- Towards Quantitative Assessment BIBAKFull-Text 83-88
  Harkirat Padda; Sudhir Mudur; Ahmed Seffah; Yojana Joshi
Visual comprehension is the characteristic that deals with how efficiently and effectively users are able to grasp the underlying design intent along with the interactions to explore the visually represented information. To assess comprehension i.e. to measure this seemingly immeasurable factor of visualization systems, we are proposing a set of criteria based on a detailed analysis of information flow from the raw data to the cognition of information in human mind. Our comprehension criteria are adapted from the pioneering work of two eminent researchers -- Donald A. Norman and Aaron Marcus, who have investigated the issues of human perception and cognition, and visual effectiveness respectively. These proposed criteria are refined by experts' opinion in order to compose a minimal evaluation set that is then applied to a bioinformatics visualization study tool to show the efficacy of criteria in assessing comprehension in a more quantitative manner.
Keywords: Comprehension, Evaluation, Criteria, Visualizations
Liberating the Desktop BIBAFull-Text 89-94
  Tor-Magne Stien Hagen; Espen Skjelnes Johnsen; Daniel Stødle; John Markus Bjørndalen; Otto Anshus
We report on a system supporting cross-platform mirroring of user-selectable regions from one or multiple computer desktops onto nearby network accessible projectors and displays (NADs). The purpose is a simple and flexible use of nearby display resources requiring no permanent installation of new software on the desktop computer. The NAD system architecture consists of a NAD side and a desktop side. The desktop software is downloaded to the desktop computer on demand, from a web server running on the NAD. The desktop and NAD software handle the integration of user-selectable desktop regions and remote control between the desktop computer and the NAD. The system is implemented in Java 1.6. At a resolution of 800 by 600 pixels the system supports mirroring of dynamic content at 38.6 fps. At 1600 by 1200 pixels the refresh rate is 12.85 fps. For static content such as images and slideshow presentations the system's bandwidth usage is within the capacity of a 11 Mbit/s wireless network. For dynamic content such as videos and games the system requires at least a 100 Mbit/s connection.
Specification and Design Aspects of the Academic Researcher's Assistant (ARA) Software for Mobile Devices BIBAKFull-Text 95-100
  Muhanna Muhanna; Sergiu Dascalu; Frederick C. Harris; Sherif Elfass; Marcel Karam
Mobile devices are being widely and increasingly used in many areas of human activity. Designing applications for mobile devices has introduced several new challenges that are currently being addressed by interested researchers and developers. This paper explores different human-computer interaction challenges in designing an Academic Researcher's Assistant (ARA) software application for mobile devices. ARA is a tool for mobile devices designed to provide academic researchers with a practical portable assistant that helps them organize their daily research-related activities. The paper provides details of ARA's organizing principles, software specification, design, and prototype implementation. Several directions of future work are also presented.
Keywords: human-computer interaction, interaction design, mobile devices, requirements specification, use case modeling

Interface V

Optimizing Regional Labour Market Policy with a User-Friendly Computer Interface BIBAKFull-Text 101-106
  Andranik Tangian
A decision aid for optimizing regional labour market policy with a user-friendly computer interface is developed. The distribution of subsidies among 271 German regions is considered as an optimization problem with three targets: (1) equalization of regional unemployment rates, (2) minimization of unemployment, and (3) maximization of GDP, subject to budget constraints and some administrative restrictions. The analysis of a three-year period reveals that the results obtained for 6 Bio EUR could be attained for only 241 Mio EUR (= 4% of the actual budget). Such a bad implementation of active labour market policies can be the cause of their low efficiency often misinterpreted as their uselessness. Among other things, it is shows that tax returns from the additional GDP due to jobs subsidized can transform regional policy into a profitable governmental enterprise.
Keywords: Regional labour market policy, budget optimisation, subsidized jobs, European structural funds, indicators
Study of Cockpit's Perspective on Human-Human Interactions to Guide Collaborative Decision Making Design in Air Traffic Management BIBAKFull-Text 107-113
  Matthias Groppe; Marc Bui
This field research studies human-human interactions (HHI), seen from cockpit's perspective in context of Collaborative Decision Making (CDM) during flight operation situations. It is based on the assumption that cooperation among all participating operators achieves positive effect on CDM operation. The aim of the research is to identify, how factors driving cooperative behaviour are established in flight operation situations during day-to-day HHI at action level. Obtained results are used to guide future CDM design with simulation software development and system behaviour simulation. In this paper, a cockpit survey is introduced which examines two highly dynamic flight operation situations. Both situations are usually time constrained, change quickly and require synchronous human-human cooperation between pilots and multiple other operators. The first one, turn-round operation, involves HHI with information sharing via face-to-face or technological means and HHI with task/decision making distribution between pilots and other operators. The second one, the flight operation itself, involves HHI with information sharing only via technological means and HHI with task/decision making distribution between pilots and other operators.
Keywords: Air traffic management, collaborative decision making, human-human cooperation, human-human interaction
User-Centred Development of Mobile Interfaces to a Pervasive Computing Environment BIBAKFull-Text 114-119
  Karin Leichtenstern; Elisabeth Andre
A challenging issue for HCI is the development of usable mobile interfaces for interactions with a complex pervasive environment. We consider a need for interfaces which automatically adapt their interaction and presentation capabilities on the user's situational needs and expectations to decrease the complexity of the environment and increase the usability of the system. Therefore, a rule-set is required which gives knowledge on the mobile interface's adaptations as a consequence on a user's situations within the environment. This rule-set iteratively emerges within a user-centred development process by considering and testing each contextual situation of the user when interacting with the mobile interface. In this paper we describe an approach of a usage model for specifying each context of the user and the environment as well as the user's goals and mental model. Moreover, we describe our used user-centred process to develop the usage model and rule-set, practical experience in development of mobile interfaces, some guidelines and our planned future work.
Keywords: Mobile Interfaces, Pervasive Environment, Physical Mobile Interaction, Adaptive Interface, User-Centred Design

Applications

Compact Anatomically Guided Ultrasound for Casualty Care BIBAKFull-Text 120-123
  Barnabas Takacs; Kirby G. Vosburgh
We present a 3D anatomically guided diagnostic system to detect internal bleeding of patients in the field. Our solution employs high fidelity digital human models to help medics with minimal training to find anatomical structures and subsequently obtain high quality ultrasound scans that may be shared with doctors located remotely.
Keywords: Image Guided Surgery, FAST exam, virtual human, ultrasound
Enhancing E-Learning Engagement Using Design Patterns from Computer Games BIBAKFull-Text 124-130
  Therese McGinnis; David W. Bustard; Michaela Black; Darryl Charles
Playing computer games has a significant educational element. In particular, this occurs in understanding the rules of a game, puzzling through the ever-increasing difficulties posed as the game progresses, and developing expertise in operating the controls quickly and accurately. Players typically take on these challenges enthusiastically and are prepared to devote substantial time to improving their knowledge and skills. This paper is based on a belief that e-learning should be enjoyed in the same way and can be enhanced by incorporating games techniques in e-learning system design and delivery. The paper identifies some of the general problems with current e-learning systems and consider show the main game patterns that promote engagement might help to alleviate such problems. The main research challenge here is to develop techniques that encourage learning and can be implemented at reasonable cost.
Keywords: E-learning, Engagement, Game Design
JDoc: A Serious Game for Medical Learning BIBAKFull-Text 131-136
  Aidan Sliney; David Murphy
This paper presents initial research on a home based junior doctor medical simulator (JDoc) to improve the efficiency of junior doctor training within the restrictions imposed by the European Working Time Directive (EWTD). Our goal is to make theoretical medical knowledge more accessible. We developed a high fidelity test framework JDoc. Our objective is to understand the potential for medical simulation in junior doctor training. The paper outlines the design process and the construction of the simulator as well as a small scale post-test usability study amongst junior doctors from which we can assess the benefits of JDoc.
Keywords: JDoc, Medical Learning, Serious Game, Simulation
Face Authentication for Banking BIBAKFull-Text 137-142
  B. Hemery; J. Mahier; M. Pasquet; C. Rosenberger
This paper analyzes the benefit and the limitations of using a particular biometric technology "namely face authentication" for banking applications. We present first the general concepts of banking. We propose a method in order to replace the PIN code authentication by using biometrics data. Biometric authentication is then detailed. A face recognition method we developed is presented revealing as itself as a biometric candidate solution. We show the benefit and limits of this approach to be used in a real industrial context.
Keywords: banking, security, biometrics, commerce, face recognition
From Visualization to Visual Mining: Application to Environmental Data BIBAKFull-Text 143-148
  Elaheh Mozzafari; Ahmed Seffah
In the last decade, the technological changes in environmental data acquisition, management, analysis, and dissemination have been astounding. However, extracting patterns and knowledge for decision-making is still tedious essentially because the human capacity to comprehend such large amount of heterogonous data. Visualization tools are required to allow identifying relationships and patterns that are not evident from raw data. Several techniques have been proposed; most often they are borrowed from other fields such as human computer interaction (HCI) and recently bio-informatics and software visualization. This paper discusses some of the limitations of the existing visualization techniques while introducing the concept of visual mining. An illustrative exemplar from immersive visualization is given.
Keywords: Visual mining, Environmental data, Scientific visualization, Comprehension

Education

A Fast Pace Method for Involving Children in Edutainment-Technology Design BIBAKFull-Text 149-157
  Angeliki Antoniou; George Lepouras
Aiming at edutainment technologies for museums, elements of participatory design techniques and focus groups were combined under the theoretical framework of the cycle of creative imagination in order to involve 10 year-old children in the design process of such applications. In contrast to existing practices where children are called to evaluate games designed by adults, the proposed method involves children from the initial phases of development. The main advantage of the proposed method is its short duration (1-2 school days) allowing for its wide use. The distinct steps of the method assist children in visualizing the possibilities of using new technologies in museums. The method was tested with children in a primary school. The ideas produced by the children demonstrated their ability to generate concepts and inspire the development of new gaming technologies.
Keywords: design technology, educational technology, method
Adaptive Self-Assessment Trying to Reduce Fear BIBAKFull-Text 158-163
  Anastasios A. Economides; Christos N. Moridis
Almost everyone has experienced fear at least once in their life because of a test. Fear can positively mobilise students, when it is under control. However, when fear becomes excessive, it can completely destroy students' performance. Moreover, when dealing with a computerised test, fear can have an even more intense influence on students. The objective of this paper is to analyze about these issues and to propose an adaptive self-assessment system for reducing fear and supporting students' learning during the preparation for exams.
Keywords: self-assessment system, fear of failure, feedback, reducing fear
Towards Leveraging Inference Web to Support Intuitive Explanations in Recommender Systems for Automated Career Counseling BIBAKFull-Text 164-169
  Tejaswini Narayanan; Deborah L. McGuinness
We consider the problem of supporting intuitive explanations in Recommender Systems used for Automated Career Counseling. Explanations enhance the transparency in operation of a Recommender System and facilitate user-acceptance, adoption, and trust in the system. We leverage the Inference Web (IW) Infrastructure and the Proof Markup Language (PML) as a foundation for supporting intuitive explanations in Recommender Systems for Automated Career Counseling. We present the design and implementation of our system, highlighting the salient features of our approach using an illustrative example.
Keywords: Explanation Generation, Recommender Systems, Automated Career Counseling, Semantic Web User Interfaces
Turning Web 2.0 Social Software into Versatile Collaborative Learning Solutions BIBAKFull-Text 170-176
  Denis Gillet; Sandy El Helou; Chiu Man Yu; Christophe Salzmann
In the framework of the European Integrated Project PALETTE, the École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL) is developing the eLogbook Web 2.0 social software. The purpose of eLogbook is to support tacit and explicit knowledge management in communities of practice. It can be customized by the users to serve as an asset management system, as a task management system or as a discussion platform. In this paper, the innovative Computer-Human Interaction features of eLogbook are introduced and its deployment scenario to support collaborative laboratory activities in engineering education is described. The main idea is to sustain interaction for learning purpose within self-organized teams that integrate -- on a seamless level -- both human actors (students, teaching assistants) and non-human actors such as laboratory equipments or software agents.
Keywords: Social Software, Engineering Education, Remote Laboratory, Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning
Advancing the Multidisciplinary Nature of Human Computer Interaction in a Newly Developed Undergraduate Course BIBAKFull-Text 177-182
  Cynthia Y. Lester
Human computer interaction is a multidisciplinary field, which often involves the design, implementation and evaluation of interactive systems for human use. Therefore, an ideal designer of these systems would have expertise in a wide variety of topics which include but are not limited to psychology, sociology, ergonomics, computer science and engineering, business, art and graphic design, and technical writing. However, it is impractical to assert that any one designer should have expertise in all these areas. Furthermore, when the concepts of HCI are introduced, the course is typically taught in a computer science department, by a computer science professor, to computer science majors. The aim of this paper is to describe the development of an undergraduate HCI course that is taught from a multidisciplinary perspective to a multidisciplinary audience using themes from the various disciplines that are encompassed within HCI. Suggestions for future changes to the course are also provided.
Keywords: HCI education, multidisciplinary collaboration, peer teaching

Design & Evaluation

A Platform for Mobile Text Entry Methods Evaluation BIBAKFull-Text 183-188
  Franck Poirier; Hamed H. Sad
We present a platform for mobile text entry evaluation. The platform comprises two parts: the experimentation part and the analysis and design support part. The experimentation part is available in two environments: it can run, on top of the .NET framework, on a mobile device or on the desktop computer. This part is designed to save time and effort in the empirical evaluation process and to enhance the comparison of results from different experiments. The analysis and design support part is a collection of tools designed to support the evaluation. Our goal is to help in carrying out evaluation and to make a step on the way to the standardization of the evaluation process.
Keywords: Interface evaluation, Mobile text entry, Evaluation platform, Usability
User Interface Design for a Mobile Multimedia Application: An Iterative Approach BIBAKFull-Text 189-194
  Zahid Hussain; Martin Lechner; Harald Milchrahm; Sara Shahzad; Wolfgang Slany; Martin Umgeher; Thomas Vlk; Peter Wolkerstorfer
Mobile phones have become full-featured mobile computers. Applications providing good user experience and taking full advantage of the increasing capabilities of mobile phones are still rare. One such application is audio and video on mobile phones which is expected to become a killer application in the near future. A lot of valuable audio and video content is hidden in archives of content providers. We are developing an application that enables a user to perform content-based search for audio and video content in large databases and play it on a mobile phone virtually anywhere, at any time. Our approach to application development focuses on the adoption of agile software development methodologies and user-centered design, emphasizing iterative user-interface development involving usability engineers and non-technical users. Thus, the application evolves according to the needs of the end user, providing maximized usability and customer satisfaction.
Keywords: Usability, Iterative User Interface Design, Mobile Application, Multimedia, Extreme Programming
Development of an Academic Research Information Service through Repeated Usability Evaluations BIBAKFull-Text 195-199
  Hanmin Jung; Mikyoung Lee; Seung-Woo Lee; Won-kyung Sung
Academic research information service is a must for surveying relevant studies in research and development activities. However, in-depth usability evaluation studies about the service are not enough when compared with its importance. This study emphasizes needs of the evaluation in a way that introduces the case of OntoFrame improved by repeated usability evaluations. We perform two different kinds of usability evaluations; first is for confirming service objectives through FGI (Focus Group Interview), second is for verifying service usefulness through FGI and usability test. Many usability problems were found and solved in the next version indebted with the evaluations.
Keywords: usability evaluation, focus group interview, semantic web, academic research information service, OntoFrame

Human robotos & agents

Towards Deeper Understanding of Persuasion in Software and Information Systems BIBAKFull-Text 200-205
  Harri Oinas-Kukkonen; Marja Harjumaa
A growing number of information technology systems and services are being developed for persuasive purposes, i.e. to change users' attitudes or behaviour or both. Despite the fact that attitudinal theories from social psychology have been quite extensively applied to the study of user intentions and behaviour, computer scientists and user interface designers are not very familiar with the theories related to attitude change. Moreover, these theories are not directly applicable for developing software and information systems. This paper builds upon the attitude change theories from social psychology recognising dimensions and approaches that help move towards a practical conceptual framework for understanding and designing persuasion in information systems.
Keywords: Computer-human interaction, human factors, persuasive technology, social factors, systems design
A Dynamic Agent-Based Web Service Invocation Infrastructure BIBAKFull-Text 206-211
  Hao Yang; Junliang Chen; Xiangwu Meng; Ying Zhang
Web services have led a revolution of Internet technology architecture by their platform-independence, language-independence and other characters. But traditional Web service architecture is based on "Client/Server" model, where server is always providing service reactively. Software agents are now increasingly used in commercial applications to solve complex engineering problems, for their autonomous, proactive and social capabilities. And these applications often make use of Web services. As such, this paper presents a Web service invocation infrastructure based on software agents. The infrastructure is a hybrid peer-to-peer model, using agents to describe service providers and service customers. This invocation model is more flexible than traditional Web service model, for (1) agents can invoke services in a proactive manner no matter whether they act like service customers or providers, and (2) agents can also act as multi-role actors in service domain. And with inspiration from Aspect-Oriented programming, web services are mapped as aspects, while agents are mapped as node. In this way, Web service policies in an agent can be considered to be form an filter chain, either incoming filter chain or outgoing filter chain, which is used to describe agent's request or response filter policies. When service contractor satisfies both the incoming filter chain and the outgoing filter chain at the same time, the corresponding service can be invoked dynamically. And experiments show that dynamic service invocation can be achieved in our infrastructure.
Keywords: Web service, software agent, dynamic service invocation
AMANDA V3: Toward a Common Workspace between Air Traffic Controllers BIBAKFull-Text 212-217
  David Annebicque; Serge Debernard; Thierry Poulain; Igor Crévits
This paper presents the different tools developed in the LAMIH, in optics to assist air traffic controllers in their tasks, to decrease their workloads, and to enable them to support the ceaseless increase of the traffic. Common philosophy to all these tools is to preserve the controllers in the loop: we do not try to develop tools entirely automatic. The platform AMANDA V2 made it possible to set up and to evaluate a common workspace, which allows the two controllers of a sector to cooperate and to share the same representation of their traffic and conflicts. This space maintains common situation awareness. This tool was very appreciated by professional controllers and we now wish to extend this principle to the co-operation between two planning controllers of two adjacent sectors. It is what we present in this paper which begins with a presentation of the ATC then a point on the platforms of the laboratory and particularly AMANDA V2, to conclude with the objectives of AMANDA V3.
Keywords: Air Traffic Control, Human-Machine cooperation, dynamic allocation of function, support tool, common workspace
Multimodal Metric Study for Human-Robot Collaboration BIBAKFull-Text 218-223
  Scott A. Green; Scott M. Richardson; Randy J. Stiles; Mark Billinghurst; J. Geoffrey Chase
The aim of our research is to create a system whereby human members of a team can collaborate in a natural way with robots. In this paper we describe a Wizard of Oz (WOZ) study conducted to find the natural speech and gestures people would use when interacting with a mobile robot as a team member.
   Results of the study show that in the beginning participants used simple speech, but once the users learned that the system understood more complicated speech, they began to use more spatially descriptive language. User responses indicate that gestures aided in spatial communication. The input mode that combined the use of speech and gestures was found to be best. We first discuss previous work and detail how our study contributes to this body of knowledge. Then we describe the design of our WOZ study and discuss the results and issues encountered during the completion of the experiment.
Keywords: Human-Robot Interaction, Multimodal Interfaces, Spatial Dialog System, Speech, Gesture, Natural Language, Wizard-of-Oz
Synchronous vs. Asynchronous Video in Multi-robot Search BIBAKFull-Text 224-229
  Prasanna Velagapudi; Jijun Wang; Huadong Wang; Paul Scerri; Michael Lewis; Katia Sycara
Camera guided teleoperation has long been the preferred mode for controlling remote robots, with other modes such as asynchronous control only used when unavoidable. In this experiment we evaluate the usefulness of asynchronous operation for a multirobot search task. Because controlling multiple robots places additional demands on the operator, removing the forced pace for reviewing camera video might reduce workload and improve performance. In the reported experiment participants operated four robot teams performing a simulated urban search and rescue (USAR) task using either conventional streaming video plus a map interface or an experimental interface without streaming video but with the ability to store panoramic images on the map to be viewed at leisure. Search performance was somewhat better using the conventional interface, however, ancillary measures suggest that the asynchronous interface succeeded in reducing temporal demands for switching between robots.
Keywords: human-robot interaction, interface evaluation, multi-robot system, human factors, teleoperation

User

UPOS: User Profile Ontology with Situation-Dependent Preferences Support BIBAKFull-Text 230-235
  Michael Sutterer; Olaf Droegehorn; Klaus David
Context-aware adaptive systems aim at automatically personalizing the user's environment depending on the user's situation, and hence, minimizing user interaction with the system. We present a novel user profile ontology that is dedicated to describe situation-dependent sub-profiles. This ontology can be used by context-aware adaptive service platforms for mobile communication and information services to automatically trigger the situation-dependent personalization of services. The design of this novel ontology also takes into consideration recommendations from the human factors research area. In particular, the ontology enables the easy specification of situational conditions and situation-dependent user sub-profiles.
Keywords: Context-aware system, ontology, situation, user modeling
Nursing Training: 3D Game with Learning Objectives BIBAKFull-Text 236-242
  Fatma Mili; Jonathan Barr; Meghan Harris; Laura Pittiglio
Practical training is an essential component of nursing students' preparation to entering the workforce and making decisions that impact patients' health and often lives. We designed a 3D game (VI-MED) to support virtual training to be used as a precursor and as a supplement to real practical training. The VI-MED system has two main components: 1. A gaming component which simulates a hospital environment with patients generated for each session and a full spectrum of interventions that the player can use on the patients, and 2. An Assessment component which monitors the players progress, updates their profile, and customizes their experience with the games accordingly. We discuss here the design of VI-MED with a special focus on the modeling of the user's (student) profile and the modeling of the patients that get generated at each game session. Both of these are driven by the learning outcomes that the nursing faculty sets for their students.
Keywords: 3D Game, Education, Student Modeling, Student Assessment
Specification for User Modeling with Self-Observing Systems BIBAKFull-Text 243-248
  Mathias Funk; Piet van der Putten; Henk Corporaal
The complicated user interfaces and complex functionality of nowadays interactive products lead to a new class of failures: People do not understand their products and thus fail to use them successfully; many products are returned for which no detectable errors can be found. These field problems of interactive products cannot be found by traditional testing methods. Industry needs reliable and structured information about the users' behavior to get understanding about the root cause of so called soft product failures. In this paper we present a framework that helps usability and quality experts to derive user models from product observation. This is supported by a novel visual language for specification what should be observed and how collected data is represented, and a system architecture for distributed self-observing systems. This approach separates the concern definition of observation from the implementation of observation facilities.
Keywords: user modeling, visual language, interactive product, self-observation, specification language, distributed system
Examining Programmer's Cognitive Skills Using Regular Language BIBAKFull-Text 249-256
  Anthony Cox; Maryanne Fisher
Regular expressions -- a notation for regular languages -- provide alternation and iteration operators, and can thus be viewed as highly simplified programming languages. Insight into the manipulation of regular expressions will consequently provide insight on the cognition underlying the human-computer interaction of programming. We predicted a relationship between accuracy and completeness, thereby indicating that no tradeoff exists, as one would expect to find in a pattern-matching task. As well, we hypothesised a close relationship between the tasks of pattern application and creation, since analogously to reading and writing, they potentially rely on associated cognitive abilities. Our findings indicate that one's skills in using regular expressions do not match one's ability to learn natural language, or to perform pattern matching. However, we do find evidence that the manipulation of regular expressions is similar to the manipulation of Boolean expressions and suggest that the ability to use formal languages, and hence program computers, is thus rooted in the skills associated with rule-based systems such as mathematics.
Keywords: formal language, regular languages, regular expressions, cognitive skills, programming skills, program comprehension
A Dynamical Document Structure to Capture the Semantics of Mathematical Concepts BIBAKFull-Text 257-264
  Jackson Marques de Carvalho; Helmut Jürgensen
A grammar-based approach to the specification of mathematical notation is proposed. The method is based on a meta-structure using attributed context-free grammars for capturing the meaning of mathematical concepts. The proposal is based on an authoring model which addresses the user needs as a fundamental requirement. It is structured around a scope mechanism allowing the mapping between semantics and syntax to be modified at any time during authoring. This process supports the dynamics of the meaning-to-syntax binding necessary in the authoring of mathematical concepts. Modular grammar fragments characterized by a one-to-one mapping between mathematical concept and grammar representation provide the adequate support for the definition of the various scopes. An incremental update process is defined to modify the grammar fragments which support the changes needed in the authoring process.
Keywords: meta-structure, grammar fragments, attributed context-free grammars, authoring model, incremental update, meaning-to-syntax binding, extensibility

Access

Usability Practice: The Appealing Way to HCI BIBAKFull-Text 265-270
  Cristian Rusu; Virginia Rusu; Silvana Roncagliolo
The importance of Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) education for software professionals should be evident and well understood, when designing Computer Science (CS) programs, at all levels. Unfortunately there is a lack of HCI courses in Chilean CS programs. It is difficult and usually highly bureaucratic to change curricula. It is only a matter of good will to make small changes in the courses' approach and emphasis. An appealing way to introduce HCI at all computer science curricula levels is by systematically including usability practices, especially usability evaluations.
Keywords: Human-Computer Interaction, Computer Science Curricula, Usability Evaluation, Usability Engineering Practices
Mandos: A User Interaction Method in Embedded Applications for Mobile Telephony BIBAFull-Text 271-276
  Mauro Teófilo; Lucas Cordeiro; Raimundo Barreto; José Raimundo Pereira; Ayres Mardem; Pedro Freitas
With the intense use of applicative in mobile device, the question "usability" begins to invigorate strongly as a study object, it is being considered a determinant factor of the success of this segment of the mobile computation. This article proposes an improvement way in the usability of the embedded applicative in mobile devices, considering a new method of user interaction. The Mandos interaction method is based on task idea, which consists in a possible operation that could be executed in an applicative by the user and probabilities between task changes. The cited probabilities will be used for construction of the user interface to interact dynamically with the user. To validate the considered method was developed a framework, called Mandos, which propitiates functionalities to the applicative developer that uses Java technology. A case study will be presented where some prototypes of embedded applicative mobile was developed, using Mandos framework for the interaction method evaluation. The evaluation was established in order to identify any relation of usability gain or loss of applicative, having like approvers the own users of the embedded applicative in mobile telephones.
Training and Deployment as a Basis for Usability Engineering of Mobile Systems BIBAKFull-Text 277-284
  Bente Skattør
Usability engineering of mobile systems challenges existing methods and raises new concerns. Usability evaluations are frequently described as a separate discipline and in many cases usability evaluations are separate activities within the design and development of systems. This paper presents a development project where training in and the deployment of a mobile system were used to identify usability problems. The project aimed to develop a mobile system to supporting information processes for workers on building sites. An iterative usability evaluation process was conducted the process was refined and validated using two action research projects. The approach of the research was user-centered system design (UCSD). When evaluating the mobile system during training and deployment vital usability problems of a rich variety and complexity were identified. These usability problems related to mobility, location, culture and weather were identified. This research reveals strong similarities between usability evaluations and action research that were an advantage for the usability process. The users participated actively and were inspired by experiencing the improvements. This iterative usability process contributed to improvements of the mobile system.
Keywords: Usability evaluations, mobile systems, software development, user-centered system design, mobility, mobile work

Systems

Obstacle Avoidance Path Planning for Mobile Robot Based on Multi Colony Ant Algorithm BIBAKFull-Text 285-289
  Nguyen Hoang Viet; Ngo Anh Vien; SeungGwan Lee; TaeChoong Chung
The task of planning trajectories for a mobile robot has received considerable attention in the research literature. The problem involves computing a collision-free path between a start point and a target point in environment of known obstacles. In this paper, we study an obstacle avoidance path planning problem using multi ant colony system, in which several colonies of ants cooperate in finding good solution by exchanging good information. In the simulation, we experimentally investigate the behaviour of multi colony ant algorithm with different kinds of information among the colonies. At last we will compare the behaviour of different number of colonies with a multi start single colony ant algorithm to show the good improvement.
Keywords: path planning, multi colony ant algorithm
Utilization of Fuzzy Theory in the Modeling of Users of Adaptive Hypermedia Systems BIBAKFull-Text 290-296
  Valéria Farinazzo Martins Salvador; André Luiz Satoshi Kawamoto; João Soares de Oliveira Neto
Most of the software systems are not developed taking into account the heterogeneous needs of users. It is known that each user has different levels of knowledge, goals, abilities, and preferences. This fact emphasizes the need of developing systems which can adapt themselves to different types of user, or stereotypes. Since the description of the knowledge and features of the user involves uncertainness and imprecise sense, the Fuzzy Theory can be applied in order to deal with this vagueness. This paper proposes a user model for adaptive hypermedia systems using a structure, based on Fuzzy Theory. This model is able to properly reflect some of the user characteristics in the model, and adapt its own navigation and the content of hypermedia nodes for the user needs.
Keywords: User centered design, user interfaces, user modeling
Enhancing Multi-user Interaction with Multi-touch Tabletop Displays Using Hand Tracking BIBAFull-Text 297-302
  K. C. Dohse; Thomas Dohse; Jeremiah D. Still; Derrick J. Parkhurst
A rear-projection multi-touch tabletop display was augmented with hand tracking utilizing computer vision techniques. Touch detection by frustrated total internal reflection is useful for achieving interaction with tabletop displays, but the technique is not always reliable when multiple users in close proximity simultaneously interact with the display. To solve this problem, we combine touch detection and hand tracking techniques in order to allow multiple users to simultaneously interact with the display without interference. Our hope is that by considering activities occurring on and above a tabletop display, multiuser interaction will become more natural and useful, which should ultimately support collaborative work.
Tailoring Model-Based Techniques to Facial Expression Interpretation BIBAKFull-Text 303-308
  Matthias Wimmer; Christoph Mayer; Sylvia Pietzsch; Bernd Radig
Computers have been widely deployed to our daily lives, but human-computer interaction still lacks intuition. Researchers intend to resolve these shortcomings by augmenting traditional systems with human-like interaction capabilities. Knowledge about human emotion, behavior, and intention is necessary to construct convenient interaction mechanisms. Today, dedicated hardware often infers the emotional state from human body measures.
   Similar to humans interpreting facial expressions, our approach acquires video information using standard hardware that does not interfere with people to accomplish this task. It exploits model-based techniques that accurately localize facial features, seamlessly track them through image sequences, and finally interpret the visible information. We make use of state-of-the-art techniques and specifically adapt most of the components involved to this scenario, which provides high accuracy and real-time capability. We base our experimental evaluation on publicly available databases and compare its results to related approaches. Our proof-of-concept demonstrates the feasibility of our approach and shows promising for integration into various applications.
Keywords: Emotion Recognition, Multi-modal User Interfaces, Facial Expression Interpretation, Real-time Systems, Vision and Scene Understanding, Face and Gesture Recognition
Requirement Engineering Contributions to Voice User Interface BIBAKFull-Text 309-314
  Valéria Farinazzo Martins Salvador; João Soares de Oliveira Neto; André Satoshi Kawamoto
This paper aims to contribute to the Voice User Interface Systems area by establishing directions to be used during the Requirements Engineering phase of the development of this type of system. The process of Requirements Engineering proposed here takes into account specific characteristics of voice user interface, and is based on concepts deriving from the Software Engineering area, namely the elicitation, specification, and evaluation phases. In order to illustrate the process, a case study is discussed and presented, as well as the conclusions obtained during the development of the research.
Keywords: Voice user interface, requirements specification, user centered design, interactive applications