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ACE Tables of Contents: 0405060708091011121314

Proceedings of the 2011 International Conference on Advances in Computer Entertainment Technology

Fullname:Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Advances in Computer Entertainment Technology
Editors:Teresa Romão; Nuno Correia; Masahiko Inami; Hirokasu Kato; Rui Prada; Tsutomu Terada; Eduardo Dias; Teresa Chambel
Location:Lisbon, Portugal
Dates:2011-Nov-08 to 2011-Nov-11
Publisher:ACM
Standard No:ISBN: 978-1-4503-0827-4; ACM DL: Table of Contents; hcibib: ACE11
Papers:94
  1. Affect and empathy
  2. Computational intelligence in games
  3. Tangible and tabletop interfaces
  4. Serious games
  5. Enhancing the gaming experience
  6. Collaborative entertainment
  7. Mobile and contextual entertainment
  8. Sound and music
  9. Interactive storytelling
  10. Game design and methodologies
  11. New media and art
  12. Game experiences and studies
  13. Social impact
  14. User experience
  15. Novel interfaces
  16. Multimedia perception
  17. Late breaking results
  18. Creative showcase & interactive art

Affect and empathy

An imaginary friend that connects with the user's emotions BIBAFull-Text 1
  Sofia Reis; Nuno Correia
In this paper we present a metaphor of an Imaginary Friend that walks along with the user. Due to a special bond with the user, the Imaginary Friend can see the emotions that the human companion is feeling glowing around her. As the user moves around she leaves behind emotion cookies that the Imaginary Friend will collect and treasure. In order to enable rich and playful interactions in the virtual-real continuum the implementation of the Imaginary Friend responds to motion, to the electrodermal activity and resorts to GPS coordinates. The Imaginary Friend was tested with several users to evaluate the connection between humans and this creature that lives in the border that separates imagination and reality.
"I'm happy if you are happy.": a model for emotional contagion in game characters BIBAFull-Text 2
  Joana Dimas; Gonçalo Pereira; Pedro A. Santos; Rui Prada; Ana Paiva
Emotions play an important role in social interactions and as such, they are critical in creating engaging and believable characters that users can interact with.
   Although there has been significant research on emotions, from a computational perspective, one area scarcely explored is the process of Emotional Contagion (EC). Emotional Contagion is the process through which a person's emotional state is influenced by other people's emotions. This process is especially important in group situations where the emotional states of individuals influence the behavior of others.
   Our goal was to develop a computational model, based on the Emotional Contagion Scale (ECS), that would enrich group dynamics on virtual environments. This model supports agents with different susceptibilities to contagion, and also the influence of their extroversion personality trait and interpersonal relationships (intimacy and power difference) on the contagion process. It has been also included the process of emotional mood decay, as observed in humans. With these elements characterizing the agents at an individual level, this model can simulate a wide variety of social phenomena.
   To evaluate the model, we developed a game prototype where the player (the main character) goes on a journey with two other characters (one with and another without our model).
   The results suggest that players perceived differences in the emotional contagion susceptibility between those characters and considered the model-based agent significantly more enjoyable and friendlier.
ViPleo and PhyPleo: artificial pet with two embodiments BIBAFull-Text 3
  Paulo Fontaínha Gomes; Elena Márquez Segura; Henriette Cramer; Tiago Paiva; Ana Paiva; Lars Erik Holmquist
In our current work we have designed and implemented an artificial pet with two embodiments. In both embodiments behavior is driven by needs that are used to maintain coherence and motivate user interaction. These needs are transferred between embodiments, with only one embodiment being active at a time. We performed an evaluation with 10-year old children participants. The retrieved data indicated that many children understood the concept of an artificial pet with two bodies, even without being given clues. Nevertheless, children did perceive differences between the two embodiments, which contributed for many stating that they interacted with two pets. Among other aspects, the physical version was perceived as less obedient due to problems concerning action recognition. Although caused by technical issues, this result raises the question if virtual embodiments should simulate action recognition problems that their physical counterparts have.
Sound perfume: designing a wearable sound and fragrance media for face-to-face interpersonal interaction BIBAFull-Text 4
  Yongsoon Choi; Adrian David Cheok; Xavier Roman; The Anh Nguyen; Kenichi Sugimoto; Veronica Halupka
Sound and smell can sometimes generate stronger emotional feelings than words can. They can even sometimes awaken strong, long forgotten memories.
   The Sound Perfume system provides users with additional auditory and olfactory sensory inputs through a pair of glasses, to augment their unique identities and impressions to others during face-to-face interpersonal communication.
   When a user starts a conversation with another person for the first time, sound and fragrance IDs information is shared with each other through wireless mobile communication. Received IDs information is forwarded to the user's glasses, and they can feel the other person's sound and fragrance IDs through actuators in the glasses. Perfume actuators heat the solid perfume and pulsating sound ID from the speaker helps to gently emit a fragrance. When the user meets the other person again in the future, their phone recognizes the other person and transfers ID information to their glasses to regenerate the other person's sound and fragrance IDs once again. This indirect stimulation helps users to express their unique identity during face-to-face interpersonal interactions, and awaken memories of the other person when they meet again after some time.
   Sound Perfume can also be integrated with a mobile phone camera and photo viewer application. When a user takes the other person's picture using a mobile phone camera, this photo saves a shot location, time, the other person's name, the other person's mobile phone MAC address, and the other person's sound and fragrance ID information. When he sees this picture later, he can feel the other person's sound and fragrance IDs softly through his glasses again. In this paper, as the first step, we are more focusing on the designing of the Sound Perfume system.

Computational intelligence in games

Feasibility study of utility-directed behaviour for computer game agents BIBAFull-Text 5
  Colm Sloan; John D. Kelleher; Brian Mac Namee
Utility-based control (UBC) hasn't been widely adopted for commercial game AI. Some of the reasons for this are that UBC is perceived to be: (1) resource intensive, (2) difficult to design complex behaviours with, and (3) difficult to scale for use in complex environments. This paper investigates these perceptions to see if UBC is suitable for controlling the behaviour of non-player characters in commercial games. The investigation compares agents using a UBC system against two control systems that are more frequently used in commercial games: finite state machines (FSMs), considered a simple control system, and goal-oriented action planning (GOAP), considered a complex control system. We present a feasibility study which suggests that: (1) UBC is more resource intensive than FSMs but less so than GOAP; (2) it is reasonably simple to create complex behaviours using UBC; (3) UBC doesn't scale as well as FSMs or GOAP for use in complex environments.
A semantic generation framework for enabling adaptive game worlds BIBAFull-Text 6
  Ricardo Lopes; Rafael Bidarra
Adaptive games are expected to improve on the pre-scripted and rigid nature of traditional games. Current research uses player and experience modeling techniques to successfully predict some game-play adjustments players desire. These are typically deployed to adapt AI behavior or to evolve content for simple game levels. In this paper we propose a generation framework aimed at creating personalized content for complex and immersive game worlds. This framework, currently under development, captures which content provided the context for a given personal gameplay experience. This model is then used to generate content for the next predicted experience, through retrieval and recombination of semantic gameplay descriptions, i.e. case-based mappings between content and player experience. Through its integration with existing player and experience modeling techniques, this framework aims at generating, in an emergent way, game worlds that better suit players. Dynamic game content, which responds to the player performance, has the ability to personalize player experience, potentially making games even more unpredictable and fun.
Bot detection in rhythm games: a physiological approach BIBAFull-Text 7
  Ruei-Min Lin; Hwai-Chung Ho; Kuan-Ta Chen
As the online game industry expands, detecting and preventing cheating in games is an increasingly important research topic. Some forms of cheating, such as the use of game bots (auto-playing game clients), are particularly challenging to identify because game bots do not violate any of the game rules; rather, they simply mimic human behavior to play the game without human intervention. The use of bots introduces fairness issues to online games, and therefore robust schemes for detecting game bots are strongly demanded.
   In this paper, we tackle with bots in rhythm games, which feature gameplay that incorporates eye and body coordination with music, usually a popular song. Bot detection in rhythm games is especially challenging compared with in other game genres because little information is available to distinguish the responses made by a human player from a bot. Based on the long-memoryness of the time series formed by human players' response errors to stimuli, we propose a scheme to detect the presence of human coordination mechanisms during gameplay. Based on a set of traces collected from human players and real-life game bots, we show that our scheme can accurately detect the use of game bots despite of game difficulty levels.
Automatic level generation for platform videogames using genetic algorithms BIBAFull-Text 8
  Fausto Mourato; Manuel Próspero dos Santos; Fernando Birra
In this document we present an investigation on automatically generating levels for platform videogames. Common approaches for this problem are rhythm based, where input patterns are transformed in a valid geometry, and chunk based, where samples are humanly created and automatically assembled like a puzzle. The proposal hereby presented is to explore this challenge with the usage of Genetic Algorithms, facing it as a search problem, in order to achieve higher expressivity and less linearity than in rhythm based approach and without requiring human creation as it happens with the chunk based approach. With simple heuristics the system is able to generate playable levels in a small amount of time (one level is created in less than a minute) and with considerable diversity, as our results show.
Modeling player-like behavior for game AI design BIBAFull-Text 9
  David Conroy; Peta Wyeth; Daniel Johnson
The design of artificial intelligence in computer games is an important component of a player's game play experience. As games are becoming more life-like and interactive, the need for more realistic game AI will increase. This is particularly the case with respect to AI that simulates how human players act, behave and make decisions. The purpose of this research is to establish a model of player-like behavior that may be effectively used to inform the design of artificial intelligence to more accurately mimic a player's decision making process. The research uses a qualitative analysis of player opinions and reactions while playing a first person shooter video game, with recordings of their in-game actions, speech and facial characteristics. The initial studies provide player data that has been used to design a model of how a player behaves.

Tangible and tabletop interfaces

RoboTable2: a novel programming environment using physical robots on a tabletop platform BIBAFull-Text 10
  Masanori Sugimoto; Tomoki Fujita; Haipeng Mi; Aleksander Krzywinski
In this paper, we propose a novel environment called RoboTable2 that supports users with limited programming knowledge or experience in conducting robot programming. We have devised a tabletop platform that can simultaneously recognize multi-touch input and track physical robots, enabling users to conduct robot-programming tasks in an intuitive manner. A user study comparing the proposed and a conventional graphical programming environment was conducted, involving ten university students with no programming experience. The effects of the proposed environment were clarified via video analysis, questionnaires and usage logs. A pilot study was also conducted to verify how easily users could design and develop applications on RoboTable2. The lessons learned with respect to design guidelines for the proposed programming environment and issues for investigation are discussed.
Rope Revolution: tangible and gestural rope interface for collaborative play BIBAFull-Text 11
  Lining Yao; Sayamindu Dasgupta; Nadia Cheng; Jason Spingarn-Koff; Ostap Rudakevych; Hiroshi Ishii
In this paper we describe Rope Revolution, a rope-based gaming system for collaborative play. After identifying popular rope games and activities around the world, we developed a generalized tangible rope interface that includes a compact motion-sensing and force-feedback module that can be used for a variety of rope-based games. Rope Revolution is designed to foster both co-located and remote collaborative experiences by using actual rope to connect players in physical activities across virtual spaces. Results from this study suggest that a tangible user interface with rich metaphors and physical feedback help enhance the gaming experience in addition to helping remote players feel connected across distances. We use this design as an example to motivate discussion on how to take advantage of the various physical affordances of common objects to build a generalized tangible interface for remote play.
Children as teachers: a tangible approach BIBAFull-Text 12
  Laetitia Mendes; Teresa Romão
This paper describes an interactive tool that enables children to build their own educational games, based on physical objects with which they usually interact. The T-Games (Tangible Games) authoring tool allows children to use tangible objects for input when creating their own quiz-type games. This idea follows a Learning-by-Teaching approach in which children are given the instructor's role. While creating the games children explore scholar subjects, in order to produce the questions and possible answers which will compose the game content. When playing the game (their own or one built by a colleague) the children can once again test their knowledge in a funny way. Children were actively involved in the design process so they could give us the insight needed to create an intuitive and engaging application. This paper also presents the usability tests that were performed to evaluate the developed prototype and the children motivation to use it.

Serious games

Interaction technology for collective and psychomotor training in sports BIBAFull-Text 13
  Maiken Hillerup Fogtmann; Kaj Grønbæk; Martin Kofod Ludvigsen
The paper introduces a novel pervasive computing based training concept aimed at elite sports. The concept goes beyond interactive sports equipments that are either individual or multiuser with a common display requiring participant's focus. These types of equipments are unable to support the kinesthetic empathic elements inherently present within open sports. To put focus on collective training, we draw inspiration from Kinesthetic Empathy Interaction in designing the collective training equipment, TacTowers. The TacTowers prototype is aimed at supporting athletes, particularly team handball players, in honing their psychomotor skills, in particular anticipation and decision making skills, in the one-on-one confrontation. TacTowers is a sensor-actuator based system, with LED lights and no screen-based display. It is placed between the players in order to reintroduce the kinesthetic empathic element in the interaction, specific to the sport. We present and discuss results of tests with two elite handball teams. We see prospects for applying the concept for entertaining movement-stimulating games at schools or leisure sports environments.
Design and evaluation of the educational game DOGeometry: a case study BIBAFull-Text 14
  Günter Wallner; Simone Kriglstein
Educational games have the potential to engage students deeply with a particular topic, because they allow children to actively participate in the learning process rather than just being passive observers. However, the design of educational games can be challenging because serious objectives have to be brought in line with a satisfying gameplay experience. Furthermore, great care has to be taken that the usability of the game does not interfere with the underlying educational goals. This paper discusses the design of DOGeometry, a learning game which combines problem-solving tasks with artistic expression to teach elementary school children the basics of geometric transformations. We evaluated the game design by observing children and automatically logging all user events and report the insights which we gained from analyzing the gathered data not only by statistical means but also through visualizations of gameplay data. The visualizations proved to be extremely helpful to look behind the numbers and to explore the player behavior in more detail.
Serious Games: design and development of OxyBlood BIBAFull-Text 15
  André F. S. Barbosa; Frutuoso G. M. Silva
Following the growing phenomenon that is video games, interest on Serious Games has been increasing. Serious Games aim to add educational or training purposes to traditional video games, in order to take advantage of video games' inherent engaging capabilities. Using video games for others purposes than entertainment enables users to train for situations that would otherwise be difficult to experience, due to reasons of cost, safety and time. Serious Games can also be valuable assets for teaching, since they easily capture the attention of users unlike traditional teaching methods.
   The web has been developing into a powerful multimedia platform that has now the ability to reproduce quality 3D graphics without the use of external plug-ins with WebGL. With this technology, developers can create compelling 3D environments and 3D video games that can be accessed by nearly every person that has an internet connection.
   This paper discusses the importance of Serious Games and details the development phases of a Serious Game developed for the web, using the WebGL technology.
Saving is fun: designing a persuasive game for power conservation BIBAFull-Text 16
  Luciano Gamberini; Nicola Corradi; Luca Zamboni; Michela Perotti; Camilla Cadenazzi; Stefano Mandressi; Giulio Jacucci; Giovanni Tusa; Anna Spagnolli; Christoffer Björkskog; Marja Salo; Pirkka Aman
EnergyLife is a mobile game application that aims at increasing energy awareness and saving in the household; it centers around a feedback system with detailed, historical and real time information that is based on wireless power sensors data. The challenge is to provide through feedback knowledge and motivation for sustainable saving. A three-month field test in eight households was organized for EnergyLife. The test involved the automatic collection of access data to the application, and the administration of satisfaction questionnaires, interviews, and usability tasks in the tested families. The paper describes the results of the test and the ensuing re-design strategy, centered on better tailoring the application to the players' actions. The lessons learned can be useful to other persuasive games, since a good fit to the actions of the user is a precondition of effectiveness of any persuasive application.
Towards a conversational agent architecture to favor knowledge discovery in serious games BIBAFull-Text 17
  Francesco Bellotti; Riccardo Berta; Alessandro De Gloria; Elisa Lavagnino
"Conversational Agents" (CAs) are virtual characters controlled by the computer and able to dialogue with users in natural language. CAs are usually employed in virtual world applications, such as for training, gaming or advertising, in order to increase the situation realism and user involvement.
   We are implementing a natural language interaction system with a clear focus on instructional dialogues aimed at favoring a player's acquisition of knowledge on specific topics through interaction with specialized NPC. Another key requirement for the system is easy and efficient writing and maintenance of the texts, also by author with no specific expertise on computational language technology.
   The system we propose includes a strategy and a tactical level. The former is responsible for managing the high-level aspects of the conversation, while the latter responds to the player's queries by relying on an original combination of an essential syntactical analysis and an ITF-IDF-based procedure.
   The technique specifically targets a (educational) gaming application domain. However, we believe that the technique could be extended to meet the requirements of other application domains.

Enhancing the gaming experience

Adapting content presentation and control to player personality in videogames BIBAFull-Text 18
  Rodrigo Dias; Carlos Martinho
In this paper, we present a first step towards a personality based framework for adapting videogame content to the player, in which the game infers a player's type from his behaviour, then selects how content is managed and presented to the player based on the inferred player type. This paper focuses on the later aspect.
   We detail how we assessed (offline) the player's Myers-Briggs personality type through a questionnaire, inferred his player type based on the Demographic Game Design model (conqueror, manager, wanderer, and participant), and propose how player type can enhance the player's experience by informing the game on three distinct aspects: difficulty management, presentation and depth of control over certain aspects of the game.
   To evaluate our approach, we developed a videogame, Grim Business, asked players of different types to play under different conditions and evaluated the experience using a questionnaire based on the GameFlow model. Our results suggest that player immersion, and consequently enjoyment, is higher when the game adapts to the player type.
Hands-on interactive tabletop LEGO application BIBAFull-Text 19
  Daniel Mendes; Pedro Lopes; Alfredo Ferreira
Presently, multi-touch interactive surfaces have widespread adoption as entertainment devices. Taking advantage of such devices, we present an interactive LEGO application, developed accordingly to an adaptation of building block metaphors and direct multi-touch manipulation. Our solution (LTouchIt) allows users to create 3D models on a tabletop surface. To prove the validity of our approach, we compared LTouchIt with two LEGO applications, conducting a user study with 20 participants. The results suggest that our touch-based application can compete with existing mouse-based applications. It provides users with a hands-on experience, which we believe to be more adequate for entertainment purposes.
Virtual chromatic percussions simulated by pseudo-haptic and vibrotactile feedback BIBAFull-Text 20
  Taku Hachisu; Gabriel Cirio; Maud Marchal; Anatole Lécuyer; Hiroyuki Kajimoto
Musical video games that allow users to play expensive musical instruments in a virtual environment constitute one of the most popular genres in the field of video games. Recent developments in motion input technology have enabled users to play the instruments intuitively and immersively. However, output technology, in particular haptic feedback, is not as advanced as input technology. We believe that providing a haptic sensation enriches the content of musical video games since the results of the motion input are fed back. To enrich the haptic sensation, we propose a system for playing virtual chromatic percussion, where the haptic feedback changes according to the instrument, as well as the acoustic feedback. In this paper, we propose a system describing a novel stick type controller and pseudo-haptic feedback to enrich the haptic sensation of the content. We also present an application that provides a virtual environment for playing two chromatic percussion instruments, namely the xylophone and glockenspiel.
Chewing jockey: augmented food texture by using sound based on the cross-modal effect BIBAFull-Text 21
  Naoya Koizumi; Hidekazu Tanaka; Yuji Uema; Masahiko Inami
We focus on the dining and show how to improve dining experience. We use sound effects to augment food texture, creating a cross-modal illusion.
   Our system is composed of a bone-conduction speaker, a microphone, a photoreflector to measure the motion of jaw, and a computer to design the sound effect or filtering.
   We focus on the texture of food, an important component of deliciousness, to enhance the eating experience without modifying the physical or chemical feature of the food. We use prevailing technologies to detect chewing action, feedback and process the chewing sound. In addition, we design some chewing augmentation filter for each foods. These combinations create the cross-modality effect for food texture.
   We have developed three elements. First is a bite-detection sensor, utilizing a photoreflector, to measure the movement of the lower jaw. Second is a sound filter for each type of food that will be used to control food texture. Third is a self-feedback system to enhance the chewing action that records the chewing sound and the jaw motion, and delivers it to the user using bone-conduction speakers.
   Our aim is to redesign the experience of eating. We believe this technology is useful for following situations. For a start, it is a challenge to improve the eating QoL for dentures users. As they cannot bite strongly, they get a reduced sensation of food. Chewing Jockey helps to restore that sensation. Another application is to moderate the chewing speed. Chewing too fast is not good for digestion and also leads to over-eating. With our technology, we can provide the most suitable chewing speed to alter such habits. Lastly, chewing can be a form of interaction for a novel game design, in which you could role-play a monster chewing on "living" things.
WeQuest: scalable alternate reality games through end-user content authoring BIBAFull-Text 22
  Andrew Macvean; Sanjeet Hajarnis; Brandon Headrick; Aziel Ferguson; Chinmay Barve; Devika Karnik; Mark O. Riedl
Alternate Reality Games (ARGs) are interactive narrative experiences that engage the player by layering a fictional world over the real world. Mobile ARG stories are often geo-specific, requiring players to visit specific locations in the world. Consequently, mobile ARGs are played infrequently and only by those who live within proximity of the locations that the stories reference. In this paper, we describe an ARG platform, WeQuest, that addresses the geo-specificity limitation through end-user content generation. An authoring tool allows end-users to create new ARG stories that can be executed automatically on geo-location aware mobile devices, leading to greater numbers of available stories to be played. An intelligent process called location translation makes geo-specific ARGs playable anywhere in the world.

Collaborative entertainment

Social and privacy aspects of a system for collaborative public expression BIBAFull-Text 23
  Jussi Holopainen; Andrés Lucero; Hannamari Saarenpää; Timo Nummenmaa; Abdallah El Ali; Tero Jokela
In this paper, we are concerned with how a real-world social situation shapes the interaction with a novel technology that combines collocated mobile phone and public display use for groups of people. We present a user study of a system that allows collaborative creation and sharing of comic strips on public displays in a social setting such as a pub or café. The system utilizes mobile phones and public displays for shared collaborative expression between collocated users. A user study spanning three sessions was conducted in real-world settings: one during the social event following a seminar on games research and two in a bar on a regular weekday evening. We present and discuss our findings with respect to how the larger social situation and location influenced the interaction with the system, the collaboration between participants of a team, how people moved between different roles (i.e., actor, spectator and bystander), and the privacy issues it evoked from participants.
PingPong++: community customization in games and entertainment BIBAFull-Text 24
  Xiao Xiao; Michael S. Bernstein; Lining Yao; David Lakatos; Lauren Gust; Kojo Acquah; Hiroshi Ishii
In this paper, we introduce PingPong++, an augmented ping pong table that applies Do-It-Yourself (DIY) and community contribution principles to the world of physical sports and play. PingPong++ includes an API for creating new visualizations, easily recreateable hardware, an end-user interface for those without programming experience, and a crowd data API for replaying and remixing past games. We discuss a range of contribution domains for PingPong++ and share the design, usage, feedback, and lessons for each domain. We then reflect on our process and outline a design space for community-contributed sports.
Ambient Suite: enhancing communication among multiple participants BIBAFull-Text 25
  Kazuyuki Fujita; Yuichi Itoh; Hiroyuki Ohsaki; Naoaki Ono; Keiichiro Kagawa; Kazuki Takashima; Sho Tsugawa; Kosuke Nakajima; Yusuke Hayashi; Fumio Kishino
We propose a room-shaped information environment called Ambient Suite that enhances communication among multiple participants. In Ambient Suite, the room itself works as both sensors to estimate the conversation states of participants and displays to present information to stimulate conversation. Such nonverbal cues as utterances, positions, and gestures are measured to sense participant states. The participants are surrounded by displays so that various types of information can be given based on their states. Although this system is adaptable to a wide range of situations where groups talk with each other, our implementation assumed standing-party situations as a typical case. Using this implementation, we experimentally evaluated the performance of input, output, and whether our system can actually stimulate conversation. The results showed that our system measured sensor data to recognize the conversational states, presented information, and adequately encouraged participant conversations.
Food Media: exploring interactive entertainment over telepresent dinner BIBAFull-Text 26
  Jun Wei; Roshan Lalintha Peiris; Jeffrey Tzu Kwan Valino Koh; Xuan Wang; Yongsoon Choi; Xavier Roman Martinez; Remi Tache; Veronica Halupka; Adrian David Cheok
Families have strong desires to have fun together, even at a distance. "Food Media" is an exploration of appropriating food and food activities as a medium for family communication and entertainment, across generations and over a distance. Traditionally, food has always been a social hub which brings people together for communication and entertainment. As the chances for remote families to enjoy shared entertainment are decreasing greatly nowadays, we propose "Food Media" as an intuitive multimodal interaction platform to engage remote people into social communication and entertainment within the telepresent family dinner context. Rather than fancy multimedia or computerized social games, this system breathes interactive entertainment into domestic routine activities of family dining, introduces multi-sensory interactions like touch, smell and taste to support enriched experience of interaction, connects and entertains people over a natural and playful eating experience.

Mobile and contextual entertainment

Participation inequality in mobile location games BIBAFull-Text 27
  Kate Lund; Paul Coulton; Andrew Wilson
Free All Monsters! is a novel location based mobile game and associated online web-based portal, which allows participants to create content that populates the game. The concept has recently transitioned from an initial prototype trialled at very specific events to an iPhone application that will allow the game to be played anywhere in the world. In this paper we present the ongoing research that considers how location based games have to be re-designed to accommodate the necessary increase of scale, how emergent behaviour manifests itself within the game and whether the notion of participation inequality is equally evident in such a system. The results show how new game behaviour is emerging from the original prototype and that participation inequality is still evident. From this suggestions are proposed regarding how these effects may be overcome.
Mobile 3D graphics and virtual reality interaction BIBAFull-Text 28
  Wolfgang Hürst; Matthias Helder
Mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets offer great new possibilities for the creation of 3D games and virtual reality environments. However, interaction with objects in these virtual worlds is often difficult -- for example due to the devices' small form factor. In this paper, we define different 3D visualization concepts and evaluate related interactions such as navigation and selection of objects. Detailed experiments with a smartphone and a tablet illustrate the advantages and disadvantages of the various 3D visualization concepts. Our results provide new insight with respect to interaction and highlight important aspects for the design of interactive virtual environments on mobile devices and related applications -- especially for mobile 3D gaming.
Building mobile context-aware applications for leisure and entertainment BIBAFull-Text 29
  Valentim Realinho; Teresa Romão; Fernando Birra; A. Eduardo Dias
This paper presents a mobile context-aware tourist guide application created with the IVO platform. IVO (Integrated Virtual Operator) enables end-users to quickly build and deploy context-aware applications without the need to write any programming code, and using smartphones as the ubiquitous interaction device. Aiming at exploring the use of the IVO platform to build mobile leisure and entertainment applications, the developed application makes use of most features available in IVO. Using only the tools provided by the platform, IVO Builder and IVO Outlook, users can define temporal and spatial conditions and associate them with workflows of available activities. The paper also presents the user studies performed to evaluate the application's usefulness and usability.
A case study of exploding places, a mobile location-based game BIBAFull-Text 30
  Martin Flintham; Chris Greenhalgh; Tom Lodge; Alan Chamberlain; Mark Paxton; Rachel Jacobs; Matt Watkins; Robin Shackford
In this paper we present a case study of a new mobile location-based game based on the creation of virtual communities against a backdrop of historical content. We describe the design, implementation and public pilot of the game, and present a quantitative and qualitative analysis of the use of the game's features. We discuss how and why the combination of these features affected players' engagement with the game. We conclude by reflecting on the design tensions resulting from the artists' 'evocative' approach.
A location-based multiplayer mobile game to encourage pro-environmental behaviours BIBAFull-Text 31
  Pedro Centieiro; Teresa Romão; A. Eduardo Dias
This paper explores the use of persuasive technology concepts to induce behaviour changes towards a better environmental consciousness, through mobile phones and public displays. More specifically, the paper reports the design, development and evaluation of Gaea, a location-based multiplayer mobile game, which prompts people to recycle virtual objects within a specified spatial context. Initial user tests were conducted to evaluate Gaea's persuasive ability during a small-scale event. Later on, Gaea's usability, and primarily its gameplay, were evaluated more extensively, in the context of an open day event at our University campus attended by 7000 high school students. The results obtained from the user tests were very positive, and may give a considerable contribution to the future development of persuasive applications, regardless the area of study.

Sound and music

Hearing is believing: evaluating ambient audio for location-based games BIBAFull-Text 32
  Jason Kurczak; T. C. Nicholas Graham; Claire Joly; Regan L. Mandryk
In location-based games, players act as their own avatar within in the physical world. Such games are increasing in popularity due to the wide adoption of smartphones that contain the location sensors necessary for their play. When played on a small, hand-held display, location-based games have two problems: users may be distracted, possibly leading to accidents; and players must map the display contents to the physical world, possibly reducing their sense of immersion. In this paper, we present the results of a study showing that ambient audio -- a continuous stream of audio representing an entity in space -- can replace visual displays for navigation tasks in location-based games. We find that ambient audio reduces player performance, but increases their sense of immersion in the virtual world and increases player safety.
Design of a touchless multipoint musical interface in a virtual studio environment BIBAFull-Text 33
  Dionysios Marinos; Björn Wöldecke; Chris Geiger; Tobias Schwirten
In this paper we describe a system for creating live musical expressions in a virtual studio environment. The underlying concept of this work is to provide casual and semi-professional users with a user experience that allow to easily create musical expressions without touch and visible feedback similar to the Theremin approach invented in in the early 20th century by Lev Theremin [26]. One or more performers stand in front of a studio camera inside a blue box and interact with an infrared-laser-based multi-touch device. The final TV image shows the performers interacting with a virtual screen, which is augmented in front of them, and background scenery that dynamically reacts to the music being produced. To overcome the problem of the performers not seeing this virtual screen in reality and yet being able to play melodic sequences, we use a special hexagonal pitch grid to facilitate the performer's awareness of this novel thereminlike virtual musical instrument.
A deck for sound design in games: enhancements based on a design exercise BIBAFull-Text 34
  Valter Alves; Licinio Roque
In the context of an initiative to empower non-expert practitioners to perform sound design in games, we have been working on a collection of design patterns and in a deck of cards that function as tokens to those patterns.
   The deck serves both practitioners and researchers. Practitioners may appreciate a presentation of potential sound explorations in a format that is literally handy, with no need to be familiar with the formalism of design patterns. Researchers who are willing to evolve such patterns may explore the usage of cards as part of a setting designed to be auditable.
   This paper presents the results of a first experiment with the deck in a scenario of a game design session. The goal is to evidence information supporting foremost enhancements to the deck itself, to the process in which it has being explored and audited, and to the inscribed collection of patterns.

Interactive storytelling

A methodology to derive a valid scenario of an interactive storytelling BIBAFull-Text 35
  Kim Dung Dang; Ronan Champagnat; Michel Augeraud
In previous works [3, 4], we showed how to use Linear Logic to model an Interactive Storytelling (IS). Proceeding from the achieved results, this paper introduces a methodology for authors to derive a valid scenario of an IS. In the paper, we will explain the implementation of the methodology via a detailed presentation of the steps in the process of IS modeling and illustrate those with a concrete example.
Persu: an architecture to apply persuasion in interactive storytelling BIBAFull-Text 36
  Rui Figueiredo; Ana Paiva
In this paper we describe an architecture to influence a user in an interactive storytelling context that is based on results from the social psychology's area of persuasion. Several important concepts of persuasion, such as how people make decisions, and how we can influence that process are discussed. We describe the several components of the architecture and how we applied them in a small study where we have successfully influenced the players of a story in following a specific path.
Timeline-based navigation for interactive narratives BIBAFull-Text 37
  Fred Charles; Julie Porteous; Marc Cavazza; Jonathan Teutenberg
Recent progress in narrative generation techniques for Interactive Storytelling supports increasingly longer stories. Consequently, the exploration of such automatically generated narratives for testing or evaluation purposes becomes increasingly difficult due to the many variants, even for stories of a few minutes' length. In this paper, we introduce a hypermedia method that supports the real-time navigation of 3D interactive narratives from their timeline description. The core idea behind our method is that it fully preserves the dynamic nature of the interactive narrative, unlike any form of visual replay or summarising. We illustrate the approach on a fully-implemented interactive narrative and show how it supports the exploration of different generated narratives in a way that assists testing and evaluation.
Introducing interactive story creators to conversation modelling BIBAFull-Text 38
  Ulrike Spierling
This paper presents an approach for non-programming writers in Interactive Storytelling to structure interactive conversations in the authoring process to achieve high potential variability during interactions. At the same time, the presentation describes material that can be used as introduction to the concepts of interactive dialogue writing and interactive story creation in general, filling a gap of information in interdisciplinary discourses. It has been applied and tested in a student project and in tutorials at conferences.

Game design and methodologies

Using probes to create child personas for games BIBAFull-Text 39
  Christiane Moser; Verena Fuchsberger; Manfred Tscheligi
This paper describes the integration of children into the analysis phase of a User-Centered Design approach for game development. We used the probes approach to collect qualitative and quantitative data effectively with the help of children. Our approach aimed at investigating gaming behaviors and requirements from children. Therefore, children did not only take part in the probes study, but also assisted in the development and design of the probes material. Additionally, we demonstrate the possibility of using the collected data of the probes material as a basis to create child personas.
The explanatory power of playability heuristics BIBAFull-Text 40
  Hannu Korhonen
Research of playability heuristics to be used with usability inspection methods in videogame evaluations has been active in recent years, and there are multiple playability heuristic sets available. However, they differ quite a lot from each other, and it is still unknown how well they support inspectors and help to describe the identified playability problems in a game. In this paper, we present a study in which 36 novice inspectors were divided into two identical groups, and they evaluated a mobile game using one of the two playability heuristic sets. In the second task, the inspectors analyzed playability problems that were collected from the game, and assigned heuristics to describe the problems. The results show that a playability heuristic set needs to cover the main aspects of playability in order to be effectively used during the evaluation. The results of this work will help in developing a playability heuristic set that makes expert review an effective method for evaluating videogames.
Creating interactive driver experiences with the scenario markup language BIBAFull-Text 41
  Kugamoorthy Gajananan; Eurico Doirado; Arturo Nakasone; Pedro Cuba; Helmut Prendinger; Marc Miska
Serious games became an important device for increasing the awareness of issues that are important to society. One such issue is the environmental impact of driving. To support the training and wide promotion of eco-friendly driving, an appropriate platform and tools are needed. In this paper, we present the Scenario Markup Language (SML), a simple yet expressive language for authoring realistic traffic situations. This effort is part of a novel framework for automatically generating complex scenarios in the transport domain. In particular, SML facilitates the scripting of behavioral driver studies in multi-user online three-dimensional (3D) virtual worlds.
How to integrate domain-specific languages into the game development process BIBAFull-Text 42
  Robert Walter; Maic Masuch
Domain-specific languages make the relevant details of a domain explicit while omitting the distracting ones. This implies many benefits regarding development speed and quality as well as the exchange of information between expert groups. In order to utilize these benefits for game development, we present a language engineering workflow that describes best practices to identify a reasonable domain abstraction, illustrated by means of a language for 2D Point & Click Adventures. We discuss how this process can be integrated into an agile, iterative development process and what thereby needs to be considered.

New media and art

Teach me to dance: exploring player experience and performance in full body dance games BIBAFull-Text 43
  Emiko Charbonneau; Andrew Miller; Joseph J., Jr. LaViola
We present a between-subjects user study designed to compare a dance instruction video to a rhythm game interface. The goal of our study is to answer the question: can these games be an effective learning tool for the activity they simulate? We use a body controlled dance game prototype which visually emulates current commercial games. Our research explores the player's perceptions of their own capabilities, their capacity to deal with a high influx of information, and their preferences regarding body-controlled video games. Our results indicate that the game-inspired interface elements alone were not a substitute for footage of a real human dancer, but participants overall preferred to have access to both forms of media. We also discuss the dance rhythm game as abstracted entertainment, exercise motivation, and realistic dance instruction.
AV clash, online audiovisual project: a case study of evaluation in new media art BIBAFull-Text 44
  Nuno N. Correia
This paper presents an evaluation of new media art project AV Clash. AV Clash is a Web-based artistic project that allows the creation of audiovisual compositions, consisting of combinations of animations with sounds retrieved from online database Freesound.org. The evaluation is based on the answers to an online questionnaire. It has an experience focus, while also taking into account usability aspects. The questionnaire was structured following five main areas: sound, visuals and multisensoriality; amount and customization of content; flexibility of manipulation; usability and interactivity; creativity, playfulness and engagement. The concept of aesthetic interaction, relevant to the project and its evaluation, is presented. The results of the questionnaire are then discussed, followed by a reflection on the methodology used. Conclusions are reached regarding the five different areas of the questionnaire, and the adequacy of its experience focus. Usability problems are also identified and discussed. Finally, paths for further work are outlined.
Open-ended art environments motivate participation BIBAFull-Text 45
  Ann Morrison; Stephen Viller; Peta Mitchell
In this research we observe the situated, embodied and playful interaction that participants engage in with open-ended interactive artworks. The larger project from which this work derives [28] contributes a methodological model for the evaluation of open-ended interactive artwork that treats each work individually and recognises the importance of the artist intent and the traditions from which the work derives. In this paper, we describe this evolving methodology for evaluating and understanding participation via three case studies of open-ended interactive art installations. This analysis builds an understanding of open-ended free-play non-narrative environments and the affordances these environments enable for participants.
Revisiting 3D information landscapes for the display of art historical web content BIBAFull-Text 46
  Doron Goldfarb; Max Arends; Josef Froschauer; Dieter Merkl
As of today, a lot of different approaches have been dealing with the presentation of art history resources on the Web. While the majority of these focused on traditional 2D methods of display, some did introduce the application of 3D visualization metaphors. Such environments were, however, usually tailored to a specific collection or topic, such as a featured artist or epoch. Meanwhile, the increasing availability of valuable metadata resources has opened up the perspective for the automatic creation of such 3D environments by integrating semantic data sources through the Web. In this work we therefore present a prototype that automatically constructs a 3D environment from semantic art history related Web resources, offering users the opportunity to explore art history following the visualized structure of relations between historical actors of the field. Traversing this historical social network enables users to encounter previously unknown artists and their work in a serendipitous way.

Game experiences and studies

A survey of Japanese gamers' ratings of experience elements for different game genres BIBAFull-Text 47
  Yukiko Maruyama; Masood Masoodian; Bill Rogers
Although there has been a surge in computer games research in recent years, studies of gamers' experience of different game genres are very few. Furthermore, even these few studies of gamers' experience are almost all based on Western/European players. In this paper we present a survey of Japanese gamers' ratings of the importance of a range of elements that contribute to their experience of playing games from different genres. The results of this survey indicate that the ratings of these elements are different across various genres; thus providing designers of each genre with a range of elements that they need to take into account when designing those specific types of games. The results also show that there are small, but significant, differences between males and females in their ratings of some game elements.
Empirical validation of the involvement component of the pervasive GameFlow model BIBAFull-Text 48
  Eduardo Calvillo-Gámez; Jodi Crisp; Pablo Romero
This paper presents an empirical investigation into the question of involvement in pervasive games. The study is motivated by the Pervasive GameFlow model and its involvement component. The main research question is whether aspects of involvement in desktop computer games are also valid for the immersion and enjoyment of players of pervasive games. In order to address this question, two empirical studies were performed: the first explored the possible correlations between several aspects of involvement and the enjoyment and immersion of players. The second compared two versions of an outdoor game, one with and the other without digital augmentations, in order to explore which version provided a higher degree of involvement and enjoyment. The results of these studies suggest that becoming less aware of everyday life is not a relevant aspect of the immersion and enjoyment of players of pervasive games and that there is no significant difference in these elements of the gaming experience (immersion and enjoyment) when comparing the digitally and non-digitally augmented versions of the outdoor game. These results suggest that the involvement experienced by players of pervasive games is not characterised by a sense of being transported into the virtual world of the game; instead, in these types of games the virtual world of the digital application is the one which is drawn out into the physical world. The paper proposes that an embodied view of game-play can explain these results in a coherent manner.
Difficulty in videogames: an experimental validation of a formal definition BIBAFull-Text 49
  Maria-Virginia Aponte; Guillaume Levieux; Stéphane Natkin
This paper synthetically presents a reliable and generic way to evaluate the difficulty of video games, and an experiment testing its accuracy and concordance with subjective assessments of difficulty. We propose a way to split the gameplay into measurable items, and to take into account the player's apprenticeship to statistically evaluate the game's difficulty. We then present the experiment, based on a standard FPS gameplay. First, we verify that our constructive approach can be applied to this gameplay. Then, we test the accuracy of our method. Finally, we compare subjective assessments of the game's difficulty, both from the designers and the players, to the values predicted by our model. Results show that a very simple version of our model can predict the probability to the player has to lose with enough accuracy to be useful as a game design tool. However, the study points out that the subjective feeling of difficulty seems to be complex, and not only based on a short term estimate of the chances of success.

Social impact

Attributes of successful intergenerational online activities BIBAFull-Text 50
  Verena Fuchsberger; Martin Murer; David Wilfinger; Manfred Tscheligi
Changing family structures and associated geographical distances between family members lead to a transfer of offline activities to online environments to maintain and facilitate the relationships. Especially in the case of grandparents and grandchildren this is crucial both for grandparents to be included in family activities and grandchildren to benefit from their grandparents' experiences and time. In order to create successful, i.e. appropriate and entertaining intergenerational online activities, we identified attributes of offline activities conducted by grandparents and grandchildren, which can be applied to interactive systems as well. During a user requirements analysis phase end users were involved to assess the most important activities as well as the communication behavior and the characteristics of relationships between grandparents and grandchildren. Finally, 13 attributes of entertaining activities have been deduced, which focus on the structure, the appearance and the users' goals as well as on special characteristics of the user groups.
Stomp: an interactive platform for people with intellectual disabilities BIBAFull-Text 51
  Peta Wyeth; Jennifer Summerville; Barbara Adkins
For people with intellectual disabilities there are significant barriers to inclusion in socially cooperative endeavors. This paper investigates the effectiveness of Stomp, a tangible user interface (TUI) designed to provide new participatory experiences for people with intellectual disability. Results from an observational study reveal the extent to which the Stomp system supports social and physical interaction. The tangible, spatial and embodied qualities of Stomp result in an experience that does not rely on the acquisition of specific competencies before interaction and engagement can occur.
Lessons learnt from an experience with an augmented reality iPhone learning game BIBAFull-Text 52
  M. Carmen Juan; David Furió; Ignacio Seguí; Noemí Rando Aiju; Juan Cano
In this paper, we present an augmented reality (AR) iPhone game for learning multiculturalism and solidarity. The subject was chosen based on a study in which participated 150 professionals. The game was designed following different design principles. The game includes several interaction forms (physical manipulation, touch-screen and accelerometer interaction). Eighty-four children from 8 to 10 years old participated in a study for checking different aspects of the game. In this paper, four of these aspects are presented: the easiness of use, the preferred interaction method, the predisposition of using AR at school for learning, and the preference about the game. From the results, 49% of participants considered that the AR device was extremely easy to play with. For interaction, the children preferred the use of the accelerometer (39%), followed by the use of AR (27%) and the tactile screen (27%). The majority of participants (91%) appreciated the possibility of incorporating AR in their learning activities at school, and 81% of the participants preferred the experience offered by the AR game over the traditional game. Finally, based on this experience, we refine several design principles for mobile AR learning games for children.

User experience

User expectations and experiences of a speech and thought controlled computer game BIBAFull-Text 53
  Hayrettin Gürkök; Gido Hakvoort; Mannes Poel; Anton Nijholt
Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) are often evaluated in terms of performance and seldom for usability. However in some application domains, such as entertainment computing, user experience evaluation is vital. User experience evaluation in BCI systems, especially in entertainment applications such as games, can be biased due to the novelty of the interface. However, as the novelty will eventually vanish, what matters is the user experience related to the unique features offered by BCI. Therefore it is a viable approach to compare BCI to other novel modalities, such as a speech or motion recogniser, rather than the traditional mouse and keyboard. In the study which we present in this paper, our participants played a computer game with a BCI and an automatic speech recogniser (ASR) and they rated their expectations and experiences for both modalities. Our analysis on subjective ratings revealed that both ASR and BCI were successful in satisfying participants' expectations in general. Participants found speech control easier to learn than BCI control. They indicated that BCI control induced more fatigue than they expected.
The influence of performance-oriented widgets on interactive behavior while playing videogames BIBAFull-Text 54
  Luís Duarte; Luís Carriço
The videogame industry is an ever increasing market, broadening its scope in recent years to the casual market or to the use of such applications in critical domains, such as therapy or rehabilitation. Like any other form of entertainment, videogames are capable of evoking different emotions. In the last years we have witnessed an increasing interest in analyzing user emotional responses to environmental aspects, the game's content and genre. Yet, emotional response to one facet of videogames has not been properly tackled: interaction. This paper presents an ongoing research in which we analyze how different interactive features and constraints can influence an individual's emotional state, in particular a subset of his/her physiological signals. We conducted an experiment during which users were confronted with different performance-oriented widgets and provide empirical evidence on how these features altered the users' emotional state and performance.
Player performance and in game advertising retention BIBAFull-Text 55
  Lindsay D. Grace; James Coyle
In game advertising or IGA is an increasingly common means of promoting brands and products. This study seeks to understand the effectiveness of in game advertising by understanding player retention of brand messages. The researchers created a controlled environment and 3D car racing game, embedding in game advertising and measuring player performance and advertising retention. The study produces a highly detailed view of the relationship of brand retention, player ability, and engagement.
Senses working overtime: on sensuous experiences and public computer game play BIBAFull-Text 56
  Fatima Jonsson; Harko Verhagen
In this article we will discuss players' experience of computer games in terms of sight, sound, taste, smell, and touch. We discuss how senses shape and give meaning to players' game play experiences in the game café and a mass LAN party. We also discuss how the social environments in which games are played impact on the experience of playing games. The data is drawn on a field study of public gameplay in a game café and a mass LAN party in Sweden. We conclude by highlighting that the social atmosphere is key to understanding public game play experiences.

Novel interfaces

Cloud interface: designing aerial computer environment for novel user interface BIBAFull-Text 57
  Hiroaki Tobita
We describe our cloud interface that integrates blimps with input and output functions to allow unique entertainment applications. Floating interfaces are advantageous because they move through the air and above people, enabling people to simultaneously share information obtained from these blimps. To create a floating interface environment, we installed projectors inside the blimps to provide the output function, allowing our cloud interface to work as both a display and projector. Several sensors, such as cameras and ultrasonic sensors attached to the blimps, provide the input function. All of the blimps have a small computer and network module, so they can communicate with people and also with one another. Because our cloud interface has characteristic features such as weightlessness and flexibility, the interaction between humans and computer dynamically changes more than with conventional augmented reality systems. We describe our cloud interface and its practical applications.
Breathalising games: understanding the potential of breath control in game interfaces BIBAFull-Text 58
  Paul Tennent; Duncan Rowland; Joe Marshall; Stefan Rennick Egglestone; Alexander Harrison; Zachary Jaime; Brendan Walker; Steve Benford
This paper explores the potential for breath control as an interaction medium for gaming. In particular it examines the positioning of breath control within the stack of interface paradigms: As the only control, as a secondary control and as an ancillary or ambient control. It describes a technology developed using specially adapted gas masks to measure breath flow. By describing five simple games (or game modifications), each developed using breath in a somewhat different way, we show some of the possibilities of this unique interface paradigm. Crucially, the paper aims to demonstrate that breathing, though in principle a one dimensional interface medium, is actually a subtle and viable control mechanism that can be used either as a control mechanism in itself, or to enhance a more traditional game interface, ultimately leading to a satisfying and immersive game experience.
Selective inductive powering system for paper computing BIBAFull-Text 59
  Kening Zhu; Hideaki Nii; Owen Noel Newton Fernando; Adrian David Cheok
We present a method of selective wireless power transferring for paper computing. The novelty of this method lies in the power transmitter can be controlled to selectively activate different receivers in the context of wireless power transferring with multiple receivers. This was achieved by changing the output frequency of the power transmitter and the impedance of the receivers. With this method, users could easily design new types of paper-computing system without worrying about the arrangement of the massive wire connection to power supply. This technology combining with paper computing can become a physical rendering system using paper-craft, such as paper folding and cutting. In this paper we describe the implementation of our method, the advantages and limitations, the applications and the future directions.

Multimedia perception

Sound-power visualization system for real-world interaction based on ultrasonic power transmission BIBAFull-Text 60
  Kentaro Kimura; Osamu Hoshuyama; Takuji Narumi; Tomohiro Tanikawa; Michitaka Hirose
We propose a sound-power visualization system that uses ultrasonic power transmission to assist in the direct physical interaction between users and a sound. For the ultrasonic power transmission, we develop a novel receiving unit that extracts electrical power from the ultrasonic sound propagated through the air using the piezoelectric effect. The extracted electrical power is used to drive various devices and actuators such as LEDs, motors, and loudspeakers. We design the receiving unit for the proposed sound-power visualization system named the Visualization System for Interaction with Transmitted Audio signals (VITA). In the VITA, 144 LEDs, which react to the sound emanating from a parametric loudspeaker, are arranged in a given space; this arrangement is used to provide a visual feedback to indicate the path of the sound. The feedback helps a user to manipulate the sound easily and directly and enables an interaction to be established between the user and the acoustical environment. With our proposed receiving unit, not all the LEDs need to be wired individually. We develop a system to visualize the sound field created in space and evaluate the established interaction and the performance of the sound-to-power transformation through demonstration and experiments. We also present a detailed evaluation of two circuits of the receiving unit that are used to turn on the LEDs and make the sound path visible up to a distance of 5 meters. One of the circuits has a narrow directivity of reception of less than 10°. The other has a wide directivity of reception of 25° and a high efficiency of transformation of ultrasonic sound to electrical power.
Takumi: a real-time video converter that generates cartoon-style animated images using depth map BIBAFull-Text 61
  Hironori Wakama; Haruhiro Katayose
A new non-photorealistic rendering method using a depth map has been developed, on the basis of which a real-time cartoon-like video converter called Takumi was created. Many systems have been proposed that convert a given image into a non-photorealistic one. Images that these conventional methods render lack in perspective, due to processing being equally applied to the whole image. A method has been developed that solves this problem using a depth map. The proposed method generates cartoon-like jump edges on the basis of depth information and adjusts the tone color of the region of the same plane considering the values of normal lines. Takumi, implemented with the proposed method using Kinect, works at the frame rates or 30fps. Takumi is expected to be used in the fields of entertainment and content production.
Designing and evaluating digital games for frail elderly persons BIBAFull-Text 62
  Kathrin M. Gerling; Frank P. Schulte; Maic Masuch
Game research increasingly addresses human factors of gaming. Though more and more seniors become players, game design for frail elderly has rarely been explored. This paper addresses game design for senior citizens experiencing age-related changes, especially cognitive and physical limitations. We introduce and evaluate the case study SilverPromenade, which is specifically aimed at providing institutionalized frail elderly with a new leisure activity. SilverPromenade allows players to go on virtual walks while accounting for special needs regarding game complexity, and simplistic interaction paradigms are provided using Nintendo's Wii Remote and the Balance Board for game control. Evaluation results suggest that despite age-related impairments, the game was generally accessible to elderly persons. Yet, differences between inexperienced and experienced players were observed which suggest that interaction problems may be reduced by engaging with games over a longer time. Findings also indicate that the engagement of elderly players transcends into their everyday life, and their social interaction increases among one another. Most importantly, the evaluation showed that games were perceived as enjoyable leisure activity, supporting the approach of applying digital games to raise the quality of life among frail elderly by fostering activity.
E-IMPACT: exaggerated illustrations using multi-perspective animation control tree structure BIBAFull-Text 63
  Kei Utsugi; Takeshi Naemura; Takafumi Koike; Michio Oikawa
A more flexible and impressive depiction results with traditional hand-drawn animation than with computer graphics. We propose a technique for anime-like exaggeration of perspective. Our technique is used to achieve a dynamic depiction when rendering animation using multi-perspective rendering. Multi-perspective rendering is a non-photorealistic rendering method that combines what is seen from several viewpoints into a single image and enables the rendering of anomalous pictures. We focused on a systematic arrangement of viewpoints specialized to depict an exaggerated rendering of a figure model with articulated joints so that these viewpoints represent exaggerations similar to traditional freehand drawing in anime. For this purpose, we constructed a tree structure we call "viewpoint hierarchy" (VH), which is isomorphic to joint hierarchy, with nodes containing the viewpoints necessary for multiple perspectives. Our technique dynamically arranges each viewpoint between the viewpoint's parent node and a control point embedded in a figure model. Our real-time implementation and experimentation show that perspective-combined images are preferable for dynamic movement and immersion.
Paint color control system with infrared photothermal conversion BIBAFull-Text 64
  Hiroki Yamada; Tomohiro Tanikawa; Kunihiro Nishimura; Michitaka Hi rose
In this paper, we describe our novel image display technology to control the paint color of everyday physical objects. RGB (Red-Green-Blue), an additive color mixture of light's three primary colors is used to create images in screens and display while CMYK (Cyan-Magenta-Yellow-Black), a subtractive color model is specialized to printing to papers. However, here we propose the system that uses CMYK color mode and digitally controls images by a chromogenic method of thermochromic inks. Due to the temperature sensitive property of these inks, this technology can digitally change painted colors of physical objects dynamically by changing temperatures.
   In order to achieve the high resolution and low-power color control system, infrared LED (Light Emitting Diode) was used as the device to control these inks with photothermal conversion. Through the development of the system and its some applications, we introduce our vision of "CM YK display".

Late breaking results

Anim-actor: understanding interaction with digital puppetry using low-cost motion capture BIBAFull-Text 65
  Luís Leite; Veronica Orvalho
Character animation has traditionally relied on complex and time-consuming key frame animation or expensive motion capture techniques. These methods are out of reach for low budget animation productions. We present a low-cost performance-driven technique that allows real-time interactive control of puppets for performance or film animation. In this paper we study how users can interpret simple actions like, walking, with different puppets. The system was deployed for the Xbox Kinect and shows how low-cost equipment's can provide a new mean for motion capture representation. Last, we performed a pilot experiment animating silhouettes and 3D puppets in real-time, based on body movements interpreted by non-expert artists, representing different Olympic Sports that vary on visual representation for other participants to identify. As a result, interaction with 2D puppets needs more interpretation than with 3D puppets.
Augmented emotion by superimposing depiction in comics BIBAFull-Text 66
  Sho Sakurai; Takuji Narumi; Tomohiro Tanikawa; Michitaka Hirose
This paper proposes a method for conveying emotions in face-to-face communication by superimposing comic book images on real world using augmented reality technology. We implemented a system named "Intra-expo" that superimposes comic book images which influence our estimation of emotional state around the user. In order to build the system, we analyzed how subjects estimated the emotional state of a person when the person's image was superimposed on various comic book images. We then constructed a prototype of Intra-expo, which detects the user using the Microsoft Kinect system and projects different comic book images around the user, who selects their emotional state using an Apple iPhone as a mobile interface.
Biometric design for casual games: a case study on measuring facial responses in casual games BIBAFull-Text 67
  Maartje M. C. G. Polman; Licia Calvi; Dirk Janssen
The paper discusses the results of a case study on the effect of players' facial responses when playing a casual game. In order to do so, it measures the facial responses in casual games by recording facial EMG and analyzing players' facial expressions using FACS. It investigates which one of the two measurements is more effective to measure emotional responses in casual games. The results of this case study show that playing a casual game causes the players to respond with both facial expressions and facial EMG activity and that both measurements are needed in order to get a good understanding of the players' emotional responses to casual game events.
BUNNY BURNit: the volatile message as a new social network system to overcome digital eternity BIBAFull-Text 68
  Sooyeon Maeng; Jiho Yeom; Hanah Cho; Bong-Gwan Jeon
In this paper, we will introduce "BUNNY BURNit," a system which overcomes the limitations of digital eternity by using volatile messages that will leave no trace in a cyber space. These volatile messages from BUNNY BURNit will be deleted permanently from the server and the phone screen immediately after the burn time. This system ensures freedom of expression and protects private communication.
ClayStation: a mixed reality gaming platform supporting playful learning for children BIBAFull-Text 69
  Xuan Wang; Adrian David Cheok
This paper presents a novel mixed reality gaming platform for children, ClayStation, which aims to promote physical play, creativity and playful learning. Users can create their own unique characters and scenes in the game using real clay, and alter their characteristics in real time. This flexibility stimulates imagination, enables users to have more control and allows them to customize their gaming experience more easily. In this paper, we present the design of the system, and discuss its potential in supporting playful learning.
Everywhere run: a virtual personal trainer for supporting people in their running activity BIBAFull-Text 70
  Fabrizio Mulas; Salvatore Carta; Paolo Pilloni; Matteo Manca
In the last years many medical researches have reported an increase of health problems in developed countries, mostly related to a sedentary lifestyle (as obesity and linked pathologies like diabetes and cardiovascular diseases). As a consequence. many research efforts have been carried out for finding strategies for motivating people to exercise regularly.
   In this paper we present an Android-based mobile application, called Everywhere Run [1], that aims at motivating and supporting people during their running activities, behaving as a virtual personal trainer. Everywhere Run fosters the interaction between users and real personal trainers, in order to make it easy to non expert people to start working out in a healthy and safe way.
FeelTact: rich tactile feedback for mobile gaming BIBAFull-Text 71
  Nicolas Esposito; Charles Lenay
During the design phase of a mobile game, the separation between our environment (e.g. a town) and the small screen display can be a strong constraint. For example, the player must stop to look at the screen to get information, which then can alter the dynamics of the gameplay. Typically, the solution is to incorporate this constraint into the design of the gameplay, but there are also other options to solve this disconnect issue. The FeelTact project proposes an innovative approach that does not use the screen as the primary output device. Instead, it concentrates on maximizing rich tactile feedback, as opposed to the more common vibrations already seen in other gaming devices. The FeelTact device is a new type of tactile bracelet that will drive the information a player receives. The first FeelTact game is an audiotactile mobile game based on an urban navigation system. The results are quite promising (higher scores and pleasure) and show that it is possible to access a new tactile dimension that has been underused in the past.
LEY!: persuasive pervasive gaming on domestic energy consumption-awareness BIBAFull-Text 72
  Rui Neves Madeira; André Silva; Catarina Santos; Bárbara Teixeira; Teresa Romão; Eduardo Dias; Nuno Correia
Nowadays, energy consumption (and wastage) is particularly a major issue in our society. It has been a challenge to find ways of educating people to follow better attitudes towards energy savings. This paper proposes a pervasive-based serious game approach to help people understand household energy usage and to persuade them to change negative energy consumption habits. The mechanics of the game are based on real-time domestic energy consumption information, presenting a collaborative-competitive approach.
Mobile phones as second screen for TV, enabling inter-audience interaction BIBAFull-Text 73
  Mark Lochrie; Paul Coulton
Despite the ever expanding forms of digital entertainment, there are still TV shows and events that create an audience desire to be part of a mass shared experience. In the past direct inter-audience interaction of such events has been restricted to either a shared location at the time of broadcast or later discussions amongst friends and colleagues often described as 'water cooler moments'. With the advent of online social networks that facilitate status updates these moments can be instantly shared in real-time, creating a second screen for interaction with TV. In this paper we investigate the role of social media as the facilitator of second screen for TV, through the analysis of tweets for weekend primetime UK TV show the X-Factor. The results highlight the rich source of information that can be extracted in real-time and its enormous potential for broadcasters and producers both in terms of reinvigorating live TV viewing and creating new forms of audience interaction.
Multitouch and pen interaction for 3D configuration of virtual yachts at trade fairs BIBAFull-Text 74
  Annika Möser; Thomas Reufer; Chris Geiger
We consider the use of natural interaction techniques like multi-touch and pen-based interaction in the context of virtual product presentation. We developed a 3D configurator for sailing ships to be exhibited at trade fairs. After configuration on a multi-touch table with pen support the results can be presented on a large wall screen and interactively operated in action at a virtual seaside. We exhibited this work at the world's largest trade fair for yachting and water sports in 2011 and a national scientific conference on virtual reality and complex system design. The feedback results validated our approach to provide only few interactions possibilities within a constrained range.
Quasi-realtime social network construction with heterogeneous sensors in ambient environment BIBAFull-Text 75
  Sho Tsugawa; Hiroyuki Ohsaki; Yuichi Itoh; Naoaki Ono; Keiichiro Kagawa; Kazuki Takashima; Makoto Imase
In this paper, we present our design and implementation of a prototype system for quasi-realtime social network construction with Ambient Suite, which is a room-shaped environment with heterogeneous sensors. We also present experimental results and lessons learned from our experience.
Social brainstorming via interactive fabrication BIBAFull-Text 76
  Matthew Gardiner; Christopher Lindinger; Roland Haring; Horst Hörtner; Hideaki Ogawa; Emiko Ogawa
We present Shadowgram as an outcome from our research into catalyzing the creativity of audiences, in particular for the task of social brainstorming through interactive fabrication. We discuss our motivation to design Shadowgram as a natural extension of existing fabrication technologies. We discuss the functional aspects of the design and implementation, and conclude with directions for further detailed research.
The Alkaline Arcade: a child-friendly fun machine for battery recycling BIBAFull-Text 77
  Pascal de Kruyff; Anneloes Steentjes; Suleman Shahid
This paper presents a solution to the increasing problems associated with battery recycling in the Netherlands and worldwide. The Alkaline Arcade is aimed to transform battery recycling into a fun, educational and rewarding experience primarily for young children. With the current design, children may insert empty batteries to be rewarded with special discount coupons and the ability to play a battery related game. The design has solicited largely positive responses from experts, children and their parents alike.
Towards immersive interactive video through 360° hypervideo BIBAFull-Text 78
  Teresa Chambel; Maiur N. Chhaganlal; Luís A. R. Neng
Immersion in video has a strong impact on the viewers' emotions, their sense of presence and engagement, and thus on the entertainment quality of the experience. 360° videos have the potential to generate highly immersive video environments, by allowing the user the experience of being surrounded by the video. Hypervideo stretches boundaries even further, allowing to interact with the video, to explore it, and to navigate in a space of related information. In this paper, we identify potential benefits and challenges and describe approaches and directions to the design and development of immersive, interactive videos based on 360° hypervideo.
YouDash3D: exploring depth-based game mechanics and stereoscopic video in S3D gaming BIBAFull-Text 79
  Jonas Schild; Sven Seele; Maic Masuch
In our current work, we explore novel gameplay opportunities in stereoscopic 3D (S3D) gaming. Our game prototype, YouDash3D, showcases first results in the following challenges: (1) how can stereoscopic gameplay differ from current, gameplay in a way that is especially effective with S3D display, and (2) how can S3D video contribute to interactive gameplay? In conclusion, we propose entertaining S3D video effects and depth-based game mechanics.

Creative showcase & interactive art

Anabiosis: an interactive pictorial art based on polychrome paper computing BIBAFull-Text 80
  Kohei Tsuji; Akira Wakita
We present Anabiosis, an interactive pictorial artwork based on our novel paper computing technique called Polychrome Paper Computing. When a viewer touches a butterfly printed on paper surface, the color of the butterfly changes dynamically. The user can also enjoy the flying animations and interactive instructions on the beautiful butterflies. Polychrome Paper Computing is a new color-generating technology which enables dynamic color change without losing thin soft character of paper. Focusing on polychrome printing techniques used in traditional paper works such as Ukiyo-e (pictures of the floating world), we have developed a multilayered structure composed of normal inks and functional inks. The technology makes it possible to generate interactive paper works that can utilize both expressions and techniques of paper human has developed.
Catapy BIBAFull-Text 81
  Yuichiro Katsumoto; Masa Inakage
In this paper, we propose Catapy -- a car that provides the fun of chasing. Catapy itself is a palm-sized motorized car covered by a caterpillar track, and it is able to run across a field freely even on an irregular ground. The user can enjoy the chasing of Catapy that runs tantivy. By combining Catapy with other Catapy, the user can also enjoy the transition of its shape and function.
Educational narrative games with choice: the simula family BIBAFull-Text 82
  Nicolas Szilas; Thomas Boggini; Urs Richle; Jean E. Dumas
This paper presents a demonstration of a pedagogical highly interactive drama, which provides the user with many choices on the course of the narrative, by controlling a character in an immersive 3D story.
Enhanced touch: a wearable device for social playware BIBAFull-Text 83
  Kazuki Iida; Kenji Suzuki
In this study, we propose a novel wearable device for sensing physical contact among people. This device is realized to detect and record the touch of users by using bodily communication. The proposed device provides a novel playful interaction method between humans.
"interacumos": an interactive digital cubic kaleidoscope BIBAFull-Text 84
  Junichi Kanebako; Masafumi Oda; Kanako Matsuo; Keisuke Shuto; Takenori Hara; Goro Motai; Minori Yamazaki; Hiroko Uchiyama
We developed a new digital kaleidoscope called "interacumos," which generates interactive videos with depth perception based on the infinite reflections of a six-sided mirrored cubic kaleidoscope. We installed OLED panels and pressure sensors in a cubic kaleidoscope, "interacumos" analyzes movements of the hand with pressure sensors and generates interactive videos in real time. As a result, the user can enjoy interactive videos as if playing a tune on an instrument.
Intuitively interactive pamphlets using augmented reality BIBAFull-Text 85
  Tetsuya Ueda; Ayako Hanai; Keiko Kamei
We developed a multimedia display system for information kiosks that clearly presents the structure and amount of information available in a tangible and interactive environment with an intuitive interface -- a common paper pamphlet. With this interface, the visitor understands intuitively the amount and hierarchy of the content based on the number of pages, and there is no limitation on the amount of information because the system augments the pamphlet. Visitor feedback from an ongoing exhibition has shown that the system is indeed promising.
Let's move and save some energy BIBAFull-Text 86
  Ricardo Salvador; Teresa Romão
MAID (Motion-based Ambient Interactive Display) is an interactive public ambient display system, driven to motivate behavior changes regarding energy consumption, through a persuasive game interface based on gesture recognition technology.
MaLaKuLa: stories inside "magical" seashells BIBAFull-Text 87
  João Carvalho; Pedro Branco
MaLaKuLa is an art installation to be discovered by people walking along the beach. It explores familiar nature elements in their natural context to build a poetical digital experience where the nature elements become interfaces for unexpected narratives.
   In this installation, curious spectators surprised by the sounds of two "magical" sea shells, explore them to find that they are being taken through a journey of mysterious soundscapes: the sounds of Malakula, telling stories of a lost island in the Pacific Ocean. The narrative takes the listener to an imaginary magical place where one hears the call of the spirits of the land and sea.
"Office Brawl": a conversational storytelling game and its creation process BIBAFull-Text 88
  Florian Glock; Anne Junker; Marina Kraus; Christian Lehrian; Alexander Schäfer; Steve Hoffmann; Ulrike Spierling
This demonstration is a showcase of an interactive storytelling (IS) game consisting of verbal conversations between two virtual agents and a user. It is the result of a University project in interactive media, based on the IS platform Scenejo. As novel results we present variable discourse management of atomic video snippets for single utterances in an integrated presentation, rendering of emotional reactions to verbal user input and a model of a general creation process that has been applied to the authoring and production of the piece, including authoring tools.
Play with fire BIBAFull-Text 89
  Mónica Mendes; Pedro Ângelo; Valentina Nisi; Nuno Correia
Play with Fire is an interactive art installation that proposes participants to ignite generative fires over live streaming video of selected forests. This experience paradoxically encourages playing with fire to stimulate awareness and prevention of fire related damages to the forests.
   We envisage the installation triggering controversial feelings by combining the "beauty and danger" of a forest on fire. Our goal is to raise awareness for human causes in forest fires and effect attitude change towards environmental protection.
   In this proposal we outline the concept and installation setup for the ACE 2011 Creative Showcase and Interactive Art track.
Queen's New Clothes BIBAFull-Text 90
  Li Bian; Lining Yao; Matthew Hirsch
Inspired by the Danish tale Emperor's New Clothes and Lady Gaga's Orbit dress, we designed and implemented a wearable computing costume, Queen's New Clothes, which appears plain to naked eyes but exhibits changing patterns on photos taken at different time and location. The project explores the dual status of fashion in both the physical world and the digital world. It accentuates the dynamically changing nature of fashion and shows how we can use this fast changing nature of fashion as an embodied visual communication tool in the digital age. The costume is consisted of three elliptical, inter-woven orbits where the projector units are mounted upon and pointed inward to the body. A central light sensing unit is created with photo transistor to detect incoming camera flash and gives signal to trigger the projectors instantly. The patterns projected can be decorating the body as well as asserting branding or personal statements.
Rapid development of mobile context-aware applications with IVO BIBAFull-Text 91
  Valentim Realinho; Teresa Romão; Fernando Birra; A. Eduardo Dias
IVO (Integrated Virtual Operator) is a platform to build and deploy context-aware applications using mobile devices, like smartphones and tablets, as the ubiquitous interaction device. It is designed to enable non-programmers to create and run new mobile applications. Applications are built from workflows of activities available in the platform. These workflows are triggered automatically by the device, when their temporal and spatial conditions are satisfied and with no user intervention. The applications are developed by end-users in a distributed web platform.
StoryLines: an approach to navigating multisequential news and entertainment in a multiscreen framework BIBAFull-Text 92
  Janet H. Murray; Sergio Goldenberg; Kartik Agarwal; Abraham Doris-Down; Pradyut Pokuri; Nachiketas Ramanujam; Tarun Chakravorty
Using the iPad as a substitute for the remote control, and the Google TV platform as a model for a convergence information environment, StoryLines presents a timeline-based method of navigating news and episodic television in the context of rich archival resources. This approach allows us to present individual threads within a multisequential story environment and to demonstrate the sense-making value of a filtered multisequential timeline presentation.
The Maze EV: a two player installation game BIBAFull-Text 93
  Javier Lloret; Travis Kirton
We present a two player installation game called The Maze EV. The object of the game is for one player to try to escape a maze, before the time runs out, while their opponent creates and modifies that maze in real-time. During game-play, the creation of the maze happens through the use of a tangible interface. The fact that the maze designer is able to modify the structure of the maze during the game gives the game a unique and dynamic feel.
The mirror of transfiguration BIBAFull-Text 94
  Mayuko Kanazawa; Masataka Imura; Ichiroh Kanaya
The Mirror of Transfiguration is an interactive media-art for showing native Canadians' spiritual image to children. It immerses its viewers into pictures of Canadian nature, and the viewers will transform into ones of the spiritual animals of Canadian tradition. Various image processing and mixed reality technologies are used to set up this installation. including posture recognition, synthesis of hand-drawn animation and real images, and natural image morphing.