HCI Bibliography Home | HCI Conferences | ACE Archive | Detailed Records | RefWorks | EndNote | Hide Abstracts
ACE Tables of Contents: 0405060708091011121314

Proceedings of the 2006 International Conference on Advances in Computer Entertainment Technology

Fullname:Proceedings of the 2006 ACM SIGCHI International Conference on Advances in Computer Entertainment Technology
Editors:Hiroshi Ishii; Newton Lee; Stephane Natkin; Katsuhide Tsushima
Location:Hollywood, California
Dates:2006-Jun-14 to 2006-Jun-16
Publisher:ACM
Standard No:ISBN: 1-59593-380-8; ACM DL: Table of Contents; hcibib: ACE06
Papers:109
Links:Conference Website = Invalid
  1. Game interface
  2. Network, online game
  3. Mobile
  4. Game
  5. Storytelling
  6. Music
  7. Psychology, evaluation
  8. Demo presentations session A
  9. System, interface
  10. Application
  11. Storytelling, avator
  12. Computer graphics
  13. Network, online game
  14. Demo presentations session B
  15. Poster

Game interface

The VoodooIO gaming kit: a real-time adaptable gaming controller BIBAFull-Text 1
  Nicolas Villar; Kiel Mark Gilleade; Devina Ramduny-Ellis; Hans Gellersen
Existing gaming controllers are limited in their end-user configurability. As a complement to current game control technology, we present the VoodooIO Gaming Kit, a real-time adaptable gaming controller. We introduce the concept of appropriable gaming devices, which allow players to define and actively reconfigure their gaming space, making it appropriate to their personal preference and gaming needs. The technology and its conceived usage are illustrated through its application to two commercially available computer games, as well as through the results of a formal user study.
Motion-capture-based avatar control framework in third-person view virtual environments BIBAFull-Text 2
  Masaki Oshita
This paper presents a motion-capture-based control framework for third-person view virtual reality applications. Using motion capture devices, a user can directly control the full body motion of an avatar in virtual environments. In addition, using a third-person view, in which the user watches himself as an avatar on the screen, the user can sense his own movements and interactions with other characters and objects visually. However, there are still a few fundamental problems. First, it is difficult to realize physical interactions from the environment to the avatar. Second, it is also difficult for the user to walk around virtual environments because the motion capture area is very small compared to the virtual environments. This paper proposes a novel framework to solve these problems. We propose a tracking control framework in which the avatar is controlled so as to track input motion from a motion capture device as well as system generated motion. When an impact is applied to the avatar, the system finds an appropriate reactive motion and controls the weights of two tracking controllers in order to realize realistic and also controllable reactions. In addition, when the user walks in position, the system generates a walking motion for the controller to track. The walking speed and turn angle are also controlled through the user's walking gestures. Using our framework, the system generates seamless transitions between user controlled motions and system generated motions. In this paper, we also introduce a prototype application including a simplified optical motion capture system.

Network, online game

Motivated reinforcement learning for non-player characters in persistent computer game worlds BIBAFull-Text 3
  Kathryn Merrick; Mary Lou Maher
Massively multiplayer online computer games are played in complex, persistent virtual worlds. Over time, the landscape of these worlds evolves and changes as players create and personalise their own virtual property. In contrast, many non-player characters that populate virtual game worlds possess a fixed set of pre-programmed behaviours and lack the ability to adapt and evolve in time with their surroundings. This paper presents motivated reinforcement learning agents as a means of creating non-player characters that can both evolve and adapt. Motivated reinforcement learning agents explore their environment and learn new behaviours in response to interesting experiences, allowing them to display progressively evolving behavioural patterns. In dynamic worlds, environmental changes provide an additional source of interesting experiences triggering further learning and allowing the agents to adapt their existing behavioural patterns in time with their surroundings.
Identifying MMORPG bots: a traffic analysis approach BIBAFull-Text 4
  Kuan-Ta Chen; Jhih-Wei Jiang; Polly Huang; Hao-Hua Chu; Chin-Laung Lei; Wen-Chin Chen
MMORPGs have become extremely popular among network gamers. Despite their success, one of MMORPG's greatest challenges is the increasing use of game bots, i.e., auto-playing game clients. The use of game bots is considered unsportsmanlike and is therefore forbidden. To keep games in order, game police, played by actual human players, often patrol game zones and question suspicious players. This practice, however, is labor-intensive and ineffective. To address this problem, we analyze the traffic generated by human players vs. game bots and propose solutions to automatically identify game bots.
   Taking Ragnarok Online, one of the most popular MMOGs, as our subject, we study the traffic generated by mainstream game bots and human players. We find that their traffic is distinguishable by: 1) the regularity in the release time of client commands, 2) the trend and magnitude of traffic burstiness in multiple time scales, and 3) the sensitivity to network conditions. We propose four strategies and two integrated schemes to identify bots. For our data sets, the conservative scheme completely avoids making false accusations against bona fide players, while the progressive scheme tracks game bots down more aggressively. Finally, we show that the proposed methods are generalizable to other games and robust against counter-measures from bot developers.
An empirical evaluation of TCP performance in online games BIBAFull-Text 5
  Kuan-Ta Chen; Chun-Ying Huang; Polly Huang; Chin-Laung Lei
A fundamental design question to ask in the development of a network game is--Which transport protocol should be used -- TCP, UDP, or some other protocols? Seeking an objective answer to the choice of communication protocol for MMORPGs, we assess whether TCP, a popular choice, is suitable for MMORPGs based on empirical evidence. To the best of our knowledge, this work is the first evaluation of transport protocol performance using real-life game traces.
   We analyze a 1, 356-million-packet trace from ShenZhou Online, a TCP-based, commercial, mid-sized MMORPG. Our analysis indicates that TCP is unwieldy and inappropriate for MMORPGs. This is due to four distinctive characteristics of MMORPG traffic: 1) tiny packets, 2) low packet rate, 3) application-limited traffic generation, and 4) bidirectional traffic. We show that because TCP was originally designed for unidirectional and network-limited bulk data transfers, it cannot adapt well to MMORPG traffic. In particular, the window-based congestion control and the fast retransmit algorithm for loss recovery are ineffective. Furthermore, TCP is overkill, as not every game packet needs to be transmitted in a reliably and orderly manner. We also show that the degraded network performance did impact users' willingness to continue a game. Finally, we discuss guidelines in designing transport protocols for online games.
A proactive file transfer scheme in a distributed haptic museum BIBAFull-Text 6
  Toshio Asano; Masahito Isamu; Yutaka Ishibashi
This paper illustrates the effectiveness of a proactive file transfer scheme for adaptive display control in a distributed haptic museum with touchable exhibits, which is an application using haptic, audio and visual media. The proactive file transfer scheme dynamically changes the time to request the information files according to the network load in order to decrease the response time and to improve the media output quality. In this paper, we propose an estimation method which uses a part of information files as probe packets to estimate the network load. By experiment, we make a performance comparison among three schemes including the proactive file transfer scheme. Experimental results show that the proactive file transfer scheme with the proposed estimation method has smaller average switch times for display of an exhibited object than the other schemes.

Mobile

Using a mobile device as an interface tool for HMD-based AR applications BIBAFull-Text 7
  Kyong Joon Lee; Sang Chul Ahn; Hyoung-Gon Kim
In this paper, we suggest that we can use our mobile devices as an effective interface for HMD-based augmented reality (AR) applications. These days most of us can possibly send short message with our mobile phones and watch the movies on our PDAs. Personal hand-held devices are well customized that they deserve to be familiar interfaces for interaction with AR applications. We can also add more interaction metaphors as mobile devices are designed to be programmable and extensible for some extra modules. Furthermore, the display panel of mobile devices makes a good marker which is changeable to variable features on user's demand.
Assessment of mobile experience engine, the development toolkit for context aware mobile applications BIBAFull-Text 8
  Amitava Biswas; Tom Donaldson; Jagmit Singh; Sara Diamond; David Gauthier; Michael Longford
Non-technical designers are using pervasive, context aware and mobile technologies as new design media to deliver unique user experiences and new values. Designer, artists and technologists often collaborate to design and develop these new media applications. In such multi-disciplinary collaborations, lack of suitable development tools and software engineering methods often pose non-trivial challenges. The requirements for a development toolkit for such contexts are enumerated. The rational behind usage of Mobile Experience Engine, a suitable CASE tool, is presented along with its high level architecture. This paper also examines how this tool supports various software engineering tasks during context aware mobile application development.
InAuthoring environment: interfaces for creating spatial stories and gaming activities BIBAFull-Text 9
  Filipe Barrenho; Teresa Romão; Tiago Martins; Nuno Correia
This paper focuses on the design and development of an authoring environment for the InStory project. InStory is a platform for mobile storytelling, gaming activities and information access. It focuses on the exploration of cultural and historical physical spaces, promoting interaction between users. During those explorations, users have access to contextual geo-referenced multimedia data, through the use of mobile devices, such as PDAs or mobile phones, either for knowledge acquisition regarding the surrounding environment and its cultural and historical aspects or for engaging in story/gaming activities together with other users.
   The authoring environment for such story/gaming activities and media content, allows users to create and personalize their own stories. It comprises two frameworks -- InAuthor, a graphical story/game editor, and InContent, a visual editor for creating screen areas through the placing of multimedia and interface elements and their export to InAuthor, in order to be associated with activity nodes.
User case study and network evolution in the mobile phone sector (a study on current mobile phone applications) BIBAFull-Text 10
  Tobias Fritsch; Hartmut Ritter; Jochen Schiller
Networked games are becoming more and more important in the last years. One major focus is reducing the size and increasing the portability of the game devices. Therefore mobile phones are becoming a very popular platform for games. Their availability and rapidly increasing technology also promote them as a valid gaming device option.
   Nevertheless there are other portable game devices, such as the new age handhelds (Nintendo DS and PSP) or PDA's. Our user case study focuses on the differences between those gaming platforms, their capability of handling new age games and multimedia expectations and their used technology. Thus this paper should not only give an introduction into the current multimedia (gaming) handheld technology, it will also evaluate players' individual preferences. Afterwards it will compare social deterministic such as age, income and gender with their mobile phone preference.
   The aim of this research approach is an analysis of current portable game devices, based on a testbed to see how player behavior is influenced by the impairments of the mobile devices (reduced input capabilities and small display size).
A massively multi-authored mobile surrealist book BIBAFull-Text 11
  Will Bamford; Paul Coulton; Reuben Edwards
In this paper we describe an innovative mobile game in the form a multi-authored book. Based upon the 1920s surrealist technique of "Exquisite Corpse", the book builds from a series of standard text message length contributions with each author being given only the previous message on which to base their own contribution. Previous contributors are encouraged to spread the awareness of the book, and hence the number of participants, by forwarding a text message to produce a mobile viral distribution mechanism. The book has been designed as a mobile multi-player game as it has, in common with the surrealist technique, its origins in the Victorian parlor game of 'Consequences', and as user feedback shows, it does demonstrate many game attributes. The book offers an interesting perspective into how massively multiplayer mobile games may be used, how they can be made appealing to the very broad mobile user demographic, and how the elusive phenomena of mobile viral distribution occurs in practice.
The mobile phone as a digital SprayCan BIBAFull-Text 12
  Philip Garner; Omer Rashid; Paul Coulton; Reuben Edwards
Since the first appearance of modern man, one trait of human behavior in our interaction with the physical environment appears to be an inherent desire to leave our mark on a particular object or space. 'SprayCan' graffiti that appeared in the 1970s is but a modern extension of this phenomenon, yet it divides communities and generations in terms of how it should be dealt with in terms of either complete acceptance or punitive action. In this paper we present a system that tries to bridge the divide as it both provides writers with a means of tagging their environment, using mobile phones and RFID tags, whilst minimizing the physical effects to the landscape for the communities where it resides.
Open experiments of mobile sightseeing support systems with shared virtual worlds BIBAFull-Text 13
  Hiroyuki Tarumi; Kayo Yokoo; Shoji Nishimoto; Kazuya Matsubara; Yasushi Harada; Fusako Kusunoki; Sangtae Kim; Yuki Mizukubo
In this paper, we describe results from the experiments of a location-dependent shared virtual world system applied to sightseeing entertainment. This system can be used with GPS-phones on the current Japanese market. Users can enjoy interacting with virtual objects including virtual animals/agents. Subjects of the experiments were real tourists who had their own GPS-phones compatible with our system. We found that evaluations on the system varied depending on age, gender, and experiences of subjects. Results from the experiments gave suggestions on prospective users and service design.
Development of the tool for artistic representation of internal information of the body BIBAFull-Text 14
  Shigeru Sakurazawa; Junichi Akita; Masashi Toda
In this paper, we describe the idea of a new artistic representation tool to project performer's internal state of the body. To solve the problem of complicated wires and for detecting biological signals, the flexible conductive wear for wearable computing named as "TextileNet system" was applied to the system. In this paper, we also describe the experimental results of trial growing of the tool. The advantage of the conductive fabric was not only solving the problem but shielding effect, which could make the amplifier simple. Using the feature of TextileNet, huge number of biological information can be treated at same time, and more complex representation is expected.

Game

A component based architecture for distributed, pervasive gaming applications BIBAFull-Text 15
  Carsten Magerkurth; Timo Engelke; Dan Grollman
In this paper, we describe a component based architecture for developing distributed, pervasive games that integrate tangible and graphical user interface components. We first discuss some of the interface components we have developed and then present a coordination infrastructure called Pegasus that allows flexibly coupling and reconfiguring components during runtime. On top of Pegasus we have created a language for describing pervasive games called DHG and briefly present a first sample application that is based on the component based architecture and defined with the game description language DHG.
A method for online adaptation of computer-game AI rulebase BIBAFull-Text 16
  Ruck Thawonmas; Syota Osaka
It is not an easy task to balance the level of computer controlled characters that play computer games against human players. In this paper, we focus on a method called Dynamic Scripting (DS) that has been recently proposed for this task. This method online updates rule weights in rule-base that describe the behavior of the computer controlled character. However, the weight updating mechanism of DS is not effective if improper initialization of the rulebase is done. To cope with this problem, we propose a complementary technique to DS that replaces inefficient rules with newly generated rules. Evaluation of the proposed technique is conducted confirming its effectiveness.
JGOMAS: game-oriented multi-agent system based on jade BIBAFull-Text 17
  Antonio Barella; Carlos Carrascosa; Vicente Botti
This paper presents an initial stage of feasibility study for integrating Multi-Agent Systems (MAS) and Real-Time Graphic Applications. To do this, a multiagent framework has been developed. This system can also be used as a testbed for coordination, communication and learning mechanisms applied to MAS or any AI techniques in general. JGOMAS is available for download at: www.dsic.upv.es/users/ia/sma/tools/jgomas/index.html
Wizard's apprentice gameplay-oriented design of a computer-augmented board game BIBAFull-Text 18
  Johan Peitz; Staffan Björk; Anu Jäppinen
This paper describes the prototype Wizard's Apprentice, a computer-augmented board game. Unlike many previous examples from research, which use board games as a means to explore technology, the game was developed from the starting point of gameplay design goals. The paper reports upon how the different starting point required iteration between the various design disciplines involved. The game and the design within the various disciplines are described together with sections on how results from one discipline affected other. The paper ends with reports from the first preliminary evaluation.
Game execution control by analysis of player's behavior BIBAFull-Text 19
  Karim Sehaba; Pascal Estraillier
Within the context of the games execution control, our objective is to define a model able to analyse the player's behavior from heterogeneous data. It concerns events generated by the player's actions. These events are the result of analysis of video stream (for gaze direction, head movement, etc.) and actions carried out on the controls elements (mouse click, entry selection, button, etc). The interest of such a model is the recognition of player's behaviors in order to control the execution of the game. We have applied our research results to an interactive environment of educational games for autistic children.
Use of eye movements for video game control BIBAFull-Text 20
  J. David Smith; T. C. Nicholas Graham
We present a study that explores the use of a commercially available eye tracker as a control device for video games. We examine its use across multiple gaming genres and present games that utilize the eye tracker in a variety of ways. First, we describe a first-person shooter that uses the eyes to control orientation. Second, we study the use of eye movements for more natural interaction with characters in a role playing game. And lastly, we examine the use of eye tracking as a means to control a modified version of the classic action/arcade game Missile Command. Our results indicate that the use of an eye tracker can increase the immersion of a video game and can significantly alter the gameplay experience.
Applying recent techniques for retro games: in the case of undo function BIBAFull-Text 21
  Yuu Shibata; Kei Hiraki
Emulation is one of the most important methods for providing lower compatibilities, and several game machines truly adopt emulations. A game emulator establishes executions of the games of its target machine. At the same time, when we append a new function on an emulator, we can apply the function for all games on the emulator. Actually, many game emulators adopt extra functions and we gain many benefits from these functions. These functions sometimes bridge the gaps between recent games and retro games. However, these functions leave rooms for improvements.
   We implemented and evaluated undo function as an example of the improvements. This function removed the problems of the traditional function, and achieved performance gains from the traditional. Except when we fully engaged in the traditional function, our function considerably reduced the penalties of the failures in games. In addition our function also homogenized the penalties without dedications. We can use our function easily and safely.
Visual attention in 3D video games BIBAFull-Text 22
  Magy Seif El-Nasr; Su Yan
Understanding players' visual attention patterns within an interactive 3D game environment is an important research area that can improve game level design and graphics. Several graphics techniques use a perception based rendering method to enhance graphics quality while achieving the fast rendering speed required for fast-paced 3D video games. Game designers can also enhance game play by adjusting the level design, texture and color choices, and objects' locations, if such decisions are informed by a study of players' visual attention patterns in 3D game environments. This paper seeks to address this issue. We present results showing different visual attention patterns that players exhibit in two different game types: action-adventure games and first person shooter games. In addition, analyzing visual attention patterns within a complex 3D game environment presents a new challenge because the environment is very complex with many rapidly changing conditions; the methods used in previous research cannot be used in such environments. In this paper, we will discuss our exploration seeking a new approach to analyze visual attention patterns within interactive 3D environments.
Prosopopeia: experiences from a pervasive Larp BIBAFull-Text 23
  Staffan Jonsson; Markus Montola; Annika Waern; Martin Ericsson
Live action role playing, Larp, is a play genre that so far has received little attention from the game studies community. However, the Live action role playing community is perhaps the most interesting role play community of all in its intense focus on role-taking, improvisation, and immersion. Furthermore, Larping has been extensively used for serious purposes, both for crisis training and psychological treatment.
   In this paper, we focus on Pervasive Larp, Larp events that are staged in the real world and where both the people and the objects of the real world have a direct role in the game. This is a relatively novel variant of Larping, which poses higher demands on technology support than traditional Larps. We report on the experiences from designing and staging Prosopopeia, a pervasive Larp event based on an alternate reality aesthetics. In this game, every design choice was informed by the wish to keep the game as close to reality as possible. We conclude that the approach is indeed both possible and promising, and identify some suggestions for improvements.

Storytelling

Believable environments: generating interactive storytelling in vast location-based pervasive games BIBAFull-Text 24
  Anton Gustafsson; John Bichard; Liselott Brunnberg; Oskar Juhlin; Marco Combetto
Generating content into vast areas is a relevant challenge in the field of location-based pervasive games. In this paper, we present a game prototype that enables children travelling in the back seat of a car to enjoy a narrated experience where gameplay combines with the experience of traveling through the road network. The prototype is designed to provide what we refer to as a believable environment. We propose four design characteristics to persuasively include a journey within a pervasive game. First, the story should refer to geographical objects with their everyday meanings. Second, the game's scale needs to cover vast areas. Third, the application should provide sequential storytelling to make it fit with the journey experience, and finally it should provide interaction support where players can engage in gameplay and interact with the computer in various ways at the same time as they are looking out of the car window. We describe how these requirements have been implemented in the prototype and present an initial performance test.
AI-based world behaviour for emergent narratives BIBAFull-Text 25
  Jean-Luc Lugrin; Marc Cavazza
Research in Interactive Narrative has developed new approaches to the behaviour of virtual actors, but has dedicated little attention to the physical behaviour of the environment in which the action takes place. In this paper, we describe a method supporting the AI-based simulation of object behaviour, so that interactive narrative can feature the physical environment inhabited by the player character as an "actor". The prototype we describe has been developed on top of the Unreal Tournament game engine and relies on a "causal engine", which essentially bypasses the native Physics engine to generate alternative consequences to player interventions. It operates using a small depth-bound planning system which determines the most appropriate object behaviours following player interaction. The prototype is illustrated through a test application called "Death Kitchen", freely inspired from various thriller and horror films, in which the kitchen is plotting against the player character to generate domestic accidents.

Music

From driving to expressive music performance: ensuring tempo smoothness BIBAFull-Text 26
  Jie Liu; Elaine Chew; Alexandre R. J. François
This paper focuses on the mapping strategies in the interface design for the Expression Synthesis Project (ESP). The goal of ESP is to use the metaphor of driving to allow non-experts to interactively create expressive renderings of music pieces. In ESP, the road represents the music, with bends and straight segments representing places where one might slow down and speed up respectively. The user controls the tempo (rate of beats) and dynamics (amplitude) by the way s/he drives through the road. Our design objective in the ESP environment is to define mapping strategies that guarantee tempo smoothness, a hallmark of expert and practiced performances, under all driving conditions. Because the road has non-zero width, several strategies exist for mapping the car's position on the road to the musical score. We propose mapping strategies that ensure tempo smoothness, and provide mathematical and empirical proofs for the success of these strategies.
Interaction techniques for musical performance with tabletop tangible interfaces BIBAFull-Text 27
  James Patten; Ben Recht; Hiroshi Ishii
We present a set of interaction techniques for electronic musical performance using a tabletop tangible interface. Our system, the Audiopad, tracks the positions of objects on a tabletop surface and translates their motions into commands for a musical synthesizer. We developed and refined these interaction techniques through an iterative design process, in which new interaction techniques were periodically evaluated through performances and gallery installations. Based on our experience refining the design of this system, we conclude that tabletop interfaces intended for collaborative use should use interaction techniques designed to be legible to onlookers. We also conclude that these interfaces should allow users to spatially reconfigure the objects in the interface in ways that are personally meaningful.

Psychology, evaluation

Initial lessons from AR Façade, an interactive augmented reality drama BIBAFull-Text 28
  Steven Dow; Manish Mehta; Annie Lausier; Blair MacIntyre; Micheal Mateas
In this paper, we describe an augmented reality version of the acclaimed desktop-based interactive drama, Façade [18]. Few entertainment experiences combine interactive virtual characters, non-linear narrative, and unconstrained embodied interaction. In AR Façade players move through a physical apartment and use gestures and speech to interact with two autonomous characters, Trip and Grace. Our experience converting a desktop based game to augmented reality sheds light on the design challenges of developing mixed physical/virtual AI-based drama. We share our initial observations of players from a live demonstration and talk about our work moving forward.
Death matters: understanding gameworld experiences BIBAFull-Text 29
  Lisbeth Klastrup
This paper presents a study of the staging and implementation of death and the death penalty in a number of popular MMOG's and relates it to players' general experience of gameworlds. Both game mechanics, as well as writings and stories by designers and players are analysed and discussed. The preliminary study shows that the death penalty is implemented much in the same way across worlds; that death can be both trivial and non-trivial, part of the grind of everyday life, and of the creation of heroes. In whatever function it serves, death however plays an important part in the shaping and emergence of the social culture of a world, and in the individual player's experience of life within it.

Demo presentations session A

Paravie: dance entertainment system for everyone to express oneself with movement BIBAFull-Text 30
  Jun Usui; Hirotaka Hatayama; Takashi Sato; Yumi Furuoka; Naohito Okude
This paper introduces Paravie, an entertainment system that anyone expresses oneself with movement. Paravie consists of a recording studio where a user mimics a role model movie and a mobile movie viewer which shows some people dancing with same music. User can enjoy learning dance skill with original expression as he draws upon various movies which recorded in various place and time.
Shootball: the tangible ball sport in ubiquitous computing BIBAFull-Text 31
  Yoshiro Sugano; Jumpei Ohtsuji; Toshiya Usui; Yuya Mochizuki; Naohito Okude
Shootball is a new sport in ubiquitous computing. This game is playing with tangible ball that could control movies displayed in surrounding screens. This game is team sport played between two teams of 3 players each. The object of the game is to score by displaying movies of own team by throwing the ball at surrounding screens.
In game advertising: touching the elusive consumer BIBAFull-Text 32
  Marc Duke
Consumers are bombarded with more and more advertising, while traditional media such as TV and radio become more and more fragmented, the challenge of reaching the consumer gets harder and harder. Consol and video games are a media that does not suffer from user 'switch off' or channel hopping and if carefully integrated advertisers can link in with games that match a brand and connect to other channels such as billboards, mobile phones and even retail locations. The process of in game advertising is a sophisticated one that offers advertisers a clear segment to advertise to and a water tight mechanism of measurement and return (two elusive items in the fast changing world of advertising). The session will look at In Game Advertising -- Touching The Elusive Consumer -- with examples from across the globe.
PAC-LAN: the human arcade BIBAFull-Text 33
  Omer Rashid; Will Bamford; Paul Coulton; Reuben Edwards
PAC-LAN is a mixed reality game, which plays homage to the Namco classic Pacman, which utilises mobile phones equipped with in-built RFID readers. The game is played by 5 players around a suitable pedestrian area with their positions indicated on a graphical representation on their phone screen. Players use their mobile phone to interact with physical game pills (in the form of yellow plastic discs equipped with RFID tags and attached to lampposts) and opposing players (who have tags attached to their costumes). Whilst this is not the first game to play homage to Pacman the user experience shows that this technology is simple, easy to use, and allows the game to be played at very high speed over a large area with minimal setup. It is also the first that allows spectators to follow the action through an application running on any suitable Java enabled mobile phone. As current predictions estimate that half of mobile phones will be equipped with RFID capabilities by 2009 this project demonstrates an enormous potential for entertainment applications.
InScene: a communication device which uses incenses BIBAFull-Text 34
  Yuichiro Katsumoto; Erika Kanai; Nadya Kirillova; Kaori Higashi; Hokuto Miura; Takashi Matsumoto; Reiko Sasaki; Masa Inakage
InScene is a fantastic communication device which uses incenses. The sender implants his message in incense, and hands it to someone he wants to send the message to. The receiver lights the incense and releases the sender's message. The receiver will then be able to view the sender's message surrounded by sweet aroma.
Morel: remotely launchable outdoor playthings BIBAFull-Text 35
  Kenji Iguchi; Masa Inakage
This paper proposes Morel, a physical plaything device that facilitates the emergence of new forms of outdoor physical play. It encourages the improvising of new games and behavior by not defining game rules on its own, but by providing players the ability to know the existence of other Morels in the vicinity, and to remotely make other Morels launch up in the air. One game that can be played with Morels is Police & Bomber, a variation of Kick-the-can with wireless ranges as vital gameplay elements.
Controllable water particle display BIBAFull-Text 36
  Shin'ichiro Eitoku; Kotaro Hashimoto; Tomohiro Tanikawa
We propose the new concept," Controllable particle display", there is no display in space and the space itself is a display. Moreover realizing the concept, we also propose a system of using a set of water drops designed to form a plane surface and developed a prototype system. In this paper, for long-term use, we improved this system to have the enough strength with standing long-term use.
Visual resonator: sight-based auditory experience BIBAFull-Text 37
  Junji Watanabe; Yuki Hashimoto; Hideaki Nii; Masahiko Inami
We present an auditory interface called Visual Resonator. The wearer of this interface can hear a voice or auditory information only from the direction in which he/she is facing, and can send his/her voice only in the direction towards which he/she is facing. Therefore, individuals who are within sight of each other can have a conversation, even if they are not close enough to talk directory. In addition, the speech that has transmitted by an individual could be relayed, and then received by other people looking at the same object. This interface promotes communication between people who are within sight of each other and people with the same interests.
Computer aided drawing system based on prediction of drawing action BIBAFull-Text 38
  Hirokatsu Sou; Ichiro Kanaya; Kosuke Sato
Computer Aided Design (CAD) systems are widely used recent years. In general, however, designers sketch product images by their own hands during early stages of designing. The authors aim to aid these freehand design by predicting and guiding designer's drawings using computers and a display-tablet. The computer estimates geometrical figures that the designer is drawing in real-time. The experimental results shows that the proposed system is effective for simple designing processes.
POCOMZ: the ambient media device with IM "wija" BIBAFull-Text 39
  Kyoichi Sakamoto; Kenji Saito; Masa Inakage; Aya Shigefuji; Anna Takahashi
In this paper, we propose device "POCOMZ" to experience community based "Connection" as a lighting in a real space. Community members' present situation is reflected to POCOMZ as illumination of light, and the lighting changes by the change in member's situation. The public space and a private one's own space will be produced by "Connection" with others through this device.
   In this research, the device working with Instant Messaging system is designed to display, transmit and share users' presence information as an ambient environment message in the real space.
   Communications by the change in the ambience (atmosphere of the environment) are demonstrated by using the user presence shared on the internet as a lighting in a real space."Connected Feeling" caused by the communications of ambient presence through the device will be suggested as the way of new entertainment communications.
PlantDisplay: turning houseplants into ambient display BIBAFull-Text 40
  Satoshi Kuribayashi; Akira Wakita
This paper discusses a new form of interface between humans and digital information. For this subject, we try to treat plants as ambient displays. As a first prototype, we propose PlantDisplay, which presents information as natural ambience. Furthermore, it gives a communication appealing to human sense and emotion by an organic change of plant.
Gravity jockey: a novel music experience with galvanic vestibular stimulation BIBAFull-Text 41
  Naohisa Nagaya; Masashi Yoshidzumi; Maki Sugimoto; Hideaki Nii; Taro Maeda; Michiteru Kitazaki; Masahiko Inami
In this paper, we propose a Gravity Jockey (GJ) system in "Electric Dance Revolution" that allows subjects to experience vestibular sensation by means of galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) synchronized with music rhythms. The Gravity Jockey system enables people using GVS to feel music rhythms not only by the sense of hearing but also by visual perception and balance sensation. And in order to evaluate the effects of this system on user's perception, we conducted psychophysical experiments during GVS with alternating current (AC).
Straw-like user interface: virtual experience of the sensation of drinking using a straw BIBAFull-Text 42
  Yuki Hashimoto; Naohisa Nagaya; Minoru Kojima; Satoru Miyajima; Junichiro Ohtaki; Akio Yamamoto; Tomoyasu Mitani; Masahiko Inami
The Straw-like User Interface is a novel interface system that allows us to virtually experience the sensations of drinking. These sensations are created based on referencing sample data of actual pressure, vibration and sound produced by drinking from an ordinary straw attached to the system. This research of presenting virtual drinking sensations to the mouth and lips is the first attempted, and carries high academic expectations. Moreover, due to the high sensitivity of the mouth and lips if used as a sensor, it is possible to develop many unique interfaces and can facilitate an extension of research fields in both interactive arts and entertainment.
Believable performance agents for interactive conversations BIBAFull-Text 43
  Nathan D. Nichols; Kristian J. Hammond; David A. Shamma; Sara H. Owsley
As computers become more integrated into our everyday lives, they will need to be able to interact with us within the context of our world as well as theirs. While it is unlikely that we will ever want all interactions with a computer to mimic dialogs with other people, it is clear that they will need to be able to engage in coherent, compelling conversations with people who are not thinking of them as machines. Our effort, and the system described below, is aimed at approaching this goal by creating a framework for believable performance agents within the content of interactive theatrical experiences.
Mobile TV BIBAFull-Text 44
  Tanja K. Gompf
My showcase will introduce the interactive DVB-H movie developed for handheld devices.
   We engage the user to explore and communicate the new challenging ways of an interactive experiment. This hybrid activity, where we believe in the artist as an actor in the innovation process, we are creating an autonomous experience, a mutual communication where the User becomes the Author and the Author become the User.
  • I hear and I forget
  • I see and I remember
  • I (inter) act and I understand
  • -- Confucius The expanding usage of mobile high-end devices and the start of UMTS demand new applications dealing with multimedia and its data services. Especially with the launch of DVB-H and DMB as the leading formats, mobile TV will become a reality. Together with artists, industry partners as well as media and design researchers we are looking at ways of how to interact and represent moving images on handheld devices.
  • Ambient video BIBAFull-Text 45
      Jim Bizzocchi
    I propose to demonstrate my video productions, and discuss their style, purpose, and creative direction. I intend to show excerpts from my video works "Rockface" and "Streaming Video". These works are part of my overall research program. My research has led me to predict the emergence of a form of popular televisual art I call "Ambient Video". In the scholarly portion of my research, I write about Ambient Video, predicting its future by tracing its antecedents in popular cinema, experimental film, and video art. At the same time, I am engaged in the production of a series of Ambient Video production works. This creative arm of my research instantiates the directions I am predicting. The video productions act as "proof-of-concept" to demonstrate the ideas I am describing.
    Andrew Rivolski: multi-display cooperation game BIBAFull-Text 46
      Andy Yamada; Tomoyuki Nezu; Masa Inakage
    Andrew Rivolski is a multiplayer network game played in an environment consisting of multiple displays. The players are placed in two different remote locations, and by having mutual interactions the game allows the players to experience a cooperative phenomenon.

    System, interface

    Mounting and application of bubble display system: bubble cosmos BIBAFull-Text 47
      Masahiro Nakamura; Go Inaba; Jun Tamaoki; Kazuhito Shiratori; Junichi Hoshino
    In this paper, we propose the soap bubble display method that the image can be projected to the real soap bubbles that white smoke entered. The position and the size of soap bubbles tossed in the air are detected with the camera. By projecting the image only to the position with the projector, the soap bubble display is realized. And the image and the sound can be interactively added when the explosion of soap bubbles are judged. We mount the soap bubble display, and evaluate usefulness as entertainment that player can enjoy.
    Mosaic textile: wearable ambient display with non-emissive color-changing modules BIBAFull-Text 48
      Akira Wakita; Midori Shibutani
    Mosaic Textile is a wearable ambient display using non-emissive color-changing textiles. The system consists of textile modules, their controllers and substrate fabric. The textile module is called "Fabcell" (fabric element) and is composed of conductive yarns and liquid crystal ink. Combining fabcells, as if they are used as pixels, produces real-space ambient display. Different from emissive flexible display such as organic EL, dynamic graphics using non-emissive color-changing textiles actualizes hospitable and aesthetic information display, blending in with environment. Our method will be expected to design brand-new communication media intended for fabric artificial materials, used for fashion and interior decoration.
    Gravity Jockey: a novel music experience with galvanic vestibular stimulation BIBAFull-Text 49
      Naohisa Nagaya; Masashi Yoshidzumi; Maki Sugimoto; Hideaki Nii; Taro Maeda; Michiteru Kitazaki; Masahiko Inami
    In this paper, we propose a Gravity Jockey (GJ) system in "Electric Dance Revolution" that allows subjects to experience vestibular sensation by means of galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) synchronized with music rhythms. The Gravity Jockey system enables people using GVS to fell music rhythms not only by the sense of hearing but also by visual perception and balance sensation. And in order to evaluate the effects of this system on user's perception, we conducted psychophysical experiments during GVS with alternating current (AC).
    Straw-like user interface: virtual experience of the sensation of drinking using a straw BIBAFull-Text 50
      Yuki Hashimoto; Naohisa Nagaya; Minoru Kojima; Satoru Miyajima; Junichiro Ohtaki; Akio Yamamoto; Tomoyasu Mitani; Masahiko Inami
    The Straw-like User Interface is a novel interface system that allows us to virtually experience the sensations of drinking. These sensations are created based on referencing sample data of actual pressure, vibration and sound produced by drinking from an ordinary straw attached to the system. This research of presenting virtual drinking sensations to mouth and lips is the first in the world to have been attempted, and comes with high academic expectations. Moreover, due to the high sensitivity of the mouth and lips when used as a sensor, it is possible to develop many unique interfaces and so this could facilitate an extension of research fields in both interactive arts and entertainment.

    Application

    To use PYA tool or not for learning Japanese hand alphabets BIBAFull-Text 51
      Miki Namatame; Yasushi Harada; Fusako Kusunoki; Shigenori Inagaki; Takao Terano
    We are developing an easy-to-use edutainment system: Practice! YUBIMOJI AIUEO (PYA). The objective is to promote basic expressions of Kana characters (AIUEO) of Japanese hand alphabets (YUBIMOJI) to ordinary children at elementary school age. PYA seems to work well from users' behaviors and responses, however, the effectiveness has not been fully confirmed, so far. In this paper, we have carried out series of intensive experiments at classrooms of Sumiyoshi Elementary School (7 or 8 years old; 83 subjects). The results are summarized as follows: 1) Devices the children use to learn do not affect the performance just after the study; 2) the PC use is effective when the target characters are complex and similar; and 3) The PC users keep remembering difficult shapes of characters after one month. These results have suggested that the use of PCs is superior to the ordinary oral lectures, however, it depends on the features of characters.
    Reflex flower: ambient work rhythm visualization system in computer-aided work environments BIBAFull-Text 52
      Itaru Kuramoto; Buntaro Kaji; Yu Shibuya; Yoshihiro Tsujino
    In order to keep and raise workers' productivity, it is important for them to know their "rhythm of work". It includes how long they should work continuously, when they should take a rest, and so on. Each worker has his/her own rhythm, but it is hard to be recognized, because its scent is so dim that he/she forget it easily when concentrating with his/her work. Therefore, showing the rhythm is effective to improve the worker's work environment.
       In this paper, we proposed the estimation and visualization method of the working rhythms. The rhythms estimate from workers' usage of keyboard and mouse. The rhythms is shown by their own "Reflex Flowers", which is always on their desktop. It indicates the estimated working rhythms ambiently, and it can notify each user the appreciate timing of rest. It also represents the user's daily/hourly amount of work. This function supports his/her feeling of achievements, which can lead improving his/her motivation.
       The result of the experimental evaluation pointed out that the participants could recognize their rhythms of work, and they felt happy when the flower is grown up.
    A fitness game reflecting heart rate BIBAFull-Text 53
      Soh Masuko; Junichi Hoshino
    Lack of exercise is known to be detrimental to health, and various exercise machines that can be used indoors in a convenient manner are available. However, because expertise is required to ascertain which exercise to do and for how long, people sometimes sustain injuries by exercising excessively and find it difficult to sufficiently benefit from exercising. Therefore, fitness machines with automatic controls are being developed so that people can exercise efficiently, and exercise programs are being designed with game elements to encourage regular exercise. Monotonous exercise makes it difficult for people to experience a sense of accomplishment while exercising, and if the degree of difficulty is not set properly, people cannot perform the appropriate amount of exercise. The present study proposes a fitness game method in which heart rate is measured in real time while playing a game and the contents of the game are actively adjusted based on heart rate, thus allowing users to perform sufficient amounts of exercise and experience a sense of accomplishment. A fitness game based on boxercise movements was designed based on the present method and then evaluated.
    The soundtrack of your mind: mind music -- adaptive audio for game characters BIBAFull-Text 54
      Mirjam Eladhari; Rik Nieuwdorp; Mikael Fridenfalk
    In this paper we describe an experimental application for individualized adaptive music for games. Expression of emotion is crucial for increasing believability. Since a fundamental aspect of music is it's ability to express emotions research into the area of believable agents can benefit from exploring how music can be used. In our experiment we use an affective model that can be integrated to player characters. Music is composed to reflect the affective processes of mood, emotion, and sentiment. The composition takes results of empirical studies regarding the influence of different factors in musical structure on perceived musical expression into account. The musical output from the test application varies in harmony and time signature along a matrix of moods, moods that change depending on what emotions are activated during game play.

    Storytelling, avator

    Animated storytelling system via text BIBAFull-Text 55
      Kaoru Sumi; Mizue Nagata
    This paper describes a system, called Interactive e-Hon, for helping children understand difficult content. It works by transforming text into an easily understandable storybook style with animation and dialogue. In this system, easy-to-understand content is created by a semantic tag generator through natural language processing, an animation generator using an animation achieve and animation tables, a dialogue generator using semantic tag information, and a story generator using the Soar AI engine. Through the results of an experiment, this paper describes the advantages of attracting interest, supporting and facilitating understanding, and improving parent-child communication by using Interactive e-Hon.
    Fuzzy cognitive goal net for interactive storytelling plot design BIBAFull-Text 56
      Yundong Cai; Chunyan Miao; Ah-Hwee Tan; Zhiqi Shen
    Interactive storytelling attracts a lot of research interests among the interactive entertainments in recent years. Designing story plot for interactive storytelling is currently one of the most critical problems of interactive storytelling. Some traditional AI planning methods, such as Hierarchical Task Network, Heuristic Searching Method are widely used as the planning tool for the story plot design. This paper proposes a model called Fuzzy Cognitive Goal Net as the story plot planning tool for interactive storytelling, which combines the planning capability of Goal net and reasoning ability of Fuzzy Cognitive Maps. Compared to conventional methods, the proposed model shows a well-established temporal structure for story plot. It delegates the storytelling process to drama manager agent and sub drama manager agents. Dynamic storylines are prepared for the audiences' interactions. Fuzzy Cognitive Maps provide the drama manager agents strong reasoning capability with respect to story context and user interactions, which empowers the storytelling characteristics of context-awareness and user-awareness. An interactive storytelling engine has been built with the proposed model and knowledge base of interactive storytelling scenario. Based on the interactive storytelling engine, a prototype system, namely "illness investigation in Singapore River City", was implemented in the virtual environment, in which the story of illness investigation is presented in the dynamic context by responding to the user interactions and environment variables.
    How real should virtual characters be? BIBAFull-Text 57
      Daniel Wagner; Mark Billinghurst; Dieter Schmalstieg
    In recent years 3D virtual characters have become more common in desktop interfaces, particularly in gaming and entertainment applications. In this paper we describe how augmented reality (AR) technology can be used to bring virtual characters into the real world and compare AR characters to other types of virtual characters. We have developed a handheld AR educational application in which a virtual character teaches users about art history. We present results from a user study that explores how realistic the character needs to be for it to be an effective and engaging educational tool and if augmented reality offers benefits for this type of application.
    Synthesizing pose, unconscious movement, and gesture for mental behavior expression of interactive characters BIBAFull-Text 58
      Atsushi Nakano; Kenta Shioiri; Junichi Hoshino
    Mental communication with characters is important for many entertainment applications. Human's mental statuses are complex, and mental behaviors typically consist of multiple components, such as poses and various unconscious movements. In this paper, we propose the layered behavior synthesis technique for integrating mental behavior and conversational gestures. We compose various mental behavior representations by considering the spatial consistency and co-occurrence probability in interactive games. We also show an example of a game that incorporates the mental behavior synthesis technique.

    Computer graphics

    3DCG authoring system using turtle metaphor BIBAFull-Text 59
      Katsuhide Tsushima; Masayuki Ueno; Takeshi Nishiki; Noboru Ashida; Kazuma Tanida
    A new type of Authoring System for 3DCG animation is developed in which a user can easily manipulate three dimensional objects in three dimensional simulated space on the computer. The user can use programing, programming palette and several hardware interfaces to manipulate object comfortably with the help of turtle metaphor. All the manipulations of objects, cameras, lights and turtle are possible using turtle command in our system, so DMI for 3DCG animation is realized in this research.
    NeGAS: logo based authoring environment for 3D computer animation BIBAFull-Text 60
      Ueno Masayuki; Nishiki Takeshi; Tsushima Katsuhide
    There are already many software products to create 3DCG motion pictures. However, their products have complicated user interface to control massive degrees of freedom of manual character control.
       Authoring operation of 3D computer animation is complex and complicated task, therefore, to remove this bottleneck will increase productivity and speed up trial and error.
       Turtle metaphor which is conceived with Logo programming language is enhanced to construct animation authoring system with consistent policy. On this enhancement, 3D visual object can be constructed, and these objects can be moved with simple command sequence.
       According to this concept, O3Logo has been developed. And, A motion picture creation environment -- NeGAS (Next Generation Authoring System) has been developed based on O3Logo. Especially, motion planning and editing is important task in computer animation. And, automatic animation generator using agent technology are designed which motion picture authors are helped and assisted to reduce load and time cost.
       However, intelligent systems are using symbolic rule description, therefore, it is difficult to use for novice. The solution on NeGAS is enhancement of motion flexibility and intelligent human interface which is visualized the invisible effects of rule description.
    Sketching-out virtual humans: from 2D storyboarding to immediate 3D character animation BIBAFull-Text 61
      Chen Mao; Sheng Feng Qin; David K. Wright
    Virtual beings are playing a remarkable role in today's public entertainment, while ordinary users are still treated as audiences due to the lack of appropriate expertise, equipment, and computer skills. In this paper, we present a fast and intuitive storyboarding interface, which enables users to sketch-out 3D virtual humans, 2D/3D animations, and character intercommunication. We devised an intuitive "stick figure→fleshing-out→skin mapping" graphical animation pipeline, which realises the whole process of key framing, 3D pose reconstruction, virtual human modelling, motion path/timing control, and the final animation synthesis by almost pure 2D sketching. A "creative model-based method" is developed, which emulates a human perception process, to generate the 3D human bodies of variational sizes, shapes, and fat distributions. Meanwhile, our current system also supports the sketch-based crowd animation and the storyboarding of the 3D multiple character intercommunication. This system has been formally tested by various users on Tablet PC. After minimal training, even a beginner can create vivid virtual humans and animate them within minutes.
    3D object modelling for entertainment applications BIBAFull-Text 62
      Yi Song; Li Bai; Yangsheng Wang
    Recent advances in three-dimensional (3D) data acquisition techniques have offered an alternative to the traditional 2D metamorphosis (or morphing) approaches, which gradually change a source object through intermediate objects into a target object. In this paper, we approach 3D metamorphosis via a novel 3D modelling technique, which reconstructs a fairly complex object with a single B-Spline patch. Our object representation is compact -- over 90% compression rate can be achieved. Despite such huge amount of data reduction, our method achieves similar rendering result to that using polygonal representation. Our approach also allows a one-to-one mapping from the object space to a common parameter space to be established, to allow automatic correspondence between a pair of objects. This way to establishing object correspondence is advantageous over the common connectivity generation process, with which, if either the source or target object is changed, the whole process of establishing correspondences must be repeated. Several aesthetically pleasing examples of 3D morphing are demonstrated using the proposed method.
    Projecting tension in virtual environments through lighting BIBAFull-Text 63
      Magy Seif El-Nasr
    Interactive synthetic environments are currently used in a wide variety of applications, including video games, exposure therapy, education, and training. Their success in such domains relies on their immersive and engagement qualities. Filmmakers and theatre directors use many techniques to project tension in the hope of affecting audiences' affective states. These techniques include narrative, sound effects, camera movements, and lighting. This paper focuses on temporal variation of lighting color and its use in evoking tension within interactive virtual worlds. Many game titles adopt some cinematic lighting effects to evoke certain moods, particularly saturated red colored lighting, flickering lights, and very dark lighting. Such effects may result in user frustration due to the lack of balance between the desire to project tension and the desire to use lighting for other goals, such as visibility and depth projection. In addition, such lighting effects used tend to be very obvious and obtrusive. In this paper, the author will identify several lighting color patterns, both obtrusive and subtle, based on a qualitative study of several movies and lighting design theories. In addition, the author presents a system that dynamically modulates the lighting within an interactive environment to project the desired tension while balancing other lighting goals, such as establishing visibility, projecting depth, and providing motivation for lighting direction. This work extends the author's previous work on the Expressive Lighting Engine [1-3]. Results of incorporating this system within a game will be discussed.
    A stylized cartoon hair renderer BIBAFull-Text 64
      Jung Shin; Michael Haller; R. Mukundan
    This paper describes a new hair rendering technique for Anime characters. The overall goal is to improve current cel shaders by introducing a new hair model and hair shader. The hair renderer is based on a painterly rendering algorithm which uses a large amount of particles. The hair model is rendered twice: first for generating the silhouettes and second for shading the hair strands. In addition we also describe a modified technique for specular highlighting. Most of the rendering steps (except the specular highlighting) are performed on the GPU and take advantage of recent graphics hardware. However, since the number of particles determines the quality of the hair shader, a large number of particles is used which reduces the performance accordingly.
    Face decorating system based on improved active shape models BIBAFull-Text 65
      Shuchang Wang; Yangsheng Wang; Bai Li
    This paper presents a face decorating system, which can do makeup on a face image, such as wearing glass, beard or lipstick. In the framework, an improved face alignment method is proposed to localize the key landmarks of a face, which would be used to locate decorations. Active Shape Models (ASMs), as a robust image alignment method is employed to localize such landmarks. In this work, the authors review the conventional ASMs algorithm for face alignment, and present several improvements on it. It's believed that traditional ASMs is heavily dependent on initial states and prone to local minima. To improve the stability as well as its efficiency, much work is done. First, the eyes are roughly localized in the face area, which are used to initialize the shape model and evaluate the result. Then conventional point distribution model (PDM) is replaced by a newly proposed combined PDM. Experiments on a database containing 200 labelled face images show that the proposed method performs significantly better than traditional ASMs. Finally, the improved method was used to implement a face decorating system.
    Interpolation techniques for the artificial construction of video slow motion in the postproduction process BIBAFull-Text 66
      David Steffen Bergman; Belgacem Ben Youssef; Jim Bizzocchi; John Bowes
    Motion compensated interpolation (MCI) refers to the process of taking a video sequence, finding motion information, and then using that information to produce interpolated video frames between source frames. In this study, we compare two MCI techniques: adjacent-frame motion compensated interpolation (AF-MCI) and wide-span motion compensated interpolation (WS-MCI). Using reproducible artificially generated video sequences, the methods are quantitatively compared with the objective of optimizing interpolated frame quality relative to control interpolated frames. This is useful because on a large flat-panel display with high resolution (such as HDTV), frame transition coherence becomes a crucial factor in assessing the quality of the user's viewing experience. To enhance MCI, the encoder should attempt to exploit long-term statistical dependencies, precisely estimate motion by modeling the motion vector field, and superimpose efficient prediction/interpolation algorithms. WS-MCI achieves this. Computer simulations using artificially generated video sequences demonstrate the consistent advantage of WS-MCI over adjacent-frame MCI under increasingly complex source scenes and chaotic occlusion conditions.

    Network, online game

    Wireless home entertainment center: reducing last hop delays for real-time applications BIBAFull-Text 67
      Claudio E. Palazzi; Giovanni Pau; Marco Roccetti; Stefano Ferretti; Mario Gerla
    Future digital entertainment services available to home users will share several characteristics: i) they will be deployed and delivered through the Internet, ii) a single media center will be exploited to orchestrate all parallel services, and iii) wireless technologies integrated within the home entertainment system will be massively utilized for the transmission of various data streams to networked devices. In this scenario, new effective strategies are needed to regulate the concurrent access to the wireless network when parallel applications generate different but simultaneous UDP/TCP-based flows. In this work, we present a novel technique aimed at guaranteeing a fast and smooth data delivery for real-time streams while maintaining a high throughput for TCP-based applications. Our approach is based on the utilization of a smart Access Point able to exploit available information about the ongoing traffic and existing features of the regular TCP. We compare the performance of our solution with an alternative one that makes use of an optimal setting of the 802-11 MAC layer parameters. Simulation results confirm that our smart Access Point represents an optimal candidate to be exploited in complex wireless scenarios for in-home entertainment.
    Low cost solution for location determination of mobile nodes in a wireless local area network BIBAFull-Text 68
      Ansar-Ul-Haque Yasar; M. A. Ansari; Sherjeel Farooqui
    In this research paper we undertook the problem of Location Determination of Mobile nodes in a Wireless Local area network, as finding out the location in a wireless environment is to-date not very easy, cheap and accurate using 802.11b technology. We used the classical method of Triangulation with a little alteration which is later on described in the paper. Another method we used is the methods of calibration by research to produce more accurate results and also to cross verify the results of the method of Triangulation. The work in this paper attempts to illustrate the different aspects of the problem of location determination in WiFi networks. We started with an investigation of the influence that network characteristics have on the ability of middleware location determination protocols to accurately estimate position of mobile nodes. We presented an implementation based study that demonstrated the strong relationship between the two of the location determination methods and their performance. The main objective of this paper is to provide method in which no dedication hardware is required. Only Wireless Lan card is required and can be placed in any suitable location. The significance of this result lies in allowing a network designer to make a suitable tradeoff between QoS of location determination and other application protocols while choosing a network topology. The combination of two methods reduced the error rate of locating a mobile node to a great extent. The results were being plotted on a given map using both the algorithms.
    Subjective assessment of fairness among users in multipoint communications BIBAFull-Text 69
      Yutaka Ishibashi; Manabu Nagasaka; Noriyuki Fujiyoshi
    By subjective assessment, this paper investigates the influences of network latency and packet loss on the perception of fairness among users in multipoint communications where the users have a conversation with each other by using live voice and video. We also assess the fairness in the case where we use users' avatars constructed by computer graphics (CG) instead of video. Assessment results show that most of subjects perceive unfairness when the difference in network latency between two terminals exceeds approximately 100 ms, or when the difference in packet loss rate becomes larger than around 30%. Furthermore, we demonstrate that we can estimate the value of MOS with high accuracy from the difference in network latency and packet loss rate.
    Airhockey over a distance: a networked physical game to support social interactions BIBAFull-Text 70
      Florian 'Floyd' Mueller; Luke Cole; Shannon O'Brien; Wouter Walmink
    In modern society, people increasingly lack social interaction, even though it is beneficial to professional and personal life. Airhockey Over a Distance aims to work against this trend by recreating the social experience and rapport facilitated by physical, casual game play in a distributed environment. We networked two airhockey tables and augmented them with a videoconference. Concealed mechanics on each table allow for a physical puck to be shot back and forth between the two locations, creating a perceived physical shared space between the participants. The hitting of a fast-moving, tangible puck between the two players creates a compelling social game experience which can support social interactions and contribute to an increased connectedness between people who are physically apart.
    AoIM in peer-to-peer multiplayer online games BIBAFull-Text 71
      Abdennour El Rhalibi; Madjid Merabti; Yuanyuan Shen
    MMOG are very large distributed applications, sharing very large states, and supporting communication between potentially thousands of player nodes. Despite the development of many solutions to define suitable architecture and communication protocol, and enabling efficient deployment of these types of applications, many issues remains which still require a solution. In this paper we discuss MMOG deployed over a Peer-to-Peer architecture, supporting a distributed model of systems with shared state and we address issues related to scalability, interest management and communication. We identify an efficient partitioning and distribution of the shared state as an important aspect in such models and propose a hierarchical multi-level interest management algorithm which enables contextual communication between peers. Experiments have been carried out and show the performance of the approach.
    A proposal of encoded computations for distributed massively multiplayer online services BIBAFull-Text 72
      Keiichi Endo; Minoru Kawahara; Yutaka Takahashi
    This paper deals with Massively Multiplayer Online services, which are used to interact with other user in real time. Although it is possible to distribute the load on the server to users' computers, the distributed services are more vulnerable to cheating such as data theft. We propose a method for concealing data from a user who is authorized to manage the data. The method makes it possible to carry out various kinds of operations with data and program codes concealed. We show that concealed information can not be figured out with the knowledge of original programs or encoding keys which other users have.
    Some positive effects of online gaming BIBAFull-Text 73
      Ian Frank; Nobuhisa Sanbou; Katsuaki Terashima
    We believe that Internet and computing technology have reached the stage where online games can offer an experience that is qualitatively different to what has gone before. To test how exposure to modern games could be of benefit to players, we recruited 12 subjects to play the MMORPG (Massively Multiplayer Online Role Playing Game) "Nobunaga no Yabou Online", collecting data over two months. We evaluated subjects before and after playing, using psychological tests and tests of communication skill, typing skill and knowledge of the Internet and of online games. While the psychological tests showed no significant changes in the subjects' state of mind, there were measurable improvements in online communication skill, typing skill and knowledge, with the largest increases experienced by the subjects with least Internet experience.
    User model in multiplayer mixed reality entertainment applications BIBAFull-Text 74
      Stéphane Natkin; Chen Yan
    Most computer games and more generally entertainment applications use implicitly or explicitly a user model as a reference for the gameplay and dramaturgy progression. with mixed reality technology and ubiquitous computing, user-centered design is required now more than ever to provide an adaptable and personal content at any time and in any context. The goal of our research is to provide a narration model correlated to a user model in the design of mixed reality entertainment. In this paper we give a brief survey of the current researches on user model for adaptation and personalization of services and some empirical studies of user model in games and interactive narration. We propose three possible levels of the user model: generic, localized and personalized and three types of narration scheme. We will describe that the user model and narration schemes can be used in a mixed reality system.

    Demo presentations session B

    Low cost solution for location determination of mobile nodes in a wireless local area network BIBAFull-Text 75
      Ansar-Ul-Haque Yasar; M. A. Ansari; Sherjeel Farooqui
    In this research paper we undertook the problem of Location Determination of Mobile nodes in a Wireless Local area network, as finding out the location in a wireless environment is to-date not very easy, cheap and accurate using 802.11b technology. We used the classical method of Triangulation with a little alteration which is later on described in the paper. Another method we used is the methods of calibration by research to produce more accurate results and also to cross verify the results of the method of Triangulation. The work in this paper attempts to illustrate the different aspects of the problem of location determination in WiFi networks. We started with an investigation of the influence that network characteristics have on the ability of middleware location determination protocols to accurately estimate position of mobile nodes. We presented an implementation based study that demonstrated the strong relationship between the two of the location determination methods and their performance. The main objective of this paper is to provide method in which no dedication hardware is required. Only Wireless Lan card is required and can be placed in any suitable location. The significance of this result lies in allowing a network designer to make a suitable tradeoff between QoS of location determination and other application protocols while choosing a network topology. The combination of two methods reduced the error rate of locating a mobile node to a great extent. The results were being plotted on a given map using both the algorithms.
    Sketching-out virtual humans: from 2D storyboarding to immediate 3D character animation BIBAFull-Text 76
      Chen Mao; Sheng Feng Qin; David K. Wright
    Virtual beings are playing a remarkable role in today's public entertainment, while ordinary users are still treated as audiences due to the lack of appropriate expertise, equipment, and computer skills. In this paper, we present a fast and intuitive storyboarding interface, which enables users to sketch-out 3D virtual humans, 2D/3D animations, and character intercommunication. We devised an intuitive "stick figure→fleshing-out→skin mapping" graphical animation pipeline, which realises the whole process of key framing, 3D pose reconstruction, virtual human modelling, motion path/timing control, and the final animation synthesis by almost pure 2D sketching. A "creative model-based method" is developed, which emulates a human perception process, to generate the 3D human bodies of variational sizes, shapes, and fat distributions. Meanwhile, our current system also supports the sketch-based crowd animation and the storyboarding of the 3D multiple character intercommunication. This system has been formally tested by various users on Tablet PC. After minimal training, even a beginner can create vivid virtual humans and animate them within minutes.
    Sharelog: digital public art interaction by using "Suica" BIBAFull-Text 77
      Kotaro Hashimoto; Yasuhiro Suzuki; Tomohiro Tanikawa; Toshio Iwai; Michitaka Hirose
    In this paper, we propose to use a digital private item to interact with media art works. And we make it clear that such object is very effective to generate communication.
    From driving to expressive music performance: ensuring tempo smoothness BIBAFull-Text 78
      Jie Liu; Elaine Chew; Alexandre R. J. François
    This paper focuses on the mapping strategies in the interface design for the Expression Synthesis Project (ESP). The goal of ESP is to use the metaphor of driving to allow non-experts to interactively create expressive renderings of music pieces. In ESP, the road represents the music, with bends and straight segments representing places where one might slow down and speed up respectively. The user controls the tempo (rate of beats) and dynamics (amplitude) by the way s/he drives through the road. Our design objective in the ESP environment is to define mapping strategies that guarantee tempo smoothness, a hallmark of expert and practiced performances, under all driving conditions. Because the road has non-zero width, several strategies exist for mapping the car's position on the road to the musical score. We propose mapping strategies that ensure tempo smoothness, and provide mathematical and empirical proofs for the success of these strategies.
    Wizard's apprentice gameplay-oriented design of a computer-augmented board game BIBAFull-Text 79
      Johan Peitz; Staffan Björk; Anu Jäppinen
    This paper describes the prototype Wizard's Apprentice, a computer-augmented board game. Unlike many previous examples from research, which use board games as a means to explore technology, the game was developed from the starting point of gameplay design goals. The paper reports upon how the different starting point required iteration between the various design disciplines involved. The game and the design within the various disciplines are described together with sections on how results from one discipline affected other. The paper ends with reports from the first preliminary evaluation.
    The scenario and design process of childcare robot, PaPeRo BIBAFull-Text 80
      Junichi Osada; Shinichi Ohnaka; Miki Sato
    The scenarios and design process for a childcare robot, PaPeRo, are presented. The design process mainly consists of production and evaluations. The production is composed of three observations, namely, one in the user field, one with respect to the world view, and one about the assumed users and results for the basic role of the robot, its personality, and classification of users. Our investigation of available technologies deepened our understanding of the robot performance and characteristics. Preproduction, which consisted of a scenario design, prototyping, and a short play, made the scenario details more sophisticated. A six-month demonstration at the 2005 Aichi Expo started with seven different scenarios, which were improved using additional recognition words, more attractive robot personalities, and additional scenarios through on-site observations and discussion with staff members there. We conducted an extensive study on the robot personalities and recognizable words. Our study will play an important role in the scenario design process.
    Early narrative experience: positive segue to narrative gameplay BIBAFull-Text 81
      Krystina S. Madej
    This paper theorizes that children segue into digital narrative game play easily and 'without pause' because of the perception of narrative they develop through their early print narrative experiences. These experiences are multimodal and socially constructed and are similar in nature to the engagement children enjoy with narrative gameplay. Rather than privileging the traditional forms of narrative considered the norm, children's emerging narrative process privileges a structure similar to that of narratives in games.
    The VoodooIO gaming kit: a real-time adaptable gaming controller BIBAFull-Text 82
      Nicolas Villar; Kiel Mark Gilleade; Devina Ramduny-Ellis; Hans Gellersen
    Existing gaming controllers are limited in their end-user configurability. As a complement to current game control technology, we present the VoodooIO Gaming Kit, a real-time adaptable gaming controller. We introduce the concept of appropriable gaming devices, which allow players to define and actively reconfigure their gaming space, making it appropriate to their personal preference and gaming needs. The technology and its conceived usage are illustrated through its application to two commercially available computer games, as well as through the results of a formal user study.
    Computational support for compelling story telling BIBAFull-Text 83
      Sara H. Owsley; Kristian J. Hammond; David A. Shamma
    This paper describes a digital theater installation call Buzz. Buzz consists of virtual actors who express the collective voice generated by blogs. These actors find compelling stories from blogs on the popular and contentious topics of the day and perform them. In this paper, we explore what it means for a story to be compelling and describe a set of techniques for retrieving compelling stories on a topic. We also outline an architecture for high level direction of a performance using Adaptive Retrieval Charts (ARCs), allowing a director level of interaction with the performance system. Our overall goal in this work is to build a model of human behavior on a new foundation of query formation, information retrieval and filtering.
    Development of the tool for artistic representation of internal information of the body BIBAFull-Text 84
      Shigeru Sakurazawa; Junichi Akita; Masashi Toda
    In this paper, we describe the idea of a new artistic representation tool to project performer's internal state of the body. To solve the problem of complicated wires and for detecting biological signals, the flexible conductive wear for wearable computing named as "TextileNet system" was applied to the system. In this paper, we also describe the experimental results of trial growing of the tool. The advantage of the conductive fabric was not only solving the problem but shielding effect, which could make the amplifier simple. Using the feature of TextileNet, huge number of biological information can be treated at same time, and more complex representation is expected.
    User model in multiplayer mixed reality entertainment applications BIBAFull-Text 85
      Stéphane Natkin; Chen Yan
    Most computer games and more generally entertainment applications use implicitly or explicitly a user model as a reference for the gameplay and dramaturgy progression. With mixed reality technology and ubiquitous computing, user-centered design is required now more than ever to provide an adaptable and personal content at any time and in any context. The goal of our research is to provide a narration model correlated to a user model in the design of mixed reality entertainment. In this paper we give a brief survey of the current researches on user model for adaptation and personalization of services and some empirical studies of user model in games and interactive narration. We propose three possible levels of the user model: generic, localized and personalized and three types of narration scheme. We will describe that the user model and narration schemes can be used in a mixed reality system.

    Poster

    Modifying game content with personal media BIBAFull-Text 86
      Jukka Holm; Juha Arrasvuori; Kai Havukainen
    In recent years, the mobile phone has become a device for storing and consuming various media such as music, images, video, and text. People also play games with their mobile phones. This paper discusses the concept of media-controlled games, where each media file selected by the player makes the game look different and behave variedly. As an example of using still pictures in games, a prototype game called "Nitro" has been implemented.
    The four impression factors of music videos BIBAFull-Text 87
      Maiko Kamata; Makoto Arisawa
    Music videos (MVs) are no mere promotional tools. They have become an important entertainment media. In order to increase their attractiveness, it is significant to understand viewers' psychology. The aim of this study is to clarify the impression factors of music videos. We set an examination and collected data from the participants of fifty university students. The result of semantic differential technique indicated that there are four impression factors: (1) lightness; (2) uniqueness; (3) beauty; (4) floridness.
    Accuracy of musician's response time for an electronic music score system with a moving marker BIBAFull-Text 88
      Tatsuo Kamitani; Manabu Yano; Minoru Matsuda
    The authors considered an electronic music score system that denotes note length as visual stimuli by moving markers for non-expert musicians. These visual stimuli are synthesized by stimuli synthesized from general electronic music scores. A setup of the color and luminosity of a screen, adjustment of contrast, speed of the marker is possible at the time of visual stimulus generation.
       From the result of the experiment, it become clear that a moving marker system is useful to performing music.
    Metazoa Ludens BIBAFull-Text 89
      Roger Thomas K C Tan; V. Todorovic; G. Andrejin; J. K. S. Teh; A. D. Cheok
    Metazoa Ludens is new gaming model which allows pets to play new mixed reality computer games with humans via custom built technologies and applications. These games for pets and humans will provide new beneficial relations, progressions and evolution of the Metazoa species.
    Paravision: the entertaining visualizer in public space BIBAFull-Text 90
      Takafumi Iwai; Sohei Kitada; Mariko Higaki; Mizuki Deguchi; Kazuya Kaijima; Akira Wakita
    In this paper, we describe the dynamic sign system in public space using RFID and transparent screen. This system called Paravision is made to experiment whether signs can be entertaining. With all users having their own RFID tags, and RFID reader placed in several places at site, Paravision can project dynamic signs on the transparent screen.
    A method of virtual walkthrough image space construction using plural omnidirectional images BIBAFull-Text 91
      Yuji Hoshi; Shinya Nakayama; Masami Kato
    The present paper describes a method of virtual walkthrough image space construction using plural omnidirectional images by integrating a lower and an upper hemisphere omnidirectional image as one space and interpolating between adjoining spaces.
    Scenario and design process of childcare robot PaPeRo BIBAFull-Text 92
      Junichi Osada; Shinichi Ohnaka; Miki Sato
    The scenario and design process for a childcare robot PaPeRo, are presented. We designed eight applications for the scenario. During a six-month demonstration at the 2005 Aichi Expo, we evaluated and improved the scenario.
    Sharelog: digital public art interaction by using "Suica" BIBAFull-Text 93
      Kotaro Hashimoto; Yasuhiro Suzuki; Tomohiro Tanikawa; Toshio Iwai; Michitaka Hirose
    In this paper, we propose a novel media art installation that uses personal item as the interface and as the exhibit at the same time. We conclude that our media art installation is an effective medium to encourage communication among our visitors.
    Age invaders BIBAFull-Text 94
      Eng Tat Khoo; Shang Ping Lee; Adrian David Cheok
    This paper introduces Age Invaders, a novel interactive intergeneration social-physical game which allows the elderly to play harmoniously together with children in physical space while parents can participate in the game play in real time remotely through the internet as shown in Figure 1.
    A fast eye location method using ordinal features BIBAFull-Text 95
      Xuetao Feng; Yangsheng Wang; Bai Li
    Automatic facial feature location is an important step in human-computer interaction and automatic face recognition. In this paper, a new eye location method is proposed. A classifier based on ordinal features is constructed by training on samples. It is used to evaluate the eye candidates discovered by the detector trained using AdaBoost. False positive responds are abandoned and eye centers are calculated by the evaluation result. The experimental results demonstrate that our method achieves good location performance.
    Dynamic evaluation of distribution of visual attention during playing video game BIBAFull-Text 96
      Kenji Yokoi; Katsumi Watanabe; Takashi Kawai
    In this study, we measured spatial distribution of visual attention in video game playing by a gaze-contingent window method. This method enables us to estimate the spatial extent of visual attention used for a player to play a given video game. The quantitative relationship between window size and game performance provides us useful information as for the online evaluation of performance and dynamic attentional allocation in playing video game.
    Paper prototyping a pervasive game BIBAFull-Text 97
      Elina M. I. Koivisto; Mirjam Eladhari
    We have evaluated a game called Garden of Earthly Delights (or GED) with a paper prototype and players. GED is a concept for the extension of conventional Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Game (MMORPG) mechanics to integrate pervasive, mobile, and location-based play. A pervasive game can be defined as "a game that is always present, available to the player. These games can be location sensitive and use several different media to convey the game experience" [1]. GED is played both on PC and mobile platforms. This poster summarizes the main findings from the evaluations and compares the paper prototype testing method with focus group discussions.
    Motion creation for online game characters BIBAFull-Text 98
      Atsushi Nakano; Junichi Hoshino
    The character creation that creates the player's characters has been adopted in various online games. It has an important role of creating unique characters. Although the creation of the body shape, the skin color and the hairstyle has been achieved, motion creation hasn't. In this paper, we propose the motion creation technique using the composite behavior synthesis for online game characters.
    Gaze computer interaction on stereo display BIBAFull-Text 99
      Yong-Moo Kwon; Kyeong-Won Jeon
    There are several researches on 2D gaze tracking techniques on the 2D screen. However, the researches for the gaze-based interaction to the stereo images or contents are not reported. This paper addresses gaze-based 3D interaction techniques on stereo display, such as parallax barrier display. This paper presents our researches on two issues for gaze-based 3D interaction, one is eye-vergence based 3D interaction, and the other is gaze vector based 3D interaction.
    Virtual experience: interactive domino simulation BIBAFull-Text 100
      Qonita M. Shahab; Yong-Moo Kwon; Heedong Ko
    This research studies on collaborative simulation-based virtual experience for physics e-learning. In view of educational science, simulation-based virtual experience is useful for better understanding of physics law. This paper presents our introductory researches on Domino Physics Simulation. We also implement collaborative simulation-based experience system through network for virtual experience together.
    AR baseball presentation system based on registration with multiple markers BIBAFull-Text 101
      Yuko Uematsu; Hideo Saito
    The AR Baseball Presentation System is an entertainment tool allowing users to watch "virtual baseball game" on the real tabletop field model through a web-camera attached to a LCD monitor. Our system uses multiple planar markers for geometrical registration of virtual catoons onto the tabletop field model. In contrast with most AR applications using multiple planar markers, we can place the markers at arbitrary positions and poses without measuring those arrangements manually. Since the markers can be placed at various positions and poses, the registration of the virtual objects becomes more stable than placing all the markers on the same directions. The baseball game scene is generated from the log history data of the baseball game.
    Internet pajama BIBAFull-Text 102
      James Teh; Shang Ping Lee; Adrian David Cheok
    Internet Pajama is a novel application aimed at promoting physical closeness in remote communication between parent and child. A special pajama suit which is able to reproduce a hugging sensation is developed for the child. Parent is able to hug and physically interact with child by hugging a doll. Both pajama and doll are connected wirelessly to the Internet. Other features are incorporated to enhance the interaction and physical presence.
    Adaptative execution of game: unfolding a correct story BIBAFull-Text 103
      Ronan Champagnat; Pascal Estraillier; Armelle Prigent
    Computer games have improved this last decade on technical aspects (graphical, sound design, etc.) as well as on the content. Actually games are getting more and more complex. Plot has been improved and is getting close to scenario movie or scenario novel.
    Computational support for compelling story telling BIBAFull-Text 104
      Sara H. Owsley; Kristian J. Hammond; David A. Shamma
    The Internet is a living, breathing reflection of who we are, what we think, and how we feel. The pages that make up the Web form the book of our contemporary life and culture. They are the ongoing and changing buzz of our world. The latest embodiment of this cultural reflection is found in blogs. Not only are blogs widespread, but they are incredibly dynamic, with hundreds updated per minute. The existence of millions of blogs on the web has resulted in more than the mere presence of millions of online journals, but rather, they generate a collective buzz around the events in the world.
    Drop*STAR: support system of musical arrangement and performance for small groups BIBAFull-Text 105
      Seiko Myojin; Mie Nakatani; Hirokazu Kato
    The purpose of this study is to make users enjoy musical performance like a band regardless of skill level on musical instruments. Other studies have focused on only beginners or only experts [1] [5] [4]. Very few attempts have been made at our purpose. Our system consists of miniature stage and dolls as players. When users move dolls on the stage, sound changes with corresponding dolls' motion and position. If users play in concert, users enjoy not only instruments or music but also talking about the course of performance and practice process. Band members often practice with making conditioning in order to make their songs better. If users use this system, they discuss the mood and flow of their music, practice their timing to play under their policy, keep a good balance between instruments and contrive ways to move their dolls. And they will show off their playing prowess. In the process, users are able to experience performance like a band. We call this system Drop*STAR (<u>D</u>olls <u>R</u>hythmic Po<u>p</u> <u>Stars</u>).
    A model for mobile entertainment content consumption BIBAFull-Text 106
      S. R. Subramanya; Byung K. Yi
    The content targeted for mobile devices is expected to have enormous growths in the future. In order to sustain the growths in mobile content, technologies, and services, it is important to study schemes to enhance the content consumption experience of mobile users. This paper proposes a model for the consumption of mobile content, which is expected to aid the designers and developers of mobile content and services.
    Mixed reality for fun learning in primary school BIBAFull-Text 107
      Wei Liu; Adrian David Cheok; Sim Hwee; Ang Ivene
    In this poster, classroom based Mixed Reality teaching tools are introduced. Our aims are introducing the new technology to primary schools, providing a more interesting and attractive learning environment to students. Cooperating with students and teachers, all contents are based on the textbook and design by teachers, classroom based teaching tools -- Solar system and Plants system are produced and used in school.
    Architecture of an authoring system to support the creation of interactive contents BIBAFull-Text 108
      Koji Miyazaki; Yurika Nagai; Ryohei Nakatsu
    In this paper, we propose a concept for a support system for creating interactive contents based on three-dimensional computer graphics (3D-CG). A content creator, by describing a script using two kinds of script files prepared by the system, can easily create 3D-CG scenes and can also control the interactions between a user and the system.
    Early narrative experience: positive segue to narrative gameplay BIBAFull-Text 109
      Krystina S. Madej
    This paper theorizes that children segue into digital narrative game play easily and 'without pause' because of the perception of narrative they develop through their early print narrative experiences. These experiences are multimodal and socially constructed and are similar in nature to the engagement children enjoy with narrative gameplay. Rather than privileging the traditional forms of narrative considered the norm, children's emerging narrative process privileges a structure similar to that of narratives in games.