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Virtual Reality 12

Standard No:ISSN 1359-4338 (print) EISSN 1434-9957 (online)
Links:link.springer.com | Twitter | Table of Contents
  1. VR 2008-03 Volume 12 Issue 1
  2. VR 2008-06 Volume 12 Issue 2
  3. VR 2008-09 Volume 12 Issue 3
  4. VR 2008-12 Volume 12 Issue 4

VR 2008-03 Volume 12 Issue 1

VR-based edutainment BIBFull-Text 1
  Zhigeng Pan; Jim Chen
Age invaders: social and physical inter-generational mixed reality family entertainment BIBAKFull-Text 3-16
  Eng Tat Khoo; Adrian David Cheok; Ta Huynh Duy Nguyen; Zhigeng Pan
Age invaders (AI), is a novel interactive intergeneration social-physical game which allows the elderly to play harmoniously together with children in the physical space, while parents can participate in the game play in real time remotely in the virtual world through the internet. Traditional digital games are designed for the young where normally the player sits in front of a computer or game console. Unlike standard computer games, age invaders brings the game play to a physical platform, and requires and encourages physical body movements rather than constraining the user in front of a computer for many hours. Age invaders is an interactive social-physical family digital game designed specially for a harmonious game play between the elderly and young. Adjusting game properties automatically compensates for potential elderly disadvantages, for example slower reaction time and slow movement.
Keywords: Elderly entertainment; Mixed reality; Physical computing; Social computing
FARMTASIA: an online game-based learning environment based on the VISOLE pedagogy BIBAKFull-Text 17-25
  Kevin K. F. Cheung; Morris S. Y. Jong; F. L. Lee; Jimmy H. M. Lee
Virtual interactive student-oriented learning environment (VISOLE) is a game-based constructivist pedagogical approach that encompasses the creation of an online interactive world modeled upon a set of interdisciplinary domains, in which students participate as "citizens" to take part cooperatively and competitively in shaping the development of the virtual world as a means to construct their knowledge and skills. FARMTASIA is the first online game designed using the VISOLE philosophy, encompassing the subject areas of biology, government, economics, technology, production system and natural environment. The "virtual world" deployed is a farming system covering the domains of cultivation, horticulture and pasturage, situated in a competitive economy governed by good public policies. The design and implementation of FARMTASIA pursue three vital principles. The first one is to make the game as realistic as possible so that students can learn in a near-real life environment; the second one is to inject motivational elements so that students can sustain to learn and acquire various knowledge and skills with the game; and the third one is to make easy for teachers to conduct various VISOLE facilitation tasks. According to our exploratory educational study, we show evidentially that positive perceptions and an advancement of subject-specific and interdisciplinary knowledge appeared among the students who participated in VISOLE learning with FARMTASIA.
Keywords: VISOLE; Virtual learning environment; Educational game; Edutainment
Synchronization between audiovisual and haptic feeling for constructing edutainment systems BIBAKFull-Text 27-36
  Yoshihiro Tabuchi; Norihiro Abe; Hirokazu Taki; Shoujie He
Virtual reality (VR) technology has become more and more mature over the last decade. Development of a virtual environment for training purpose is considered to be one of the most practical applications of the VR technology. Since the VR technology involves all kinds of sensors in exchanging information between the real world and the virtual environment, it is computationally intensive in terms of data processing at an individual sensor and information integration among all the sensors. In general, the information integration has to be well synchronized in order to meet the training needs. At the same time, real-time processing capability is also considered to be critical. Many more practical issues could be uncovered only when a virtual training environment is actually being developed. Based on this belief, this study experiments on the development of a virtual environment for training billiards players. The technical difficulties encountered and the corresponding resolutions are considered beneficial to the development of other practical virtual training environments. This paper summarizes the design and implementation details about our experimental virtual training environment for edutainment systems such as virtual billiard game, virtual air hockey game and virtual drum performance with the algorithms for the synchronization of the information from different sources.
Keywords: Training system; Virtual reality; Synchronized real-time processing; Billiards game
Tangled reality BIBAKFull-Text 37-45
  Kevin Ponto; Falko Kuester; Robert Nideffer; Simon Penny
Leonardo da Vinci was a strong advocate for using sketches to stimulate the human imagination. Sketching is often considered to be integral to the process of design, providing an open workspace for ideas. For these same reasons, children use sketching as a simple way to express visual ideas. By merging the abstraction of human drawings and the freedom of virtual reality with the tangibility of physical tokens, Tangled Reality creates a rich mixed reality workspace. Tangled Reality allows users to build virtual environments based on simple colored sketches and traverse them using physical vehicles overlayed with virtual imagery. This setup allows the user to "build" and "experience" mixed reality simulations without ever touching a standard computer interface.
Keywords: Mixed reality; Augmented reality; Teleoperations; Edutainment
Cognitive and synthetic behavior of avatars in intelligent virtual environments BIBAKFull-Text 47-54
  Ronghua Liang; Mingmin Zhang; Zhen Liu; Meleagros Krokos
In intelligent virtual environments (IVEs), it is a challenging research issue to provide the intelligent virtual actors (or avatars) with the ability of visual perception and rapid response to virtual world events. Modeling an avatar's cognitive and synthetic behavior appropriately is of paramount important in IVEs. We propose a new cognitive and behavior modeling methodology that integrates two previously developed complementary approaches. We present expression cloning, walking synthetic behavior modeling, and an autonomous agent cognitive model for driving an avatar's behavior. Facial expressions are generated using our own-developed rule-based state transition system. Facial expressions are further personalized for individuals by expression cloning. An avatar's walking behavior is modeled using a skeleton model that is implemented by seven-motion sequences and finite state machines (FSMs). We discuss experimental results demonstrating the benefits of our approach.
Keywords: Expression animation; Walking synthetic behavior; Expression cloning; Autonomous agent models; FSM
Towards adaptive Web scriptable user interfaces for virtual environments BIBAKFull-Text 55-64
  Emad Barsoum; Falko Kuester
The vast majority of Web-based technology, its ability to visualize static and time varying information and the pervasive nature of its content have lead the development of applications and user interfaces that port between a broad range of operating systems, databases and devices. However the integration of this immense resource in virtual environments (VEs) remains elusive. In this paper we present a Web scriptable user interface that utilizes Web browser technology to enable the user to search the internet for arbitrary information and to seamlessly augment this information into the VE. WebVRI provides access to the standard data input and query mechanisms offered by conventional Web browsers, with the difference that it generates active texture-skins of the Web contents that can be mapped onto arbitrary surfaces within the environment. Once mapped, the corresponding texture functions as a fully integrated Web-browser that will respond to traditional events such as the selection of links or text input. As a result, any surface within the environment can be turned into a Web-enabled resource that provides access to user-definable data. Using WebVRI, users can merge Web contents into their VE, control its behavior and collaborate with other users inside and outside the VE. This provides a completely new mechanism to access readily available Web-based data, documents, images, animations, simulations and visualization. WebVRI also enables game-based education by providing the ability to create contents rich, pervasive VR-based edutainment environments.
Keywords: Virtual reality; 3D Web browser; WWW; Navigation; 2D/3D user interface
A ship motion simulation system BIBAKFull-Text 65-76
  Shyh-Kuang Ueng; David Lin; Chieh-Hong Liu
In this article, efficient computational models for ship motions are presented. These models are used to simulate ship movements in real time. Compared with traditional approaches, our method possesses the ability to cope with different ship shapes, engines, and sea conditions without the loss of efficiency. Based on our models, we create a ship motion simulation system for both entertainment and educational applications. Our system assists users to learn the motions of a ship encountering waves, currents, and winds. Users can adjust engine powers, rudders, and other ship facilities via a graphical user interface to create their own ship models. They can also change the environment by altering wave frequencies, wave amplitudes, wave directions, currents, and winds. Therefore, numerous combinations of ships and the environment are generated and the learning becomes more amusing. In our system, a ship is treated as a rigid body floating on the sea surface. Its motions compose of 6 degrees of freedom: pitch, heave, roll, surge, sway, and yaw. These motions are divided into two categories. The first three movements are induced by sea waves, and the last three ones are caused by propellers, rudders, currents, and winds. Based on Newton's laws and other basic physics motion models, we deduce algorithms to compute the magnitudes of the motions. Our methods can be carried out in real time and possess high fidelity. According to ship theory, the net effects of external forces on the ship hull depend on the ship shape. Therefore, the behaviors of the ship are influenced by its shape. To enhance our physics models, we classify ships into three basic types. They are flat ships, thin ships, and slender ships. Each type of ship is associated with some predefined parameters to specify their characteristics. Users can tune ship behaviors by varying the parameters even though they have only a little knowledge of ship theory.
Keywords: Ship motions; Physics engine; Computer games; Simulation

VR 2008-06 Volume 12 Issue 2

The feasibility of a mixed reality surgical training environment BIBAKFull-Text 77-86
  Louise Moody; Alan Waterworth; Avril D. McCarthy; Peter J. Harley
The Sheffield knee arthroscopy training system (SKATS) was originally a visual-based virtual environment without haptic feedback, but has been further developed as a mixed reality-training environment through the use of tactile augmentation (or passive haptics). The design of the new system is outlined and then tested. In the first experiment described, the effect of tactile augmentation on performance is considered by comparing novice performance using the original and mixed reality system. In the second experiment the mixed reality system is assessed in terms of construct validity by comparing the performance of users with differing levels of surgical expertise. The results are discussed in terms of the validity of a mixed reality environment for training knee arthroscopy.
Keywords: Tactile augmentation; Passive haptics; Surgical simulator; Training; Arthroscopy
Sensory-motor enhancement in a virtual therapeutic environment BIBAKFull-Text 87-97
  Richard A. Foulds; David M. Saxe; Arthur W., III Joyce; Sergei Adamovich
The sensory-motor skills of persons with neuromuscular disabilities have been shown to be enhanced by intensive and repetitive therapeutic interventions. This paper describes a form of low immersion virtual reality and a prototype, open source system that allow a user with significant physical disability to actively interact with computer-generated objects whose behaviors promote a game-like interaction. Unlike fully immersive and haptic virtual reality, this approach frees the user from head-mounted displays and gloves. It extracts the user's real-time silhouette from the output of a remote video camera and uses that two-dimensional outline to interact with graphical objects on screen. In contrast to video games that have been modified with specialized interfaces, this virtual interaction system promotes the repetitive use of goal directed movements of the arms and body, which are essential to promote cortical reorganization, as well as discourage unwanted changes in muscle tissue that result in contracture. A prototype system demonstrates the potential of low immersion technology to motivate users and encourage participation in therapy. It also offers the potential of accommodating the sensory-motor skills of individuals with very significant impairment. The behaviors of the computer-generated graphics can be altered to allow use by those with very limited range of motion and/or motor control. These behaviors can be adjusted to provide a continuing challenge as the user's skills improve. This prototype is described in terms of functional capabilities that include a silhouette extraction from a video image, and generation of graphical objects that interact with the silhouette. The work is extended with a discussion of a more sophisticated region of interest detection algorithm that can select specific parts of the body.
Keywords: Low-immersion; Rehabilitation; Cortical reorganization; Therapy; Sensory-motor skills; Biomedical engineering
Stable haptic interaction using a damping model to implement a realistic tooth-cutting simulation for dental training BIBAKFull-Text 99-106
  Guanyang Liu; Yuru Zhang; Dangxiao Wang; William T. Townsend
It is difficult to implement a stable and realistic haptic simulation for cutting rigid objects that is based on a damping model because of an inevitable conflict between stability and high output force. This paper presents passivity techniques to show that an excessive damping coefficient causes the output stiffness to exceed the maximum output stiffness of the haptic device, leading to instability. By analysing the damping model of a haptic dental-training simulator, we construct a relationship among the damping coefficient, position resolution, sampling frequency, human operation, and the maximum achievable device stiffness that will still maintain device stability. A method is also provided to restrict the output stiffness of the haptic device to ensure stability while enabling the realistic haptic simulation of cutting rigid objects (teeth) that is based in a damping model. Our analysis and conclusions are verified by a damping model that is constructed for a dental-training haptic display. Three types of haptic devices are used in our analysis and experiments.
Keywords: Haptic display system; Output stiffness; Damping model; Stability criterion
The incorporation of challenge enhances the learning of chronology from a virtual display BIBAKFull-Text 107-113
  Nigel Foreman; Liliya Korallo; David Newson; Natalie Sarantos
In earlier studies investigating the learning of historical chronology, virtual fly-throughs were used in which successive historical events were represented by images on virtual screens, placed in temporal-spatial sequence. Undergraduate students benefited more than school-age children from virtual 3D (compared to 2D) training, perhaps because they took on the task as a challenge. In this study a modification of the earlier paradigm was used, in a game-like format, in which successive screens (paintings, representing epochs of art history) had to be memorised and anticipated during training, the participant's score accumulating on the screen. Compared with PowerPoint and verbal-semantic training conditions, VE training resulted in more rapid learning, better recall of associated semantic information and error-free recall of the picture sequence. Possible applications of this paradigm for teaching were discussed.
Keywords: Chronology; Art history; Virtual environment; Game format; Undergraduates
Visuals are not what they look BIBAKFull-Text 115-123
  Karsten Bormann
When developing virtual environments (VEs), most effort goes into developing the visuals. For many, the ideal is to create virtual worlds of photo-realistic quality or otherwise being of high fidelity. The purpose is to make the VE seem real to the user. This paper takes a closer look at subjects' ratings of the visuals, and of the extent to which the VE feels real to the subjects, in the context of an experiment on audio in which subjects were to perform two search tasks: the first in an ordinary, textured house; the second in a bare structure consisting almost exclusively of the barren, white walls. Audio was never relevant to the search task in the first experiment, while in the second experiment it was relevant to the search task for half of the subjects. Subjects for whom audio was irrelevant to both their search tasks rated their visual involvement as large in the barren VE as in the higher quality one. However, subjects for which audio was relevant to their search task in the second experiment saw their visual involvement plummet, while their auditory involvement surged. Finally, the extent to which the VE felt real to the subjects did not correlate with their visual involvement but instead showed a strong correlation with the extent to which the interaction felt natural.
Keywords: Cross-sensory perception; Interaction between visual and auditory perception; Visual perception; Auditory perception

VR 2008-09 Volume 12 Issue 3

Force modeling for tooth preparation in a dental training system BIBAKFull-Text 125-136
  Guanyang Liu; Yuru Zhang; William T. Townsend
Feedback force is very important for novices to simulate tooth preparation by using the haptic interaction system (dental training system) in a virtual environment. In the process of haptic simulation, the fidelity of generated forces by a haptic device decides whether the simulation is successful. A force model computes feedback force, and we present an analytical force model to compute the force between a tooth and a dental pin during tooth preparation. The force between a tooth and a dental pin is modeled in two parts: (1) force to resist human's operation and (2) friction to resist the rotation of the dental engine. The force to resist the human's operation is divided into three parts in the coordinates that are constructed on the bottom center of the dental pin. In addition, we also consider the effects of dental-pin type, tooth stiffness, and contact geometry in the force model. To determine the parameters of the force model, we construct a measuring system by using machine vision and a force/torque sensor to track the human's operations and measure the forces between the dental pins and teeth. Based on the measuring results, we construct the relation between the force and the human's operation. The force model is implemented in the prototype of a dental training system that uses the Phantom as the haptic interface. Dentists performing virtual operations have confirmed the fidelity of feedback force.
Keywords: Force model; Haptic interaction; Contact geometry; Force measure; Human's operating tracking
Interaction styles in tools for developing virtual environments BIBAKFull-Text 137-150
  Jesper Kjeldskov; Jan Stage
This article discusses and compares interaction styles in development tools for virtual environments (VE). The comparison relies on a qualitative empirical study of two development processes where a command language and a direct manipulation based tool were used to develop the same virtual environment application. The command language tool proved very flexible and facilitated an even distribution of effort and progress over time, but debugging and identification of errors was very difficult. Contrasting this, the direct manipulation tool enabled faster implementation of a first prototype but did not facilitate a shorter implementation process as a whole. On the basis of these findings, the strength and weaknesses of direct manipulation for developing virtual environment applications are explored further through a comparison with a successful direct manipulation tool for developing interactive multimedia applications. The comparisons are used to identify and emphasize key requirements for virtual environment development tool interface design.
Keywords: Virtual environments; Development tools; Interaction styles; Empirical study
Transfer of learning in virtual environments: a new challenge? BIBAKFull-Text 151-161
  Cyril Bossard; Gilles Kermarrec; Cédric Buche; Jacques Tisseau
The aim of all education is to apply what we learn in different contexts and to recognise and extend this learning to new situations. Virtual learning environments can be used to build skills. Recent research in cognitive psychology and education has shown that acquisitions are linked to the initial context. This provides a challenge for virtual reality in education or training. A brief overview of transfer issues highlights five main ideas: (1) the type of transfer enables the virtual environment (VE) to be classified according to what is learned; (2) the transfer process can create conditions within the VE to facilitate transfer of learning; (3) specific features of VR must match and comply with transfer of learning; (4) transfer can be used to assess a VE's effectiveness; and (5) future research on transfer of learning must examine the singular context of learning. This paper discusses how new perspectives in cognitive psychology influence and promote transfer of learning through the use of VEs.
Keywords: Transfer of learning; Training; Virtual environment; Learning models
Do virtual worlds create better real worlds? BIBAKFull-Text 163-179
  Mark P. Mobach
Over the last years, virtual reality (VR) has been said to offer promise for design visualisation and has started to be included in participatory design methodology. This research provides an overview of the use of VR in architectural design and organizational space design, and explores how this application can be integrated with participatory design. The effects of the proposed integration of participatory design, VR, architecture and organization were studied in two pharmaceutical case studies. It was assessed whether the participants actually changed the design and to what extent this affected staff satisfaction and construction costs. The results show that the design was changed, staff satisfaction improved, and costs were reduced.
Keywords: Architecture; Business practice; Organization; Participatory design; Immersive virtual reality
Computer game engines for developing first-person virtual environments BIBAKFull-Text 181-187
  David Trenholme; Shamus P. Smith
Building realistic virtual environments is a complex, expensive and time consuming process. Although virtual environment development toolkits are available, many only provide a subset of the tools needed to build complete virtual worlds. One alternative is the reuse of computer game technology. The current generation of computer games present realistic virtual worlds featuring user friendly interaction and the simulation of real world phenomena. Using computer games as the basis for virtual environment development has a number of advantages. Computer games are robust and extensively tested, both for usability and performance, work on off-the-shelf systems and can be easily disseminated, for example via online communities. Additionally, a number of computer game developers provide tools, documentation and source code, either with the game itself or separately available, so that end-users can create new content. This short report overviews several currently available game engines that are suitable for prototyping virtual environments.
Keywords: Virtual environments; Computer game technology; Game engines; Reuse; Prototyping

VR 2008-12 Volume 12 Issue 4

Introduction BIBFull-Text 189-190
  Richard Satava
The Visible Human® at the University of Colorado 15 years later BIBAKFull-Text 191-200
  Victor M. Spitzer; Michael J. Ackerman
The Visible Human has come through ages, providing a foundation of photorealistic anatomy for learner-centered, interactive education. Pathways for improvement of the Visible Human process for reverse engineering the macrostructure of the human body have been developed to provide higher resolution and decreased production time for segmentation and modeling human form. The assignment of physical properties, the development of algorithms for the interaction of surgical tools with this virtual anatomy and the availability of high-fidelity haptic interfaces provide the basis for fully immersive surgical training and certification in an environment that is zero direct-risk to patients. Interactive journal publishing, 3D stereoscopic anatomical visualization software and surgical simulators, all based on the Visible Human, the history of the Project and its utilization and provide a framework for its evolution and role in delivering education, training, certification and credentialing through virtual reality to the health care workforce of tomorrow.
Keywords: Virtual anatomy; Surgical simulation; Visible Human; Medical education; Anatomy
Medical interface research at the HIT Lab BIBAKFull-Text 201-214
  Suzanne Weghorst; Eric Seibel; Peter Oppenheimer; Hunter Hoffman
The Human Interface Technology Laboratory (HIT Lab) is a multi-disciplinary research and development lab whose work centers on novel approaches to human interface technology. Lab researchers represent a wide range of disciplines from across the University of Washington campus, including engineering, medicine, education, social sciences, architecture, and the design arts. We describe here a representative sampling of past and current HIT Lab research and development activities related to medicine, including virtual reality and augmented/mixed reality applications for direct patient therapy, tools for basic medical education and procedure training, novel approaches to medical image acquisition and display, and new visualization methods in medical informatics.
Keywords: Virtual reality; Mixed reality; Endoscopy; Medical informatics; Rehabilitation; Surgical simulation
Learning medicine through collaboration and action: collaborative, experiential, networked learning environments BIBAKFull-Text 215-234
  Parvati Dev; Wm. LeRoy Heinrichs
The SUMMIT Lab and William LeRoy Heinrichs, at Stanford University, were honored to be the 2002 awardees of the Satava Award for Virtual Reality in Medicine. Since the award, the group has followed two main threads of research, which we describe below. The first, "building a high-performance, network-aware, collaborative learning environment" has investigated the framework and components needed when students in multiple locations collaborate using computation-intensive simulations and large image datasets. The second thread, "online, interactive human physiology for medical education and training", has focused on the application of interactive physiology models embedded in 3D visualizations of virtual patients in naturalistic medical environments. These environments support immersive, experiential learning where students act as medical providers and manage authentic medical events and crises. These research efforts, and our conclusions, are presented in the chapter below.
Keywords: Collaborative learning; Human anatomy; Human physiology; Online; Distance learning; Virtual patients; Virtual physiology models; Virtual worlds; Stereo anatomy
Medical imaging and virtual reality: a personal perspective BIBAKFull-Text 235-257
  Richard A. Robb
The evolution of medical imaging, and concomitantly virtual reality (VR) technology, especially over the past 2-3 decades, has significantly accelerated the use of multi-modality images and VR instrumentation in guiding medical procedures, including surgery. The imaging capabilities have not only increased in variety of modalities (CT, MRI, PET, ultrasound, etc.), but also in dimensions and resolution. It is becoming more common to talk about 3D, 4D and even 5D images produced by modern imaging modalities. However, a relatively unexploited potential and capability of this increase in multimodality, multidimensional image data is the synergistic fusion of these datasets into a unified form that describes more accurately and extensively the complex nature of human anatomy, physiology, biology and pathology. The assist in achieving this potential, through realistic simulation, training, rehearsal and delivery of surgery and other interventional procedures by use of VR technology, has been increasingly evident, particularly in education. This paper attempts an overview of this potential, describing the evolution of medical imaging systems and VR that has lead to development of powerful computational techniques to fuse, visualize, analyze and use these images for advanced use in medical practice. This overview is based primarily on the author's experience, opinion and perspective, explaining the preponderance of citations to his own work. A brief history of medical imaging and VR, a description of current imaging systems, and a summary of important image processing methods used in image-guided interventions will be given. Examples of use of these methods on several types of multidimensional image datasets will be illustrated, and several examples of real clinical applications described using 3D, 4D and 5D fused image datasets and VR technology for image-guided interventions, image-guided surgery, and image-guided therapy. Finally, the paper will discuss some barriers to progress and provide some prognostic views on the promising future of image-guided medical procedures and surgical interventions.
Keywords: Multi-modality imaging; Multi-dimensional imaging; Image fusion; Image visualization; Image modeling; Evolution of imaging; Virtual reality technology
Virtual reality with fMRI: a breakthrough cognitive treatment tool BIBAKFull-Text 259-267
  Brenda K. Wiederhold; Mark D. Wiederhold
The impact of virtual reality (VR) has been felt in a wide range of fields over the past 10 years. VR has been shown to be an effective treatment for anxiety, phobia, pain, post-traumatic stress disorder, stress inoculation training, and drug and alcohol addiction. The emerging application of VR in conjunction with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is helping to improve upon current VR systems, and in the future will aid in creating more effective treatments for patients. With the advent of fMRI-safe VR goggles, brain activity can be studied in real time as a patient undergoes a VR treatment. The use of brain imaging during a VR session allows for the study of the brain itself as a patient interacts in a real-world environment. Studies are showing that by using VR in combination with fMRI, a new emergence of data about previously-elusive functions of the brain can be expected.
Keywords: Virtual reality; fMRI; Brain imaging; Postt-raumatic stress disorder; Cue exposure; Physiology; Exposure therapy
Design and implementation of medical training simulators BIBAKFull-Text 269-279
  Nigel W. John
This paper discusses the design issues and implementation details of building a medical training simulator. Example projects that have been undertaken by the Visualization and Medical Graphics group at Bangor University and our collaborators are used to illustrate the points made. A detailed case study is then presented of a virtual environment designed to train the Seldinger Technique, a common procedure in interventional radiology. The paper will introduce a medical practitioner to the technology behind a medical virtual environment. It will also provide an engineer with an overview of many of the issues that need to be considered when undertaking to build such an application. The paper ends with the author's views on future developments in this exciting domain.
Keywords: Medical virtual environments; Haptics; 3D displays; Graphics hardware; Seldinger technique; Augmented reality
The road to surgical simulation and surgical navigation BIBAKFull-Text 281-291
  Naoki Suzuki; Asaki Hattori
The recent advantage of the power of graphic workstations has made it possible to handle 3D human structures in an interactive way. Real-time imaging of medical 3D or 4D images can be used not only for diagnosis, but also for various novel medical treatments. By elaborating on the history of the establishment of our laboratory, which focuses on medical virtual reality, we describe our experience of developing surgery simulation and surgery navigation systems according to our research results. In the case of surgical simulation, we mention two kinds of virtual surgery simulators that produce the haptic sensation of surgical maneuvers in the user's fingers. Regarding surgical navigation systems, we explain the necessity of the augmented reality function for the encouragement of the ability of robotic surgery and its trial for clinical case.
Keywords: Medical imaging; Surgical simulation; Virtual reality; Augmented reality; Navigation surgery