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Virtual Reality 10

Dates:2006
Volume:10
Publisher:Springer-Verlag
Standard No:ISSN 1359-4338 (print) EISSN 1434-9957 (online)
Papers:29
Links:link.springer.com | Twitter | Table of Contents
  1. VR 2006-05 Volume 10 Issue 1
  2. VR 2006-10 Volume 10 Issue 2
  3. VR 2006-12 Volume 10 Issue 3/4

VR 2006-05 Volume 10 Issue 1

Introduction to Volume 10 BIBFull-Text 1
  Daniel Ballin; Robert Macredie; John Vince
Special Issue Editorial: Multisensory interaction in virtual environments BIBFull-Text 2-3
  Antonio Frisoli; Antonio Camurri
Affordances in the design of enactive systems BIBAKFull-Text 4-10
  Thomas A. Stoffregen; Benoît G. Bardy; Bruno Mantel
Enactive interfaces must incorporate intuitive activity that characterizes naturalistic perception. However, the manner in which information is presented is not more important than the contents: what information is presented. In this contribution, we address the contents of perception. We argue that people perceive affordances, that is, the possible actions that are available in any given situation. We further argue that enactive interfaces should be designed to optimize presentation of information about the possible actions that are available to a person using the enactive interface. The design of enactive interfaces might be guided by an extension of the theory of ecological interface design (Vicente in Hum Factors 44:62-78, 2002) to include multimodal information that is accessed through fast, intuitive exploratory movement. We review two empirical studies that illustrate our arguments. Careful analysis of affordances, together with our increasing understanding of the enactive perception of affordances, should influence the design of enactive interfaces.
Keywords: Affordances; Perception-action; Multimodal perception; Enactive perception
A mobile platform for haptic grasping in large environments BIBAKFull-Text 11-23
  Maurizio de Pascale; Allesandro Formaglio; Domenico Prattichizzo
This paper presents methodologies and technologies that are exploited to design and implement the mobile haptic grasper (MHG), i.e. an integrated system consisting of a mobile robot and two grounded haptic devices (HD) fixed on it. This system features two-point contact kinaesthetic interactions while guaranteeing full user's locomotion in large virtual environment. The workspace of haptic interaction is indefinitely extended, and this is extremely relevant for applications such as virtual grasping, where the global workspace is typically reduced with respect to those of the single-point contact devices. Regarding software architecture, we present the Haptik Library, an open source library developed at the University of Siena which allows to uniformly access HD, that has been used to implement the MHG software.
Keywords: Haptics; Grasping; Mobile robotics
Interaction with co-located haptic feedback in virtual reality BIBAKFull-Text 24-30
  David Swapp; Vijay Pawar; Céline Loscos
This paper outlines a study into the effects of co-location (the term 'co-location' is used throughout to refer to the co-location of haptic and visual sensory modes, except where otherwise specified) of haptic and visual sensory modes in VR simulations. The study hypothesis is that co-location of these sensory modes will lead to improved task performance within a VR environment. Technical challenges and technological limitations are outlined prior to a description of the implementation adopted for this study. Experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect on user performance of co-located haptics (force feedback) in a 3D virtual environment. Results show that co-location is an important factor, and when coupled with haptic feedback the performance of the user is greatly improved.
Keywords: Haptics; Co-location
Influence of multisensory feedback on haptic accessibility tasks BIBAKFull-Text 31-40
  Iñaki Díaz; Josune Hernantes; Ignacio Mansa; Alberto Lozano; Diego Borro
Environments of a certain nature, such as those related to maintenance tasks can benefited from haptic stimuli by performing accessibility simulation in a realistic manner. Accessibility is defined as the physical feasibility of accessing an element of a 3D model avoiding undesirable collisions. This paper studies the benefits that multisensory systems can provide in performing this kind of tasks. The research is specially focused on the improvements provided by auditory feedback to the user's performance. We have carried out a user study where participants had to perform an accessibility task with the aid of different combinations of sensorial stimuli. A large haptic interface for aeronautic maintainability has been extended with real-time sound generation capabilities to study this issue. The results of these experiments show that auditory stimuli provide with useful cues to the users helping them to correct trajectories and hence improving their performance.
Keywords: Haptics; Accessibility; Force feedback; Auditory; Virtual environments; Synchronization; Multisensory interaction; Multimodal
Virtual Bounds: a teleoperated mixed reality BIBAKFull-Text 41-47
  Kevin Ponto; Falko Kuester; Robert Nideffer; Simon Penny
This paper introduces a mixed reality workspace that allows users to combine physical and computer-generated artifacts, and to control and simulate them within one fused world. All interactions are captured, monitored, modeled and represented with pseudo-real world physics. The objective of the presented research is to create a novel system in which the virtual and physical world would have a symbiotic relationship. In this type of system, virtual objects can impose forces on the physical world and physical world objects can impose forces on the virtual world. Virtual Bounds is an exploratory study allowing a physical probe to navigate a virtual world while observing constraints, forces, and interactions from both worlds. This scenario provides the user with the ability to create a virtual environment and to learn to operate real-life probes through its virtual terrain.
Keywords: Augmented reality; Mixed reality; Tangible bits; Analog gaming; Remote control
Evaluation of on-line analytic and numeric inverse kinematics approaches driven by partial vision input BIBAKFull-Text 48-61
  Ronan Boulic; Javier Varona; Luis Unzueta; Manuel Peinado; Angel Suescun
Despite its central role in the constitution of a truly enactive interface, 3D interaction through human full body movement has been hindered by a number of technological and algorithmic factors. Let us mention the cumbersome magnetic equipments, or the under-determined data set provided by less invasive video-based approaches. In the present paper, we explore the recovery of the full body posture of a standing subject in front of a stereo camera system. The 3D position of the hands, the head and the center of the trunk segment are extracted in real-time and provided to the body posture recovery algorithmic layer. We focus on the comparison between numeric and analytic inverse kinematics approaches in terms of performances and overall quality of the reconstructed body posture. Algorithmic issues arise from the very partial and noisy input and the singularity of the human standing posture. Despite stability concerns, results confirm the pertinence of this approach in this demanding context.
Keywords: Inverse kinematics; Motion capture; On-line image analysis
Analysis of expression in simple musical gestures to enhance audio in interfaces BIBAKFull-Text 62-70
  Luca Mion; Gianluca D'Incà
Expression could play a key role in the audio rendering of virtual reality applications. Its understanding is an ambitious issue in the scientific environment, and several studies have investigated the analysis techniques to detect expression in music performances. The knowledge coming from these analyses is widely applicable: embedding expression on audio interfaces can drive to attractive solutions to emphasize interfaces in mixed-reality environments. Synthesized expressive sounds can be combined with real stimuli to experience augmented reality, and they can be used in multi-sensory stimulations to provide the sensation of first-person experience in virtual expressive environments. In this work we focus on the expression of violin and flute performances, with reference to sensorial and affective domains. By means of selected audio features, we draw a set of parameters describing performers' strategies which are suitable both for tuning expressive synthesis instruments and enhancing audio in human-computer interfaces.
Keywords: Expression; Audio interfaces; Sonification

VR 2006-10 Volume 10 Issue 2

Special Issue: Editorial BIBFull-Text 71-72
  Leonie Schäfer; Steffi Beckhaus
Collaborative virtual sculpting with haptic feedback BIBAKFull-Text 73-83
  Chris Gunn
This paper introduces a haptic virtual environment in which two users can collaboratively sculpt a virtual clay model, working from different physical locations connected by the internet. They view their virtual sculpting tools and the clay model in 3D, feel the tool's pressure on the clay as they work, and have their hands co-located with the view of the tool and model. Since the sculptors have independent views of the same logical environment, they can work at different zoom levels, and be in different coordinate systems, even spinning ones, at the same time. This provides them with the capability to explore new styles of collaborative creativity, working off each other's initiative where appropriate. The system was designed to allow unrestrained, asynchronous behaviour by the collaborating sculptors. The paper describes the hardware as well as the algorithms behind the deformability of the clay surface and the communications model enabling the distance collaboration. It gives an explanation of the simple conflict resolution mechanism that haptic feedback facilitates and also reports on the results of a qualitative study into the creativity benefits of such a collaborative system.
Keywords: Haptics; Collaboration; Sculpting; Virtual environments
Virtual environments for creative work in collaborative music-making BIBAFull-Text 85-94
  Michael F. Schober
Virtual environments are beginning to allow musicians to perform collaboratively in real time at a distance, coordinating on timing and conceptualization. The development of virtual spaces for collaboration necessitates more clearly specified theorizing about the nature of physical copresence in music-making: how the available communicative cues are likely to affect the nature of visually mediated rehearsal and performance. Pilot data for a project carried out at the New School for Social Research demonstrate some important factors relevant to designing remote spaces for musical collaboration, and suggest that virtual environments for musical collaboration could actually enhance the feeling of being together that creative musical expression requires.
Carpeno: interfacing remote collaborative virtual environments with table-top interaction BIBAKFull-Text 95-107
  Holger Regenbrecht; Michael Haller; Joerg Hauber; Mark Billinghurst
Creativity is enhanced by communication and collaboration. Thus, the increasing number of distributed creative tasks requires better support from computer-mediated communication and collaborative tools. In this paper we introduce "Carpeno", a new system for facilitating intuitive face-to-face and remote collaboration on creative tasks. Normally the most popular and efficient way for people to collaborate is face-to-face, sitting around a table. Computer augmented surface environments, in particular interactive table-top environments, are increasingly used to support face-to-face meetings. They help co-located teams to develop new ideas by facilitating the presentation, manipulation, and exchange of shared digital documents displayed on the table-top surface. Users can see each other at the same time as the information they are talking about. In this way the task space and communication space can be brought together in a more natural and intuitive way. The discussion of digital content is redirected from a computer screen, back to a table where people can gather around. In contrast, collaborative virtual environments (CVE) are used to support remote collaboration. They frequently create familiar discussion scenarios for remote interlocutors by utilizing room metaphors. Here, virtual avatars and table metaphors are used, where the participants can get together and communicate with each other in a way that allows behaviour that is as close to face-to-face collaboration as possible. The Carpeno system described here combines table-top interaction with a CVE to support intuitive face-to-face and remote collaboration. This allows for simultaneous co-located and remote collaboration around a common, interactive table.
Keywords: Collaborative work; CSCW; Virtual environments; Table-top interfaces; Teleconferencing
Multi-user mixed reality system 'Gulliver's World': a case study on collaborative edutainment at the intersection of material and virtual worlds BIBAKFull-Text 109-118
  Christopher Lindinger; Roland Haring; Horst Hörtner; Daniela Kuka
This case study is about 'Gulliver's World', a multi-user mixed reality environment that functions simultaneously as interactive edutainment platform and learning environment as well as flexible infrastructure for the expansion of mixed reality environments via innovations in technology and media art. As an exhibition project, the installation is characterized by a nonlinear exhibition concept that activates interaction between individual users and different modes of virtual reality as well as collaboration among the users themselves. At seven workstations, people of all age groups range along the Reality-Virtuality continuum while collaboratively creating 3D worlds. Results of these creation activities are interactive worlds at the nexus of theatre, digital film production and game environment. As a research project, 'Gulliver's World' features multilevel infrastructure with exemplary content in which the latest insights and models to emerge from HCI research as well as concepts of mixed reality and virtual environments and their supporting technology are brought together and developed further.
Keywords: Collaborative virtual environment; Multi-user mixed reality system; Nonlinear exhibition; Edutainment; Virtuality-Reality continuum; Physical-based interaction
Factors influencing flow of object focussed collaboration in collaborative virtual environments BIBAFull-Text 119-133
  David Roberts; Ilona Heldal; Oliver Otto; Robin Wolff
Creativity is believed to be helped by an uncluttered state of mind known as flow and as the trend grows towards less immersive displays to produce an uncluttered workplace, we ask the question "Does immersion matter to the flow of distributed group work?". The aim of this work is to study the impact of level of immersion on workflow and presence during object focussed distributed group work, and to discuss the relevance of these and other factors to supporting flow and creativity. This is approached through a comprehensive literature survey and significant new results. The study attempts to introduce a breadth of factors and relationships as opposed to proving a hypothesis and thus takes a wide qualitative rather than deep quantitative approach to testing and analysis.
The design and realization of CoViD: a system for collaborative virtual 3D design BIBAKFull-Text 135-147
  Wolfgang Stuerzlinger; Loutfouz Zaman; Andriy Pavlovych; Ji-Young Oh
Many important decisions in the design process are made during fairly early on, after designers have presented initial concepts. In many domains, these concepts are already realized as 3D digital models. Then, in a meeting, the stakeholders for the project get together and evaluate these potential solutions. Frequently, the participants in this meeting want to interactively modify the proposed 3D designs to explore the design space better. Today's systems and tools do not support this, as computer systems typically support only a single user and computer-aided design tools require significant training. This paper presents the design of a new system to facilitate a collaborative 3D design process. First, we discuss a set of guidelines which have been introduced by others and that are relevant to collaborative 3D design systems. Then, we introduce the new system, which consists of two main parts. The first part is an easy-to-use conceptual 3D design tool that can be used productively even by naive users. The tool provides novel interaction techniques that support important properties of conceptual design. The user interface is non-obtrusive, easy-to-learn, and supports rapid creation and modification of 3D models. The second part is a novel infrastructure for collaborative work, which offers an interactive table and several large interactive displays in a semi-immersive setup. It is designed to support multiple users working together. This infrastructure also includes novel pointing devices that work both as a stylus and a remote pointing device. The combination of the (modified) design tool with the collaborative infrastructure forms a new platform for collaborative virtual 3D design. Then, we present an evaluation of the system against the guidelines for collaborative 3D design. Finally, we present results of a preliminary user study, which asked naive users to collaborate in a 3D design task on the new system.
Keywords: Collaborative design; 3D design; Collaborative virtual reality
Musical creativity in collaborative virtual environments BIBAKFull-Text 149-157
  Stephen Barrass; Tim Barrass
A review of musical creativity in collaborative virtual environments (CVE) shows recurring interaction metaphors that tend from precise control of individual parameters to higher level gestural influence over whole systems. Musical performances in CVE also show a consistent re-emergence of a unique form of collaboration called "melding" in which individual virtuosity is subsumed to that of the group. Based on these observations, we hypothesized that CVE could be a medium for creating new forms of music, and developed the audiovisual augmented reality system (AVIARy) to explore higher level metaphors for composing spatial music in CVE. This paper describes the AVIARy system, the initial experiments with interaction metaphors, and the application of the system to develop and stage a collaborative musical performance at a sound art concert. The results from these experiments indicate that CVE can be a medium for new forms of musical creativity and distinctive forms of music.
Keywords: CVE; Creativity; Music; Sound art; Interaction; Performance

VR 2006-12 Volume 10 Issue 3/4

Guest Editorial EA Nick Hedley BIBFull-Text 159-161
 
"Making it real": exploring the potential of augmented reality for teaching primary school science BIBAKFull-Text 163-174
  Lucinda Kerawalla; Rosemary Luckin; Simon Seljeflot; Adrian Woolard
The use of augmented reality (AR) in formal education could prove a key component in future learning environments that are richly populated with a blend of hardware and software applications. However, relatively little is known about the potential of this technology to support teaching and learning with groups of young children in the classroom. Analysis of teacher-child dialogue in a comparative study between use of an AR virtual mirror interface and more traditional science teaching methods for 10-year-old children, revealed that the children using AR were less engaged than those using traditional resources. We suggest four design requirements that need to be considered if AR is to be successfully adopted into classroom practice. These requirements are: flexible content that teachers can adapt to the needs of their children, guided exploration so learning opportunities can be maximised, in a limited time, and attention to the needs of institutional and curricular requirements.
Keywords: Augmented reality; Educational dialogue; Primary classroom; Design requirements
Gender differences in spatial navigation in virtual space: implications when using virtual environments in instruction and assessment BIBFull-Text 175-184
  Shelley P. Ross; Ronald W. Skelton; Sven C. Mueller
Applying virtual reality in medical communication education: current findings and potential teaching and learning benefits of immersive virtual patients BIBAFull-Text 185-195
  Benjamin Lok; Richard E. Ferdig; Andrew Raij; Kyle Johnsen
The purpose of this paper is, first, to summarize a theoretical perspective toward the development of a virtual reality innovation in education. Next, we will describe a virtual character project that is impacting the training of medical students in two institutions. In doing so, we will present a summary of three studies completed over the last 2 years, highlighting specific results from the research. Finally, we conclude with a discussion of the impact of these findings on the development and implementation of virtual reality systems for teaching and learning. It is our hope that through providing this study of a virtual reality scenario -- experienced by over 100 end-users -- from an educational concepts perspective will help others aiming to apply virtual reality to education.
Presence: a unique characteristic in educational virtual environments BIBAKFull-Text 197-206
  Tassos A. Mikropoulos
This article investigates the effect of presence on learning outcomes in educational virtual environments (EVEs) in a sample of 60 pupils aged between 11 and 13 years. We study the effect of personal presence, social presence and participant's involvement on certain learning outcomes. We also investigate if the combination of the participant's representation model in the virtual environment (VE) with the way it is presented gives a higher sense of presence that contributes to learning outcomes. Our results show that the existence of an avatar as the pupils' representation enhanced presence and helped them to successfully perform their learning tasks. The pupils had a high sense of presence for both cases of the EVE presentation, projection on a wall and through a head mounted display (HMD). Our socialized virtual environment seems to play an important role in learning outcomes. The pupils had a higher sense of presence and completed their learning tasks more easily and successfully in the case of their egocentric representation model using the HMD.
Keywords: Educational virtual environments; Personal presence; Social presence; Involvement; Learning outcomes
Multi-modal virtual environments for education with haptic and olfactory feedback BIBAKFull-Text 207-225
  E. Richard; A. Tijou; P. Richard; J.-L. Ferrier
It has been suggested that immersive virtual reality (VR) technology allows knowledge-building experiences and in this way provides an alternative educational process. Important key features of constructivist educational computer-based environments for science teaching and learning, include interaction, size, transduction and reification. Indeed, multi-sensory VR technology suits very well the needs of sciences that require a higher level of visualization and interaction. Haptics that refers to physical interactions with virtual environments (VEs) may be coupled with other sensory modalities such as vision and audition but are hardly ever associated with other feedback channels, such as olfactory feedback. A survey of theory and existing VEs including haptic or olfactory feedback, especially in the field of education is provided. Our multi-modal human-scale VE VIREPSE (virtual reality platform for simulation and experimentation) that provides haptic interaction using a string-based interface called SPIDAR (space interface device for artificial reality), olfactory and auditory feedbacks is described. An application that allows students experiencing the abstract concept of the Bohr atomic model and the quantization of the energy levels has been developed. Different configurations that support interaction, size and reification through the use of immersive and multi-modal (visual, haptic, auditory and olfactory) feedback are proposed for further evaluation. Haptic interaction is achieved using different techniques ranging from desktop pseudo-haptic feedback to human-scale haptic interaction. Olfactory information is provided using different fan-based olfactory displays (ODs). Significance of developing such multi-modal VEs for education is discussed.
Keywords: Virtual Environment; Haptic interaction; Olfaction; Multi-modal feedback; Human scale; Education
The virtual playground: an educational virtual reality environment for evaluating interactivity and conceptual learning BIBAKFull-Text 227-240
  Maria Roussou; Martin Oliver; Mel Slater
The research presented in this paper aims at investigating user interaction in immersive virtual learning environments, focusing on the role and the effect of interactivity on conceptual learning. The goal has been to examine if the learning of young users improves through interacting in (i.e. exploring, reacting to, and acting upon) an immersive virtual environment (VE) compared to non-interactive or non-immersive environments. Empirical work was carried out with more than 55 primary school students between the ages of 8 and 12, in different between-group experiments: an exploratory study, a pilot study, and a large-scale experiment. The latter was conducted in a virtual environment designed to simulate a playground. In this "Virtual Playground," each participant was asked to complete a set of tasks designed to address arithmetical "fractions" problems. Three different conditions, two experimental virtual reality (VR) conditions and a non-VR condition, that varied the levels of activity and interactivity, were designed to evaluate how children accomplish the various tasks. Pre-tests, post-tests, interviews, video, audio, and log files were collected for each participant, and analysed both quantitatively and qualitatively. This paper presents a selection of case studies extracted from the qualitative analysis, which illustrate the variety of approaches taken by children in the VEs in response to visual cues and system feedback. Results suggest that the fully interactive VE aided children in problem solving but did not provide a strong evidence of conceptual change as expected; rather, it was the passive VR environment, where activity was guided by a virtual robot, that seemed to support student reflection and recall, leading to indications of conceptual change.
Keywords: Virtual learning environments; Interactivity; Conceptual learning; Evaluation
Virtual reality and its role in removing the barriers that turn cognitive impairments into intellectual disability BIBAKFull-Text 241-252
  P. J. Standen; D. J. Brown
Early expectations of the contribution that virtual reality (VR) could make to education far exceeded actual applications. This was largely due to the initial immaturity of the technology and a lack of evidence base on which to base design and utilisation. While the early developments in computer based learning largely concentrated on mainstream education, leaving those with special needs behind, the potential of VR as an educational tool was exploited for those with intellectual disabilities right from the start. This paper describes the empirical evidence that has contributed to the development of educational virtual reality for those with intellectual disabilities: studies on transfer of learning from the virtual to the real world; how teachers might support those using VR; the design of virtual environments and what input/control devices best facilitate use of desktop VR. Future developments and ethical issues are also considered.
Keywords: Virtual reality; Education; Intellectual disability; Cognitive impairments; Tutor; User sensitive inclusive design
A model of (en)action to approach embodiment: a cornerstone for the design of virtual environments for learning BIBAKFull-Text 253-269
  Daniel Mellet-d'Huart
This paper presents a model of (en)action from a conceptual and theoretical point of view. This model is used to provide solid bases to overcome the complexity of designing virtual environments for learning (VEL). It provides a common grounding for trans-disciplinary collaborations where embodiment can be perceived as the cornerstone of the project. Where virtual environments are concerned, both computer scientists and educationalists have to deal with the learner/user's body; therefore the model provides tools with which to approach both human actions and learning processes within a threefold model. It is mainly based on neuroscientific research, including enaction and the neurophysiology of action.
Keywords: Virtual environment for learning; Virtual reality; Learning; Design method; Model of action
The gain and pain in taking the pilot seat: learning dynamics in a non immersive virtual solar system BIBAKFull-Text 271-282
  Elhanan Gazit; Yoav Yair; David Chen
This study describes and analyzes the learning interactions of nine high-school students' free exploration of a virtual solar system (VSS). The VSS is a non-immersive three dimensional virtual environment based on real NASA planetary images. The computer screen serves as a "spacecraft's window" for the learner to "fly" between objects, to change the system's frame of reference and its pace. A systematic analysis of participants' real-time observable interactions together with what they said revealed that each of them created an unique learning pattern within at least five different dimensions: (1) the cognitive dimension, (2) the affective dimension, (3) the navigation dimension, (4) the interface dimension, and (5) the assistance seeking dimension. The construction of meaning emerged as a non-linear process, which includes transitions between and within these dimensions. Three different styles of learning interactions were identified, suggesting that individual differences might be enhanced due to the unique VSS' features. Overall, the VSS served as an enriching and motivational learning experience. The design of additional navigation tools and content scaffolding might help participants' in building a sustained deep scientific understanding.
Keywords: Virtual reality environments; Learning interactions
Virtual realia: maneuverable computer 3D models and their use in learning assembly skills BIBAFull-Text 283-292
  William A. Kealy; Chitra P. Subramaniam
Two experiments compared real and virtual models as aids for learning assembly skills. In Experiment 1, ten participants individually studied either a fully assembled model, or a computer-generated one, in exploded view, that could be spatially manipulated in any direction. Participants then assembled the object in front of a video camera. ANOVA indicated virtual model are studied significantly longer but yield faster assembly than a real model. Experiment 2 used the same treatments plus a fully assembled virtual mode, randomly assigned to 28 participants who studied the aid, assembled the model, and then repeated the task from memory 3 days later. ANOVA indicated no differences between the three groups in assembly speed or accuracy. However, participants studied the exploded virtual model significantly longer than the two intact views of the model suggesting the former may impose a greater cognitive load due to the additional visual information it provides.
The impact of haptic augmentation on middle school students' conceptions of the animal cell BIBAKFull-Text 293-305
  James Minogue; M. Gail Jones; Bethany Broadwell; Tom Oppewall
Of the five sensory channels -- sight, sound, taste, smell, and touch, it is only our sense of touch that enables us to modify and manipulate the world around us. This article reports the preliminary findings of a systematic study investigating the efficacy of adding haptic feedback to a desktop virtual reality program for use in middle school science instruction. Current technology allows for the simulation of tactile and kinesthetic sensations via sophisticated haptic devices and a computer interface. This research, conducted with 80 middle school students, examined the cognitive and affective impact of this technology on students' understandings of the structure and function of an animal cell. The results of this work offer valuable insights into the theoretical and practical considerations involved in the development and implementation of haptically augmented virtual reality instructional programs.
Keywords: Haptics; Virtual reality; Science instruction