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Journal of Organizational Computing and Electronic Commerce 15

Editors:Andrew B. Whinston
Dates:2005
Volume:15
Publisher:Lawrence Erlbaum Associates
Standard No:ISSN 1054-1721
Papers:14
Links:Table of Contents
  1. JOCEC 2005 Volume 15 Issue 1
  2. JOCEC 2005 Volume 15 Issue 2
  3. JOCEC 2005 Volume 15 Issue 3
  4. JOCEC 2005 Volume 15 Issue 4

JOCEC 2005 Volume 15 Issue 1

A Reputation Mechanism for Business-to-Business Electronic Commerce That Accounts for Rater Credibility BIBAFull-Text 1-18
  Martin A. Ekstrom; Hans C. Bjornsson; Clifford I. Nass
This article investigates whether source credibility theory can support reputation mechanisms in business-to-business (B2B) electronic commerce. In contrast to consumer electronic marketplaces, the raters in B2B communities are skilled and connected, necessitating a reputation mechanism to account for the relationship between the user and the rater. To solve this problem, TrustBuilder, a prototype rating tool, incorporates a methodology to calculate a weighted rating based on source credibility theory. This solution offers several advantages over existing models. First, source credibility theory provides tested frameworks for aggregating ratings from different sources. Second, there are validated scales for measuring a source's (rater's) credibility. Finally, the weights of a rater's ratings depend on user preferences instead of rater behavior, which decreases the amount of data required to calibrate the model. In an experiment, industry practitioners evaluated bids from service providers using a credibility-weighted tool as well as a standard unweighted tool. The experiment showed that the use of a credibility-weighted tool led to increased user confidence as well as more varied evaluations. This study therefore provides evidence that incorporating source credibility theory in a rating tool adds value in the process of evaluating service providers by increasing the decision maker's confidence in the accuracy of the information.
Critical Success Factors in Electronic Commerce: Korean Experiences BIBAFull-Text 19-34
  Tae Kyung Sung; David V. Gibson
This article determines critical success factors (CSFs) for electronic commerce (EC), and investigates the explanatory power of these CSFs on firm performance. Through a literature review and interviews with managers in Korean EC firms, a list was compiled of 16 CSFs consisting of 111 items. Questionnaires were administered to managers of EC companies in Seoul, Korea. Survey results show that CSFs have very significant explanatory power for firm performance. Security, privacy, technical expertise, information about goods and services, and variety of goods and services are the most explanatory CSFs. This analysis confirms the fact that customers use EC if they feel comfortable navigating EC for information about a variety of goods and services without technical difficulty and in a secure and private manner. High-performance firms show stronger association between CSFs and performance than lower performance firms do in terms of both Tobin's q and return on assets.
Evaluating the Information Architecture of an Electronic Intermediary BIBAFull-Text 35-60
  Marijn Janssen; Alexander Verbraeck
Electronic intermediaries play an increasingly important role in supporting the coordination of buying and selling organizations. There is much discussion about the preferred information architecture of e-intermediaries and the added value for buying and selling organizations. Domain-specific characteristics of the trading situation should be taken into account when evaluating the added value of the information architecture of an e-intermediary. The information architecture determines the way the mutually dependent activities of buying and selling organizations are coordinated. This influences the added value and acceptance of an intermediary.
   In this article we first discuss a simulation approach to evaluate the added value of the information architecture of e-intermediaries. Thereafter, we discuss the main coordination characteristics of influence on the information architecture based on the information, facilitating, matching, and trusted roles of the e-intermediary. We use these characteristics to evaluate the potential added value of an intermediary in an empirical study. The added value is determined by simulating a real company situation and comparing this situation with a hypothetical future situation including an e-intermediary. In the last part of this article we draw some conclusions with respect to the added value and characteristics of e-intermediary information architectures and the limitations of this approach.
Modeling Paradigm for the Environmental Impacts of the Digital Economy BIBAFull-Text 61-82
  Ralph H. Gay; Robert A. Davis; Don T. Phillips; Daniel Z. Sui
Technological advancements of Internet communications and the recent evolution of e-commerce have created a viable, emerging framework to conduct business electronically. Undetermined at this point is the environmental impact of the new digital economy and the economic profile of resulting distribution networks. This study develops and employs an integrated modeling framework to compare the environmental impacts of a traditional business strategy with an e-commerce strategy for the personal computer industry. Ecological factors are evaluated to provide an overall comparison of the 2 business strategies over the product?s life cycle. Of particular importance are factors relating to the distribution of products through their supply chains. This study?s integrated modeling framework includes a simulation component to address the stochastic modeling environment caused by business uncertainty. Also included is an environmental input?output life cycle assessment model to quantify the full direct and indirect impacts of different business strategies. Outputs from this model include measures of electricity, natural gas, fuel and packaging expended, retail and warehouse space used, energy expenditures, vehicle emissions, and 20 different pollutants resulting from different business strategies. Results of the study suggest 40% to 50% reduction in life cycle energy and pollutant expenditures with e-commerce in the personal computer industry.

JOCEC 2005 Volume 15 Issue 2

EDI and the Moderator Effect of Interorganizational Cooperation in the Supply Chain BIBAFull-Text 83-104
  Angel Martinez Sanchez; Manuela Perez Perez
A line of research that has received little attention in the literature is the influence that the company's degree of interorganizational cooperation in the supply chain has on the adoption/use of electronic data interchange (EDI). In this article, we develop a research model to study the influence of interorganizational cooperation on the drivers of EDI adoption and use. In the article, we test several research hypotheses on a sample of Spanish automotive suppliers. The empirical results indicate that automotive suppliers that have adopted EDI perceive more operational benefits, more external pressure, more mutual understanding, and fewer technical and organizational difficulties than nonadopters. On the other hand, EDI intensive users are early adopters, have a proactive management, and perceive more strategic benefits, fewer cost difficulties, and fewer organizational difficulties. The results also indicate that cooperation is a moderator for EDI adoption and use. High-cooperation companies may have fewer difficulties to integrate EDI within their organizations in comparison to low-cooperation companies. Similarly, high-cooperation companies also perceive more strategic benefits in the adoption of EDI than low-cooperation companies. These results suggest that EDI promoters in the supply chain should address high-cooperation companies first to provide information and incentives on positive strategic benefits to users. This group of companies would potentially benefit more than others, as they will have the least resistance to adopt EDI.
Software Component Architecture for an Information Infrastructure to Support Innovative Product Design in a Supply Chain BIBAFull-Text 105-136
  Incheon Paik; Wonhee Park
Existing methodologies to increase the efficiency of design of supply-chain management (SCM) processes consider cost, quality, function, and technology attributes of products separately. However, there is no integrated information infrastructure to consider these attributes together. We have devised new table structures to combine the 4 attributes and their relationships organically. We introduced simple ontology concepts for this information infrastructure, considering the supply-chain tree and the structure of attribute-relationship tables, with some restrictions from a general ontology for the semantic Web. We created basic database schemas using the designed ontology for the information infrastructure for SCM collaboration. We also developed a software component architecture that provides interface services to clients and other business logic in future semantic Web services based on this information infrastructure and using the component-based software development methodology. We built Servlet classes for Web presentation and used Enterprise JavaBeans, entity beans, and session beans for business logic. We also describe examples to demonstrate our information infrastructure. Experiments using the 3 platforms provide performance data that show the capability of our server-side software component system.
Meeting Scheduling: Face-to-Face, Automatic Scheduler, and Email Based Coordination BIBAFull-Text 137-159
  Bongsik Shin; Kunihiko Higa
We conducted laboratory experiments based on small groups (4 to 5 participants) to compare the performance of 4 different mechanisms of meeting scheduling: (a) face-to-face coordination wherein individuals negotiate in person and arrive at a consensus on the timing of the meeting, (b) email as the sole communication medium with no structured support, (c) the calendar-based scheduling mechanism using email, and (d) an automated scheduler. Participants of the experiment were drawn from a university in Hong Kong. The experiment was implemented based on the real task of meeting scheduling among project groups that had to meet several times during a 3-month period to work on their project (regardless of this experiment). Postexperimental surveys were used to assess satisfaction with agreed meeting time and perceived efficiency in coordination. The frequency of scheduling conflicts also was measured. Data analysis indicates that even with higher scheduling conflicts among the group members, participants in general showed more satisfaction with the meeting time reached during the face-to-face meeting and also concurred on the efficiency of face-to-face coordination. Overall, they preferred communication-oriented approaches such as face-to-face coordination over decision-oriented ones such as the automated scheduler. We discuss the result of data analysis from the perspective of cultural implications on meeting scheduling and on virtual process management.
Persuasive Effects of System Features in Computer-Mediated Communication BIBAFull-Text 161-184
  E. Vance Wilson
Computer-mediated communication (CMC) systems can be augmented beyond basic text messaging by a variety of features. However, research has not addressed the effects of these features in negotiation settings. In this article, I present an experimental study of effects of three CMC system features on interpersonal persuasion, an important part of negotiation. System features that augment messages with images and graphics and support conforming use of spelling and grammar were found to increase message persuasiveness. The results suggest a number of ways CMC can be enhanced to improve support for negotiation.

JOCEC 2005 Volume 15 Issue 3

Information Technology Investments and Organizational Productivity and Performance: An Empirical Investigation BIBAFull-Text 185-202
  M. Adam Mahmood; Gary J. Mann
The extent to which investment in information technology (IT) is related to organizational performance and productivity remains an open question in the minds of managers responsible for such investment decisions. Most past research into this relation has been based on cross-sectional analyses of 1-year periods. Attempts to determine relations between IT investment and the associated effect of that investment in such short periods have resulted in mostly mixed or negative findings. This study is thought to be the first to apply a multiyear, cross-sectional analysis. In the research, covering a 3-year period and involving firm-level data for a broad cross-section of U.S. industry, we found positive relations between higher levels of IT investment and selected measures representing organizational performance and productivity. These results, being based on multiyear analysis, are thought to be an important contribution in view of the fact that much of the existing literature in the area has failed to explain conclusively the economic impact of IT investment on organizational performance and productivity.
Adoption of Mobile Internet Services: An Exploratory Study of Mobile Commerce Early Adopters BIBAFull-Text 203-222
  Per E. Pedersen
The extent to which investment in information technology (IT) is related to organizational performance and productivity remains an open question in the minds of managers responsible for such investment decisions. Most past research into this relation has been based on cross-sectional analyses of 1-year periods. Attempts to determine relations between IT investment and the associated effect of that investment in such short periods have resulted in mostly mixed or negative findings. This study is thought to be the first to apply a multiyear, cross-sectional analysis. In the research, covering a 3-year period and involving firm-level data for a broad cross-section of U.S. industry, we found positive relations between higher levels of IT investment and selected measures representing organizational performance and productivity. These results, being based on multiyear analysis, are thought to be an important contribution in view of the fact that much of the existing literature in the area has failed to explain conclusively the economic impact of IT investment on organizational performance and productivity.
Strategic Analysis of Corporate Software Piracy Prevention and Detection BIBAFull-Text 223-252
  Birendra K. Mishra; T. S. Raghu; Ashutosh Prasad
In this article, we investigate the prevention and detection of corporate software piracy, which is a serious concern to the software industry but that has received scant attention in the extant body of software piracy research. The strategic interaction between corporations that may consider piracy and the software coalition that investigates them, is represented by a one-period game theoretic model. Our analysis focuses on 2 scenarios distinguished by the type of information technology infrastructure (centralized vs. decentralized) used in the corporations. Under both scenarios, we identify equilibrium strategies and perform sensitivity analysis with respect to model parameters. Among other results, the sensitivity analysis suggests that a stricter penalty regime and higher level of compensatory damages to the software coalition are beneficial, whereas higher auditing costs and poor control structures to prevent software piracy are detrimental to the software industry's bottom line. We also found that the probability of audit and optimal audit cost are unaffected by the proportion of nonpirating firms. Also, there is an externality between firms, that is, if more firms pirate in an industry, location, or nation, then all such firms will face inspections.

JOCEC 2005 Volume 15 Issue 4

Groupware Support for Requirements Management in New Product Development BIBAFull-Text 253-284
  Ahti Salo; Timo K. Kakola
Large high-technology companies operate in fiercely competitive international markets. To succeed, they need to shorten the cycle time of new product development (NPD) while improving product quality and maintaining or reducing the total resources required. Their abilities to meet these business goals depend on how extensively and effectively they collect, analyze, and utilize requirements in their product development. Creating and sharing such knowledge is complicated partly because the NPD activities of large companies are geographically distributed. Groupware technologies allow knowledge to be created and shared more effectively. Thus, they hold considerable potential as means of meeting the goals. Yet, little theory-based guidance is available to help design groupware-based requirements management systems (RMS) for large geographically distributed organizations. In this article, we draw on existing literature and experiences from large-scale distributed industrial development projects at Nokia to start building a design theory that answers the following question: What are the necessary and sufficient properties of RMS, and how should RMS be designed and introduced in large high-technology companies to best achieve the business goals? The main contributions of the article are (a) the creation of a generic set of requirements for RMS, (b) the development of the RMS design, and (c) the empirical validation of the design by analyzing instantiations of the design at various product lines of Nokia.
An Internet Oriented Custom-Fit Production Approach for Apparel Industry BIBAFull-Text 285-293
  Ender Yazgan Bulgun; Alp Kut
In the apparel industry, the new trend is to switch from mass production to custom-fit (personal) production. Using this method, manufacturers can rapidly produce models with the customer's body measurements. In this study, we developed a software tool to help customers and manufacturers for custom-fit production. Customers can generate different models using reusable components that are provided from related apparel manufacturer via the Internet. Customers can also easily take their body measurements with this tool. The idea is to prepare user-friendly software for having customer's own designs with proper body measurements in their houses via personal computers and other communication appliances. To create a cost-effective solution, Internet infrastructure is chosen.
A Meta-Modeling Approach to Designing e-Warehousing Systems BIBAFull-Text 295-316
  Rumy Sen; Tarun K. Sen
A business application that leverages the Internet for selling products and services or for information dissemination is called an e-business solution. In the past few years, organizations have moved aggressively towards deploying e-business solutions to improve process efficiencies, be competitive, access new markets, increase market share, reduce costs and satisfy an array of other business drivers. Within the domain of e-business initiatives, particular emphasis has been provided on e-warehousing initiatives. The differentiating facet of e-warehousing initiatives is that they are high-impact solutions that affect various parts of the organization, and ultimately the business goals of the enterprise, by providing relevant decision-making information at the manager's desktop, irrespective of geographic location. Despite this, many of these initiatives are technology based and have lacked strategic level sponsorship, leading to compromised results. Development of e-warehousing systems should be viewed as a strategic business initiative with distinctly different business models and processes. Traditional design approaches alone are not suited to such strategic initiatives. E-warehousing initiatives require new models for design in the early stages of development. In the later stages, traditional design approaches are applicable. In this article, we propose a meta-modeling approach for e-warehousing initiatives. The model has four components: developing business goals and strategies, defining functional business processes, developing an e-warehousing integration architecture, and designing metrics for evaluating the performance of the e-warehousing initiative. This model is illustrated by using an e-warehousing initiative for a government agency.