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Journal of Organizational Computing and Electronic Commerce 10

Editors:Andrew B. Whinston
Dates:2000
Volume:10
Publisher:Lawrence Erlbaum Associates
Standard No:ISSN 1054-1721
Papers:18
Links:Table of Contents
  1. JOCEC 2000 Volume 10 Issue 1
  2. JOCEC 2000 Volume 10 Issue 2
  3. JOCEC 2000 Volume 10 Issue 3
  4. JOCEC 2000 Volume 10 Issue 4

JOCEC 2000 Volume 10 Issue 1

Reengineering IS Research and Its Intellectual Infrastructure for the Electronic Economy BIBA 1-22
  Alexander Hars; Omar A. El Sawy; Sanjay Gosain
With the increasing cost-effectiveness of communication technologies, online shopping has emerged as one of the most important areas of electronic commerce. A major problem facing online shopping service providers is the heterogeneity of user profile. Unlike organizational systems that have a well-defined universe of users and system boundary, these shopping services are designed for public users with very different cognitive and demographic profiles. The major challenge lies in designing friendly and effective user interfaces for online shoppers. Previous studies on online shopping suggest that a good user interface with an appropriate mode of information presentation is the key to system acceptance. In this article, we report on an empirical study that looks at product information presentation modes in an actual broadband supermarket shopping environment. Four prototypes with different combinations of text and picture displays were developed and evaluated in an experimental setting. The findings suggest that there is a close relation between product familiarity and shopping effectiveness. When the system is used to purchase familiar product items, pictures are better than text in terms of both efficiency and effectiveness. However, when users are not familiar with the product items, the advantages of pictures over text diminish. Implications of the findings and future research areas are discussed.
Barriers to Global Electronic Commerce: A Cross-Country Study of Hong Kong and Finland BIBA 23-48
  Ali F. Farhoomand; Virpi Kristiina Tuunainen; Lester W. Yee
Babson College So far electronic commerce has primarily been limited to electronic business-to-business transactions and small, but quickly growing, consumer-oriented activities on the Internet, such as electronic advertisements mated with the traditional mail-order operations. What lies ahead in the future is a concept of true global electronic commerce (GEC), in which firms will exploit a virtual value chain to migrate much of their value-adding activities from the physical marketplace to the virtual marketplace. The capability for business concerns to be able to reach out to a global business community at a relatively small cost is very attractive and promises to transform international business. Despite this realization, it has become increasingly evident that the proliferation of GEC is dependent on resolution of a myriad of technical, organizational, economic, cultural, political, and legal issues.
   In this study, field studies of 10 companies in Hong Kong and Finland were conducted with an eye toward identifying the major barriers that have hindered or slowed down the wide acceptance of electronic commerce across borders. In addition to several country-specific barriers to GEC, resistance to change, lack of education about the potentials of GEC, and lack of flexible software were found to be the key inhibitors to the orderly acceptance and deployment of computer-mediated commerce at the global level.
E-Mail and V-Mail Usage: Generalizing Across Technologies BIBA 49-66
  Elena Karahanna; Moez Limayem
Many researchers and practitioners describe electronic mail (e-mail) and voice mail (v-mail) together and assume that their usage and impacts are similar. However, empirical evidence on the issue is mixed. For example, whereas some research found similar relations to hold across both e-mail and v-mail, other research presents evidence suggesting that e-mail and v-mail are used differently and their impacts are distinct.
   This research investigates whether theories derived and tested with respect to e-mail are generalizable to v-mail. Specifically, the research examines whether the antecedents of e-mail use are different than the antecedents of v-mail use. To do so, the research tests a theoretical model for both e-mail and v-mail usage in the same organization. This model expands the technology acceptance model (TAM) to incorporate antecedents of perceived usefulness (PU) and perceived ease of use (PEU). These antecedents, which are based on theories of communications media choice and use, include social influence about usage of the medium, social presence of the medium, physical and informational accessibility of the medium, media style, and availability of training and support on use of the medium.
   Results indicate important differences between antecedents of e-mail and v-mail usage, in both the determinants of system use and in the determinants of PU and PEU. Specifically, the relations between use and beliefs appear to be more complex than originally proposed in TAM. The effect of social influence on use and its relation to beliefs differ across the two media, suggesting that strong social norms may have a moderating effect on the relation between beliefs and use.

JOCEC 2000 Volume 10 Issue 2

Reengineering IS Research and Its Intellectual Infrastructure for the Electronic Economy BIBA 67-83
  Alexander Hars; Omar A. El Sawy; Sanjay Gosain; Sabine Hirt; Il Im; David Kang; Zoonky Lee; Arjan Raven
The emerging electronic economy is bringing with it rapid advances in open networks and information technology (IT) capabilities, increasing global complexity and interdependence, and increasingly short business cycle times. Many enterprises are reengineering the way they carry out their business to take advantage of these new conditions. In this article, we contend that it is also time for information systems (IS) academics to fundamentally rethink the IS research process and the intellectual infrastructure that enables it in light of these new conditions. We first examine why the current IS research process needs to be changed. We then systematically analyze needed change along 6 dimensions. The change potentials are used to propose an IS research paradigm that is based on interactive knowledge repositories and collaborative electronic networks. We propose a new intellectual infrastructure that is based on a new type of IT-enabled electronic space for the research community, which we term a cybrarium. A cybrarium is focused not only on the storage and dissemination but also on the synthesis of knowledge generated in the research community. We articulate the basic distinctions between electronic Web journals and cybrariums and show how a cybrarium leads to a fundamentally changed research process. We contend that such a redefined research process and its underlying intellectual infrastructure will enable the IS research community to make the transition to a large-scale global collaborative alliance that is faster, more forward looking, and cumulative.
Telework: Existing Research and Future Directions BIBA 85-101
  Bongsik Shin; Omar A. El Sawy; Olivia R. Liu Sheng; Kunihiko Higa
Telework, which is defined as work performed at home or a satellite office to reduce commuting, is attracting much attention as an alternative way to organize work. Numerous studies have pointed out a variety of advantages of telework for individuals, organizations, and society. Current telework research, however, displays many weaknesses that inhibit use of this alternative as an effective vehicle to promote distributive organizational design. This study was undertaken to characterize existing telework research, improve understanding of problems and issues of telework, and guide future research directions. A review of the relevant literature and a characterization of telework were conducted from 3 different angles: the research methodology, the focus of existing telework studies, and the research paradigm. First, an overall lack of robust research methodology was found in many studies. Second, although telework is an organizational phenomenon, disproportionate attention has been given to teleworker-related personal issues. Finally, the current telework paradigm was discovered to be characterized by suitability-based planning that selects appropriate persons and tasks and by ad hoc implementation in response to local needs. We suggest that future research could be enriched with more rigorous research methodology, more balanced focus for studies, and more flexible perspectives in the research paradigm.
The Role of Electronic Commerce in the Transformation of Distance Education BIBA 103-127
  Karl R. Lang; J. Leon Zhao
The distance learning industry has served society well for the continued education of professionals on a part-time, flexible, and remote basis. However, with the explosive development and deployment of advanced information technology (IT) such as digital libraries and electronic publishing, distance education will undergo major changes in organizational design and structure and in the way courses are taught, grades are assigned, and degrees are certified. Electronic commerce (e-commerce) as a form of IT is not just a new technological means that can make the conventional business model of distance education more efficient; it will also induce the transformation of the existing educational processes and organizational structures, thus creating new and more effective learning environments. In this article, we discuss why e-commerce will reshape the entire distance learning sector and how this change might come about. We examine conventional distance learning models, investigate the potential of automating distance learning processes, discuss relevant economic mechanisms, and propose a novel theoretical model for an e-commerce-based, distributed distance education (distriducation). Finally, we present some empirical evidence supporting our theory.
Web Technology Adoption and Knowledge Barriers BIBA 129-147
  Satish Nambisan; Yu-Ming Wang
Much of the technology diffusion research has focused on the "intention to adopt" of an adopting unit to explain its adoption behavior; the opportunity for adoption and the underlying adoption propensity are often not differentiated. However, the opportunity to adopt need not be uniform among adopting units. From the perspective of organizational learning, we argue that the differential opportunity to adopt originates from knowledge barriers (KB) and varied degrees of involvement of supply-side institutions (SSI) that can lower these barriers. In this article, we investigate the effect of such KBs and SSIs on the timing of adoption of the World Wide Web technology. The results confirm the major hypothesis of this study: that KBs delay adoption time and indicate the significant explanatory power that the learning perspective can add to the traditional adoption model. The findings of this study (a) explain why certain firms delay their adoption of potentially profitable innovations, (b) imply suitable diffusion strategies for firms promoting innovations, and (c) provide information on the adoption of World Wide Web technology.

JOCEC 2000 Volume 10 Issue 3

Electronic Commerce: From a Definitional Taxonomy Toward a Knowledge-Management View BIBA 149-170
  Clyde W. Holsapple; Meenu Singh
Electronic commerce has become one of the major factors that will determine the future survival or success of organizations. Like any new field, electronic commerce abounds in confusion and lack of coherence. Consequently, a host of definitions can be found presenting a confusing picture of the field. We have collected and qualitatively analyzed an assortment of definitions representative of this variety, resulting in the identification of five clusters: the trading view, the information exchange view, the activity view, the effects view, and the value chain view. For each cluster, examples of recent research along the lines of its view are given. Although each cluster represents a distinct view of electronic commerce and has merit, none fully subsumes all others. To help unify the five perspectives, an integrated definition is advanced. However, this integration, which is as good as the five views from which it is synthesized, has limitations. A modified version of the integrated definition, incorporating richer notions of knowledge management, is introduced. Befitting the knowledge-based economy, this knowledge-management view of electronic commerce can benefit both researchers and practitioners by furnishing a relatively comprehensive, unified, organized foundation for understanding and performing electronic commerce.
JMS-Java-Based Meeting Space BIBA 171-188
  Wei Sun; Bu Sung Lee; Chai Kiat Yeo
The convergence of business, technology, and market forces have brought about the computer-supported cooperative work (CSCW) phenomena. Many CSCW systems adopt an inflexible style of collaboration and coordination. The problem becomes obvious when different application tools are integrated into a single, comprehensive CSCW system and various applications need different degrees of interaction mode. We introduce JMS (Java-based meeting space), an object-oriented framework for developing synchronous collaborative applications. The JMS framework provides a comprehensive collection of services that supports cooperative interaction at system level. The application developers can tailor some of these services to the specific needs of particular collaborative applications and usage situations. These services are grouped into three main categories. First, JMS provides session management service supporting dynamic integration of application tools as well as dynamic membership. Second, group awareness service guarantees allotted communications within a session. Third, JMS offers floor control service accommodating a set of policies as well as underlying mechanisms. The application developer can bind a floor control to an application tool and switch from one floor policy to another during the session. Our implementation is based on a fully, object-oriented replicated architecture in which the application and management services are replicated at each site. To illustrate the feasibility of JMS in a practical organizational environment, an electronic meeting incorporating voting has been built on the JMS framework. We also provide a brief overview of CSCW and its significance in organizational computing-in electronic meeting, in particular-and compare JMS with other related works.
Virtual Organizations: Practice and the Literature BIBA 189-208
  William W. Cooper; Michael L. Muench
Virtual organizations are defined and identified with an emphasis on electronic technologies that have made possible many of their present capabilities (and limitations). After providing descriptions and examples, we reference traditional approaches to organization design and analysis to help supply perspective. Popular and managerially oriented literature is used to point to a need for further attention from the scholarly literature on topics that are elaborated in the Appendix.
Bundling and Distribution of Digitized Music Over the Internet BIBA 209-224
  Kemal Altinkemer; Subhajyoti Bandyopadhyay
The Internet is radically changing the way music is created and distributed. The initial activities seem to be concentrated in the area of distribution as a traditionally "tangible" product gets digitized and is therefore capable of electronic distribution. Fundamental rethinking needs to be considered, as we have to contemplate drastic changes in the traditional model that has connected the artist to the music enthusiast. In this article, we summarize the spectrum of these changes and start a formal analysis of the underlying issues. Specifically, we consider the effect of unbundling of music items that traditionally came bundled as part of an entire album and present a model for the same. The model considers a bundle of 2 individual music items that might either be sold individually or as a bundle. We look at the problem in 2 ways: (a) the effects of varying the proportion of the consumers liking the individual items and the bundle, and (b) the effect of varying the pricing of the items and the bundle. Analysis of the model for a few specific cases confirms the validity of some hypotheses that were derived from earlier research. More important, the analysis provides some real-life pointers for the recording company chief executive officer for creating and pricing effective digitized music bundles. This analysis could be readily generalized to all "information goods," products that can be reproduced digitally and distributed over the Internet.

JOCEC 2000 Volume 10 Issue 4

Introduction to the Special Issue on a More Convenient and Secure Electronic Commerce BIB 225-226
  Jae Kyu Lee
A Next Generation Multimedia Call Center for Internet Commerce: IMC BIBA 227-240
  Bong Ki Moon; Jae Kyu Lee; Kyoung Jun Lee
Human assistance, as well as automated service, is necessary for providing more convenient services to customers on the Internet-based commerce system. Call centers have been typically human-based service systems. However, the services of existing public switched telephone network-based call centers are not enough to meet the needs of customers on the Internet. Most of them have been designed without considering the interaction involved in shopping on the Internet. In our research, we design a call center named IMC (Internet-based multimedia call center) that can be integrated with an Internet shopping mall. It contains 2 parts: an Internet multimedia dialogue system and a human agent assisting system. The Internet multimedia dialogue system is an Internet and multimedia version of the interactive voice response service of computer telephony integration-based call centers because it provides access to the multimedia Web page along with the recorded voice explanation through the Internet. The human agent assisting system aims to select the most appropriate human agents in the call center and support them in providing high-quality individualized information for each customer. IMC is a real-time, human-embedded system that can provide high-quality services cost-effectively for Internet commerce.
Experiment on the Effectiveness of Link Structure for Convenient Cybershopping BIBA 241-256
  Byunggon Yoo; Jinwoo Kim
Designing an effective link structure for customer interfaces is critical for the success of cybermalls. The link structure comprises various types of links that connect a hypertext page with other pages. Links can be classified as either basic links based on the structure of the malls or add-on links to provide additional paths. Providing appropriate add-on links is essential for the convenience of navigation in a mall. In this study, we focus on the relation between the links and mental model, and maintain that combinations of add-on links according to the mental model of customers will increase the convenience and pleasure of cybershopping. For the study, add-on links were classified into next-to-peer links, up-to-parent links, and up-to-top links, and 8 different versions of experimental malls were constructed according to the combination of 3 add-on links. A total of 174 participants were involved in the experiment, they performed 9 shopping tasks, and were measured in terms of the rate of add-on links recalled and the convenience of navigation. The result of the experiment shows that the rate of recalled links has a significant relation to the convenience of navigation, although the convenience of navigation does not increase linearly with the number of add-on links in a cybermall. To construct the optimal add-on navigation structure, it is essential to construct links that fit customers' mental models.
An Architecture for Advanced Services in Cyberspace Through Data Mining: A Framework With Case Studies in Finance and Engineering BIBA 257-270
  Steven H. Kim
The proliferation of online databases has led to a dramatic increase in the availability of services provided through the Internet. To date, however, online services have largely taken the form of supplying basic data or information on an "as is" basis. This is exemplified by the provision of magazine articles or stock prices in electronic form. The deployment of data mining tools, however, promises a new level of utility to harness the ocean of online data, to filter basic information, and to generate new knowledge. In this article, I present a generic architecture for constructing intelligent systems to provide knowledge-based services in cyberspace. The heart of the architecture consists of data mining tools to provide advanced services on the Internet. The ideas are presented through case studies in forecasting interest rates and in configuring personal computers.
Pricing in Multiagent Systems for Transportation Planning BIBA 271-280
  Peter Gomber; Claudia Schmidt; Christof Weinhardt
In electronic commerce, the intraorganizational coordination of directly responsible units, for example profit centers or firms within an affiliated group, is of increasing importance. These organizational units can be modeled within a multiagent system (MAS), an interconnection of autonomous information systems. In this article, we investigate coordination mechanisms for MAS in decentralized transportation planning that ensure efficient allocation of scarce resources on the basis of local planning processes. In the domain of transportation, planning problems are characterized by large amounts of data, limitations of time for planning, and the intractability of computational problems. Auctions as market-like coordination mechanisms are discussed with respect to the trade-off between theoretical evidence on the quality of the allocation and computational tractability. Therefore, 2 pricing mechanisms are investigated, the generalized Vickrey auction and pricing per column.
Smart Card-Based Electronic Card Payment Systems in the Transportation Industry BIBA 281-293
  Efraim Turban; Joseph Brahm
Many products and services will soon be (or are already being) sold over the Internet or other networks. Paying for these with standard methods of payments, such as cash, checks, credit card, or debit card, may be ineffective or inefficient. For such cases, electronic card payment systems are more appropriate. Several things need to be considered when investigating electronic card payment system options, including: customer needs and benefits, developmental and operational cost, corporate benefits, continually changing technologies, critical mass of customers, security, standards of payment systems, and customer perception and comfort with new technologies. In this article, we analyze how smart card-based systems are used in mass transportation. Managers in mass transportation face the following questions: Do you develop your own electronic card payment system, do you wait for multifunctional cards that will be accepted across many industries to provide the functionality required in your market, or do you do nothing. The discussion here concentrates mainly on the transportation industry, where the transactions and payments are made on local area networks.
Web-Based Keystroke Dynamics Identity Verification Using Neural Network BIBA 295-307
  Sungzoon Cho; Chigeun Han; Dae Hee Han; Hyung-Il Kim
Password typing is the most widely used identity verification method in Web based electronic commerce. Due to its simplicity, however, it is vulnerable to imposter attacks. Keystroke dynamics and password checking can be combined to result in a more secure verification system. We propose an autoassociator neural network that is trained with the timing vectors of the owner's keystroke dynamics and then used to discriminate between the owner and an imposter. An imposter typing the correct password can be detected with very high accuracy using the proposed approach. This approach can be effectively implemented by a Java applet and used for the Web.