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IJHCS Tables of Contents: 4041424344454647484950

International Journal of Human-Computer Studies 20

  1. IJHCS 2008 Volume 20 Issue 1
  2. IJHCS 2008 Volume 20 Issue 2
  3. IJHCS 2008 Volume 20 Issue 3
  4. IJHCS 2008 Volume 20 Issue 4
  5. IJHCS 2008 Volume 20 Issue 5
  6. IJHCS 2008 Volume 20 Issue 6
  7. IJHCS 2008 Volume 20 Issue 7
  8. IJHCS 2008 Volume 20 Issue 8
  9. IJHCS 2008 Volume 20 Issue 9
  10. IJHCS 2008 Volume 20 Issue 10
  11. IJHCS 2008 Volume 20 Issue 11
  12. IJHCS 2008 Volume 20 Issue 12

IJHCS 2008 Volume 20 Issue 1

Component-based tailorability: Enabling highly flexible software applications BIBAKFull-TextFull-Text 1-22
  Volker Wulf; Volkmar Pipek; Markus Won
Component technologies are perceived as an important means to keep software architectures flexible. Flexibility offered by component technologies typically addresses software developers at design time. However, the design of software which should support social systems, such as work groups or communities, also demands 'use-time', or technically spoken, 'run-time' flexibility. In this paper, we summarize a decade of research efforts on component-based approaches to flexibilize groupware applications at run-time. We address the user as a 'casual programmer' who develops and individualizes software for his work context. To deal with the challenges of run-time flexibility, we developed a design approach which covers three levels: software architecture, user interface, and collaboration support. With regard to the software architecture, a component model, called FlexiBeans, has been developed. The FreEvolve platform serves as an environment in which component-based applications can be tailored at run-time. Additionally, we have developed three different types of graphical user interfaces, enabling users to tailor their applications by recomposing components. To enable collaborative tailoring activities, we have integrated functions that allow sharing component structures among users. We also present different types of support techniques which are integrated into the user interface in order to enable users' individual and collaborative tailoring activities. We conclude by elaborating on the notion of 'software infrastructure' which offers a holistic approach to support design activities of professional and non-professional programmers.
Keywords: Tailorability / End user development / Component-based systems / CSCW
Haptic-feedback support for cognitive mapping of unknown spaces by people who are blind BIBAKFull-TextFull-Text 23-35
  O. Lahav; D. Mioduser
Mental mapping of spaces is essential for the development of efficient orientation and mobility skills. Most of the information required for this mental mapping is gathered through the visual channel. People who are blind lack this information, and in consequence, they are required to use compensatory sensorial channels and alternative exploration methods. In this study, people who are blind use a virtual environment (VE) that provides haptic and audio feedback to explore an unknown space. The cognitive mapping of the space based on the VE and the subject's ability to apply this map to accomplish tasks in the real space are examined. Results show clearly that a robust and comprehensive map is constructed, contributing to successful performance in real space tasks.
Keywords: Blind / Cognitive mapping / Orientation rehabilitation / Haptic / Virtual reality
A social network-based system for supporting interactive collaboration in knowledge sharing over peer-to-peer network BIBAKFull-TextFull-Text 36-50
  Stephen J. H. Yang; Irene Y. L. Chen
Knowledge sharing enables people in virtual communities to access relevant knowledge (explicit or tacit) from broader scope of resources. The performance in such environments is fundamentally based on how effectively the explicit and tacit knowledge can be shared across people, and how efficiently the created knowledge can be organized and disseminated to enrich digital content. This study will address how to apply social network-based system to support interactive collaboration in knowledge sharing over peer-to-peer networks. Results of this study demonstrate that applying such social network-based collaboration support to knowledge sharing helps people find relevant content and knowledgeable collaborators who are willing to share their knowledge.
Keywords: Social network / Interactive collaboration / Knowledge sharing / Peer-to-peer / Instant messenger

IJHCS 2008 Volume 20 Issue 2

Organizing domain-specific information on the Web: An experiment on the Spanish business Web directory BIBAKFull-TextFull-Text 51-66
  Wingyan Chung; Guanpi Lai; Alfonso Bonillas; Wei Xi; Hsinchun Chen
Web directories organize voluminous information into hierarchical structures, helping users to quickly locate relevant information and to support decision-making. The development of existing ontologies and Web directories either relies on expert participation that may not be available or uses automatic approaches that lack precision. As more users access the Web in their native languages, better approaches to organizing and developing non-English Web directories are needed. In this paper, we have proposed a semi-automatic framework, which consists of anchor directory boosting, meta-searching, and heuristic filtering, to construct domain-specific Web directories. Using the framework, we have built a Web directory in the Spanish business (SBiz) domain. Experimental results show that the SBiz Web directory achieved significantly better recall, F-value, efficiency, and satisfaction rating than the benchmark directory. Subjects provided favorable comments on the SBiz Web directory. This research thus contributes to developing a useful framework for organizing domain-specific information on the Web and to providing empirical findings and useful insights for end-users, system developers, and researchers of Web information seeking and knowledge management.
Keywords: Internet / Web / Browsing / Ontology / Business intelligence / Spanish / Non-English Web browsing / Knowledge management
Applying models of visual search to map display design BIBAKFull-TextFull-Text 67-77
  Joshua Shive; Gregory Francis
We explored how to use a computational model of visual search to design a map of a mall directory. We parameterized the Guided Search model [Wolfe, J.M., 1994. Guided Search 2.0: a revised model of visual search. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review 1(2), 202-238] for a task involving visual search of a target store in a map. The resulting model was then used to choose color assignments for all the elements of the display that would result in the fastest average search time for the display and search tasks. These predicted optimized color assignments were then tested empirically. The empirical data closely matched the predicted pattern of search times. We conclude that computational models of visual search are sophisticated enough to contribute to the development of optimized map designs, discuss some limitations of the current models, and suggest directions for further development.
Keywords: Visual search / Map design / Guided Search / Human-computer interaction / Optimization
Navigation techniques for small-screen devices: An evaluation on maps and web pages BIBAKFull-TextFull-Text 78-97
  Stefano Burigat; Luca Chittaro; Silvia Gabrielli
Several techniques have been proposed to support user navigation of large information spaces (e.g., maps or web pages) on small-screen devices such as PDAs and Smartphones. In this paper, we present the results of an evaluation that compared three of these techniques to determine how they might affect performance and satisfaction of users. Two of the techniques are quite common on mobile devices: the first one (DoubleScrollbar) is the standard combination of two scrollbars for separate horizontal and vertical scrolling with zoom buttons to change the scale of the information space, the second one (Grab&Drag) enables users to navigate the information space by directly dragging its currently displayed portion, while zooming is handled through a slider control. The last technique (Zoom-Enhanced Navigator or ZEN) is an extension and adaptation to mobile screens of Overview&Detail approaches, which are based on displaying an overview of the information space together with a detail view of a portion of that space. In these approaches, navigation is usually supported by (i) highlighting in the overview which portion of space is displayed in the detail view, and (ii) allowing users to move the highlight within the overview area to change the corresponding portion of space in the detail area. Our experimental evaluation concerned tasks involving maps as well as web page navigation. The paper analyzes in detail the obtained results in terms of task completion times, number and duration of user interface actions, accuracy of the gained spatial knowledge, and subjective preferences.
Keywords: Small-screen devices / Navigation techniques / User study / Mobile interaction
The politeness effect: Pedagogical agents and learning outcomes BIBAKFull-TextFull-Text 98-112
  Ning Wang; W. Lewis Johnson; Richard E. Mayer; Paola Rizzo; Erin Shaw; Heather Collins
Pedagogical agent research seeks to exploit Reeves and Nass's media equation theory, which holds that users respond to interactive media as if they were social actors. Investigations have tended to focus on the media used to realize the pedagogical agent, e.g., the use of animated talking heads and voices, and the results have been mixed. This paper focuses instead on the manner in which a pedagogical agent communicates with learners, i.e., on the extent to which it exhibits social intelligence. A model of socially intelligent tutorial dialog was developed based on politeness theory, and implemented in an agent interface within an online learning system called virtual factory teaching system. A series of Wizard-of-Oz studies was conducted in which subjects either received polite tutorial feedback that promotes learner face and mitigates face threat, or received direct feedback that disregards learner face. The polite version yielded better learning outcomes, and the effect was amplified in learners who expressed a preference for indirect feedback, who had less computer experience, and who lacked engineering backgrounds. These results confirm the hypothesis that learners tend to respond to pedagogical agents as social actors, and suggest that research should focus less on the media in which agents are realized, and place more emphasis on the agent's social intelligence.
Keywords: Politeness / Politeness effect / Pedagogical agent / Intelligent tutoring system
A usability comparison of three alternative message formats for an SMS banking service BIBAKFull-TextFull-Text 113-123
  G. Peevers; G. Douglas; M. A. Jack
The study reported here compares the usability of three types of message input format: Abbreviations, Numbers and Free-Form as alternatives for a Pull SMS banking service. Participants (N=74) used all three formats to carry out three banking transactions in a repeated measures experiment. The Abbreviations and Numbers versions of the service performed to generally equal levels in all metrics. Free-Form performed the worst as participants took significantly longer to complete tasks and it received significantly lower overall questionnaire and quality scores for satisfaction. The older age group found all three versions in general to be less usable than the younger age group. They took longer on the tasks, had lower completion rates and they also gave each version a lower overall mean satisfaction score.
Keywords: SMS / Text messaging / Mobile banking / Handheld devices / Usability testing

IJHCS 2008 Volume 20 Issue 3

Designing and evaluating driver support systems with the user in mind

Designing and evaluating driver support systems with the user in mind BIBAKFull-TextFull-Text 125-131
  Pierre Fastrez; Jean-Baptiste Haué
In this editorial to the special issue we first introduce the field of driver support system (DSS) design and evaluation, frame it into the larger context of human-computer interaction research, and highlight some of its specificities. We then proceed to briefly present the selection of articles that compose this issue. Finally, we put the contributions to the special issue into perspective along a number of dimensions to show how they represent the diversity of current DSS research.
Keywords: Driver support systems / Driver-centered design / Evaluation / Editorial
Do in-vehicle advanced signs enhance older and younger drivers' intersection performance? Driving simulation and eye movement results BIBAKFull-TextFull-Text 132-144
  J. K. Caird; S. L. Chisholm; J. Lockhart
An experimental study was conducted to determine if intersection behaviour benefited from advanced in-vehicle signs presented to older and younger drivers in a head-up display (HUD) format. The University of Calgary Driving Simulator (UCDS) was used to evaluate intersection performance. Measures of those who were able to stop or ran the yellow light, speed over the span of the intersection, perception response time, and eye movements were analyzed to determine if performance improved or whether undesirable adaptive behaviours occurred. In-vehicle signs facilitated an increase in the frequencies of stopping for both younger and older drivers at intersections with relatively short yellow onsets. The speed at the yellow light onset for both those who stopped and those who proceeded through the intersection was reduced by the presence of the in-vehicle signs. The primary behavioral influence of the in-vehicle signs was to cause the drivers' to reduce their velocity in advance of an intersection. Eye movement analyses indicated that younger drivers looked at the in-vehicles signs more often and for longer overall durations than older drivers. Older drivers had slower intersection approach speeds, stopped more accurately, and were more likely to not clear the intersection before the traffic light turned to an all-red phase than younger drivers. The implications of the in-vehicle sign results are discussed in terms of in-vehicle information systems (IVIS) design guidelines and evaluation methods.
Keywords: In-vehicle signs / Older and younger drivers / Intersection performance / Driving simulation / Eye movements
A visual sign of lateral acceleration for steering assistance BIBAKFull-TextFull-Text 145-157
  Isabelle Milleville-Pennel
This work examines whether it is possible to compensate for the loss of vestibular information that is usually felt by drivers of modern cars when negotiating bends and which is associated with the load transfer of the car. Indeed, the absence of this information causes drivers to underestimate their speed and consequently increases the risk of road departure. This study tries to visually compensate for this loss of vestibular information through a tilt movement of the frame of reference of the driver. This tilt is the same as that perceived in a bend because of the load transfer of the car. The results indicate that most participants are influenced by this visual information and modify their speed accordingly whilst taking a bend. Nevertheless, only those participants uninformed about the presence of this assistance did slow down, whereas informed participants accelerated. This effect has been interpreted as a consequence of the level of processing implicated in the steering task (implicit versus explicit processing).
Keywords: Visual and kinaesthetic information / Steering assistance / Perception of lateral acceleration
An empirical investigation of a dynamic brake light concept for reduction of rear-end collisions through manipulation of optical looming BIBAKFull-TextFull-Text 158-172
  Zhonghai Li; Paul Milgram
The concept of dynamically manipulating the optical looming cues of a lead vehicle's brake lights is investigated as a means of potentially reducing the frequency of rear-end collisions in automobile driving. In a low-fidelity driving simulator, 40 participants were instructed to follow a leading vehicle (LV) and appropriately respond to braking of the LV, under three visibility conditions: day, night-time with following vehicle (FV) headlights, and night-time without FV headlights. During some LV braking events, separation and size of the brake lights of the LV were expanded or contracted, by a nominally imperceptible amount, to simulate an effective virtual time shift in the headway of the LV. Results show that this manipulation was most effective for very poor visibility conditions: at night with no headlights, for which LV brake lights were most salient. When confronting a LV with expanding or contracting brake lights, subjects generally braked sooner or later respectively, in comparison with the no manipulation case. The concept shows some promise for causing drivers to brake sooner in emergencies.
Keywords: Optical looming / Rear-end collision / Emergency braking / Dynamic brake lights
Driver safety and information from afar: An experimental driving simulator study of wireless vs. in-car information services BIBAFull-TextFull-Text 173-184
  Leila Takayama; Clifford Nass
Cars have changed from pure transportation devices to fully interactive, voice-based systems. While voice interaction in the car has previously required on-board processing, the growing speed and ubiquity of wireless technologies now enable interaction with a distant source. Will the perceived source of the information influence driver safety, responses to the information, and attitudes toward the computer system and car? A between-participants experimental design (N=40) of computer proximity -- in-car vs. wireless -- using an advanced car simulator, found that people's driving behavior, verbal responsiveness, and attitudes are affected by computer proximity. A path analysis shows two counterbalancing effects of computer proximity on driving behavior: drivers feel more engaged with the in-car system than the wireless system, which leads to safer driving behavior; however, drivers also drive faster while using the in-car system than the wireless system, which leads to more dangerous driving behavior. Consistent with greater feelings of engagement with the in-car system, people also feel less discontentment with the in-car system and self-disclose more to the in-car system. Positive perceptions of information content also lead drivers to be more persuaded by driving recommendations. Implications for the design of wireless systems are explored.
The role of intervening variables in driver-ACC cooperation BIBAKFull-TextFull-Text 185-197
  Bako Rajaonah; Nicolas Tricot; Françoise Anceaux; Patrick Millot
This paper analyzes the behavior of drivers using Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) within the theoretical framework of Human-Machine Cooperation. The study was carried out on a driving simulator. Driving task performance data and responses to a trust questionnaire were analyzed in order to examine the relationship between driver reliance on ACC and such intervening variables as trust, perceived workload and perceived risk. The participants were divided a posteriori into two groups according to their use of the ACC device during the experimental run. The results show that high-use drivers seemed to cooperate more with ACC than low-use drivers, who tended to perceive more risk and a higher workload. These findings are discussed in the light of Riley's theory of operator reliance on automation.
Keywords: Adaptive Cruise Control / Cooperation / Use of automation / Intervening variables / Driving simulator / Questionnaire
Iterative design of MOVE: A situationally appropriate vehicle navigation system BIBAKFull-TextFull-Text 198-215
  Joonhwan Lee; Jodi Forlizzi; Scott E. Hudson
Drivers need assistance when navigating an unfamiliar route. In-vehicle navigation systems have improved in recent years due to the technology advances, but are sometimes problematic because of information overload while driving. To address the attentional demands of reading a map while driving, we have developed the maps optimized for vehicular environments (MOVE) in-car navigation display, which provides situationally appropriate navigation information to the driver through optimization of map information. In this paper, we describe the iterative design and evaluation process that shaped the MOVE system. We describe early map reading and navigation studies that led to early designs for our system. We present a study on visual search tasks that refined the renditions used for the system. Finally, we present a study on the effectiveness of several variations of a contextually optimized route map visualization with a desktop steering system. The result of this study shows that MOVE's contextually optimized navigation information can reduce the driver's perceptual load significantly. Our laboratory experiment shows that the total map display fixation time was decreased six-fold, and the number of glances to interpret the map display were decreased about threefold, when comparing the contextually optimized display to a static display.
Keywords: Maps / In-car navigation systems / Visualization / Human attention / Perceptual optimization / Dynamic displays

IJHCS 2008 Volume 20 Issue 4

Cue effectiveness in mitigating postcompletion errors in a routine procedural task BIBAKFull-TextFull-Text 217-232
  Phillip H. Chung; Michael D. Byrne
Postcompletion errors, which are omissions of actions required after the completion of a task's main goal, occur in a variety of everyday procedural tasks. Previous research has demonstrated the difficulty of reducing their frequency by means other than redesigning the task structure [Byrne, M.D., Davis, E.M., 2006. Task structure and postcompletion error in the execution of a routine procedure. Human Factors 48, 627-638]. Nevertheless, finding a successful strategy for mitigation of this type of error may uncover important mechanisms underlying interactive behavior. Two experiments were carried out to test visual cues for their ability to reduce the frequency of postcompletion errors in a computer-based routine procedural task. A cue that was visually salient, just-in-time, and meaningful entirely eliminated the error, whereas cues that were not as specific were ineffective. These results are beyond the predictive capability of extant error identification methods and common design guidelines but are consistent with the work of Altmann and Trafton [2002. Memory for goals: an activation-based model. Cognitive Science 26, 39-83] and Hollnagel [1993. Human Reliability Analysis, Context and Control. Academic Press, London]. Finally, a computational model developed in ACT-R is presented as a first step towards validation of the major findings from the two experiments.
Keywords: Postcompletion error / Human error / Interface design / Modeling / ACT-R / Cognitive architecture / Routine procedural task / Error mitigation / Error intervention / Visual cue / Visual attention / Visual salience / Goal memory
The effect of dynamics on identifying basic emotions from synthetic and natural faces BIBAKFull-TextFull-Text 233-242
  Jari Kätsyri; Mikko Sams
The identification of basic emotions (anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness and surprise) has been studied widely from pictures of facial expressions. Until recently, the role of dynamic information in identifying facial emotions has received little attention. There is evidence that dynamics improves the identification of basic emotions from synthetic (computer-animated) facial expressions [Wehrle, T., Kaiser, S., Schmidt, S., Scherer, K.R., 2000. Studying dynamic models of facial expression of emotion using synthetic animated faces. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 78 (1), 105-119.]; however, similar result has not been confirmed with natural human faces. We compared the identification of basic emotions from both natural and synthetic dynamic vs. static facial expressions in 54 subjects. We found no significant differences in the identification of static and dynamic expressions from natural faces. In contrast, some synthetic dynamic expressions were identified much more accurately than static ones. This effect was evident only with synthetic facial expressions whose static displays were non-distinctive. Our results show that dynamics does not improve the identification of already distinctive static facial displays. On the other hand, dynamics has an important role for identifying subtle emotional expressions, particularly from computer-animated synthetic characters.
Keywords: Facial animation / Basic emotions / Movement perception
A multiscale progressive model on virtual navigation BIBAKFull-TextFull-Text 243-256
  Xiaolong Zhang
Navigation designs in virtual environments often draw on research findings on human navigation behaviors in the real world, in particular the landmark-route-survey spatial knowledge model. Geographers and cognitive psychologists have argued that this model is insufficient to capture the complexity of spatial cognition related to navigation. They have suggested that new theories are needed to understand the integration of various kinds of spatial knowledge and their relationship with spatial activities, such as route planning, route choosing and so on. In virtual environments, users can scale up and down the virtual space to obtain different spatial knowledge and interaction domains. Such flexibility offers an opportunity to deepen our understanding of the relationship between spatial knowledge and spatial action. This paper reports a study on how scaling in virtual environments can improve the integration of spatial knowledge and spatial action. This paper first proposes a multiscale progressive model that couples spatial knowledge and movement across scale in navigation in virtual environments. Then, the paper introduces the design of multiscale environments to support the coupling. Results of an experimental study show the benefits of the coupled spatial knowledge and movement for navigation involving subtasks at different scale levels. In addition to helping better understand the relationship between spatial knowledge and spatial action, this research also gives some insight into designs to support navigation in virtual environments as well as designs to support cross-scale spatial knowledge access in the real world.
Keywords: Navigation / Virtual environments / Multiscale / Spatial knowledge
Beyond web content accessibility guidelines: Design of enhanced text user interfaces for blind internet users BIBAKFull-TextFull-Text 257-270
  Stefan Leuthold; Javier A. Bargas-Avila; Klaus Opwis
Websites do not become usable just because their content is accessible. For people who are blind, the application of the W3C's Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) often might not even make a significant difference in terms of efficiency, errors or satisfaction in website usage. This paper documents the development of nine guidelines to construct an enhanced text user interface (ETI) as an alternative to the graphical user interface (GUI). An experimental design with 39 blind participants executing a search and a navigation task on a website showed that with the ETI, blind users executed the search task significantly faster, committing fewer mistakes, rating it significantly better on subjective scales as well as when compared to the GUIs from other websites they had visited. However, performance did not improve with the ETI on the navigation task, the main reason presumed to be labeling problems. We conclude that the ETI is an improvement over the GUI, but that it cannot help in overcoming one major weakness of most websites: If users do not understand navigation labels, even the best user interface cannot help them navigate.
Keywords: Accessibility / Blind users / Graphical user interface / Interface for the blind / Screenreader / Text interface / Usability for the blind / User interface / WAI / WCAG
Extending Ecological Interface Design principles: A manufacturing case study BIBAKFull-TextFull-Text 271-286
  Connor Upton; Gavin Doherty
Identifying information requirements is a well-understood activity, but the practice of converting data into visual form based on these requirements is less defined. The Ecological Interface Design (EID) framework attempts to bridge this design gap by offering a set of visual design principles. While these principles supply high-level goals to be achieved by the display, they do not describe the design process per se. EID case studies tend to report the work domain analysis, the design solution and the relationship between these two artefacts. Unfortunately, the presentation of a final solution does not reveal the rationale for decisions made during the design process. This, coupled with the complexity of the systems involved, can make it difficult to transfer design knowledge to other work domains. Here a methodology is proposed to guide the design of visual interface components that make up an ecological display. A structured approach for matching requirements to visual form based on work domain analysis, task analysis, scale matching, and data transformations is presented. A case study reveals the rationale behind the redesign of a process control health reporting system using this methodology.
Keywords: Visual design / Ecological Interface Design / Decision support
Semi-public end-user content contributions -- A case-study of concerns and intentions in online photo-sharing BIBAKFull-TextFull-Text 287-300
  Jörgen Skågeby
As social networks and rich media sharing are increasingly converging, end-user concerns regarding to whom, how and why to direct a certain digital content emerge. Between the pure private contribution and the pure public contribution exists a large research and design space of semi-public content and relationships. The theoretical framework of gift-giving correlates to semi-public contributions in that it envelopes social relationships, concerns for others and reciprocity, and was consequently adopted in order to reveal and classify qualitative semi-public end-user concerns with content contribution. The data collection was performed through online ethnographic methods in a large photo-sharing network. The main data-collection method used was forum message elicitation, combined with referential methods such as interviews and application observation and usage. The analysis of data resulted in descriptions concerning end-user intentions to address dynamic recipient groupings, the intentions to control the level of publicness of both digital content and its related social metadata (tags, contacts, comments and links to other networks) and the conclusion that users often refrained from providing material unless they felt able to control its direction.
Keywords: Rich social networks / Multimedia content / Online ethnography / Flickr / Gift-giving / Social metadata

IJHCS 2008 Volume 20 Issue 5

Real-time classification of evoked emotions using facial feature tracking and physiological responses BIBAKFull-TextFull-Text 303-317
  Jeremy N. Bailenson; Emmanuel D. Pontikakis; Iris B. Mauss; James J. Gross; Maria E. Jabon; Cendri A. C. Hutcherson; Clifford Nass; Oliver John
We present automated, real-time models built with machine learning algorithms which use videotapes of subjects' faces in conjunction with physiological measurements to predict rated emotion (trained coders' second-by-second assessments of sadness or amusement). Input consisted of videotapes of 41 subjects watching emotionally evocative films along with measures of their cardiovascular activity, somatic activity, and electrodermal responding. We built algorithms based on extracted points from the subjects' faces as well as their physiological responses. Strengths of the current approach are (1) we are assessing real behavior of subjects watching emotional videos instead of actors making facial poses, (2) the training data allow us to predict both emotion type (amusement versus sadness) as well as the intensity level of each emotion, (3) we provide a direct comparison between person-specific, gender-specific, and general models. Results demonstrated good fits for the models overall, with better performance for emotion categories than for emotion intensity, for amusement ratings than sadness ratings, for a full model using both physiological measures and facial tracking than for either cue alone, and for person-specific models than for gender-specific or general models.
Keywords: Affective computing / Facial tracking / Emotion / Computer vision
A user study of auditory versus visual interfaces for use while driving BIBAKFull-TextFull-Text 318-332
  Jaka Sodnik; Christina Dicke; Saso Tomazic; Mark Billinghurst
This paper describes a user study on interaction with a mobile device installed in a driving simulator. Two new auditory interfaces were proposed and their effectiveness and efficiency were compared to a standard visual interface. Both auditory interfaces consisted of spatialized auditory cues representing individual items in the hierarchical structure of the menu. In the first auditory interface all items of the current level of the menu were played simultaneously. In the second auditory interface only one item was played at a time. The visual interface was shown on a small in-vehicle LCD screen on the dashboard. In all three cases, a custom-made interaction device (a scrolling wheel and two buttons) attached to the steering wheel was used for controlling the interface. The driving performance, task completion times, perceived workload and overall user satisfaction were evaluated. The experiment proved that both auditory interfaces were effective to use in a mobile environment, but were not faster than the visual interface. In the case of shorter tasks, e.g. changing the active profile or deleting an image, the task completion times were comparable for all interfaces; however, both the driving performance was significantly better and the perceived workload was lower when using the auditory interfaces. The test subjects also reported a high overall satisfaction with the auditory interfaces. The latter were labelled as easier to use, more satisfying and more adequate for performing the required tasks than the visual interface. The results of the survey are not surprising as there is a stronger competition for the visual attention between the visual interface and the primary task (driving the car) than in the case of using the auditory interface. So although both types of interfaces were proven to be effective, the visual interface was less efficient as it strongly distracted the user from performing the primary task.
Keywords: Visual interface / Auditory interface / Spatial sound / Driving simulator / Mobile device / Interaction / Distraction
Designing haptic icons to support collaborative turn-taking BIBAKFull-TextFull-Text 333-355
  Andrew Chan; Karon MacLean; Joanna McGrenere
This paper describes research exploring the use of haptics to support users collaborating remotely in a single-user shared application. Mediation of turn-taking during remote collaboration provides a context to explore haptic affordances for background communication as well as control negotiation in remote collaboration: existing turn-taking protocols are rudimentary, lacking many communication cues available in face-to-face collaboration. We therefore designed a custom turn-taking protocol that allows users to express different levels of urgency in their request for control from a collaborator; state of control and requests are communicated by touch, with the intent of offloading visual attention. To support it, we developed a set of haptic icons, tangible stimuli to which specific meanings have been assigned. Because we required an icon set which could be utilized with specified, varying levels of intrusiveness in real attentionally challenged situations, we used a perceptually guided procedure that consisted of four steps: initial icon set design, perceptual refinement, validation of learnability and effectiveness under workload, and deployment in an application simulation. We found that our haptic icons could be learned to a high degree of accuracy in under 3 min and remained identifiable even under significant cognitive workload. In an exploratory observational study comparing haptic, visual, and combined haptic and visual support for our protocol, participants overall preferred the combined multi-modal support, and in particular preferred the haptic support for control changes and the visual support for displaying state. In their control negotiation, users clearly utilized the option of requesting with graded urgency. The three major contributions in this paper are: (1) the introduction and first case study using a systematic process for refining and evaluating haptic icons for background communication in a primarily visual application; (2) the usability observed for a particular set of icons designed with that process; and (3) the introduction of an urgency-based turn-taking protocol and a comparison of haptic, visual and multi-modal support of our implementation of that protocol.
Keywords: Haptic icons / Turn-taking / Remote collaboration / Background communication / Signaling / Workload / Design process
An empirical examination of factors contributing to the creation of successful e-learning environments BIBAKFull-TextFull-Text 356-369
  Richard D. Johnson; Steven Hornik; Eduardo Salas
Although existing models of e-learning effectiveness in information systems (IS) have increased our understanding of how technology can support and enhance learning, most of our models do not take into account the importance of social presence. Thus, this study extends previous research by developing a model of e-learning effectiveness which adds social presence to other oft studied variables including application-specific computer self-efficacy (AS-CSE), perceived usefulness, course interaction, and e-learning effectiveness. Using data from 345 individuals, this model was validated through a field study in an introductory IS survey course. Results indicate that AS-CSE and perceived usefulness were related to course performance, course satisfaction, and course instrumentality. In addition, course interaction was related to course performance and satisfaction. Finally, social presence was related to course satisfaction and course instrumentality. Implications for research and practice are discussed.
Keywords: e-learning / Social presence / Perceived usefulness / Computer self-efficacy / Learning outcomes / Learning transfer / Causal models
Interactions of perceptual and conceptual processing: Expertise in medical image diagnosis BIBAKFull-TextFull-Text 370-390
  Junya Morita; Kazuhisa Miwa; Takayuki Kitasaka; Kensaku Mori; Yasuhito Suenaga; Shingo Iwano; Mitsuru Ikeda; Takeo Ishigaki
In this study, we selected medical image diagnosis as a task to investigate how expertise influences the relations between perceptual and conceptual processing. In an experiment, participants, namely five novices and five experts, made diagnoses on 13 CT images. We obtained two types of data concerning verbal protocols and manipulating computational systems. The segments related to perceptual and conceptual processing were extracted from these data, and the interrelations of the two components were analyzed. Consequently, we confirmed three salient features in the experts: (1) the experts verbalized more types of findings and more types of hypotheses than novices; (2) the experts generated several hypotheses in the early phases of the task; and (3) they newly verbalized many perceptual features during conceptual activities, and verbalized conceptual words during perceptual activities. These results suggest that expertise in medical image diagnosis involves not only the development of both perceptual and conceptual processing, but also the development of an ability to connect the two components.
Keywords: Cognitive experiment / Expertise / Protocol analysis / Medical image diagnosis
Retraction notice to "Key factors of heuristic evaluation for game design: Towards massively multi-player online role-playing game" [Int. J. Human-Computer Studies 65 (2007) 709-723] BIBAFull-TextFull-Text 391
  Seungkeun Song; Joohyeon Lee
This article has been retracted at the request of the Editors-in-Chief. Reason: It has come to the attention of the Editors-in-Chief of the International Journal of Human-Computer Studies that this article is highly congruent to the previously published work of J. P. Davis, K. Steury, R. Pagulayan, "A survey method for assessing perceptions of a game: The consumer playtest in game design", Game Studies: the International Journal of Computer Game Research, vol. 5, issue 1 (2005). The Editors have asked Elsevier to retract the Song and Lee article for the following reason: a substantial part of the literature review (Section 2.1) contains extracted passages without quotes or sufficient changes to the original text and lacks the necessary acknowledgement in the reference section. This article has been retracted consistent with Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal (http://www.elsevier.com/locate/withdrawalpolicy). The publisher apologizes for any inconvenience this may cause.

IJHCS 2008 Volume 20 Issue 6

Evaluating system utility and conceptual fit using CASSM BIBAKFull-TextFull-Text 393-409
  Ann Blandford; Thomas R. G. Green; Dominic Furniss; Stephann Makri
There is a wealth of user-centred evaluation methods (UEMs) to support the analyst in assessing interactive systems. Many of these support detailed aspects of use -- for example: is the feedback helpful? Are labels appropriate? Is the task structure optimal? Few UEMs encourage the analyst to step back and consider how well a system supports users' conceptual understandings and system utility. In this paper, we present CASSM, a method, which focuses on the quality of 'fit' between users and an interactive system. We describe the methodology of conducting a CASSM analysis and illustrate the approach with three contrasting worked examples (a robotic arm, a digital library system and a drawing tool) that demonstrate different depths of analysis. We show how CASSM can help identify re-design possibilities to improve system utility. CASSM complements established evaluation methods by focusing on conceptual structures rather than procedures. Prototype tool support for completing a CASSM analysis is provided by Cassata, an open source development.
Keywords: CASSM / Usability evaluation methods / Conceptual structures / Co-evolution
Uncertainty-tolerant design: Evaluating task performance and drag-and-link information gathering for a news-writing task BIBAKFull-TextFull-Text 410-424
  Simon Attfield; Ann Blandford; John Dowell; Paul Cairns
Part of the challenge of designing systems to support knowledge work is to do so in a way which is sympathetic to users' uncertainty. NewsHarvester is a test-bed system designed to support news research and writing in a way that accommodates uncertainty in relation to information gathering. It does this using 'drag-and-link'; a simple feature by which text extracts copied from source locations are appended with hyperlinks to force the re-display of the source. We describe the rationale for using drag-and-link within NewHarvester based on a previous ethnographic study of journalists, describe its implementation within NewsHarvester, and report a user-evaluation which compared drag-and-link with printing and standard drag-and-drop as information gathering mechanisms. We found that users wanted to relocate information they had not previously identified as useful in order to include it in their report, to better understand the context of information already extracted, and as part of a more serendipitous search for information to add to a near-complete report. Users also considered drag-and-link an easier method for gathering information than printing, and considered that drag-and-link made it easier to relocate information. They also considered that drag-and-link promoted more flexible and dynamic working and increased user enjoyment. An assessment of the quality of their work showed a trend that favoured drag-and-link over the other two methods, although this was not statistically significant. We conclude that drag-and-link improves user-experience during research and writing tasks in the face of information gathering uncertainty.
Keywords: Information behaviour / Writing / PIM / Journalism / System evaluation
Age- and experience-related user behavior differences in the use of complicated electronic devices BIBAKFull-TextFull-Text 425-437
  Neung Eun Kang; Wan Chul Yoon
In this study, we observed the behavior of younger adults (20-29 years old) and middle-aged adults (46-59 years old) interacting with complicated electronic devices. Two recently released multi-functional multimedia devices, namely PMPs (portable multimedia players) and MP3 players were used in the observations. We examined various aspects of interaction behaviors in terms of performance, strategies, error consequences, physical operation methods, and workload. Our analysis of age-related differences included differences in background knowledge as an important independent factor. The results revealed that differences in age meaningfully affected the observed error frequency, the number of interaction steps, the rigidity of exploration, the success of physical operation methods, and subjective perception of temporal demand and performance. In contrast, trial-and-error behavior and frustration levels were influenced by background knowledge rather than age. These novel findings provide important new insights into user interaction characteristics between different age groups and may facilitate the design of age group-appropriate interfaces for complicated electronic devices.
Keywords: Middle-aged adults / Age-related differences / Background knowledge / Complicated electronic devices
Usability of optically simulated haptic feedback BIBAKFull-TextFull-Text 438-451
  Koert van Mensvoort; Dik J. Hermes; Maurice van Montfort
In this contribution a method will be described to optically simulate haptic feedback without resorting to mechanical force feedback devices. This method exploits the domination of the visual over the haptic modality. The perception of haptic feedback, usually generated by force feedback devices, was simulated by tiny displacements on the cursor position relative to the intended force. The usability of optically simulated haptic feedback (OSHF) was tested experimentally by measuring effectiveness, efficiency and satisfaction of its users in a Fitts' type target-acquisition task and comparing the results with the usability of mechanically simulated force feedback and normal feedback. Results show that OSHF outperforms mechanically simulated haptic feedback and normal feedback, especially in the case of small targets.
Keywords: Optically simulated haptic feedback / User interfaces / GUI / Haptics / Simulation / Interactive animation / Target acquisition / Multisensory perception / Interaction styles
Office window of the future? -- Field-based analyses of a new use of a large display BIBAKFull-TextFull-Text 452-465
  Batya Friedman; Nathan G. Freier; Peter H., Jr. Kahn; Peyina Lin; Robin Sodeman
We installed large plasma displays on the walls of seven inside offices of faculty and staff at a university, and displayed, as the default image, real-time HDTV views of the immediate outside scene. Then, utilizing a field-study methodology, data were collected over a 16-week period to explore the user experience with these large display windows. Through the triangulation of data -- 652 pages of interview transcripts, journal entries, and responses to email inquiries -- results showed that users deeply appreciated many aspects of their experience. Benefits included a reported increase in users' connection to the wider social community, connection to the natural world, psychological wellbeing, and cognitive functioning. Users also integrated the large display window into their workplace practice. However, users expressed concerns particularly about the impacts on the privacy of people whose images were captured in the public place by the HDTV camera. Discussion focuses on design challenges for future investigations into related uses of large displays.
Keywords: Community / Field-based analyses / Large display / Office environment / Organizational practice / Privacy / Privacy in public / Social issues / User experience / Value sensitive design / Workplace
In praise of forgiveness: Ways for repairing trust breakdowns in one-off online interactions BIBAKFull-TextFull-Text 466-480
  Asimina Vasalou; Astrid Hopfensitz; Jeremy V. Pitt
Online offences are generally considered as frequent and intentional acts performed by a member with the aim to deceive others. However, an offence may also be unintentional or exceptional, performed by a benevolent member of the community. This article examines whether a victim's decrease in trust towards an unintentional or occasional offender can be repaired in an online setting, by designing and evaluating systems to support forgiveness. We study which of three systems enable the victim of a trust breakdown to fairly assess this kind of offender. The three systems are: (1) a reputation system, (2) a reputation system with a built-in apology forum that may display the offender's apology to the victim and (3) a reputation system with a built-in apology forum that also includes a "forgiveness" component. The "forgiveness" component presents the victim with information that demonstrates the offender's trustworthiness as judged by the system. We experimentally observe that systems (2) and (3), endorsing apology and supporting forgiveness, allow victims to recover their trust after online offences. An apology from the offender restores the victim's trust only if the offender cooperates in a future interaction; it does not alleviate the trust breakdown immediately after it occurs. By contrast, the "forgiveness" component restores the victim's trust directly after the offence and in a subsequent interaction. The applicability of these findings for extending reputation systems is discussed.
Keywords: Trust / Social dilemmas / Forgiveness / Reputation / Apology / One-off interactions

IJHCS 2008 Volume 20 Issue 7

Collaborative and social aspects of software development

Collaborative and social aspects of software development BIBFull-TextFull-Text 481-483
  Judith Good; Pablo Romero
An institutional analysis of software teams BIBAKFull-TextFull-Text 484-494
  Josh Tenenberg
Modern software is constructed by teams of software developers. The central question that this paper addresses is what policies should be enacted for structuring software teams to enhance cooperative as opposed to self-serving behavior? The contribution of this paper is in viewing software teams as being subject to a set of well-understood collective action problems: there are individual incentives to receive the joint rewards for a team-developed software project without contributing a fair share to its development. In this paper, an institutional analysis perspective is used in presenting a set of theoretical principles and an analytical framework recently developed in game theory, political economy, experimental economics, and natural resource governance for the understanding and resolution of these collective action problems. The principles and analysis framework are applied to an empirical case study of software teamwork within an academic setting. This case study shows, first, how to apply the analytic framework on an actual collective action situation. Second, it demonstrates how the theoretical understandings can be used as a basis to account for outcomes within this setting. And third, it provides an example of a particular institutional arrangement that elicits high levels of cooperation and low levels of free riding within a real-world setting. Understanding the importance of institutions for shaping individual and social behavior within software development teams makes these institutions more amenable to intentional human design.
Keywords: Free riding / Cooperation / Software management / Teamwork / Social dilemma / Collective action problem
The social side of software engineering -- A real ad hoc collaboration network BIBAKFull-TextFull-Text 495-505
  Sébastien Cherry; Pierre N. Robillard
Recognised first and foremost as a technical task, the construction of software is, for the most part, a human experience. Software development is an intensive cognitive task, which also constitutes an exercise in complex interrelationships. This paper presents a case study conducted to analyse ad hoc collaborative activities taking place between team-mates during an industrial software development cycle. Observations based on audio-video recording are analysed with a methodology from social sciences research. The paper describes the observational approaches, the various methods used to validate data and how quantitative data are extracted from the qualitative observations of team-mates. Patterns of ad hoc collaboration emerging from this study are revealed, which lead us to believe that both the implicit and explicit roles of partners have a definitive impact on their ad hoc interaction profiles. As a result, this study helps to provide an understanding of some of the pivotal aspects of software engineering, such as collaboration, coordination and, more generally, work team dynamics. Further details relating to our initial motivations are included, followed by a comprehensive description of the methodological approach designed specifically for this research. Finally, some results are presented, which shed light on a real ad hoc collaboration network and support the importance of the human and social aspects of software engineering in a more substantial way.
Keywords: Ad hoc collaboration / Face-to-face exchange / Exchanges patterns / Software development / Cognitive activities / Case study / Sharing of knowledge
Collaboration and co-ordination in mature eXtreme programming teams BIBAKFull-TextFull-Text 506-518
  Helen Sharp; Hugh Robinson
Mature eXtreme programming (XP) teams are highly collaborative and self-organising. In previous studies, we have observed that these teams rely on two apparently simple mechanisms of co-ordination and collaboration: story cards and the Wall. Story cards capture and embody the user stories which form the basis of implementation, while the Wall is a physical space used to organise and display the cards being implemented during the current development cycle (called an iteration). In this paper, we analyse the structure and use of story cards and the Wall in three mature XP teams, using a distributed cognition approach. The teams work in different commercial organisations developing different systems, yet we find significant similarities between their use of these two artefacts. Although simple, teams use the cards and the Wall in sophisticated ways to represent and communicate information that is vital to support their activities. We discuss the significance of the physical medium for the story cards and the Wall in an XP team and discuss the considerations that need to be taken into account for the design of technology to support the teams.
Keywords: Distributed cognition / Story card / Information radiator / Agile development
Pair programming and the mysterious role of the navigator BIBAKFull-TextFull-Text 519-529
  Sallyann Bryant; Pablo Romero; Benedict du Boulay
Computer programming is generally understood to be highly challenging and since its inception a wide range of approaches, tools and methodologies have been developed to assist in managing its complexity. Relatively recently the potential benefits of collaborative software development have been formalised in the practice of pair programming. Here we attempt to 'unpick' the pair programming process through the analysis of verbalisations from a number of commercial studies. We focus particularly on the roles of the two programmers and what their key characteristics and behaviours might be. In particular, we dispute two existing claims: (i) that the programmer who is not currently typing in code ("the navigator") is constantly reviewing what is typed and highlighting any errors (i.e. acting as a reviewer) and (ii) that the navigator focuses on a different level of abstraction as a way of ensuring coverage at all necessary levels (i.e. acting as a foreman). We provide an alternative model for these roles ("the tag team") in which the driver and navigator play much more equal roles. We also suggest that a key factor in the success of pair programming may be the associated increase in talk at an intermediate level of abstraction.
Keywords: Pair programming / Verbal protocol analysis / Extreme programming
Empirical evaluation of distributed pair programming BIBAKFull-TextFull-Text 530-544
  Brian Hanks
Pair programming, in which two individuals share a single computer to collaboratively develop software, has been shown to have many benefits in industry and in education. One drawback of pair programming is its collocation requirement, which limits its use to situations where the partners can physically meet. A tool that supported distributed pair programming, in which the partners could pair from separate locations, would remove this impediment. This paper discusses the development and empirical evaluation of such a tool. A significant feature of this tool is the presence of a second cursor that supports gesturing. Students who used the tool in their introductory programming course performed as well as collocated students on their programming assignments and final exam. These students also spent less time working by themselves. They also felt that the gesturing feature was useful and used it regularly.
Keywords: Distributed pair programming / Gesturing / Introductory programming / Empirical software engineering / Computer-supported cooperative work
Public participation in proprietary software development through user roles and discourse BIBAKFull-TextFull-Text 545-557
  David G. Hendry
The opportunity for users to participate in design and development processes has expanded in recent years through such communication and information technologies as mailing lists, bug trackers, usage monitoring, rich interactions between users and service-center staff, remote usability testing, and so on. A key question, therefore, is deciding how to engage users in design and development through such technologies. This paper addresses this question by reviewing literature on end-user programming and open source development to develop a framework concerning user roles and discourse. The framework makes two claims: (1) user roles and a social structure emerge after the introduction of a software application (role differentiation); and (2) different roles demand different kinds of discourse for deciding what to do and for reflecting upon intended and unintended consequences (role discourse demands). To show its application, the framework is used to analyze the development of del.icio.us, a breakthrough application for social bookmarking. This development process is notable because it is a characteristic of open source software development in some respects, but the code is not made available publicly. This hybridization appears to be widely applicable and suggests how design and development processes can be structured as a service where the design and development of the system proceeds simultaneously with the formation and nurturing of a community of users.
Keywords: Design informatics / Information management / Design knowledge management / Design information systems / Social creativity / Reflective practice / Free/open source software / Socio-technical analysis / Innovation / Social bookmarking / del.icio.us
User and developer mediation in an Open Source Software community: Boundary spanning through cross participation in online discussions BIBAKFull-TextFull-Text 558-570
  Flore Barcellini; Françoise Détienne; Jean-Marie Burkhardt
The aim of this research is to analyse how design and use are mediated in Open Source Software (OSS) design. Focusing on the Python community, our study examines a "pushed-by-users" design proposal through the discussions occurring in two mailing-lists: one, user-oriented and the other, developer-oriented. To characterize the links between users and developers, we investigate the activities and references (knowledge sharing) performed by the contributors to these two mailing-lists. We found that the participation of users remains local to their community. However, several key participants act as boundary spanners between the user and the developer communities. This emerging role is characterized by cross-participation in parallel same-topic discussions in both mailing-lists, cohesion between cross-participants, the occupation of a central position in the social network linking users and developers, as well as active, distinctive and adapted contributions. The user championing the proposal acts as a key boundary spanner coordinating the process and using explicit linking strategies. We argue that OSS design may be considered as a form of "role emerging design", i.e. design organized and pushed through emerging roles and through a balance between these roles. The OSS communities seem to provide a suitable socio-technical environment to enable such role emergence.
Keywords: Open Source Software Community / Cross-participants / Boundary spanners / Distributed design / Role emerging design

IJHCS 2008 Volume 20 Issue 8

Technological opportunities for supporting people with dementia who are living at home BIBAKFull-TextFull-Text 571-586
  Joseph P. Wherton; Andrew F. Monk
Recent advances in pervasive computing raise new possibilities for supporting people with dementia who wish to live in their own homes. Interviews were conducted in order to identify the daily activities of people living at home that might most usefully be supported. In Study 1, nine interviews and one focus group were conducted with occupational therapists and other professional caregivers. In Study 2, interviews were conducted with eight people with mild to moderate dementia in their own homes and 10 informal caregivers. A grounded theory analysis of the transcripts revealed specific areas where support was needed and suggestions concerning the kinds of prompting and sensing required to support: dressing, taking medication, personal hygiene, preparing food, and socialising. The findings demonstrate the value of consulting directly with people with dementia and their caregivers. The design challenge is to provide flexible prompting systems that are sensitive to the intentions, capabilities, and values of their users.
Keywords: Dementia / Assistive technology / Prompting
Social enjoyment with electronic photograph displays: Awareness and control BIBAKFull-TextFull-Text 587-604
  Siân E. Lindley; Andrew F. Monk
Two experiments are reported in which groups of three friends socialised around their own photographs. The photographs were of two types, depicting events where all three had been present, permitting reminiscing, and events where only the photographer had been present, permitting storytelling. In Experiment 1 the seating arrangement was manipulated so that the two audience members sat either behind or around the photographer. It was hypothesised that the former would lower levels of peripheral awareness within the groups, resulting in a more formal conversation and a poorer recreational experience. In Experiment 2, control over the photographs was manipulated so that either all three group members had access to a remote control (distributed control), or only the photographer did (single control). It was hypothesised that distributed control would result in less formal conversations and a better recreational experience. In both experiments, the hypotheses were supported: patterns of social interaction were significantly affected by the manipulation of awareness during storytelling, and by the manipulation of control during reminiscing. Additionally, the two manipulations were found to affect ratings of enjoyment and fun, respectively. The results are interpreted in terms of a causative model of unfolding and recounted experience.
Keywords: Affordance / Photo talk / Experiment
Zoom interaction design for pen-operated portable devices BIBAKFull-TextFull-Text 605-627
  Thorsten Büring; Jens Gerken; Harald Reiterer
Maps are currently the most common application domain for zoomable user interfaces (ZUIs). Standard techniques for controlling such interfaces on pen-operated devices usually rely on sequential interaction, i.e. the users can either zoom or pan. A more advanced technique is speed-dependent automatic zooming (SDAZ), which combines rate-based panning and zooming into a single operation and thus enables concurrent interaction. Yet another navigation strategy is to allow for concurrent, but separate, zooming and panning. However, due to the limitations of stylus input, this feature requires the pen-operated device to be enhanced with additional input dimensions. We propose one unimanual approach based on pen pressure, and one bimanual approach in which users pan the view with the pen while manipulating the scale by tilting the device. In total, we developed four interfaces (standard, SDAZ, pressure, and tilting) and compared them in a usability study with 32 participants. The results show that SDAZ performed well for both simple speed tasks and more complex navigation scenarios, but that the coupled interaction led to much user frustration. In a preference vote, the participants strongly rejected the interface and stated that they found it difficult and irksome to control. This result enhances previous research, which in most cases found a high user preference for SDAZ, but focused solely on simple speed tasks. In contrast, the pressure and tilt interfaces were much appreciated, which, considering the novelty of these approaches, is highly encouraging. However, in solving the test tasks the participants took hardly any advantage of parallel interaction. For a map view of 600×600 pixels, this resulted in task-completion times comparable to those for the standard interface. For a smaller 300×300 pixels view, the standard interface was actually significantly faster than the two novel techniques. This ratio is also reflected in the preference votes. While for the larger 600×600 pixels view the tilt interface was the most popular, the standard interface was rated highest for the 300×300 pixels view. Hence, on a smaller display, precise interaction may have an increased impact on the interface usability. Overall, we believe that the alternative interaction techniques show great potential for further development. In particular, a redesign should encourage parallel interaction more strongly and also provide improved support for precise navigation.
Keywords: Zoom / SDAZ / Tilt / Pressure / Map navigation / Semantic zoom / Automatic zoom / Small-screen devices / PDA
Multimedia interfaces for users with high functioning autism: An empirical investigation BIBAKFull-TextFull-Text 628-639
  Ouriel Grynszpan; Jean-Claude Martin; Jacqueline Nadel
This article focuses on issues relevant to human-computer interaction in the case of autism. We designed training software that target specific communicative disorders attributed to autism and defined an empirical protocol to test this software. The experimental software platform that we developed manages each game's interface modalities and logs users' actions, for the purpose of exploring the impact of various human-computer interfaces, which involve text, speech and images. Ten adolescents diagnosed with autism used this software during 13 sessions, at the rate of one session per week. The first and last sessions were dedicated for evaluating participants' skills. The experiment was also performed by a group of 10 typically developing children matched on developmental age and academic level. Results show that participants with autism had poorer performances on the richer multimedia interfaces. They seemed to lack the initiative of organizing the available multimodal sources of information. In this article, we specifically discuss the impact of executive disorders on the use of multimodal interfaces with an emphasis on Animated Conversational Agents.
Keywords: Multimodality / Autism / Design / Animated conversational agent / Facial expression / Training

IJHCS 2008 Volume 20 Issue 9

Measuring and defining the experience of immersion in games BIBAKFull-TextFull-Text 641-661
  Charlene Jennett; Anna L. Cox; Paul Cairns; Samira Dhoparee; Andrew Epps; Tim Tijs; Alison Walton
Despite the word's common usage by gamers and reviewers alike, it is still not clear what immersion means. This paper explores immersion further by investigating whether immersion can be defined quantitatively, describing three experiments in total. The first experiment investigated participants' abilities to switch from an immersive to a non-immersive task. The second experiment investigated whether there were changes in participants' eye movements during an immersive task. The third experiment investigated the effect of an externally imposed pace of interaction on immersion and affective measures (state anxiety, positive affect, negative affect). Overall the findings suggest that immersion can be measured subjectively (through questionnaires) as well as objectively (task completion time, eye movements). Furthermore, immersion is not only viewed as a positive experience: negative emotions and uneasiness (i.e. anxiety) also run high.
Keywords: Immersion / Games / Eye tracking / Pace / Affect
Physiology-based affect recognition for computer-assisted intervention of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder BIBAKFull-TextFull-Text 662-677
  Changchun Liu; Karla Conn; Nilanjan Sarkar; Wendy Stone
Generally, an experienced therapist continuously monitors the affective cues of the children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and adjusts the course of the intervention accordingly. In this work, we address the problem of how to make the computer-based ASD intervention tools affect-sensitive by designing therapist-like affective models of the children with ASD based on their physiological responses. Two computer-based cognitive tasks are designed to elicit the affective states of liking, anxiety, and engagement that are considered important in autism intervention. A large set of physiological indices are investigated that may correlate with the above affective states of children with ASD. In order to have reliable reference points to link the physiological data to the affective states, the subjective reports of the affective states from a therapist, a parent, and the child himself/herself were collected and analyzed. A support vector machines (SVM)-based affective model yields reliable prediction with approximately 82.9% success when using the therapist's reports. This is the first time, to our knowledge, that the affective states of children with ASD have been experimentally detected via physiology-based affect recognition technique.
Keywords: Human-computer Interaction / Autism intervention / Physiological sensing / Support vector machines / Affect recognition
Prior language experience and language anxiety as predictors for non-native language commercial website use intention BIBAKFull-TextFull-Text 678-687
  Hui-Jen Yang; Wen-Yu Tsao; Yun-Long Lay; Minder Chen; YiChing Liou
Based on the research model, language anxiety, prior non-native language experience, Internet self-efficacy and language self-efficacy are analyzed for the intention to use non-native language commercial web sites, respectively. Prior non-native language experience has affected language anxiety, language self-efficacy and intention to use non-native language commercial web sites, respectively. By the same token, whether or not Internet self-efficacy and language self-efficacy affected by language anxiety is also examined. A valid sample of 418 undergraduates was tested in this study. Regression analysis results fully supported the model tested. These results suggest that language anxiety, prior non-native language experience, language self-efficacy and Internet self-efficacy have an effect on the intention to use non-native language commercial web sites. Prior non-native language experience has significantly affected language anxiety, language self-efficacy and the intention to use the non-native language commercial web sites, respectively. Furthermore, language anxiety has significantly affected language self-efficacy and Internet self-efficacy, respectively. Educational research and practitioner implications are provided at the end of the paper.
Keywords: Non-native-language commercial web site / Prior non-native language experience / Language anxiety / Language self-efficacy / Internet self-efficacy
Misuse of automated decision aids: Complacency, automation bias and the impact of training experience BIBAKFull-TextFull-Text 688-699
  J. Elin Bahner; Anke-Dorothea Hüper; Dietrich Manzey
The present study investigates automation misuse based on complacency and automation bias in interacting with a decision aid in a process control system. The effect of a preventive training intervention which includes exposing participants to rare automation failures is examined. Complacency is reflected in an inappropriate checking and monitoring of automated functions. In interaction with automated decision aids complacency might result in commission errors, i.e., following automatically generated recommendations even though they are false. Yet, empirical evidence proving this kind of relationship is still lacking. A laboratory experiment (N=24) was conducted using a process control simulation. An automated decision aid provided advice for fault diagnosis and management. Complacency was directly measured by the participants' information sampling behavior, i.e., the amount of information sampled in order to verify the automated recommendations. Possible commission errors were assessed when the aid provided false recommendations. The results provide clear evidence for complacency, reflected in an insufficient verification of the automation, while commission errors were associated with high levels of complacency. Hence, commission errors seem to be a possible, albeit not an inevitable consequence of complacency. Furthermore, exposing operators to automation failures during training significantly decreased complacency and thus represents a suitable means to reduce this risk, even though it might not avoid it completely. Potential applications of this research include the design of training protocols in order to prevent automation misuse in interaction with automated decision aids.
Keywords: Decision support system / Automation bias / Complacency / Commission error / Automation misuse / Human-automation interaction / Trust

IJHCS 2008 Volume 20 Issue 10

Effects of haptic feedback, stereoscopy, and image resolution on performance and presence in remote navigation BIBAKFull-TextFull-Text 701-717
  Sangyoon Lee; Gerard Jounghyun Kim
Traditionally, the main goal of teleoperation has been to successfully achieve a given task as if performing the task in local space. An emerging and related requirement is to also match the subjective sensation or the user experience of the remote environment, while maintaining reasonable task performance. This concept is often called "presence" or "(experiential) telepresence," which is informally defined as "the sense of being in a mediated environment." In this paper, haptic feedback is considered as an important element for providing improved presence and reasonable task performance in remote navigation. An approach for using haptic information to "experientially" teleoperate a mobile robot is described. Haptic feedback is computed from the range information obtained by a sonar array attached to the robot, and delivered to a user's hand via a haptic probe. This haptic feedback is provided to the user, in addition to stereoscopic images from a forward-facing stereo camera mounted on the mobile robot. The experiment with a user population in a real-world environment showed that haptic feedback significantly improved both task performance and user-felt presence. When considering user-felt presence, no interaction among haptic feedback, image resolution, and stereoscopy was observed, that is, haptic feedback was effective, regardless of the fidelity of visual elements. Stereoscopic images also significantly improved both task performance and user-felt presence, but high-resolution images only significantly improved user-felt presence. When considering task performance, however, it was found that there was an interaction between haptic feedback and stereoscopy, that is, stereoscopic images were only effective when no force feedback was applied. According to the multiple regression analysis, haptic feedback was a higher contributing factor to the improvement in performance and presence than image resolution and stereoscopy.
Keywords: Haptic feedback / Teleoperation / Remote navigation / Mobile robot / Presence / Telepresence / User study
Evaluating usability of a commercial electronic health record: A case study BIBAKFull-TextFull-Text 718-728
  Paula J. Edwards; Kevin P. Moloney; Julie A. Jacko; François Sainfort
Electronic health records (EHR) are increasingly being implemented by care providers in order to streamline processes and improve quality of care. Due to EHRs' complexity, the usability of these systems is crucial to ensure safety and to enable clinicians (users) to focus on their patients rather than the technology. This case study presents experiences from the implementation of a commercial EHR in a large pediatric hospital system. This case discusses how a predictive evaluation method, Heuristic Walkthrough, was used to evaluate and improve the usability of the EHR system. Outcomes from the evaluation resulted in immediate changes in the system configuration and training materials, which helped to avoid usability problems at rollout, as well as change requests to the vendor to improve overall system usability in the long term. Design trade-offs and lessons learned for future EHR implementations and other healthcare applications are discussed.
Keywords: Predictive usability evaluation / Electronic health record / Healthcare / Heuristic Walkthrough
Relative role of merging and two-handed operation on command selection speed BIBAKFull-TextFull-Text 729-740
  Nicholas Y. Chen; François Guimbretière; Corinna E. Löckenhoff
This paper examines the influence of two interface characteristics on command selection speed: the integration of command selection with direct manipulation (merging), and two-handed operation. We compared four interaction techniques representing combinations of these characteristics (Marking Menu, Two-handed Tool Palette, Toolglass, and Control Menu). Results suggest that the one-handed techniques selected for the present study produced a speed advantage over two-handed techniques, whereas the influence of merging was task dependent. A follow-up study examining Bimanual Marking Menu suggests that the performance of two-handed techniques may be reduced due to a split in visual attention required for certain techniques. Taken together, these findings have important implications for the design of command selection mechanisms for pen-based interfaces.
Keywords: Two-handed input / GUIs / Toolglass / Palette / Marking Menu / Control Menu / Merging / Human factors / Experimentation
Entertainment modeling through physiology in physical play BIBAKFull-TextFull-Text 741-755
  Georgios N. Yannakakis; John Hallam
This paper is an extension of previous work on capturing and modeling the affective state of entertainment ("fun") grounded on children's physiological state during physical game play. The goal is to construct, using representative statistics computed from children's physiological signals, an estimator of the degree to which games provided by the playground engage the players. Previous studies have identified the difficulties of isolating elements of physical activity attributed to reported entertainment derived (solely) from heart rate (HR) recordings. In the present article, a survey experiment on a larger scale and a physical activity control experiment for surmounting those difficulties are devised. In these experiments, children's HR, blood volume pulse (BVP) and skin conductance (SC) signals, as well as their expressed preferences of how much "fun" particular game variants are, are obtained using games implemented on the Playware physical interactive playground. Given effective data collection, a set of numerical features is computed from these measurements of the child's physiological state. A comprehensive statistical analysis shows that children's reported entertainment preferences correlate well with specific features of the recorded signals. Preference learning techniques combined with feature set selection methods permit the construction of user models that predict reported entertainment preferences given suitable signal features. The most accurate models are obtained through evolving artificial neural networks and are demonstrated and evaluated on a Playware game and a control task requiring physical activity. The best network is able to correctly match expressed preferences in 69.64% of cases on previously unseen data (p-value=0.0022) and indicates two dissimilar classes of children: those that prefer constantly energetic play of low mental/emotional load; and those that report as fun a dynamic play that involves high mental/emotional load independently of physical effort. The generality of the methodology, its limitations, its usability as a real-time feedback mechanism for entertainment augmentation and as a validation tool are discussed.
Keywords: Affective computing / Fun / Entertainment modeling / Physical games / Preference learning / Physiology / Heart rate / Blood volume pulse / Skin conductance

IJHCS 2008 Volume 20 Issue 11

Ontology-based information extraction and integration from heterogeneous data sources BIBAKFull-TextFull-Text 759-788
  Paul Buitelaar; Philipp Cimiano; Anette Frank; Matthias Hartung; Stefania Racioppa
In this paper we present the design, implementation and evaluation of SOBA, a system for ontology-based information extraction from heterogeneous data resources, including plain text, tables and image captions. SOBA is capable of processing structured information, text and image captions to extract information and integrate it into a coherent knowledge base. To establish coherence, SOBA interlinks the information extracted from different sources and detects duplicate information. The knowledge base produced by SOBA can then be used to query for information contained in the different sources in an integrated and seamless manner. Overall, this allows for advanced retrieval functionality by which questions can be answered precisely. A further distinguishing feature of the SOBA system is that it straightforwardly integrates deep and shallow natural language processing to increase robustness and accuracy. We discuss the implementation and application of the SOBA system within the SmartWeb multimodal dialog system. In addition, we present a thorough evaluation of the different components of the system. However, an end-to-end evaluation of the whole SmartWeb system is out of the scope of this paper and has been presented elsewhere by the SmartWeb consortium.
Keywords: Ontology-based natural language processing / Information extraction / Knowledge integration / Question answering
Flattery may get computers somewhere, sometimes: The moderating role of output modality, computer gender, and user gender BIBAKFull-TextFull-Text 789-800
  Eun-Ju Lee
This experiment extended the Computers Are Social Actors (CASA) paradigm by examining how output modality (text plus cartoon character vs. synthetic speech), computer gender (male vs. female), and user gender (male vs. female) moderate the ways in which people respond to computers that flatter. Specifically, participants played a trivia game with a computer, which they knew might provide incorrect answers. Participants in the generic-comment condition received strictly factual feedback, whereas those in the flattery condition were given additional remarks praising their performance. Consistent with Fogg and Nass [1997. Silicon sycophants: the effects of computers that flatter. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies 46, 551-561] study, flattery led to more positive overall impressions and performance evaluations of the computer, but such effects were found only in the text plus character condition and among women. In addition, flattery increased participants' suspicion about the validity of the computer's feedback and lowered conformity to the computer's suggestions. Participants conformed more to the male than female computers when computer gender was manifested in gendered cartoon characters in the text condition, with no corresponding effects in the speech condition. Results suggest that synthetic speech output might suppress social responses to computers, such as flattery effects and gender stereotyping.
Keywords: Computers Are Social Actors (CASA) / Flattery / Output modality
Avatars in social media: Balancing accuracy, playfulness and embodied messages BIBAKFull-TextFull-Text 801-811
  Asimina Vasalou; Adam Joinson; Tanja Bänziger; Peter Goldie; Jeremy Pitt
This paper examines how users negotiate their self-presentation via an avatar used in social media. Twenty participants customised an avatar while thinking aloud. An analysis of this verbal data revealed three motivating factors that drive self-presentation: (1) avatars were used to accurately reflect their owners' offline self; participants chose to display stable self-attributes or idealised their avatar by concealing or emphasising attributes aligned to imagined social roles, (2) the diversity of customisation options was exploited by some participants who broke free from the social rules governing self-presentation offline; others used the avatar's appearance to emotionally provoke and engage the avatar viewer and finally, (3) avatars were used as proxies; participants designed their online self in order to convey a message to a significant other.
Keywords: Avatars / Social media / Self-presentation / Identity
A framework for process-solution analysis in collaborative learning environments BIBAKFull-TextFull-Text 812-832
  Crescencio Bravo; Miguel A. Redondo; M. Felisa Verdejo; Manuel Ortega
One of the most challenging aspects of computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) research is automation of collaboration and interaction analysis in order to understand and improve the learning processes. It is particularly necessary to look in more depth at the joint analysis of the collaborative process and its resulting product. In this article, we present a framework for comprehensive analysis in CSCL synchronous environments supporting a problem-solving approach to learning. This framework is based on an observation-abstraction-intervention analysis life-cycle and consists of a suite of analysis indicators, procedures for calculating indicators and a model of intervention based on indicators. Analysis indicators are used to represent the collaboration and knowledge building process at different levels of abstraction, and to characterize the solution built using models of the application domain, the problems to solve and their solutions. The analysis procedures combine analysis of actions and dialogue with analysis of the solution. In this way, the process and the solution are studied independently as well as together, enabling the detection of correlations between them. In order to exemplify and test the framework, the methodological process underlying the framework was followed to guide the implementation of the analysis subsystems of two existing CSCL environments. In addition, a number of studies have been conducted to evaluate the framework's approach, demonstrating that certain modes of collaborating and working imply particular types of solutions and vice versa.
Keywords: CSCL / Collaboration and interaction analysis / Solution analysis / User and group modelling

IJHCS 2008 Volume 20 Issue 12

Mobile human-computer interaction

Mobile human-computer interaction BIBFull-TextFull-Text 833-837
  Antti Oulasvirta; Stephen Brewster
Control centric approach in designing scrolling and zooming user interfaces BIBAKFull-TextFull-Text 838-856
  Parisa Eslambolchilar; Roderick Murray-Smith
The dynamic systems approach to the design of continuous interaction interfaces allows the designer to use simulations, and analytical tools to analyse the behaviour and stability of the controlled system alone and when it is coupled with a manual control model of user behaviour. This approach also helps designers to calibrate and tune the parameters of the system before the actual implementation, and in response to user feedback. In this work we provide a dynamic systems interpretation of the coupling of internal states involved in speed-dependent automatic zooming, and test our implementation on a text browser on a Pocket PC instrumented with a tilt sensor. We illustrate simulated and experimental results of the use of the proposed coupled navigation and zooming interface using tilt and touch screen input.
Keywords: Human-computer interaction / Dynamics / Continuous interaction / Tilt input / Mobile devices / Zooming/scrolling user interfaces
The performance of hand postures in front- and back-of-device interaction for mobile computing BIBAKFull-TextFull-Text 857-875
  Jacob O. Wobbrock; Brad A. Myers; Htet Htet Aung
Three studies of different mobile-device hand postures are presented. The first study measures the performance of postures in Fitts' law tasks using one and two hands, thumbs and index fingers, horizontal and vertical movements, and front- and back-of-device interaction. Results indicate that the index finger performs well on both the front and the back of the device, and that thumb performance on the front of the device is generally worse. Fitts' law models are created and serve as a basis for comparisons. The second study examines the orientation of shapes on the front and back of a mobile device. It shows that participants' expectations of visual feedback for finger movements on the back of a device reverse the direction of their finger movements to favor a "transparent device" orientation. The third study examines letter-like gestures made on the front and back of a device. It confirms the performance of the index finger on the front of the device, while showing limitations in the ability for the index finger on the back to perform complex gestures. Taken together, these results provide an empirical foundation upon which new mobile interaction designs can be based. A set of design implications and recommendations are given based directly on the findings presented.
Keywords: Mobile device / Handheld device / PDA / Pocket PC / Mobile phone / Finger input / Thumb input / Front-of-device / Back-of-device / Touchpad / Touch screen / Fitts' law / Throughput / Shape orientation / Letter orientation / Text entry / Text input / EdgeWrite
Route-following assistance for travelers with cognitive impairments: A comparison of four prompt modes BIBAKFull-TextFull-Text 876-888
  Stephen Fickas; McKay Sohlberg; Pei-Fang Hung
Navigational skills, which are fundamental to community travel and hence, personal independence, are often disrupted in people with cognitive impairments. Assistive technology, in the form of navigation devices, are being developed that can support community navigation by delivering directional information. Selecting an effective mode to provide route-prompts is a critical design issue. This study evaluated the differential effects on pedestrian route following using different modes of prompting delivered via an electronic device for travelers with severe cognitive impairments. The research design used was a within subject comparison to evaluate potential differences in route-following performance when travelers received directions using four different prompt modes: (1) aerial map image, (2) point of view map image, (3) audio direction/no image and (4) text-based instructions/no image. Twenty travelers with severe cognitive impairments due to acquired brain injury walked four equivalent routes using four different prompting modes delivered via a wrist-worn navigation device. Navigation scores were computed that captured accuracy and confidence during navigation. Results of the repeated measures analysis of variance suggested that participants performed best when given prompts via speech-based audio directions. The majority of the participants also preferred this prompting mode. Findings are interpreted in the context of cognitive resource allocation theory.
Keywords: Navigation prompting / Cognitive impairments
Older people and mobile phones: A multi-method investigation BIBAKFull-TextFull-Text 889-901
  Sri Kurniawan
This paper investigates issues related to the use of mobile phones by people aged 60 years and over and characteristics of an ageing-friendly mobile phone. This study combines qualitative and quantitative analysis methods of Delphi interviews, focus group discussions, and online survey. The expert interviews and the focus group discussions covered usage patterns, problems, benefits, and desired and unwanted features. The issues raised in the discussions were translated into an online survey of 100 people. This study revealed that older people are passive users of mobile phones, that they experience fear of consequences of using unfamiliar technology, and that most preferred design features are aids for declining functional abilities. Gender differences in preferred design features were observed, with women focusing on haptic aids and men on perceptual aids.
Keywords: Mobile phone / Qualitative / Quantitative / Focus group / Interview / Survey / Factor analysis
Mobile technologies in mobile spaces: Findings from the context of train travel BIBAKFull-TextFull-Text 902-915
  Carolyn Axtell; Donald Hislop; Steve Whittaker
Whilst mobile work is increasingly prevalent, there is little detailed study of this phenomenon in the specific context of a train. Thus, the current study focuses on how mobile work is conducted onboard trains, as a way of exploring general issues relating to mobility. Through survey and interview data, several constraints to mobile work on the train were revealed. These include the lack of reliable communications network, access to co-workers and lack of privacy which together restrict the types of communicative tasks people carry out. We found that the majority of tasks conducted were socially independent in nature (without the need for communication with others). However, people made some technological task and contextual adaptations which allowed them to work around these limitations to conduct some socially interdependent work (with the need for communication with others). We explain why and how specific technologies/media are used (and adapted) in this setting and explore the implications this has for technology design and our thinking about mobile work.
Keywords: Mobile work / Mobile technologies / Adaptation / Train travel
Organisational usability of mobile computing -- Volatility and control in mobile foreign exchange trading BIBAKFull-TextFull-Text 916-929
  Carsten Sørensen; Adel Al-Taitoon
The past two decades have presented significant technological developments of mobile information and communication technology (ICT) such as portable technologies (e.g. mobile phones, notebook computers, personal digital assistants), and associated wireless infrastructures (e.g. wireless local area networks, mobile telecommunications infrastructures, bluetooth personal area networks). Mobile ICT offers a range of technical opportunities for organisations and their members to implement enterprise mobility. However, the challenges of unlocking the opportunities of enterprise mobility are not well understood. One of the key issues is to establish systems and associated working practices that are deemed usable by both individuals and the organisation. The aim of this paper is to show that the concept of organisational usability can enrich the understanding of mobile ICT in organisations. As an addition to the traditional understanding of individual usability, organisational usability emphasises the role of mobile ICT beyond individual support. A large-scale study of four different ways of organising foreign exchange trading in a Middle Eastern bank serves as the concrete foundation for the discussion. The empirical study showed how the final of the four attempts at establishing 24-h trading deployed mobile ICT to enable mobile trading and by providing a solution, which was deemed usable for both the organisation and the traders. The paper contributes to the understanding of how usability of mobile ICT critically depends on carefully balancing individual and organisational requirements. It also demonstrates the need for research in enterprise mobility to embrace both individual and organisational concerns in order to grasp the complexity of the phenomena.
Keywords: Enterprise mobility / Organisational usability / Mobile ICT / Foreign exchange trading / Middle East
Kei-Tying teens: Using mobile phone e-mail to bond, bridge, and break with social ties -- a study of Japanese adolescents BIBAKFull-TextFull-Text 930-943
  Jeffrey Boase; Tetsuro Kobayashi
This paper examines the extent to which Japanese adolescents use mobile phone e-mail to bond, bridge, and break with their social ties. Although existing literature shows that adolescents use mobile phone e-mail to bond with intimate strong ties, the fluid nature of social networks during adolescence suggests that mobile phone e-mail may also be used to bridge to new ties and to break with old ties. Drawing on a stratified random sample survey of 501 high school students living in Tokyo, we find that mobile phone e-mail is used both to bond and bridge, but not to break with ties. We also find that the intensity with which Japanese adolescents use mobile phone e-mail is more fundamentally a result of bridging than bonding. These findings apply both to typical users and heavy users.
Keywords: Mobile phone / E-mail / SMS / Adolescence / Japan / Social ties / Social network / Bonding / Bridging
Theorizing mobility in community networks BIBAKFull-TextFull-Text 944-962
  John M. Carroll; Mary Beth Rosson
Community networks emerged in North America during the late 1970s and early 1980s. During the past three decades, paradigms for networked information, services, and collaboration as resources for community development have evolved in many respects. In this paper we revisit a theoretical analysis of broadband Internet community networks [Carroll, J.M., Rosson, M.B., 2003a. A trajectory for community networks. The Information Society 19(5), 381-393], and extend that analysis to mobile/wireless community networks. This analysis is part of the planning for a specific municipal wireless project in the town of State College, Pennsylvania. But more broadly, it is intended to engage and to help focus human-computer interaction (HCI) design perspectives in the development of wireless community networks throughout North America and elsewhere.
Keywords: Community networks / Community informatics / Municipal wireless
Storied spaces: Cultural accounts of mobility, technology, and environmental knowing BIBAKFull-TextFull-Text 963-976
  Johanna Brewer; Paul Dourish
When we think of mobility in technical terms, we think of topics such as bandwidth, resource management, location, and wireless networks. When we think of mobility in social or cultural terms, a different set of topics come into view: pilgrimage and religious practice, globalization and economic disparities, migration and cultural identity, daily commutes and the suburbanization of cities. In this paper, we examine the links between these two aspects of mobility. Drawing on non-technological examples of cultural encounters with space, we argue that mobile information technologies do not just operate in space, but they are tools that serve to structure the spaces through which they move. We use recent projects to illustrate how three concerns with mobility and space -- legibility, literacy, and legitimacy -- open up new avenues for design exploration and analysis.
Keywords: Mobility / Space / Place / Social / Cultural