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International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction 30

Editors:Julie A. Jacko; Gavriel Salvendy; Steven J. Landry
Dates:2014
Volume:30
Publisher:Taylor & Francis Group
Standard No:ISSN 1044-7318
Papers:76
Links:Table of Contents
  1. IJHCI 2014-01-02 Volume 30 Issue 1
  2. IJHCI 2014-02-01 Volume 30 Issue 2
  3. IJHCI 2014-03-04 Volume 30 Issue 3
  4. IJHCI 2014-04-03 Volume 30 Issue 4
  5. IJHCI 2014-05-04 Volume 30 Issue 5
  6. IJHCI 2014-06-03 Volume 30 Issue 6
  7. IJHCI 2014-07-03 Volume 30 Issue 7
  8. IJHCI 2014-08-03 Volume 30 Issue 8
  9. IJHCI 2014-09-02 Volume 30 Issue 9
  10. IJHCI 2014-10-03 Volume 30 Issue 10
  11. IJHCI 2014-11-02 Volume 30 Issue 11
  12. IJHCI 2014-12-02 Volume 30 Issue 12

IJHCI 2014-01-02 Volume 30 Issue 1

Perceived Visual Aesthetics of Text-Overlaid Images: Computational Models and Experimental Research for White-Space Fraction BIBAFull-Text 1-23
  Mien-Tsung Tsai; Kuo-An Wang; Yili Liu; Jen-Shin Hong
Text-overlaid images abound in product design and human-computer interfaces (e.g., greeting cards and photo slideshows that overlay texts on large background images). This study proposes computational models of perceived aesthetics appeal of text-overlaid images as a function of their white-space fractions. Four models are proposed, including Character-based Page White-Space Fraction (WCP), Character-based Background White-Space Fraction (WCB), Bounding Box based Page White-Space Fraction (WBP), and Bounding Box based Background White-Space Fraction (WBB). Two experiments, using single-spaced and double-spaced texts, were conducted to investigate the relationships between the model predictions and the perceived aesthetic appeal of text-overlaid images. The results show that the Bounding Box based Background White-Space Fraction (WBB), defined as the area ratio between the bounding rectangle of texts and the background region of image, is most valuable in modelling the subjective aesthetic appeal. The regression curves show that the optimal WBB is close to 0.8.
A Pilot Study of the VirtuSphere as a Virtual Reality Enhancement BIBAFull-Text 24-31
  Nancy A. Skopp; Derek J. Smolenski; Melinda J. Metzger-Abamukong; Albert A. Rizzo; Greg M. Reger
This pilot study assessed the utility and acceptability of the VirtuSphere, a cutting edge navigation platform designed to enhance presence in virtual environments. The VirtuSphere includes a 12-ft hollow sphere within which the user stands, and it rolls within a wheeled platform, in any direction, according to the user's steps. The pilot was a within-subject crossover design comparing the VirtuSphere to standard game controller navigation. The comparison was based on locomotion in Virtual Iraq, a virtual world resembling Iraqi war zones. Participants were 10 active duty soldiers not suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder. Results indicated that there were negligible differences in sense of presence, simulator sickness, and satisfaction across the two navigation systems. Although the VirtuSphere may provide entertainment value, these results do not provide initial support for the use of the VirtuSphere to improve constructs thought to be important to behavioral health applications of virtual reality. Potential improvements to the design of the VirtuSphere are discussed.
Using Queuing Network and Logistic Regression to Model Driving with a Visual Distraction Task BIBAFull-Text 32-39
  Luzheng Bi; Guodong Gan; Yili Liu
Computational dual-task models of driving with a secondary task can help compute, simulate, and predict driving behavior in dual task situations. These models can thus help improve the process of developing in-vehicle devices by reducing or eliminating the need for conducting driver experiments in the early stage of the development. Further, these models can help improve traffic flow simulation. This article develops a dual-task model of driving with a visual distraction task using the Queuing Network model of driver lateral control and a logistic regression model. The comparison between the model simulation data and the human data from drivers in a driving simulator shows that this computational model can perform driving with a secondary visual task well and its performance is consistent with the driver data.
Assessing the Usability of Raw Machine Translated Output: A User-Centered Study Using Eye Tracking BIBAFull-Text 40-51
  Stephen Doherty; Sharon O'Brien
This article reports on the results of a project that aimed to investigate the usability of raw machine translated technical support documentation for a commercial online file storage service. Adopting a user-centered approach, the ISO/TR 16982 definition of usability-goal completion, satisfaction, effectiveness, and efficiency -- is utilized and eye-tracking measures that are shown to be reliable indicators of cognitive effort are applied along with a posttask questionnaire. The study investigated these measures for the original user documentation written in English and in four target languages: Spanish, French, German, and Japanese, all of which were translated using a freely available online statistical machine translation engine. Using native speakers for each language, the study found several significant differences between the source and MT output, a finding that indicates a difference in usability between well-formed content and raw machine translated content. One target language in particular, Japanese, was found to have a considerably lower usability level when compared with the original English.
The Role of Body Postures in the Recognition of Emotions in Contextually Rich Scenarios BIBAFull-Text 52-62
  Stéphanie Buisine; Matthieu Courgeon; Aurélien Charles; Céline Clavel; Jean-Claude Martin; Ning Tan; Ouriel Grynszpan
In this article the role of different categories of postures in the detection, recognition, and interpretation of emotion in contextually rich scenarios, including ironic items, is investigated. Animated scenarios are designed with 3D virtual agents in order to test 3 conditions: In the 'still' condition, the narrative content was accompanied by emotional facial expressions without any body movements; in the 'idle' condition, emotionally neutral body movements were introduced; and in the 'congruent' condition, emotional body postures congruent with the character's facial expressions were displayed. Those conditions were examined by 27 subjects, and their impact on the viewers' attentional and emotional processes was assessed. The results highlight the importance of the contextual information to emotion recognition and irony interpretation. It is also shown that both idle and emotional postures improve the detection of emotional expressions. Moreover, emotional postures increase the perceived intensity of emotions and the realism of the animations.
A Picture is Worth a Thousand Words: Source Credibility Theory Applied to Logo and Website Design for Heightened Credibility and Consumer Trust BIBAFull-Text 63-93
  Paul Benjamin Lowry; David W. Wilson; William L. Haig
Websites are often the first or only interaction a consumer has with a firm in modern commerce. Because consumers tend to make decisions within the first few seconds of online interaction, the first impression given to users can greatly determine a website's success. Leveraging source credibility theory, a strategy is presented for building credibility derived from a user's initial impressions of a website, in online environments. The study demonstrates that logos designed to communicate traits of credibility (i.e., expertise and trustworthiness) can trigger positive credibility judgments about the firm's website and that this increase in perceived credibility results in greater trust and willingness to transact with the firm. In addition, the study demonstrates distinct effects on consumers' distrusting beliefs. The positive trust effects are magnified when the design of a website extends and complements the credibility-based logo design. This practice-supporting model further indicates how website designers can methodically design logos and websites that nonverbally communicate credibility information within the first few moments of a website interaction. [Supplemental materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of the International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction to view the free supplemental file: Online Appendix A.]
Statement of Removal BIBFull-Text W1
  Shin Dong-Hee; Choo Hyungseung

IJHCI 2014-02-01 Volume 30 Issue 2

Altered Visual Perception in Game Transfer Phenomena: An Empirical Self-Report Study BIBAFull-Text 95-105
  Angelica B. Ortiz de Gortari; Mark D. Griffiths
The aim of this study was to identify, classify, and explain gamers' perceptual experiences referred to as Visual Game Transfer Phenomena (VGTP) to contribute to the understanding of the effects of post-video-game playing and encourage healthy and safe gaming. A total of 656 experiences from 483 gamers were collected from 54 online gaming forums. The findings suggest that intensive playing can result in misperceptions and visual distortions of real-life objects and environments, stereotypical visual experiences that arise from mind visualization, and pseudo-hallucinatory experiences with video game content. Gamers' experiences can be explained by the interplay of physiological, perceptual, and cognitive mechanisms. Observation of video game features suggests that in most cases a relationship between the games' structural characteristics, gamers' VGTP experiences, and gamers' playing habits appeared relevant. VGTP can occur while gaming, immediately after stopping play, or after some delay. Further VGTP characteristics and their psychosocial implications are discussed.
Engagement in Online Social Networks: The Impact of Self-Disclosure and Humor BIBAFull-Text 106-125
  Jehad Imlawi; Dawn Gregg
This study proposes an engagement model that supports acceptance and use of course-based online social networks for engaging student, hence improving the instructor's credibility. This research demonstrates that instructors who create course-based online social networks can increase student engagement in these online social networks and improve the instructor's credibility. This increase in engagement is seen when the instructor posts private information related to the course and when the instructor makes humorous posts. However, it is not seen when the instructor posts private information unrelated to the course. These results should be useful for instructors who are trying to improve student engagement and to enhance their own credibility. This research utilizes communication privacy management theory and instructional humor processing theory to expand our understanding of how instructor self-disclosure and use of humor via a course-based social network impacts student outcomes. The research also contributes to the theory by providing an engagement model that is unique to online educational settings.
An Analytical Approach to Creating Multitouch Gesture Vocabularies in Mobile Devices: A Case Study for Mobile Web Browsing Gestures BIBAFull-Text 126-141
  Wonkyu Park; Sung H. Han
This study proposes an analytical approach to the creation of multitouch control-gesture vocabularies applicable to mobile devices. The approach consists of four steps: (a) identifying target commands, (b) extracting gesture features of the target commands, (c) analyzing usage patterns based on elements that consist of multitouch gestures, and (d) creating gesture vocabularies based on the gesture features and elements. Usefulness and practicality of the proposed approach were validated in a case study. The case study created 11 mobile web browsing gestures to improve short-cut interactions. Six volunteers created gestures based on systematic procedures and practical methods. A total of 314 gestures were created in the case study, and the results were compared with those of a previous study that used an empirical approach to design control gestures. The proposed approach helped designers to create appropriate gestures for various commands on mobile devices. It was very practicable for all designers, including even novice users.
Attractive Agents Are More Persuasive BIBAFull-Text 142-150
  Rabia Fatima Khan; Alistair Sutcliffe
Advances in more ubiquitous human-computer interface technologies have resulted in the increased use of virtual agents, thus highlighting the need to understand the impact these artificial entities have on the human user in terms of how the user both perceives and behaves toward these characters. We report the results of an experiment based on the Desert Survival task, where the effect of agent attractiveness on persuasion was tested. The results suggest that the attractive agent was significantly more persuasive in changing the participant's opinion than was the unattractive agent. Furthermore, greater behavioral change was observed when the participant interacted with the attractive agent, in terms of persuasiveness, including the attribution of more positive personality traits toward this agent (the attractiveness stereotype). These findings provide further evidence of the powerful influence of the agent's physical appearance on the human user in an interaction-based context. We conclude by pointing toward future research and potential within the area.
Effects of Luminosity Contrast and Stimulus Duration on User Performance and Preference in a P300-Based Brain-Computer Interface BIBAFull-Text 151-163
  Yueqing Li; Sangwoo Bahn; Chang S. Nam; Jungnyun Lee
Brain-computer interfaces (BCI) have potential to provide a new channel of communication and control for people with severe motor disabilities. Although many empirical studies exist, few have specifically evaluated the impact of contributing factors on user performance and perception in BCI applications, especially for users with motor disabilities. This article reports the effects of luminosity contrast and stimulus duration on user performance and usage preference in a P300-based BCI application, P300 Speller. Ten participants with neuromuscular disabilities (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and cerebral palsy) and 10 able-bodied participants were asked to spell six 10-character phrases in the P300 Speller. The overall accuracy was 76.5% for the able-bodied participants and 26.8% for participants with motor disabilities. The results showed that luminosity contrast and stimulus duration have significant effects on user performance. In addition, participants preferred high luminosity contrast with middle or short stimulus duration. However, these effects on user performance and preference varied for participants with and without motor disabilities. The results also indicated that although most participants with motor disabilities can establish BCI control, BCI illiteracy does exist. These results of the study should provide insights into the future research of the BCI systems, especially the real-world applicability of the BCI applications as a nonmuscular communication and control system for people with severe motor disabilities.
Explaining Extreme Mobile Experiences BIBAFull-Text 164-176
  Markus Salo
Extreme service or product experiences have a major influence on perceptions and behavior. Therefore, numerous studies have collected such single positive and negative experiences to understand which factors affect (dis)satisfaction, value, and quality. However, most of these studies lack the process approach needed for understanding why and how these experiences take place and proceed, whereas the context of mobile applications has also remained highly unexplored. This study aims to fill the gap by presenting the mobile experience process model with empirical evidence of extreme experiences from 606 actual mobile application users. With the help of the model and the detailed descriptions of its elements, researchers and practitioners will be able to understand triggers, interactions, and perceptions that build up to single experiences and identify differences between positive and negative extreme experiences as well as different application types.

IJHCI 2014-03-04 Volume 30 Issue 3

The Role of Search Result Position and Source Trustworthiness in the Selection of Web Search Results When Using a List or a Grid Interface BIBAFull-Text 177-191
  Yvonne Kammerer; Peter Gerjets
Previous research indicates that web users rely to a great extent on the ranking provided by the search engine and predominantly access the first few web pages presented. In case that the information sources presented in the top of the search engine results page (SERP) are of rather low trustworthiness, this might lead to a biased or incomplete view of the topic -- especially when dealing with controversial issues. Study 1, thus, systematically investigated whether participants who were asked to search for an unfamiliar and controversial medical issue accessed fewer trustworthy information sources and consequently included less information from trustworthy pages in their argumentation when the search results were ranked from least to most trustworthy on a Google-like SERP than when they were ranked from most to least trustworthy. Results from Study 1 confirmed these assumptions. Furthermore, Study 2 showed that when the same materials were presented in a grid interface, the impact of the position of the search results on their selection was substantially reduced. Irrespective of whether the most trustworthy search results were presented in the top or the bottom row of the grid interface, users predominantly selected the most trustworthy search results from the SERP and included the same amount of information from trustworthy pages in their argumentation.
Exploring the Impact of Food Craving and Pleasure Technologies on Aesthetic Experience in Digital Media BIBAFull-Text 192-205
  Wendy Ann Mansilla; Andrew Perkis; Touradj Ebrahimi
Humans are known to be good in creating pleasure technologies. In fact, some evolutionary psychologists believe that aesthetic experiences are biologically hardwired. This article reviews how the pleasure stimulus concept can be explored to enhance human experience in digital media. It is argued that the individual's consumption motivation is more than the by-products of the biological pleasure circuits. For instance, in daily life, one experiences various information processing, some of which does not emerge into one's explicit consciousness but relevantly contributes to one's experience. Although craving or desiring is mostly an explicit process, it can also manifest as an unconscious aspect of experience leading to an irrational or intrusive thoughts that can in turn alter or contribute to the aesthetic character of an experience. Using Quality of Experience assessment methodologies and extensive literature from a multidisciplinary standpoint, this article shows that intrusive mental concepts on food craving saliently affect the user's aesthetic experience and perception of quality in digital media.
The Impact of Advertising Location and User Task on the Emergence of Banner Ad Blindness: An Eye-Tracking Study BIBAFull-Text 206-219
  Marc Resnick; William Albert
The purpose of this study is to explore the emergence of ad banner blindness in the viewing of e-commerce home pages. Building on the literature on inattention blindness and banner blindness, this article assessed the gaze path of users in goal-directed and free-viewing tasks when viewing pages with advertising banners on the right side of the page and on the top of the page above the main navigation menu. The hypotheses are tested using an analysis of variance. Using an eye-tracking methodology, the results identify significant differences in visual attention for banner ad location and for task type. Banner blindness is strongest for advertising banners on the right side of the page and for goal-directed tasks. Neither participants' ratings of page visual appeal or of page familiarity could explain the findings. The study contributes to the existing literature by resolving some of the cognitive factors that lead to banner blindness and supplementing previous research that focused on relevant perceptual factors.
Automatic Stress Classification With Pupil Diameter Analysis BIBAFull-Text 220-236
  Marco Pedrotti; Mohammad Ali Mirzaei; Adrien Tedesco; Jean-Rémy Chardonnet; Frédéric Mérienne; Simone Benedetto; Thierry Baccino
This article proposes a method based on wavelet transform and neural networks for relating pupillary behavior to psychological stress. The proposed method was tested by recording pupil diameter and electrodermal activity during a simulated driving task. Self-report measures were also collected. Participants performed a baseline run with the driving task only, followed by three stress runs where they were required to perform the driving task along with sound alerts, the presence of two human evaluators, and both. Self-reports and pupil diameter successfully indexed stress manipulation, and significant correlations were found between these measures. However, electrodermal activity did not vary accordingly. After training, the four-way parallel neural network classifier could guess whether a given unknown pupil diameter signal came from one of the four experimental trials with 79.2% precision. The present study shows that pupil diameter signal has good discriminating power for stress detection.
Multipurpose Public Displays: Can Automated Grouping of Applications and Services Enhance User Experience? BIBAFull-Text 237-249
  Christos Katsanos; Nikolaos Tselios; Jorge Goncalves; Tomi Juntunen; Vassilis Kostakos
Transitioning from bespoke single-purpose displays to multipurpose public interactive displays entails a number of challenges. One challenge is the development of usable mechanisms that allow users to explore the functionality and services on such displays. This article presents a field trial that employs AutoCardSorter, a tool that uses semantic similarity and clustering algorithms, to automatically group the available applications of a public interactive display into categories based on the developer-provided descriptions of each application. The results demonstrate that the grouping generated by AutoCardSorter improved both performance and self-reported usability measures compared to practitioners' existing grouping. In addition, the study investigated the interplay between grouping and interaction modality (i.e., public display vs. desktop). Results tend to support that grouping affects more the user experience with a multipurpose interactive display, but findings were insignificant. This work provides a way for public displays to dynamically update their offered services without sacrificing usability.
The Cognitive Benefit of Dynamic Representations on Procedural Skill Acquisition: A Computational Modeling Approach BIBAFull-Text 250-265
  Olurotimi Richard Akinlofa; Patrik O'Brian Holt; Eyad Elyan
Cognitive computational modeling is a viable methodology for further investigation of the hitherto inconclusive findings on the cognitive benefits of dynamic versus static visualization components of instructions. This is more so as contemporary cognitive architectures such as the Adaptive Control of Thought-Rational (ACT-R) 6.0 are increasingly applied to traditional cognitive psychology research problems. The application of this methodology is, however, restricted by the limited capability of existing architectures for implementing detailed atomic motor actions such as those involved in complex skill acquisition and performance. This article presents a 2-component computational modeling methodology for investigating the cognitive processes involved in the acquisition and performance of skilled motor tasks. The approach specifies a novel combination of a sequence-of-point technique with a movement control mechanism to implement variously acquired cognitive mental task representations and their intertwined role in postlearning performance as evident in the atomic control of motor actions. This paradigm is validated for 2 experiments using incrementally developed cognitive models developed in ACT-R 6.0. The model's quantitative outputs correlate significantly with equivalent empirical human data. This has implications for multimedia instructional design, especially where rapid, transferrable skill acquisition is desired on initial exposure.

IJHCI 2014-04-03 Volume 30 Issue 4

The Impact of Function Location on Typing and Pointing Tasks With an Intraoral Tongue-Computer Interface BIBAFull-Text 267-277
  Héctor A. Caltenco; Eugen R. Lontis; Bo Bentsen; Lotte N. S. Andreasen Struijk
Intraoral target (typing) and on-screen target (pointing/tracking) selection tasks were performed by 10 participants during 3 consecutive day sessions. Tasks were performed using 2 different intraoral sensor layouts. Reduction of undesired sensor activations while speaking as well as the influence of intraoral temperature variation on the signals of the intraoral interface was investigated. Results showed that intraoral target selection tasks were performed better when the respective sensor was located in the anterior area of the palate, reaching 78 and 16 activations per minute for repetitive and 'unordered' sequences, respectively. Virtual target pointing and tracking tasks, of circles of 50, 70, and 100 pixels diameter, showed no significant difference in performance, reaching average pointing throughputs of 0.62 to 0.72 bits per second and relative time on target of 34% to 60%. Speaking tasks caused an average of 10 to 31 involuntary activations per minute in the anterior part of the palate. Intraoral temperature variation between 11.87 °C and 51.37 °C affected the sensor signal baseline in a range from -25.34% to 48.31%. Results from this study provide key design considerations to further increase the efficiency of tongue-computer interfaces for individuals with upper-limb mobility impairments.
Internet Skills, Sources of Support, and Benefiting From Internet Use BIBAFull-Text 278-290
  Alexander J. A. M. van Deursen; Cédric Courtois; Jan A. G. M. van Dijk
This study added communication Internet skills to an existing skill framework of operational, formal, information, and strategic skills. The study investigated how people deal with inadequate skill levels by identifying support sources. Furthermore, we investigated which of the Internet skills actually matter for attaining beneficial Internet outcomes and whether support sources employed moderate these effects. Results of a large-scale survey revealed three support patterns: independents, social support seekers, and formal help seekers. The newly added communication skills prove to be an important addition because they have an independent effect on beneficial Internet use. The group of independent Internet users benefited more from Internet use than formal help seekers and much more than social support seekers. Internet communication skills hold the potential for achieving a high degree of independence in using the Internet by compensating for information skills so as to attain beneficial Internet outcomes.
Effects of Visual Stimulus on Response Behavior of Control-on-Display Interface BIBAFull-Text 291-302
  Ji Hyoun Lim; Taebeum Ryu; Youngsu Kim
Control-on-display interfaces enable a direct and intuitive manipulation by inducing control directly through the visual stimuli, thereby reducing information-processing stages and improving feed-forward property. The visual information displayed on such devices act not only as visual stimuli but also as controllers. This study investigated the effect of visual stimulus on users' response behavior while using touch screen. Three characteristics of visual stimulus were investigated: (a) shape of visual stimulus requesting simple tap reaction, (b) contrast between figure and background, and (c) existence of precue on upcoming event. The effects of the selected factors were tested using the response time and the response accuracy measured by 2D deviation vectors. A full factorial experimental design, followed by a multivariate analysis of variance and pairwise comparisons showed that the shift of the center of area from the circumcenter of the stimuli affects the location where fingertip touched, the different background contrast affects both the time and accuracy, and it is confirmed that precue speeds up the response times and improves accuracy in control-on-display interaction.
Emotional Dimensions of User Experience: A User Psychological Analysis BIBAFull-Text 303-320
  Pertti Saariluomaand; Jussi P. P. Jokinen
User psychology is a human-technology interaction research approach that uses psychological concepts, theories, and findings to structure problems of human-technology interaction. As the notion of user experience has become central in human-technology interaction research and in product development, it is necessary to investigate the user psychology of user experience. This analysis of emotional human-technology interaction is based on the psychological theory of basic emotions. Three studies, two laboratory experiments, and one field study are used to investigate the basic emotions and the emotional mind involved in user experience. The first and second experiments study the measurement of subjective emotional experiences during novel human-technology interaction scenarios in a laboratory setting. The third study explores these aspects in a real-world environment. As a result of these experiments, a bipolar competence-frustration model is proposed, which can be used to understand the emotional aspects of user experience.
An Empirical Investigation Into Text Input Methods for Interactive Digital Television Applications BIBAFull-Text 321-341
  Aurora Barrero; David Melendi; Xabiel G. Pañeda; Roberto García; Sergio Cabrero
Nowadays there is a huge market emerging in the interactive digital TV realm. In this context, we need new and effective methods of user interaction, as the main interaction device is still the classical remote control. Remote controls are especially problematic when it comes to writing text, something needed in most applications. Thus, we have carried out an empirical investigation to find effective methods of text entry with remote controls. We analyze several methods by performing experiments based on a methodology in which a heterogeneous set of real users carries out several sequential tasks in an incremental process. We analyze entry speeds, error rates, learning profiles, and subjective impressions, taking into account the particular characteristics of the users. Our results show, for instance, that Multitap is a good method for simple texts. It is between 12% and 34% faster than the fastest virtual keyboard, depending on the age of the user. Nevertheless, when complex texts need to be written, virtual keyboards present the same or even better writing speeds (QWERTY is 13% faster) and with significant lower error rates (Multitap is 347% worse than QWERTY). We consider that our results are very interesting for researchers, designers of TV applications, and hardware vendors.

IJHCI 2014-05-04 Volume 30 Issue 5

Measuring Cognitive Load Using Linguistic Features: Implications for Usability Evaluation and Adaptive Interaction Design BIBAFull-Text 343-368
  M. Asif Khawaja; Fang Chen; Nadine Marcus
An intelligent adaptable system, aware of a user's experienced cognitive load, may help improve performance in complex, time-critical situations by dynamically deploying more appropriate output strategies to reduce cognitive load. However, measuring a user's cognitive load robustly, in real-time is not a trivial task. Many research studies have attempted to assess users' cognitive load using different measurements, but these are often unsuitable for deployment in real-life applications due to high intrusiveness. Relatively novel linguistic behavioral features as potential indices of user's cognitive load is proposed. These features may be collected implicitly and nonintrusively supporting real-time assessment of users' cognitive load and accordingly allowing adaptive usability evaluation and interaction. Results from a laboratory experiment show significantly different linguistic patterns under different task complexities and cognitive load levels. Implications of the research for adaptive interaction are also discussed, that is, how the cognitive load measurement-based approach could be used for user interface evaluation and interaction design improvement.
Socially Assistive Robots in Elderly Care: A Mixed-Method Systematic Literature Review BIBAFull-Text 369-393
  Reza Kachouie; Sima Sedighadeli; Rajiv Khosla; Mei-Tai Chu
The world's population is aging, and developed countries are engaged in developing a new aged-care paradigm to reduce spiraling healthcare costs. Assistive technologies like Socially Assistive Robots (SAR) are being considered as enablers to support the process of care giving or keep elderly at home longer. This article reports a mixed-method systematic review of SAR in elderly care and recognizes its impact on elderly well-being, integrating evidence from qualitative and quantitative studies. It follows the principles explained in Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions and classifies interventions, measures, and outcomes of field trials of SAR in elderly care. Eighty-six studies in 37 study groups have been included. The findings imply positive effects of SAR on elderly well-being. Ten significant recommendations are made to help avoid the current limitations of existing research and to improve future research and its applicability. This review revealed that SAR can potentially enhance elderly well-being and decrease the workload on caregivers. There is a need for rigorous research methodology, person-centered care, caregiver expectation model, multimodal interaction, multimodal data collection, and modeling of culturally diverse groups to facilitate acceptability of SAR.
The Influence of Network Structural Properties on Information Dissemination Power in Microblogging Systems BIBAFull-Text 394-407
  Qin Gao; Chao Sun; Chunyan Yang
The potential of microblogging networks to spread information, ideas, and influence via social links has been recognized. Individuals at central or critical positions in the microblogging networks are expected to play an important role in spreading information, but this belief must be tested with empirical investigations in actual information dissemination. Furthermore, it is possible that individuals with different types of structural importance influence the information dissemination in different ways. This article examines the impact of five structural properties (degree, betweenness, closeness, tie strength, and k-value) on information dissemination capabilities by tracking the dissemination of 150 messages in Sina Weibo. The results highlight the importance of betweenness centrality, which best explains the influence on information dissemination distance and coverage size. It also best predicts the information dissemination efficiency. Degree centrality is found to be a strong predictor of one's influence among immediate followers. Tie strength negatively correlates with influence on the information dissemination distance and coverage size. These structural properties address different aspects of the information dissemination power and should be used in a complementary way when planning information dissemination strategies in microblogging systems.
Widgets Dedicated to User Interface Evaluation BIBAFull-Text 408-421
  Selem Charfi; Abdelwaheb Trabelsi; Houcine Ezzedine; Christophe Kolski
In this article, evaluation-based widgets are proposed as a contribution to assist evaluators for early evaluation of user interfaces. This contribution imbricates the ergonomic quality evaluation process into widgets used for user-interface graphical composition. In other words, these widgets evaluate themselves according to a defined set of ergonomic guidelines. The proposed widgets indicate the possible interface design ergonomic inconsistencies as a notification to the designer. The guidelines set can be modified through an interface dedicated to guidelines definition into XML files. The proposed widgets are intended for the evaluation of different kind of user interfaces: WIMP, web, and mobile. An experimental evaluation, involving these evaluation-based widgets, is proposed to illustrate and to validate the approach.
Study of User Search Activities With Two Discovery Tools at an Academic Library BIBAFull-Text 422-433
  Xi Niu; Tao Zhang; Hsin-liang Chen
The goal of this study was to investigate and compare user search activities of 2 discovery tools at an academic library. The implementation of a new discovery tool (Primo by Ex Libris) to replace an existing system (VuFind) provided a unique opportunity to collect transaction logs of both systems and examine user search behavior in an empirical test. Results from a transaction log analysis and a user study of this study have contributed to the understanding of users' search behavior and their preferences and perceptions of the two systems. We find both commonalities and differences between VuFind and Primo for users' interactions. The combination use of the transaction log analysis and user study could be applied to other similar search systems assessments.

IJHCI 2014-06-03 Volume 30 Issue 6

Assessing Older Adults' Information Technology Ability: The Development of a Multiple Item Scale BIBAFull-Text 435-445
  Tai-Kuei Yu; Cheng-Min Chao
This study develops a comprehensive model and questionnaire to measure Taiwanese older adults' individual information technology ability. The instrument in this study consists of 13 items across 3 factors and serves as a reliable, valid, and useful measure for assessing older adults' information technology ability. In total, 396 usable responses are obtained from 231 male and 165 female participants, where the average age was 71.66. Drawing on some of the key factors that influence older adults' information technology ability, this article offers a new perspective on this multifaceted topic. The results provide evidence of the dimensionality, reliability, and validity of older adults' abilities in terms of information technology.
Snap Target: Investigating an Assistance Technique for Mobile Magic Lens Interaction With Large Displays BIBAFull-Text 446-458
  Matthias Baldauf; Peter Fröhlich
Modern handheld devices can act as 'magic lenses' for public displays and enable camera-based real-time interaction with their contents, thus allowing for manifold interactive applications in public space. To learn more about the characteristics of common techniques and to provide guidelines for new ones, a comparative user study was conducted. With regard to two basic task types (selection and translation) and two typical devices (smartphone and tablet), three interaction techniques in-depth were evaluated: direct touch-based input (Touch), cross-hair targeting (Target), and a new technique based on a dynamic cross-hair on the screen that snaps to visible nearby screen objects (Snap Target). The study results indicate that successful interaction with the Touch technique strongly depends on the usage context: Although Touch enables fast selection, it incurs many errors when small targets have to be selected on a smartphone. Target supports such difficult selections better, but Snap Target proved to be most robust in both investigated task types. Also, users stated that they felt best supported by the latter technique. Cross-hair-based techniques, especially Snap Target, were found to be well suitable for scenarios where several device types need to be supported under similar conditions. Implications and further work are discussed.
Embodied Robot versus Virtual Agent: Involvement of Preschool Children in Motor Task Performance BIBAFull-Text 459-469
  Marina Fridin; Mark Belokopytov
Embodied robots are known to be preferable in most cases to their virtual agents for interaction with and performance by human subjects. This study compared the efficacy of an embodied robot-coacher and its virtual agent in involving preschool children in the performance of playlike motor tasks. The robot or its virtual agent demonstrated movements, asked the children to repeat them, and provided positive feedback on their performance. The difficulty of the motor tasks was increased over the course of the session. Two groups of children were studied, one of them with and the other without previous experience of interaction with the embodied robot. In the experienced group, involvement in motor tasks was successfully induced by both the embodied robot and its virtual agent, but the children interacted less well with the virtual agent than with the embodied robot. Children in the inexperienced group did not interact at all during the experiment with the virtual agent. Because participants in the experiment were preschool children in their natural environment, this study proposes the combined use of an embodied robot and its virtual agent for motor involvement.
Effects of Laptop Touchpad Texturing on User Performance BIBAFull-Text 470-479
  Sameerajan Suresh; David Kaber; Michael Clamann
This research assessed user performance with different laptop touchpad textures. In specific, the study measured discrete movement task time and accuracy. It was hypothesized that texturing would increase task times but improve accuracy by providing users with tactile references. A variable representing the frictional potential of pads was introduced into an established model of discrete movement performance (Fitts' Law) in an attempt to accurately model user performance under experimental task conditions. Results revealed touchpad texturing to degrade task performance. However, accuracy in pointing tasks was not significantly affected. Results also revealed that the expanded form of Fitts' Law, including a parameter for representing the frictional potential of pad texturing, was more predictive of actual movement times than the original form of the Law. Results from the study increase understanding of the effects of touchpad texture on human motor control behavior and provide some guidance for future pad design.
An Accessible Platform for People With Disabilities BIBAFull-Text 480-494
  Carlos Rivas-Costa; Luis Anido-Rifón; Manuel J. Fernández-Iglesias; Miguel A. Gómez-Carballa; Sonia Valladares-Rodríguez; Roberto Soto-Barreiros
This article discusses a modular, accessible platform that provides a computing environment for people with disabilities accessible through adapted control devices and the television set at users' homes. Relying on a standard television set as the presentation device allows dependent individuals, especially people with disabilities, to introduce new technological advances in communication and information management in their everyday lives. As a proof-of-concept, the solution presented offers a collection of educational and training services related to teleworking and the search of employment targeted to people with disabilities. A smart job advisor included among these services, which was designed to help our target users to locate job offers that best suit the abilities and disabilities of a particular individual, is also discussed to illustrate how semantic technologies can be applied to increase the perceived accessibility and inclusion by reducing the dependence from other persons. The platform developed, the introduction of semantic technologies, and the way adapted interfacing and presentation devices were integrated may also serve as inspiration to provide services to people with disabilities.
Toward an Objective Linguistic-Based Measure of Perceived Embodied Conversational Agent Power and Likeability BIBAFull-Text 495-516
  Matthew D. Pickard; Judee K. Burgoon; Douglas C. Derrick
Embodied conversational agents (ECA) are a type of intelligent, multimodal computer interface that allow computers to interact with humans in a face-to-face manner. It is quite feasible that ECAs will someday replace the common keyboard as a human-computer interface. However, we have much to understand about how people interact with such embodied virtual agents. In this study, we performed a laboratory experiment, in an airport screening context, to assess how people's linguistic behavior changes with their perceptions of the ECA's power and likeability. The results show that people tend to manifest more verbal immediacy and expressivity, as well as offer more information about themselves, with ECAs they perceive as more likeable and less powerful.

IJHCI 2014-07-03 Volume 30 Issue 7

Special Section Introduction BIBFull-Text 517
  Ji Soo Yi
Measuring Software Screen Complexity: Relating Eye Tracking, Emotional Valence, and Subjective Ratings BIBAFull-Text 518-532
  Joseph H. Goldberg
Enterprise software pages, routinely used to conduct a variety of business-relevant tasks, must be clear and nonconfusing to experienced end users. A study was conducted to consider the impact of several page design factors (background gradient, font, and font size) on perceived ratings of page clarity, completion time, emotional valence (EV) from video, and several eye-tracking parameters. Twenty professional managers each completed 25 tasks on enterprise web pages designed with specific combinations of these factors. Highly rated pages had Tahoma and Larger fonts, compared to Calibri and Smaller fonts. The Gradient background did not influence ratings but did increase the search area and completion time. Although EV was not a sensitive measure across tasks, it was influenced by font differences in the first few seconds of page presentation. Overall, the use of background gradient was not supported, but both Tahoma and Larger fonts were supported for these enterprise pages.
The Effects of Experience and Strategy on Visual Attention Allocation in an Automated Multiple-Task Environment BIBAFull-Text 533-546
  Ralph H. Cullen; Chiu Shun Dan; Wendy A. Rogers; Arthur D. Fisk
Operators and users interacting with computer environments often have to deal with multiple tasks at once, responding to each in series. Diagnostic automation, that is, automation that alerts users when and where to look, has been suggested to support the unique challenges of multiple task environments: activating tasks, switching between tasks, and tasks interfering with each other. Automation is not always reliable, however. Because of the common interaction with novel systems and the importance of training, the Simultaneous Task Environment Platform program -- a multiple-task environment -- was developed to understand the effects of experience on interaction with these automation-supported systems, as well as what strategies were developed. It was found that participants became more efficient with experience only when they interacted with higher reliability automation. Furthermore, the strategies participants developed focused on the differences between tasks and patterns across those tasks. Automated systems training should be sure to employ these findings.
Determinants of Postadoption Behaviors of Mobile Communications Applications: A Dual-Model Perspective BIBAFull-Text 547-559
  Byoungsoo Kim; Minhyung Kang; Hyeon Jo
Given the rapid development of mobile technologies and the high adoption rates of mobile devices, mobile communications applications (MCAs) are becoming increasingly popular worldwide. In the highly competitive and rapidly changing MCA market, it is becoming important to understand users' postadoption behaviors toward MCAs. Previous postadoption studies have focused on continuous use, but the success of MCAs is also affected by positive word of mouth. To deepen our understanding of postadoption behaviors in the MCA environment, this study examined the key determinants of continuance intention and recommendation intention, two critical postadoption behaviors. Moreover, this study investigated the effects of dedication and constraint factors on MCA postadoption phenomena from a dual-model perspective. Data collected from 250 users experienced with an MCA were empirically tested against a theoretical framework using partial least squares. The results confirm that the proposed model substantially predicted the postadoption behaviors of MCA users. These findings indicate that both user satisfaction and perceived switching costs play an important role in enhancing users' continuance and recommendation intentions. Learning and habit were found to be the key antecedents of perceived switching costs. Implications for research and practice are described.
Personal Remote Assistance in Ambient Assisted Living -- Experimental Research of Elderly People's Trust and Their Intention to Use BIBAFull-Text 560-574
  Frederick Steinke; Alexander Ingenhoff; Tobias Fritsch
The objective of this article is to analyze the meaning of two different support functions regarding the use of Ambient Assisted Living (AAL). Thirty-two older persons (M age = 69.84, SD = 6.31) and a younger control group (n = 21; M age = 24.71, SD = 2.10) were examined in an experiment with three different tasks using a tablet computer. The first group operated with a mock-up that provided personal remote assistance (PRA) and the second group with one that provided embedded technical assistance (ETA). The main results show that older participants with PRA solve significantly more tasks than people with ETA. Moreover, a significant influence of perceived ease of use with PRA is revealed. Multiple regressions in the senior sample highlight a significant connection between trust in AAL technology and perceived reliability as well as perceived ease of use. No significant correlation between the type of assistance and older persons' trust, as well as an intention to use AAL, was found.
The Relationship Between System Effectiveness and Subjective Usability Scores Using the System Usability Scale BIBAFull-Text 575-584
  Philip Kortum; S. Camille Peres
This article examines the relationship between users' subjective usability assessments, as measured using the System Usability Scale (SUS), and the ISO metric of effectiveness, using task success as the measure. The article reports the results of two studies designed to explore the relationship between SUS scores and user success rates for a variety of interfaces. The first study was a field study, where stereotypical usability assessments on a variety of products and services were performed. The second study was a well-controlled laboratory study where the level of success that users were able to achieve was controlled. For both studies, the relationship between SUS scores and their attendant performance were examined at both the individual level and the average system level. Although the correlations are far from perfect, there are reliable and reasonably strong positive correlations between subjective usability measures and task success rates, for both the laboratory and field studies at both the individual and system level.
A Taxonomy-Based Usability Study of an Intelligent Speed Adaptation Device BIBAFull-Text 585-603
  David Alonso-Ríos; Eduardo Mosqueira-Rey; Vicente Moret-Bonillo
Usability studies are often based on ad hoc definitions of usability. These studies can be difficult to generalize, they might have a steep learning curve, and there is always the danger of being inconsistent with the concept of usability as defined in standards and the literature. This alternative approach involves comprehensive, general-purpose, and hierarchically structured taxonomies that follow closely the main usability literature. These taxonomies are then instantiated for a specific product. To illustrate this approach, a usability study for a prototype of an Intelligent Speed Adaptation device is described. The usability study consists of usability requirements analysis, heuristic evaluation, and subjective analysis, which helped identify problems of clarity, operability, robustness, safety, and aesthetics. As a context-specific usability taxonomy for this particular field of application happened to exist, the way that real-world usability results can be mapped to that taxonomy compared to the taxonomy in this article is examined, with the argument that this study's taxonomy is more complete and generalizable.
Visual Search in Authentication Systems Based on Memorized Faces: Effects of Memory Load and Retention Interval BIBAFull-Text 604-611
  L. Huestegge; L. Pimenidis
Authentication systems based on a graphical login scheme employing face images have been discussed as a potential alternative to passwords. Typically, users are asked to memorize several faces that, during login, need to be recognized among distractor faces. In the present study, we analyzed the impact of memory load (4, 6, 8 to-be-remembered faces) and retention interval (hour, day, week, month) on performance in 72 participants. We found no evidence for strong performance decrements when memory load increased. Longer retention intervals yielded a slight increase of login failures, but post hoc analyses indicated that this was mainly due to worse performance of few individuals in the upper part of our age distribution. Display search times increased with longer retention interval, probably reflecting decay or retrieval problems in long-term memory. Users utilized global scanning strategies within the search arrays. Implications for face-based authentication system design are discussed.

IJHCI 2014-08-03 Volume 30 Issue 8

Special Issue on Human-Computer Interaction in the Asia-Pacific Region BIBFull-Text 613-614
  Kentaro Go; Xiangshi Ren
Effects of Trust on Group Buying Websites in China BIBAFull-Text 615-626
  Na Chen; Pei-Luen Patrick Rau
Trust plays an important role in the transaction of e-commerce. This research aimed to investigate (a) the influences of trust on Chinese group-buying websites, (b) the differences of trust between group-buying and business to consumer (B2C) websites, and (c) the applicability of the theory of reasoned action and Gefen's summarization of trust antecedents for Chinese group buying. The study consisted of (a) a prequestionnaire measuring general trust, (b) an in-lab experiment, and (c) a short open interview. Three major results were found. First, Cognition-Based Trust Antecedent was the most important factor influencing Chinese customers' trust and purchasing probabilities of both B2C and group-buying websites. Second, participants showed significantly lower general trust on group-buying websites. However, in the same trust situations, participants show significantly higher purchasing probabilities on group-buying websites. Third, the theory of reasoned action and Gefen's summarization of trust antecedents were not applicable for Chinese group buying.
Using Social Media Platforms for Human-Robot Interaction in Domestic Environment BIBAFull-Text 627-642
  Xiaoning Ma; Xin Yang; Shengdong Zhao; Chi-Wing Fu; Ziquan Lan; Yiming Pu
This article explores the application of existing social media platforms for human-robot interaction. With the increasing popularity of social media platforms that connect humans, we propose to portray domestic robots as buddies on the contact list of family members and present a robot management system that employs complementary social media platforms for humans to interact with the vacuuming robot Roomba and a surveillance robot developed on top of iRobot Create. The social media platforms adopted include short message services (SMS), instant messenger (MSN), an online shared calendar (Google Calendar), and a social networking site (Facebook). Hence, we can provide a rich set of user-familiar, intuitive, and highly accessible interfaces, allowing users to flexibly choose their preferred tools in different situations. An in-lab experiment and a multiday field study are conducted to study the characteristics and strengths of each interface and to investigate users' perception to the robots and behaviors in choosing the interfaces.
Evaluation of Flick and Ring Scrolling on Touch-Based Smartphones BIBAFull-Text 643-653
  Huawei Tu; Xiangshi Ren; Feng Tian; Feng Wang
This study examined the performance of two scrolling techniques (flick and ring) for document navigation in touch-based mobile phones using three input methods (index finger, pen, and thumb), with specific consideration given to two postures: sitting and walking. The findings are as follows: (a) in both sitting and walking postures, for the three input methods, flick resulted in shorter movement time and fewer crossings than ring, suggesting flick is superior to ring for document navigation; (b) for sitting posture, regarding pen and thumb input, ring led to shorter movement time than flick for large target distances, indicating ring has a potential interaction advantage; (c) regarding sitting and walking postures, both flick and ring document scrolling in touch-based mobile phones can be modeled by the Anderson model (Andersen, 2005). Designers of future scrolling techniques should consider these differences, as well as exploit the advantages and avoid the disadvantages of ring and flick scrolling.
An Investigation Into the Relationship Between Texture and Human Performance in Steering and Gesture Input Tasks BIBAFull-Text 654-662
  Minghui Sun; Xiangshi Ren; Huawei Tu; Feng Tian
This article experimentally investigates user performances with various surface textures in steering and gesture input tasks. Results reveal that (a) low friction material makes users spend more time on each task, and (b) although low friction material benefits the smoothness of trajectory, it causes more trajectory errors, and (c) users apply less force or pressure with slippery materials during the tasks. These findings are the more significant because they demonstrate that the common glass surface of most tablet surfaces is not the best kind of surface for optimum accuracy or for user satisfaction. The results suggest that users should be free to change the surface texture of the device in order to get natural and realistic haptic feedback according to different tasks and personal preferences.

IJHCI 2014-09-02 Volume 30 Issue 9

Usability: Lessons Learned ... and Yet to Be Learned BIBAFull-Text 663-684
  James R. Lewis
The philosopher of science J. W. Grove (1989) once wrote, "There is, of course, nothing strange or scandalous about divisions of opinion among scientists. This is a condition for scientific progress" (p. 133). Over the past 30 years, usability, both as a practice and as an emerging science, has had its share of controversies. It has inherited some from its early roots in experimental psychology, measurement, and statistics. Others have emerged as the field of usability has matured and extended into user-centered design and user experience. In many ways, a field of inquiry is shaped by its controversies. This article reviews some of the persistent controversies in the field of usability, starting with their history, then assessing their current status from the perspective of a pragmatic practitioner. Put another way: Over the past three decades, what are some of the key lessons we have learned, and what remains to be learned? Some of the key lessons learned are:
  • When discussing usability, it is important to distinguish between the goals
       and practices of summative and formative usability.
  • There is compelling rational and empirical support for the practice of
       iterative formative usability testing -- it appears to be effective in
       improving both objective and perceived usability.
  • When conducting usability studies, practitioners should use one of the
       currently available standardized usability questionnaires.
  • Because "magic number" rules of thumb for sample size requirements for
       usability tests are optimal only under very specific conditions,
       practitioners should use the tools that are available to guide sample size
       estimation rather than relying on "magic numbers."
  • Development and Psychometric Evaluation of the Emotional Metric Outcomes (EMO) Questionnaire BIBAFull-Text 685-702
      James R. Lewis; Daniel K. Mayes
    This article describes the development and psychometric evaluation of the Emotional Metric Outcomes (EMO) questionnaire -- a new questionnaire designed to assess the emotional outcomes of interaction, especially the interaction of customers with service-provider personnel or software. The EMO is a concise multifactor standardized questionnaire that provides an assessment of transaction-driven personal and relationship emotional outcomes, both positive and negative. The primary purpose of the EMO is to move beyond traditional assessment of satisfaction to achieve a more effective measurement of customers' emotional responses to products and processes. Psychometric evaluation showed that the EMO and its component scales had high reliability and concurrent validity with loyalty and overall experience metrics in a variety of measurement contexts. Concurrent measurement with the System Usability Scale (SUS) indicated that reported significant correlation of the SUS with likelihood-to-recommend ratings are probably primarily due to emotional rather than utilitarian aspects of the SUS.
    INVISQUE as a Tool for Intelligence Analysis: The Construction of Explanatory Narratives BIBAFull-Text 703-717
      Chris Rooney; Simon Attfield; B. L. William Wong; Sharmin Choudhury
    This article reports an exploratory user study in which a group of civil servants with experience of, or involvement in, intelligence analysis used the tool INVISQUE to address a problem using the 2011 VAST data set. INVISQUE uses a visual metaphor that combines searching, clustering, and sorting of document surrogates with free-form manipulation on an infinite canvas. The study looks into exposing the behaviors and related cognitive strategies that users would employ to better understand how this and similar environments might better support intelligence type work. The results include the observation that the search and spatial features of the system supported participants in establishing, elaborating, and systematically evaluating explanatory narratives that accounted for the data. Also, visual persistence at the interface allowed them to keep track of searches and to re-find documents when their importance became apparent. The article concludes with reflections on our findings and propose a set of guidelines for developing systems that support sensemaking.
    Gossiping Behavior on Social Networking Sites: Does Gender Matter? BIBAFull-Text 718-726
      Shintaro Okazaki; Natalia Rubio; Sara Campo
    This study examines how gender affects online gossip on social networking sites. Based on gender theories and agency-communion theory, it is posited that achievement value, friendship value, and normative pressure differ according to gender (female vs. male), the level of propensity to gossip (high vs. low), and the interaction between the two. An experimental survey is conducted with 809 general consumers. Between-subjects multivariate analysis of covariance reveals that gender has an impact only on friendship value, whereas propensity to gossip affects achievement value and normative pressure. No interaction effects are observed. However, a subsequent analysis of covariance finds an interaction between gender and propensity to gossip through electronic word-of-mouth for a high-involvement product. In closing, theoretical and managerial implications are discussed while important limitations are recognized.
    Older Adults' Text Entry on Smartphones and Tablets: Investigating Effects of Display Size and Input Method on Acceptance and Performance BIBAFull-Text 727-739
      Jia Zhou; Pei-Luen Patrick Rau; Gavriel Salvendy
    This study focuses on older adults' finger-based text entry on smartphones and tablets. Thirty-two older adults entered Chinese characters with two input methods (typing and handwriting) on touch screens with four display sizes (3.5 in., 5 in., 7 in., 9.7 in.). Their performance, acceptance, preference, and errors were recorded and thus four findings were found. First, on small displays (3.5 in. and 5 in.), handwriting contributed to shorter task completion time, higher perceived ease of use, and higher usage intention than typing, but no difference was observed on large displays (7 in. and 9.7 in.). Second, there is a gap of task completion time and perceived ease of use between 5 in. and 7 in. for typing, whereas there is no gap for handwriting. Third, participants' preference of 9.7 in. was almost the same as that of 7 in., and their preference of 7 in. was 1.5 times as strong as that of 5 in. Fourth, participants' finger-based text entry was prone to 13 types of errors. Many of these errors were caused by the mismatch between older adults' mental models and designers' mental models.
    A Comparative Study of Sonification Methods to Represent Distance and Forward-Direction in Pedestrian Navigation BIBAFull-Text 740-751
      Ibrar Hussain; Ling Chen; Hamid Turab Mirza; Kong Xing; Gencai Chen
    This article presents a new design of using nonspeech audio (i.e., earcons, spearcons, and short pulses) to represent distance and forward-direction for pedestrian navigation in eyes-free environment. Experiment in the field is carried out with the involvement of 15 participants using within-subject design to evaluate the newly developed earcons, spearcons, and short pulses for distance and forward-direction in pedestrian navigation. Results from the experiment suggest that spearcons are efficient in tasks completion, and it conveys distance and forward-direction information to participants more accurately compared with earcons and short pulses. Overall, participants have shown their satisfaction with spearcons as an audio feedback in pedestrian navigation.

    IJHCI 2014-10-03 Volume 30 Issue 10

    Special Issue on Ambient Interaction BIBFull-Text 753-754
      Diane J. Cook; Rui José; José Bravo
    O/live: Transparent Distribution, Persistence, and Partial Replication for Ubiquitous User Interfaces BIBAFull-Text 755-770
      Francisco J. Ballesteros; Gorka Guardiola; Enrique Soriano-Salvador
    This article is focused on the system side of the multidisciplinary problem of building User Interface Management Systems (UIMS) for distributed and heterogeneous I/O devices. It presents a new architecture that decouples applications from their interfaces by using distributed synthetic file system interfaces (similar to /proc on UNIX) to export user interface elements and a new UIMS, O/live, following this approach. The UIMS has been in use for several years on a daily basis, in our laboratory and personal computers. It supports transparent distribution, replication, and migration of user interface elements among highly heterogeneous devices. Moreover, it is highly programmable without the need for special tools, which (a) facilitates experimentation and iteration for new human-computer interaction techniques and (b) enables the creation of orthogonal services to manipulate programmatically and independently the elements of the distributed UI. This article describes both the approach and the O/live UIMS and window system.
    Ontology-Based Model for Supporting Dynamic and Adaptive User Interfaces BIBAFull-Text 771-786
      Eduardo Castillejo; Aitor Almeida; Diego López-de-Ipiña
    Adaptive user interfaces involves the design of dynamic interfaces, the main purpose of which is to present an adapted alternative to the user to ease the interaction. User's preferences, context situation, and device's capabilities help these systems to adapt the interface to make the interaction more adequate to the current situation. Being aware of different characteristics of these entities is vital for reaching the main goals of these systems efficiently. To collect knowledge from these entities, it is necessary to design several formal models to help to organize and give meaning to the gathered data. This article analyzes several literature solutions for modeling users, context, and devices considering different approaches. The article identifies their advantages and drawbacks to finally propose a new ontology model that addresses the identified limitations.
    Human-Objects Interaction: A Framework for Designing, Developing and Evaluating Augmented Objects BIBAFull-Text 787-801
      Gustavo López; Mariana López; Luis A. Guerrero; José Bravo
    The processes to design, develop, and evaluate augmented objects are complex and should adhere to a Software Engineering methodology with a user-centered approach. This article presents a framework for creating augmented objects focused on the interaction of the final users with these objects. The article applies the framework in three cases of study: an augmented Post-it note for important e-mail notifications, an augmented pajama for capturing vital signs on infants, and an augmented door that is able to capture and send messages when the user is out of office.
    Promoting Self-Reflection of Social Isolation Through Persuasive Mobile Technologies: The Case of Mother Caregivers of Children With Cancer BIBAFull-Text 802-814
      Carolina Fuentes; Carlos Hernandez; Lizbeth Escobedo; Valeria Herskovic; Monica Tentori
    Mother caregivers of children with cancer are often unaware of how the tasks of caregiving interfere in their social relationships and lifestyle. This article explores how persuasive mobile technologies may promote the self-reflection and introspection of communication practices, emotions, and lifestyle. The article describes the design of EmotionMingle, a mobile system running in a situated display showing an ambient visualization using the metaphor of a tree to represent the status of an individual's social network that, used in tandem with downloaded Facebook photographs, may help caregivers avoid social isolation. EmotionMingle also informs caregivers of how their emotions correlate with their communication practices and lifestyle. The results of a qualitative evaluation of the EmotionMingle prototype reveal that mother caregivers perceived it as useful and its visualizations as appropriate. The findings from this study reveal emergent practices of using mobile persuasive applications for self-reflection to discover wellness trends, possibly inducing behavior change.
    VirtualTouch: A Tool for Developing Mixed Reality Educational Applications and an Example of Use for Inclusive Education BIBAFull-Text 815-828
      Juan Mateu; María José Lasala; Xavier Alamán
    This article describes VirtualTouch, a tool for developing mixed reality educational applications. VirtualTouch proposes the use of virtual worlds and tangible user interfaces to offer a "mixed reality" experience. Using VirtualTouch a teacher may easily design learning modules, which are immediately implemented and used in the classroom. A first experience of such use, focused in the area of inclusive education, is also presented. The results of this experience are encouraging, showing that mixed reality applications have a high potential for use in this area.
    Augmented Presentations: Supporting the Communication in Presentations by Means of Augmented Reality BIBAFull-Text 829-838
      Telmo Zarraonandia; Ignacio Aedo; Paloma Díaz; Alvaro Montero Montes
    This work aims to explore the benefits and potential uses of Augmented Reality technology for supporting communication in presentations. This article presents the architecture and implementation of an Augmented Presentation Feedback System. The system allows a speaker equipped with an Augmented Reality Head-Mounted Display to display visual cues depicted over the listeners' heads. These can be used as a way to provide the speaker with continuous, private, and immediate feedback on his or her explanations. The results of a case study conducted showed that the system not only assists the speaker in adapting the content and pace of the explanation to the listener but also helps to better manage their interventions and improve the flow of the presentation.

    IJHCI 2014-11-02 Volume 30 Issue 11

    Does Touch Matter?: The Effects of Haptic Visualization on Human Performance, Behavior and Perception BIBFull-Text 839-841
      Chang S. Nam; Paul Richard; Takehiko Yamaguchi; Sangwoo Bahn
    Scenario-Based Observation Approach for Eliciting User Requirements for Haptic User Interfaces BIBAFull-Text 842-854
      Sangwoo Bahn; Brendan Corbett; Chang S. Nam
    As tactual information processing of visually impaired users has not been investigated sufficiently and there are few guidelines on the development of haptic user interfaces, development of haptic assistive system can pose many challenges. Despite the breadth and variety of tools available for elicitation of user requirements, no single tool adequately provides the needed information to develop such a specialized system for a unique user population where the understanding of user behaviors is limited. This article explores the state-of-art of requirements engineering, discusses the challenges in developing a haptic assistive system, and proposes a methodology of combining a controlled observation in a naturalistic setting with scenario-based design for effective and efficient user requirements elicitation. A case study of developing a haptically enhanced, collaborative learning-by-feeling science education system for visually impaired students was conducted to show validity and effectiveness of the proposed methodology. The case study showed that the methodology has a variety of benefits including the reduced uncertainty and a better fit to the natural behaviors of the user population.
    VITAKI: A Vibrotactile Prototyping Toolkit for Virtual Reality and Video Games BIBAFull-Text 855-871
      Jonatan Martínez; Arturo S. García; Miguel Oliver; José P. Molina; Pascual González
    The use of haptics in virtual reality and video games has received growing attention as a means of enhancing the sensation of immersion in these environments. The sensation of touching virtual objects not only augments the impression of reality but also can improve the performance. However, the design of haptic interactions is not an easy task, and it usually needs a great effort due to the absence of powerful prototyping toolkits. Thus, this article proposes a vibrotactile prototyping toolkit for Eccentric Rotating Mass actuators named VITAKI. The main objective of this platform is to facilitate the prototyping and testing procedures of new vibrotactile interaction techniques for Virtual Reality and video games. A detailed description of the design of the system is provided, presenting the hardware and software elements that make up the VITAKI toolkit. In addition, its application to two different examples to illustrate its use is provided. Finally, a preliminary evaluation of this toolkit is presented. This evaluation is divided into two main stages. On one hand, a study of Olsen's criteria is performed to analyze its general capabilities. On the other hand, a comparison with previously presented proposals is included too. These two analyses, together with other experiments where the devices created with the toolkit were tested by end users, highlight its main features and its advantages over other proposals.
    Haptics on a Touch Screen: Characterization of Perceptual Thresholds BIBAFull-Text 872-881
      Camille Chauvelin; Thibaut Sagi; Philippe Coni; Jean-Marc André; Christophe Jauze; Véronique Lespinet-Najib
    By sending a vibration signal on a touch panel equipped with piezoelectric actuators, this study has a double purpose: analyzing the influence of technical characteristics of vibration signals on perception thresholds and analyzing the influence of sex on those thresholds. During the experiment, 46 participants were asked to leave their finger pressed on a touch panel and to inform the experimenter when perceiving a vibration. This work allowed identifying the minimum perceptual thresholds of haptic signals for 95% of a representative population, on a given vibration range. This study also particularly revealed perception differences depending on waveform. Finally, it provides significant results regarding the effect of sex on perceptual sensations: Female participants tend to get lower perceptual thresholds.
    The Effect of Vision on Discrimination of Compliance Using a Tool BIBAFull-Text 882-890
      Evan Fakhoury; Peter Culmer; Brian Henson
    This article describes a psychophysical experiment that investigates the effect of the source of vision on the perception of compliance with a specific focus on palpation, a basic surgical task. Twelve participants were asked to complete 4 forced-choice compliance discrimination tasks representing different modes of surgery when assessing soft human tissue. These tasks were compliance discrimination using direct vision, indirect vision on a computer monitor, only haptic information, and only indirect visual information. In the first 3 tasks, the subjects actively indented pairs of silicone stimuli covering a range of compliances simulating soft human tissue using a tool and were asked to choose which stimulus within each pair felt harder. In the 4th task, participants watched video recordings of the stimuli being indented on a monitor without touching the stimuli themselves. As a control task, participants performed discriminations using their index finger without any visual cues present. The results were used to determine psychometric functions of group behavior for all conditions. These functions suggest that participants performed best during the control task followed by that involving a combination of touch using tool and direct vision. The latter task presented higher compliance discriminability than the 3 remaining tasks. Moreover, the task using only indirect vision without any haptic information presented similar compliance discriminability to that using only touch through a tool without any visual information. It is concluded that although compliance discrimination via a tool is achievable under direct visual conditions, it remains significantly more challenging than through direct cutaneous information. The research shows the importance of visual cues for the discrimination of compliance as well as cross-modal integration of visual and haptic sensory information in compliance discrimination, with key implications for the development of new surgical tools and training systems.
    Use of Reference Frame and Movement Pattern in Haptically Enhanced 3D Virtual Environment BIBAFull-Text 891-903
      Ja Young Lee; Sangwoo Bahn; Chang S. Nam
    For the present article a haptically enhanced 3D virtual environment was created, and this study investigates how visually impaired users perceive and explain the virtual space when haptic is the only input modality. The study investigates what factors affect the use of reference frame when the users verbally express a haptically constructed mental map and how such preference corresponds to their haptic movement in the virtual environment. In the study, gravity was the most influential cue in determining a vertical axis of a frame. When the users were asked to explain the relationship between themselves and the target object, they had the tendency to use the frame they initially chose to use. It was also noted that totally blind users were more responsive to various frames than users with lower vision and were faster in determining a term to explain spatial relationship. Furthermore, people who preferred relative frame were more likely to keep the haptic cursor closer to their body. Limited range of exploration caused lack of understanding of the space, whereas longer exploration time made them use more frames.
    The Impact of Combining Kinesthetic and Facial Expression Displays on Emotion Recognition by Users BIBAFull-Text 904-920
      Yoren Gaffary; Victoria Eyharabide; Jean-Claude Martin; Mehdi Ammi
    Several studies have investigated the relevance of haptics to convey various types of emotions physically. This article investigates the improvement of the recognition rate of emotions using visuo-haptic feedback compared to facial and haptic expressions alone. Four experiments were conducted in which the recognition rates of emotions using facial, haptic and visuo-haptic expressions were tested. The first experiment evaluates the recognition rate of emotions using facial expressions. The second experiment collects a large corpus of 3D haptic expressions of certain emotions and subsequently identifies the relevant haptic expression for each emotion. The third experiment evaluates the selected haptic expressions through statistical and perceptive tests to retain the ones that result in the most accurate identification of the corresponding emotion. Finally, the fourth experiment studies the effect of visuo-haptic coupling on the recognition of the investigated emotions. Generally, emotions with high amplitudes of pleasure are better recognized in the visual modality. However, emotions with high activation are better recognized in the haptic modality. These results also highlighted the finding that participants are not equally aided by each modality when recognizing emotions efficiently. Beyond the recognition rate, multimodal expressions improved the sensation of presence and expressivity.
    Intermodal Audio-Haptic Metaphor: Improvement of Target Search in Abstract Environments BIBAFull-Text 921-933
      Mehdi Ammi; Brian F. G. Katz
    Applications requiring processing of complex environments present real challenges for simultaneous management of numerous constraints (multiple degrees of freedom, search criterion, etc.). Target searching is probably among the most critical tasks, consisting of finding configurations corresponding to various criteria (e.g., maximum, minimum, reference). During the search, users need to be aware of proximal results to compare values and make decisions. A new audio-haptic coupling strategy is proposed to improve the search for targets in complex environments, enabling the simultaneous use of both audio and haptic channels for value comparisons at different spatial configurations. This is accomplished through the use of tempo in both sensorial signals creating a connection between the two channels enabling an intuitive and efficient comparison. Including spatialized audio improves a user's situation awareness. The benefit of this intermodal metaphor is evaluated for a 2D nonvisual and abstract environment. Results show improvements relative to simple haptic exploration.

    IJHCI 2014-12-02 Volume 30 Issue 12

    The Tap and Slide Keyboard: A New Interaction Method for Mobile Device Text Entry BIBAFull-Text 935-945
      Marco Romano; Luca Paolino; Genoveffa Tortora; Giuliana Vitiello
    This article introduces a new soft keyboard, named Tap and Slide, specifically designed for mobile devices. The new interaction method, on which the keyboard is based, allows performing text entry operations in a very small space, so minimizing the space required. To evaluate the keyboard from a usability point of view, three studies were performed: the first verifies whether the subjects' abilities expressed in terms of technological knowledge may specifically provide advantages in performing text entry operations, the second tries to understand the ease of learning of the keyboard considering both accuracy and efficiency in task execution, and the third analyzes the performance of the soft keyboard in comparison with the more common QWERTY soft keyboard.
    A Context-Aware Interaction Model for the Analysis of Users' QoE in Mobile Environments BIBAFull-Text 946-964
      Pedro Luis Mateo Navarro; Gregorio Martínez Pérez; Diego Sevilla Ruiz
    This article describes a novel approach to model the quality of experience (QoE) of users in mobile environments. The context-aware and ratings interaction model (CARIM) addresses the open questions of how to quantify user experiences from the analysis of interaction in mobile scenarios, and how to compare different QoE records to each other. A set of parameters are used to dynamically describe the interaction between the user and the system, the context in which it is performed and the perceived quality of users. CARIM structures these parameters into a uniform representation, supporting the dynamic analysis of interaction to determine QoE of users and enabling the comparison between different interaction records. Its run-time nature allows applications to make context- and QoE-based decisions in real time to adapt themselves, and thus provide a better experience to users. As a result, CARIM provides unified criteria for the inference and analysis of QoE in mobile scenarios. Its design and implementation can be integrated (and easily extended if needed) into many different development environments. An experiment with real users comparing two different interaction designs and validating user behavior hypotheses proved the effectiveness of applying CARIM for the assessment of QoE in mobile applications.
    A Qualitative Study of Stakeholders' Perspectives on the Social Network Service Environment BIBAFull-Text 965-976
      Hojung Kim; Joseph Giacomin; Robert Macredie
    More than 2 billion people are using the Internet at present, assisted by the mediating activities of software agents that deal with the diversity and complexity of information. There are, however, ethical issues due to the monitoring-and-surveillance, data-mining, and autonomous nature of software agents. Considering the context, this study aims to comprehend stakeholders' perspectives on the social network service environment to identify the main considerations for the design of software agents in social network services in the near future. Twenty-one stakeholders, belonging to 3 key stakeholder groups, were recruited using a purposive sampling strategy for unstandardized semistructured e-mail interviews. The interview data were analyzed using a qualitative content analysis method. It was possible to identify 3 main considerations for the design of software agents in social network services, which were classified into the following categories: comprehensive understanding of users' perception of privacy, user type recognition algorithms for software agent development, and existing software agents enhancement.
    Understanding the Different Influences of Online Trust on Loyalty by Risk Takers and Avoiders BIBAFull-Text 977-984
      Yujong Hwang
    In this article, the different influences of online trust, such as integrity, benevolence, and ability, on customer loyalty to the website are tested and discussed with risk taker and risk avoider samples. Specifically, these different influences of trust on customer loyalty is tested with the mediating construct of intention to use the website using a large number of risk taker samples (n = 149) and risk avoider samples (n = 176). In the risk taker samples, the influence of online trust through website ability on customer loyalty is fully mediated by the intention to use the website. However, in the risk avoider samples, online trust beliefs such as ability and integrity as well as intention to use website have direct influences on customer loyalty. There is no relationship of benevolence in this model in both samples. The model explains 43% and 48% of R squares for each sample group. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.
    The Discriminant Value of Personality, Motivation, and Online Relationship Quality in Predicting Attraction to Online Social Support on Facebook BIBAFull-Text 985-994
      Kyriaki G. Giota; George Kleftaras
    This study investigates the relationship between personality traits, user motivations, relationship quality, and attraction to online social support in a sample of young adults (N = 278) in Greece who use Facebook. Self-report questionnaires on personality, motives, relationship quality, online social support, and sociodemographic factors were administered. According to the results, men in contrast to women were significantly more attracted to online social support. Predictors of online relationship quality were the existence of close relationships, entertainment, and conscientiousness. Motives, personality, relationship quality, and gender were good predictors of attraction to online social support. Implications for psychologists and future research are discussed.
    Accessible Web Page Design for the Visually Impaired: A Case Study BIBAFull-Text 995-1002
      Anna M. Michalska; Cindy X. You; Ariana M. Nicolini; Vincent J. Ippolito; Wolfgang Fink
    Section 508 of the Rehabilitations Act of 1973 states that federal agencies are required to maintain accessible web-based information for persons with disabilities, namely, visual impairments. Studies spanning over 1 decade conducted by The American Foundation for the Blind and Towson University's Universal Usability Lab investigated federal home pages for Section 508 violations. Both studies concluded that numerous university, corporate, federal, and federal contractor websites are largely inaccessible to people with disabilities -- specifically in terms of clarity, consistency, and fidelity to standards. Due to inconsistencies across federal agencies, constant website updates, and webmaster turnaround, there is a need for practical guidelines for web page design compliant with Section 508, the Americans with Disabilities Act, and the World Wide Web Consortium's Web Content Accessibility Guidelines, with particular focus on the visually impaired.
    Local News Chatter: Augmenting Community News by Aggregating Hyperlocal Microblog Content in a Tag Cloud BIBAFull-Text 1003-1014
      Kyungsik Han; Patrick C. Shih; John M. Carroll
    Being aware of local community information is critical to maintaining civic engagement and participation. The use of online news and microblog content to create and disseminate community information has long been studied. However, interactions in the online spaces dedicated to local communities tend to only garner very limited usage, and people often do not consider microblog content as a meaningful source of local community information. Local News Chatter (LNC) was designed to address these challenges by augmenting local news feeds with microblog content and presenting them in a tag cloud that displays news topics of varying popularity with different tag sizes. Our study with 30 local residents highlights that LNC increases the visibility of hyperlocal community news information and successfully utilizes microblog as an additional information layer. LNC also increases one's community awareness and shows the potential for leveraging community knowledge as a deliberation platform for local topics.