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International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction 27

Editors:Julie A. Jacko; Gavriel Salvendy; Steven J. Landry
Dates:2010/2011
Volume:27
Publisher:Taylor & Francis Group
Standard No:ISSN 1044-7318
Papers:55
Links:Table of Contents
  1. IJHCI 2010-12-30 Volume 27 Issue 1
  2. IJHCI 2011-01-14 Volume 27 Issue 2
  3. IJHCI 2011-02-08 Volume 27 Issue 3
  4. IJHCI 2011-02-23 Volume 27 Issue 4
  5. IJHCI 2011-04-11 Volume 27 Issue 5
  6. IJHCI 2011-06-01 Volume 27 Issue 6
  7. IJHCI 2011-07-01 Volume 27 Issue 7
  8. IJHCI 2011-08-01 Volume 27 Issue 8
  9. IJHCI 2011-09-01 Volume 27 Issue 9
  10. IJHCI 2011-10-01 Volume 27 Issue 10
  11. IJHCI 2011-11-01 Volume 27 Issue 11
  12. IJHCI 2011-12-01 Volume 27 Issue 12

IJHCI 2010-12-30 Volume 27 Issue 1

Current Trends in Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) Research and Development BIBFull-Text 1-4
  Chang S. Nam; Gerwin Schalk; Melody M. Jackson
A Feedback Information-Theoretic Approach to the Design of Brain-Computer Interfaces BIBAFull-Text 5-23
  Cyrus Omar; Abdullah Akce; Miles Johnson; Timothy Bretl; Rui Ma; Edward Maclin; Martin McCormick; Todd P. Coleman
This article presents a new approach to designing brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) that explicitly accounts for both the uncertainty of neural signals and the important role of sensory feedback. This approach views a BCI as the means by which users communicate intent to an external device and models intent as a string in an ordered symbolic language. This abstraction allows the problem of designing a BCI to be reformulated as the problem of designing a reliable communication protocol using tools from feedback information theory. Here, this protocol is given by a posterior matching scheme. This scheme is not only provably optimal but also easily understood and implemented by a human user. Experimental validation is provided by an interface for text entry and an interface for tracing smooth planar curves, where input is taken in each case from an electroencephalograph during left- and right-hand motor imagery.
Individual Characteristics and Their Effect on Predicting Mu Rhythm Modulation BIBAFull-Text 24-37
  Adriane B. Randolph; Melody Moore Jackson; Saurav Karmakar
Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) offer users with severe motor disabilities a nonmuscular input channel for communication and control but require that users achieve a level of literacy and be able to harness their appropriate electrophysiological responses for effective use of the interface. There is currently no formalized process for determining a user's aptitude for control of various BCIs without testing on an actual system. This study presents how basic information captured about users may be used to predict modulation of mu rhythms, electrical variations in the motor cortex region of the brain that may be used for control of a BCI. Based on data from 55 able-bodied users, we found that the interaction of age and daily average amount of hand-and-arm movement by individuals correlates to their ability to modulate mu rhythms induced by actual or imagined movements. This research may be expanded into a more robust model linking individual characteristics and control of various BCIs.
Combining Eye Gaze Input With a Brain-Computer Interface for Touchless Human-Computer Interaction BIBAFull-Text 38-51
  Thorsten O. Zander; Matti Gaertner; Christian Kothe; Roman Vilimek
A Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) provides a new communication channel for severely disabled people who have completely or partially lost control over muscular activity. It is questionable whether a BCI is the best choice for controlling a device if partial muscular activity still is available. For example, gaze-based interfaces can be utilized for people who are still able to control their eye movements. Such interfaces suffer from the lack of a natural degree of freedom for the selection command (e.g., a mouse click). One workaround for this problem is based on so-called dwell times, which easily leads to errors if the users do not pay close attention to where they are looking. We developed a multimodal interface combining eye movements and a BCI to a hybrid BCI, resulting in a robust and intuitive device for touchless interaction. This system especially is capable of dealing with different stimulus complexities.
A P300-Based Brain-Computer Interface: Effects of Interface Type and Screen Size BIBAFull-Text 52-68
  Yueqing Li; Chang S. Nam; Barbara B. Shadden; Steven L. Johnson
As a nonmuscular communication and control system for people with severe motor disabilities, brain-computer interface (BCI) has found several applications. Although a few empirical studies of BCI user performance do exist, little to no research has specifically evaluated the impact of contributing factors on user performance in the BCI applications. To that end, our within-subjects design compared the impact of two different types of interface (ABC interface vs. frequency-based interface) and three levels of screen size (computer monitor, global positioning system, and cell phone screen) of a P300-based BCI application, P300 Speller, on user performance (accuracy, information transfer rate, amplitude, and latency) and usage preference. Ten participants with neuromuscular disabilities such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and cerebral palsy and 10 nondisabled participants were asked to type six, 10-character phrases in the P300 Speller. The overall accuracy was 79.7% for the nondisabled participants and 28.7% for participants with motor disabilities. The results showed that interface type and screen size have significant effects on user performance and usage preference, with varying degree of impact to participants with and without motor disabilities. Specifically, participants typed significantly more accurately in frequency-based interface and computer monitor screen. The results of this study should provide invaluable insights to the future research of P300-based BCI applications.
Predictive Spelling With a P300-Based Brain-Computer Interface: Increasing the Rate of Communication BIBAFull-Text 69-84
  D. B. Ryan; G. E. Frye; G. Townsend; D. R. Berry; S. Mesa-G; N. A. Gates; E. W. Sellers
This study compared a conventional P300 speller brain-computer interface (BCI) to one used in conjunction with a predictive spelling program. Performance differences in accuracy, bit rate, selections per minute, and output characters per minute (OCM) were examined. An 8 x 9 matrix of letters, numbers, and other keyboard commands was used. Participants (N = 24) were required to correctly complete the same 58 character sentence (i.e., correcting for errors) using the predictive speller (PS) and the nonpredictive speller (NS), counterbalanced. The PS produced significantly higher OCMs than the NS. Time to complete the task in the PS condition was 12 min 43 s as compared to 20 min 20 sec in the NS condition. Despite the marked improvement in overall output, accuracy was significantly higher in the NS paradigm. P300 amplitudes were significantly larger in the NS than in the PS paradigm, which is attributed to increased workload and task demands. These results demonstrate the potential efficacy of predictive spelling in the context of BCI.
Optimal Control Strategies for an SSVEP-Based Brain-Computer Interface BIBAFull-Text 85-101
  Nishant A. Mehta; Sadhir Hussain S. Hameed; Melody Moore Jackson
We evaluate the performance of 18 healthy subjects on a steady-state visually evoked potential brain-computer interface (BCI) under variation of two general control parameters. The BCI is a simple game amenable to performance measures such as the bitrate, decision accuracy, and optimality ratios based on an ideal human-machine system. The two parameters studied are the electroencephalography recording history length used to form a decision and the number of consecutive identical decisions that must be recognized before feedback is provided. To maximize the bitrate, it appears optimal to minimize the number of consecutive identical decisions required for feedback. When the task of interest often requires making the same decision multiple times in a row, a larger history of data seems preferable. When good performance on a task demands that decisions change rapidly, a smaller history seems optimal. Ultimately, we plan to connect this work to choosing appropriate control parameters for efficient wheelchair control by a BCI.
Corrigenda BIBFull-Text 106
 

IJHCI 2011-01-14 Volume 27 Issue 2

RAMSES: A Method for the Design Process of Interactive Information Systems BIBAFull-Text 107-130
  A. Mouloudi; P. Morizet-Mahoudeaux; A. Valentin
This work presents a method that aims at structuring the design process of interactive information systems (IIS). This method, which takes parts of its ground in the joint cognitive systems approach, formalizes the integration of usage data in the design process of IIS. Data are generated by using methods of activity analysis. The assumption is that for integrating usage data successfully, they must be represented in a formalism close to the development language, while maintaining the formalization language accessible to each domain specialist involved in the design process. The method can be split up into in five steps: (a) data collection of users' needs in different contexts, (b) representation of the collected data, (c) modeling of corresponding knowledge in an implementation formalism, (d) specification of the IIS, and (e) validation of the model by a functional specification aid tool. A functional specification design tool has been developed according to the presented approach, and has been applied to the design of a traveler information system.
The Aesthetic Dimensions of U.S. and South Korean Responses to Web Home Pages: A Cross-Cultural Comparison BIBAFull-Text 131-150
  Anthony Faiola; Chin-Chang Ho; Mark D. Tarrant; Karl F. MacDorman
Culturally influenced preferences in website aesthetics is a topic often neglected by scholars in human-computer interaction. Kim, Lee, and Choi (2003) identified aesthetic design factors of web home pages that elicited particular responses in South Korean web users based on 13 secondary emotional dimensions. This study extends Kim et al.'s work to U.S. participants, comparing the original South Korean findings with U.S. findings. Results show that U.S. participants reliably applied translations of the emotional adjectives used in the South Korean study to the home pages. However, factor analysis revealed that the aesthetic perceptions of U.S. and South Korean participants formed different aesthetic dimensions composed of different sets of emotional adjectives, suggesting that U.S. and South Korean people perceive the aesthetics of home pages differently. These results indicate that website aesthetics can vary significantly between cultures.
Understanding and Improving Cross-Cultural Decision Making in Design and Use of Digital Media: A Research Agenda BIBAFull-Text 151-190
  Robert W. Proctor; Shimon Y. Nof; Yuehwern Yih; Parasuram Balasubramanian; Jerome R. Busemeyer; Pascale Carayon; Chi-Yue Chiu; Fariborz Farahmand; Cleotilde Gonzalez; Jay Gore; Steven J. Landry; Mark Lehto; Pei-Luen Rau; William Rouse; Louis Tay; Kim-Phuong L. Vu; Sang Eun Woo; Gavriel Salvendy
In the global economy, design of digital media often involves teams of individuals from a variety of cultures who must function together. Similarly, products must be designed and marketed taking specific cultural characteristics into account. Much is known about decision processes, culture and cognition, design of products and interfaces for human interaction with machines, and organizational processes, but this knowledge is dispersed across several disciplines and research areas. This article reviews current work in these areas and proposes a research agenda for fostering increased understanding of the ways in which cultural differences influence decision making and action in design and use of digital media.
Perceived Impact of Asynchronous E-Learning After Long-Term Use: Implications for Design and Development BIBAFull-Text 191-213
  Panayiotis Koutsabasis; Modestos Stavrakis; Thomas Spyrou; John Darzentas
This article presents an evaluation of web-based, asynchronous e-learning in academic education, reflecting on its adoption and use in conjunction to teaching in the classroom. The principal aim of the study was to identify the implications of asynchronous e-learning to (a) students' and teachers' overall satisfaction and perceived performance, (b) the organization and management of learning, and (c) social interaction and collaboration between/among students and teachers. The results provide insights for important interaction design and development issues in e-learning such as note-taking and annotations on e-learning content, student comprehension and satisfaction, skipping courses, cost-effective educational and time management, social awareness, collaboration, 'flaming,' and 'border-crossing.' The study reports on issues that need to be considered by human-computer interaction researchers, interaction design practitioners, and usability professionals and are complementary to usability and accessibility work in e-learning evaluation studies.

IJHCI 2011-02-08 Volume 27 Issue 3

Perceived Electronic Service Quality: Some Preliminary Results From a Cross-National Study in Mobile Internet Services BIBAFull-Text 217-244
  Pavlos A. Vlachos; George Giaglis; Inseong Lee; Adam P. Vrechopoulos
Work on how consumers evaluate electronic service quality is both topical and important due to the well-accepted criticality of electronic channels in selling products and services. However, most of the relevant research on electronic research quality is preoccupied with the website Internet context and most of the studies are single-country studies, inhibiting conclusions of generalizibility. Theoretically rooted in the Nordic Model of perceived service quality, this exploratory study uses an e-service quality scale to measure mobile Internet service quality in different national settings. Consistent with the available e-service quality literature, results indicate that e-service quality is a second-order factor, with three reflective first-order dimensions: efficiency, outcome, and customer care. Most important, cross-validation investigations using samples drawn from Korean, Hong Kong, and Japanese mobile Internet user populations, support the factorial structure invariance of the construct. Following Cheung and Reynolds's (2002) suggestions, factor means differences between the three countries contributing to the scarce cross-national electronic service quality literature are tentatively examined. These initial empirical findings imply that although consumers in different countries use the same dimensions to evaluate mobile Internet services, importance weightings assigned on these dimension are probably not the same.
Effects of Symmetry and Number of Compositional Elements on Chinese Users' Aesthetic Ratings of Interfaces: Experimental and Modeling Investigations BIBAFull-Text 245-259
  Luzheng Bi; Xinan Fan; Yili Liu
This article reports two experiments and the corresponding modeling research on the effects of symmetry and the number of compositional elements on Chinese users' aesthetic ratings of interfaces composed with abstract black-and-white geometric images and realistic-looking web pages. Symmetry and the number of compositional elements are the two independent variables, each with three levels. The dependent variable is subjective ratings of aesthetic appeal. The results from both experiments show that symmetry of compositional elements significantly affects aesthetic ratings of Chinese users, whereas the number alone does not have a significant effect on aesthetic ratings. However, subjects preferred realistic web page images with few elements when they lack symmetry. We also describe our development and evaluation of a computational model of aesthetic ratings based on symmetry and the number of compositional elements to predict aesthetic ratings, which can be used to evaluate and support aesthetic design of interfaces.
How Does the Agents' Appearance Affect Users' Interpretation of the Agents' Attitudes: Experimental Investigation on Expressing the Same Artificial Sounds From Agents With Different Appearances BIBAFull-Text 260-279
  Takanori Komatsu; Seiji Yamada
An experimental investigation into how the appearance of an agent such as a robot or PC affects people's interpretations of the agent's attitudes is presented. In general, people are said to create stereotypical agent behavioral models in their minds based on the agents' appearances, and these appearances significantly affect their way of interaction. Therefore, it is quite important to address with the following research question: How does an agent's appearance affect its interactions with people? Specifically, a preliminary experiment was conducted to select eight artificial sounds for which people can estimate two specific primitive attitudes (e.g., positive or negative). Then an experiment was conducted where the participants were presented with the selected artificial sounds through three kinds of agents: a MindStorms robot, AIBO robot, and laptop PC. In particular, the participants were asked to select the correct attitudes based on the sounds expressed by these three agents. The results showed that the participants had better interpretation rates when a PC presented the sounds and lower rates when the MindStorms and AIBO robots presented the sounds, even though the sounds expressed by these agents were the same. The results of this study contribute to the design policy of the interactive agents, such as, What types of appearances should agents have to effectively interact with people, and which kinds of information should these agents express to people?
An Improved Usability Measure Based on Novice and Expert Performance BIBAFull-Text 280-302
  Karl F. MacDorman; Timothy J. Whalen; Chin-Chang Ho; Himalaya Patel
The novice-expert ratio method (NEM) pinpoints user interface design problems by identifying the steps in a task that have a high ratio of novice to expert completion time. This study tested the construct validity of NEM's ratio measure against common alternatives. Data were collected from 337 participants who separately performed 10 word-completion tasks on a cellular phone interface. The logarithm, ratio, Cohen's d, and Hedges's g measures had similar construct validity, but Hedges's g provided the most accurate measure of effect size. All these measures correlated more strongly with self-reported interface usability and interface knowledge when applied to the number of actions required to complete a task than when applied to task completion time. A weighted average of both measures had the highest correlation. The relatively high correlation between self-reported interface usability and a weighted Hedges's g measure as compared to the correlations found in the literature indicates the usefulness of the weighted Hedges's g measure in identifying usability problems.

IJHCI 2011-02-23 Volume 27 Issue 4

Can User Choice Alter Experimental Findings in Human-Computer Interaction?: Similarity Attraction Versus Cognitive Dissonance in Social Responses to Synthetic Speech BIBAFull-Text 307-322
  Kwan Min Lee; Younbo Jung; Clifford Nass
In this study, the effect of the user choice on social responses to computer-synthesized speech is investigated. Three previous findings about social responses to computer-synthesized speech (i.e., social identification, proximate source orientation, and similarity attraction) were tested using the choice paradigm. Social identification and proximate source orientation effects were found even when users had chosen a computer voice at their discretion. In addition, the primacy effect in the user choice prevailed: Participants were more likely to select whatever voice that they heard first between two options. The similarity attraction effect, however, was negated by the cognitive dissonance effect after user choices. The robustness of social responses, its implications for human-computer interaction, and the importance of the user choice in voice-interface designs are discussed.
Social Roles in an Online Support Community for Older People BIBAFull-Text 323-347
  Ulrike Pfeil; Knut Svangstu; Chee Siang Ang; Panayiotis Zaphiris
In this article, an online support community for older people is studied, with the aim of developing a taxonomy of social roles based on content analysis and social network analysis. Four hundred messages (posted between August 9, 2007, and February 5, 2008) in an online support community for older people (http://www.seniornet.org) were investigated. The data were analyzed to identify and shed light on patterns of the online functional behavior as well as the social structure of active members. Drawing on the findings, a set of six social roles were identified, defined, and described in depth. The findings showed that the structural positions of online community members were associated with the kind of content these members tended to post. For example, it was found that central members were very likely to give support, whereas members not very well connected were more inclined to post self-disclosing messages.
A Visual Information Processing Model to Characterize Interactive Visualization Environments BIBAFull-Text 348-363
  Esther Jun; Steven Landry; Gavriel Salvendy
Interactive visualizations have the potential to greatly enhance our ability to analyze data. Although the user is central to the use of such environments, perceptual and cognitive processes are not well understood within the context of interactive visualization. Although cognitive psychology has provided a greater understanding of visual perception and cognition, a theoretical framework that links this knowledge with the interactive visualization process is needed. This article aims to fill this gap by introducing a visual information processing model that facilitates the understanding of how users interact with interactive visualization environments.
Integrated Faceted Browser and Direct Search to Enhance Information Retrieval in Text-Based Digital Libraries BIBAFull-Text 364-382
  Shea-Tinn Yeh; Yan Liu
Browsing and searching are two prominent paradigms in information retrieval. In the current digital library implementations, exploratory browsing is either not available as an option or commonly presented as an alphabetical listing of chosen categories depending on the scope of the digital collections. In addition, users have to switch between different information spaces for browsing and searching. This research proposes an information retrieval paradigm of integrated faceted browser and direct search interfaces for text-based digital libraries. Experimental results show that compared to a conventional alphabetical browser, the faceted browser can significantly improve the effectiveness (by 30.8%, p = .015) and efficiency (by 11.3%, p = .001) of information retrieval. Also, compared to un-integrated alphabetical browser with direct search interfaces, the integrated faceted browser with direct search interfaces can significantly improve the effectiveness of information retrieval (by 35.7%, p = .03) and bring users greater satisfaction (by 34.8%, p < .03) with the process.
Menu Design for Computers and Cell Phones: Review and Reappraisal BIBAFull-Text 383-404
  K. Kim; J. Jacko; G. Salvendy
Menu systems have been key components in modern graphical user interfaces, and there has been a lot of research about menu design. Menu design features play a significant role from the perspective of customer satisfaction. Therefore, researchers have investigated various features in menu design. 3D menus have been investigated because these can display more items and provide a natural and intuitive interface. Small screens of the type used on mobile phones are limited in the amount of available space, and thus it might be more beneficial to use 3D menus in cell phones. A review of previous menu design studies for human-computer interaction suggests that menu design guidelines for computers and mobile phones need to be reappraised, especially toward the use of 3D interfaces in cell phones. The main objective of this article is to propose an overall framework for 3D menu interfaces in cell phones. The second objective is to propose guidelines for 2D and 3D menu design in computers and cell phones based on a literature review. Three main factors that might influence the performance of menu retrieval task in cell phones are included in the proposed model: the presentation type, the number of items, and menu type.
Analyzing Social Media Networks with NodeXL: Insights from a Connected World by Derek Hansen, Ben Shneiderman, and Marc A. Smith BIBFull-Text 405-408
  Sorin Matei

IJHCI 2011-04-11 Volume 27 Issue 5

Event Perception in Mobile Interaction: Toward Better Navigation History Design on Mobile Devices BIBAFull-Text 413-435
  Yanqing Cui; Antti Oulasvirta; Lingyi Ma
This article explores how people perceive interactive activities in order to inform navigation history design on mobile devices. Following event segmentation method, 12 participants were asked to break 6 episodes of mobile interaction into segments, organize the segments, and identify those deemed representative. Three findings emerged. First, when making sense of mobile interaction, users concentrate on the content objects on which actions are performed. This indicates the value of content-centric designs in navigation history and other mobile user interface designs. The content objects are data objects and their collections meaningful to the person dealing with it, for example, photos, messages, or albums. Second, users tend to employ two-level hierarchies in grouping segments, and use the similarity in content objects and applications as a reference. They deem the segments as representative where objects are created or changed, or where sharing or querying acts take place. These findings indicate how a navigation history design should organize and prioritize mobile interaction events. Finally, event perception shows relatively low interparticipant consensus, which indicates that navigation history designs have to accommodate large individual differences.
An Augmented Reality System for the Treatment of Phobia to Small Animals Viewed Via an Optical See-Through HMD: Comparison With a Similar System Viewed Via a Video See-Through HMD BIBAFull-Text 436-449
  M. Carmen Juan; Jérôme Calatrava
This article presents an optical see-through (OST) Augmented Reality system for the treatment of phobia to small animals. The technical characteristics of the OST system are described, and a comparative study of the sense of presence and anxiety in a nonphobic population (24 participants) using the OST and an equivalent video see-though (VST) system is presented. The results indicate that if all participants are analyzed, the VST system induces greater sense of presence than the OST system. If the participants who had more fear are analyzed, the two systems induce a similar sense of presence. For the anxiety level, the two systems provoke similar and significant anxiety during the experiment.
Consumers' Trust in Virtual Mall Shopping: The Role of Social Presence and Perceived Security BIBAFull-TextRetraction 450-475
  Dong-Hee Shin; Youn-Joo Shin
This study analyzes the impact of social presence on perceived security and intention in virtual shopping malls. Following the conceptual model of social presence proposed by Hassanein and Head (2007), this study discusses social presence in a virtual environment as a complex multidimensional construct characterized by directed relationships among a set of uni-dimensional constructs. Given the rising importance of security, this study investigates the influence of social presence on perceived security in virtual activities. A prototype of the virtual shopping mall is designed as an experimental medium for which the user interface consists of both 3D graphics and an avatar. Valid questionnaires were gathered from student samples, and hypotheses were then tested to measure this set of constructs and fit a series of structural equation models that test Hassanein and Head's (2007) theory. The proposed model is strongly supported, and it provides additional insight into the effect and consequences of social presence. The results of the model show that social presence is a key behavioral antecedent to using virtual malls and user perception of security is a focal feature of user attitude. The results further suggest that perceived social presence can be a key factor of the virtual shopping activities by enhancing user perception of security and behavioral attitude in virtual malls. This study provides a more intensive view of virtual reality users and is an important step toward a better understanding of user behaviors in virtual environments.

IJHCI 2011-06-01 Volume 27 Issue 6

Assessing Usability of Human-Machine Interfaces for Life Science Automation Using Computational Cognitive Models BIBAFull-Text 481-504
  David B. Kaber; Rebecca S. Green; Sang-Hwan Kim; Noa Segall
The objective of this study was to assess the plausibility of using computational cognitive models for evaluating the usability of human-machine interfaces in supervisory control of high-throughput (biological) screening (HTS) operations. Usability evaluations of new interface prototypes were conducted by comparisons with existing technologies. Model assessment occurred through comparison with human test results. Task completion times and the number of errors were recorded during human performance trials, and task time was predicted in cognitive model trials in tests with two HTS interfaces. Computational GOMSL (Goals, Operators, Methods, and Selection rules Language) models were constructed based on a combination of cognitive task analyses (abstraction hierarchy modeling and goal-directed task analysis). The usability tests revealed improvements in task performance with the new prototypes. The cognitive model outputs were correlated with actual human performance, and the approach was considered useful for evaluating the usability of new interfaces in life sciences automation in the future.
In-Vehicle Information Systems to Meet the Needs of Drivers BIBAFull-Text 505-522
  Catherine Harvey; Neville A. Stanton; Carl A. Pickering; Mike McDonald; Pengjun Zheng
In-Vehicle Information Systems (IVISs) integrate most of the secondary functions available within vehicles. These secondary functions are aimed at enhancing the driving experience. To successfully design and evaluate the performance of these systems, a thorough understanding of the task, user, and system is required. This article presents a review of these three variables in the context of IVISs, which aims to enhance understanding of this specific task-user-system interaction. A framework for modeling system performance for the task-user-system interaction is also proposed. This will allow designers and evaluators of IVISs to make predictions about system performance and to design systems that meet a set of criteria for usable IVISs.
Vision-Based Hand Interaction in Augmented Reality Environment BIBAFull-Text 523-544
  Y. Shen; S. K. Ong; A. Y. C. Nee
A new vision-based framework and system for human-computer interaction in an Augmented Reality environment is presented in this article. The system allows the users to interact with computer-generated virtual objects using their hands directly. With an efficient color segmentation algorithm, the system is adaptable to different light conditions and backgrounds. It is also suitable for real-time applications. The dominant features on the palm are detected and tracked to estimate the camera pose. After the camera pose relative to the user's hand has been reconstructed, 3D virtual objects can be augmented naturally onto the palm for the user to inspect and manipulate. With off-the-shelf web camera and computer, natural bare-hand based interactions with 2D and 3D virtual objects can be achieved with low cost.
The Effects of Personality Traits on User Acceptance of Mobile Commerce BIBAFull-Text 545-561
  Tao Zhou; Yaobin Lu
Existing research on user acceptance of mobile commerce has found that technological perceptions -- such as perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and perceived compatibility -- had significant effects on user behavior. However, the effects of personality traits have seldom been examined. The purpose of this research is to examine the effects of five personality traits of extraversion, agreeableness, openness to experience, conscientiousness, and neuroticism on user adoption of mobile commerce. Partial least squares was employed to conduct data analysis. The results show that extraversion has a strong effect on trust, whereas neuroticism has significantly negative effects on trust and perceived usefulness, both of which determine user intention to adopt mobile commerce.
The Audience Funnel: Observations of Gesture Based Interaction With Multiple Large Displays in a City Center BIBAFull-Text 562-579
  Daniel Michelis; Jörg Müller
Data are presented from observations of Magical Mirrors, a set of four large public displays with gesture-based interaction installed in downtown Berlin, Germany. The displays show a mirror image of the environment in front of them and react with optical effects to the gestures of the audience. Observations of audience behavior revealed recurring behavioral patterns, like glancing at a first display while passing it, moving the arms to cause some effects, then directly approaching one of the following displays and positioning oneself in the center of the display. This was often followed by positioning oneself in the center of the other displays to explore the possibilities of the different effects, and sometimes by taking photographs or videos. From these observations a framework of interaction with gesture-based public display systems was deduced. It describes the phases of passing by a display, viewing & reacting, subtle interaction, direct interaction, multiple interactions, and follow-up actions. Quantitative data of these behavioral phases was collected by observing 660 passers-by on 2 weekend evenings. This article shows how many passers-by pass the thresholds between these phases. This 'Audience Funnel' should provide a framework to encourage systematic investigation of public display systems and enable comparability between different studies.

IJHCI 2011-07-01 Volume 27 Issue 7

Impact of Ergonomic and Social Psychological Perspective: A Case Study of Fashion Technology Adoption in Taiwan BIBAFull-Text 583-605
  Chyan Yang; Yi-Chun Hsu
Recently, there have been dramatic and emerging innovations in portable media devices. This is evident, for example, with the Apple iPod, Microsoft Zune, Sony Walkman, and the Samsung and iriver media players. Because of this, how to best understand the users' intentions to adopt these fashionable technologies has become a new issue in the information technology domain. However, in the literature, little is published about what motivates people to adopt these innovative technologies. To address this issue, this research sought to come up with a model by integrating key variables from the role of ergonomic and social psychological facets on estimates of the fashion technology acceptance. A structural equation modeling approach was used to examine 10 hypotheses in the proposed model. The results indicated that usefulness, playfulness, and aesthetics from the ergonomic facet and critical mass from the social psychological perspective positively contributed to the users' intent to adopt the fashion technology. Furthermore, the perceived ease of use indirectly affects adoptive intentions through perceived usefulness and playfulness. Important implications of these findings are discussed from both theoretical and practical aspects.
Optimal View Angles in Three-Dimensional Objects Constructed From Plane Figures as Mental Images BIBAFull-Text 606-619
  Koji Kashihara
In human-computer interfaces, such as computer-aided design and clinical assessment, there are various ways to create a mental image of a three-dimensional (3D) structure from plane figures. To evaluate the specific cognitive activities that take place during the recognition of a 3D structure, the act of mentally framing 3D images from plane figures and the ability to match mental images to actual objects were investigated. The results reveal that the effects of depth cues such as shade and color in the 3D images significantly facilitated the cognitive process in human-computer interfaces. In addition, optimal presentation angles for the matching phase exist; these findings suggest effective methods in a field requiring quick judgment based on high cognitive functions.
Effects of Interactivity in Educational Games: A Mediating Role of Social Presence on Learning Outcomes BIBAFull-Text 620-633
  Kwan Min Lee; Eui Jun Jeong; Namkee Park; Seoungho Ryu
Networked interactivity is one of the essential factors that differentiate recent online educational games from traditional stand-alone CD-based games. Despite the growing popularity of online educational games, empirical studies about the effects of networked interactivity are relatively rare. The current study tests the effects of networked interactivity on game users' learning outcomes by comparing three groups (online educational quiz game vs. off-line educational quiz game vs. traditional classroom lecture). In addition, the study examines the mediating role of social presence in the context of educational games. Results indicate that networked interactivity in the online educational quiz game condition enhances game users' positive evaluation of learning, test performance, and feelings of social presence. However, there was no significant difference between the off-line educational quiz game and the lecture-based conditions in terms of learning outcomes. Further analyses indicate that feelings of social presence mediate the effect of networked interactivity on various learning outcomes. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
Templates for Cross-Cultural and Culturally Specific Usability Testing: Results From Field Studies and Ethnographic Interviewing in Three Countries BIBAFull-Text 634-669
  Torkil Clemmensen
The cultural diversity of users of technology challenges our methods for usability testing. This article suggests templates for cross-culturally and culturally specific usability testing, based on studies of usability testing in companies in Mumbai, Beijing, and Copenhagen. Study 1 was a cross-cultural field study of think-aloud testing done by usability vendor companies in the three countries. The result was a grounded theory of cultural variations in the production of a usability problem list. Study 2 was a follow-up, ethnographic interview study of how the companies typically perform usability tests. The result was the construction of templates for usability testing. The culturally specific templates were in Mumbai 'user-centered evaluation,' Copenhagen 'client-centered evaluation,' and Beijing 'evaluator-centered evaluation.' The findings are compared with related research, and the implications are pointed out. The templates can be seen as a simple and practical way to plan, compare, and improve the way usability testing is carried out in multiple, different cultures and countries.
Identifying Usability Issues for Personalization During Formative Evaluations: A Comparison of Three Methods BIBAFull-Text 670-698
  Lex van Velsen; Thea van der Geest; Rob Klaassen
A personalized system is one that generates unique output for each individual. As a result, personalization has transformed the interaction between the user and the system, and specific new usability issues have arisen. Methods used for evaluating personalized systems should be able to reveal the issues and problems specifically associated with personalization. Therefore this study evaluated three of the most common test methods used to detect usability problems in a personalized search engine. This was done by comparing the comments generated from thinking-aloud, questionnaires, and interviews. Questionnaires and interviews appear to be more useful for assessing specific usability issues for personalization, whereas thinking-aloud generates more comments on the usefulness of the system in the intended context of use and identifies the most critical and serious problems. Interviews, on the other hand, appear to yield a disproportionate number of positive comments. During the formative evaluation of a personalized system it is best to use a combination of thinking-aloud and questionnaires. This article concludes with a summary of implications for practitioners.

IJHCI 2011-08-01 Volume 27 Issue 8

Evaluation of Virtual Keyboards for Interactive Digital Television Applications BIBAFull-Text 703-728
  Jonathan Perrinet; Xabiel G. Pañeda; Sergio Cabrero; David Melendi; Roberto García; Víctor García
The development of the technologies behind Interactive Digital Television (IDTV) services has produced a new type of audience. Traditional viewers now become users as they may play an active role in front of the TV, for example, by choosing a video to be played on demand or by introducing text on an IDTV application. In these services, interactions need to be performed with a remote control, currently the main interaction device, or other devices such as keyboards or mice, which are not very popular in this environment. Nevertheless, although remote controls are essential tools for IDTV services, they are very limited when it comes to writing text. Thus, this study evaluated different alternatives to introduce text on an IDTV application with a remote control. A heterogeneous group of people was selected to write predefined sentences in Spanish in a test environment using three virtual keyboard layouts and the multitap mechanism. Their performance and subjective impressions reveal weaknesses and strengths of the evaluated methods. The article draws important conclusions about the usage of remote controls in IDTV applications, not only for the design of new applications but also for the research of new techniques to introduce text.
Personal Usability Constructs: How People Construe Usability Across Nationalities and Stakeholder Groups BIBAFull-Text 729-761
  Morten Hertzum; Torkil Clemmensen; Kasper Hornbæk; Jyoti Kumar; Qingxin Shi; Pradeep Yammiyavar
Whereas the concept of usability is predominantly defined analytically, people relate to systems through personal usability constructs. Based on 48 repertory-grid interviews, this study investigates how such personal constructs are affected by two factors crucial to the international development and uptake of systems: nationality (Chinese, Danish, or Indian) and stakeholder group (developer or user). We find no significant overall difference across nationalities, but further analyses suggest that conventional usability aspects such as ease of use and simplicity are prominent for Chinese and Danish but not Indian participants and that a distinction between work and leisure-related communication is central to Chinese and Indian but not Danish participants. For stakeholder groups, we find a significant overall difference between developers and users. Unlike developers, users associate ease of use with leisure and, conversely, difficulty in use with work-relatedness. Further, users perceive usefulness as related to frustration and separate from ease of use, whereas developers construe usefulness, fun, and ease of use as related. In construing usability, participants make use of several constructs that are not part of prevailing usability definitions, including usefulness, fun, and security.
Users' Attitude and Strategies in Information Management With Multiple Computers BIBAFull-Text 762-792
  Guangfeng Song; Chen Ling
This article reports the result of a survey study on how users utilize multiple computers in personal information management tasks. Two hundred ninety-five experienced computer users answered questions regarding the selective use of computers in three usage scenarios in managing multiple types of information: files, bookmarks, and e-mails. Results showed that users pursue simple computing environment by simplifying multiple computer configurations, avoiding distribution of information among multiple computers, and avoiding conceptual distinction of multiple computers. Selective use of a computer was based on the characteristics of the computers and the tasks to be performed. Information retrieval was still primarily done manually due to problems of memory decay and information overload. It was concluded that user attitudes and strategies in using multiple computers were characterized by reactive coping and avoidance of challenges. This article provides evidence of users' problems with multiple computers and highlights the need to support the seamless usage of multiple computers.
The Role of Structure and Content in Perception of Visual Similarity Between Web Pages BIBAFull-Text 793-816
  Guangfeng Song
In human-computer interaction, users' perception of visual similarity in interfaces may affect how well they judge the relevance of information, construct appropriate mental models, and effectively interact with computers. This is of interest to both computer science and psychology. A review of the theoretical and applied research in visual similarity reveals both a content-oriented and a structural-oriented approach. The present study seeks to understand the content and structural aspects of visual similarity judgment. Unlike early theoretical studies in psychology, web pages were used as realistic stimulus in an experimental study. Structural and content changes to pairs of web pages were incrementally applied in experimental sessions while participants were judging the similarity of these pairs. The results of the experiment indicated that similarity ratings between two pages correlate negatively with the number of alterations made to the layout of one of the pages. Similarity ratings between two pages also declined when distinctive background colors were applied to one of the pages. The experiment also revealed that text-complete web pages received lower similarity ratings than wire frames of the pages. Pages with readable text received higher similarity ratings than pages with unreadable text. The results of this study will help web designers produce web pages of various similarities that will be consistent with users' judgment and help improve similarity-based web researches.

IJHCI 2011-09-01 Volume 27 Issue 9

An Empirical Study of Tagging for Personal Information Organization: Performance, Workload, Memory, and Consistency BIBAFull-Text 821-863
  Qin Gao
Tagging allows users to organize their information and retrieve it later with multiple, freely chosen keywords, which is impossible with categorical folders. The need to organize information for personal later retrieval has been found to be one of the most important motivations for tagging. Despite the popularity of the concept, more empirical evidence is still required to verify the real benefit of tagging for information organization and retrieval. Furthermore, the problems of inconsistency in tagging hamper the usefulness of tagging as an effective organization tool. The current study aims to investigate users' motivation, performance, and workload when they use tagging to organize personal information and how the system design could improve the process. First, a pilot study combining think-aloud and interviews was conducted to obtain insights on why and how users select tags. Then, the first experiment with 40 participants was conducted to empirically compare the performance and workload difference in information organization and retrieval tasks between categorization and tagging interfaces. The results show that tagging users reported a significantly higher level of mental demand and frustration when performing organizational tasks and a significantly higher level of temporal demand and error rate when performing retrieval tasks compared with categorization. However, tagging users tend to have better memory of the organized content. The second experiment aimed to study how individual tagging consistency can be improved by the proper visualization of tag suggestions. The impact of frequency visualization by font size and semantically clustering was studied with 40 participants. The results show that semantically clustered tag clouds improve tagging consistency significantly; when a semantic clustering effect is presented, frequency visualization by font size can significantly alleviate the physical demand perceived by users.
Extensible Auditory Progress Bar Design: Performance and Aesthetics BIBAFull-Text 864-884
  Philip Kortum; S. Camille Peres; Kurt Stallmann
This study investigated performance and preference differences for three different extensible Auditory Progress Bar (APB) designs. Four durations (30 s, 60 s, 120 s, 240 s) of the three APBs (Sine, Cello, and Electronic) were used in the study. There were 105 participants who listened to all durations of a single-stimulus type and were asked to determine the length of time they had listened to the stimulus and to rate the stimuli on aesthetic quality. Participants were significantly worse at time estimation with the Electronic APB. The Sine APB was preferred significantly less than either the Cello or Electronic APBs. Regardless of the stimulus, time estimation was more variable and more accurate as the duration of the APB increased. The results indicate that although they were originally envisioned as a supplement for the visual progress bar, APBs can be effective when used alone. Further, it was found that, even within the small design space presented here, APB design can influence the performance of listeners.
The Effects of Social Influence on User Acceptance of Online Social Networks BIBAFull-Text 885-899
  Li Qin; Yongbeom Kim; Jeffrey Hsu; Xin Tan
With the proliferation of online social networks, understanding how and why individuals adopt and use these networks can help managers and marketers to design better methods and approaches toward engaging their users. The purpose of this study is to investigate the determinants of user acceptance of online social networks, with particular attention given to the effects of social influence. A research model was developed by incorporating two variables of social influence, subjective norm and critical mass, into an enhanced version of the Technology Acceptance Model, specifically to address issues related to online social networks. The model was empirically evaluated using survey data collected from 269 subjects about their perceptions of online social networks. The results reveal that both subjective norm and critical mass significantly affect perceived usefulness, which further affects users' usage intention, and perceived ease of use affects the usage intention indirectly through perceived usefulness. The implications of this study on theory and practice are discussed.
Quantitative Physiological Assessment of Stress Via Altered Immune Functioning Following Interaction With Differing Automotive Interface Technologies BIBAFull-Text 900-919
  Graham K. Shelton-Rayner; Rubina Mian; Simon Chandler; Duncan Robertson; David W. Macdonald
Technology can enhance or diminish a user's psycho-physiological stress level; the ability to quantify these responses can help evaluate and refine design. The capability of drivers to accomplish basic tasks utilizing differing sensory modalities while maintaining lane discipline within a computer-simulated environment was assessed. Fifteen healthy subjects provided capillary blood samples before and after using three human-machine interface designs -- touch-screen, voice control, and multimodal. Using a chemiluminescent technique termed Leukocyte Coping Capacity, the ability of leukocytes to produce reactive oxygen species in vitro was assessed. Significant poststressor changes in leukocyte activity of varying magnitude were observed following the use of all interfaces; with the multimodal interface provoking the most pronounced response and voice control the least. Although still requiring further research, the results support the proposition for using immune responsiveness as a means for quantifying psychological stress during assessment of ergonomic design and psycho-physiological and social interaction.

IJHCI 2011-10-01 Volume 27 Issue 10

The Impact of Computer Self-Efficacy and Technology Dependence on Computer-Related Technostress: A Social Cognitive Theory Perspective BIBAFull-Text 923-939
  Qin Shu; Qiang Tu; Kanliang Wang
Professionals and end users of computers often experience being constantly surrounded by modern technology. One side effect of modern technology is termed technostress, which refers to the "negative impact on attitudes, thoughts, behaviors, or body physiology that is caused either directly or indirectly by technology" (Well and Rosen, 1997). Based on social cognitive theory, this study developed a conceptual model in which computer-related technostress was studied as consequences of computer self-efficacy and technology dependence. Results show that (a) employees with higher level of computer self-efficacy have lower level of computer-related technostress, (b) employees with higher level of technology dependence have higher level of computer-related technostress, and (c) employees under different individual situations may perceive different levels of technostress. Contributions of this research and implications for theory and managerial practice are also discussed.
Ingredients and Meals Rather Than Recipes: A Proposal for Research That Does Not Treat Usability Evaluation Methods as Indivisible Wholes BIBAFull-Text 940-970
  Alan Woolrych; Kasper Hornbæk; Erik Frøkjær; Gilbert Cockton
To better support usability practice, most usability research focuses on evaluation methods. New ideas in usability research are mostly proposed as new evaluation methods. Many publications describe experiments that compare methods. Comparisons may indicate that some methods have important deficiencies, and thus often advise usability practitioners to prefer a specific method in a particular situation. An expectation persists in human-computer interaction (HCI) that results about evaluation methods should be the standard 'unit of contribution' rather than favoring larger units (e.g., usability work as a whole) or smaller ones (e.g., the impact of specific aspects of a method). This article argues that these foci on comparisons and method innovations ignore the reality that usability evaluation methods are loose incomplete collections of resources, which successful practitioners configure, adapt, and complement to match specific project circumstances. Through a review of existing research on methods and resources, resources associated with specific evaluation methods, and ones that can complement existing methods, or be used separately, are identified. Next, a generic classification scheme for evaluation resources is developed, and the scheme is extended with project specific resources that impact the effective use of methods. With these reviews and analyses in place, implications for research, teaching, and practice are derived. Throughout, the article draws on culinary analogies. A recipe is nothing without its ingredients, and just as the quality of what is cooked reflects the quality of its ingredients, so too does the quality of usability work reflect the quality of resources as configured and combined. A method, like a recipe, is at best a guide to action for those adopting approaches to usability that are new to them. As with culinary dishes, HCI needs to focus more on what gets cooked, and how it gets cooked, and not just on how recipes suggest that it could be cooked.
Engaging Families in Lifestyle Changes Through Social Networking BIBAFull-Text 971-990
  Nilufar Baghaei; Stephen Kimani; Jill Freyne; Emily Brindal; Shlomo Berkovsky; Greg Smith
Previous research has shown that providing family engagement and social support play important roles in weight management success, helping to achieve long-term lifestyle changes. Traditionally, the support provided by online health communities is primarily targeted at individuals and does not involve their families. SOFA (SOcial FAmilies), a novel approach for engaging, motivating, and persuading families to adopt a healthy lifestyle, is proposed. SOFA is an online social network for families coupled with a repository of health-related educational content. This article reports the results of a live user study aimed at investigating how user profile representation and system-assigned tasks influence users engagement with the system and change their attitude toward a healthy lifestyle. The results show that representing family members as individuals increases the number of active members per family as well as their retention, contribution to, and engagement with the network. The results also show that family-based social networks positively change the attitude of family members toward a healthy lifestyle.
Copresence and Its Social-Relational Antecedents in Computer-Mediated Communication: The Case of Instant Messenger BIBAFull-Text 991-1009
  Bo Xu; Wei Zhang; Dahui Li
Computer-mediated communication (CMC) technologies like instant messenger have been increasingly used as a tool for interpersonal relationship development and maintenance. To better understand such use of CMC, we investigate copresence -- defined as a communicator's perception of being with other communication partners through CMC -- and its role in affecting the intention to continue using the medium. We explore three social-relational antecedents of copresence: prior use of the medium, perceived critical mass, and user commitment to maintain the relationship with others. Hypotheses are tested with survey data on the use of instant messenger. In general, the results support the research hypotheses. We suggest that the concept of copresence can be a novel and helpful theoretical perspective for understanding the use of CMC for social-relational purposes.

IJHCI 2011-11-01 Volume 27 Issue 11

Communicative NGOMSL: Development of an Evaluation Method for a Text-Based Communication System BIBAFull-Text 1013-1036
  Sangwon Lee; Richard J. Koubek
Goals, Operators, Methods, and Selection rules (GOMS) is an analytic method and a model evaluation method for the knowledge necessary for a user to perform tasks in a system, and Natural GOMS Language (NGOMSL), a version of GOMS, is an attempt to define a language so that the GOMS model can be precisely constructed in a structured way. This study proposes Communicative NGOMSL, which is an extension of NGOMSL intended to accommodate modeling of text-based communication among two or more individuals. Besides the properties of GOMS techniques in evaluation, Communicative NGOMSL additionally considers common ground and communication time: Common ground refers to the mutual knowledge, beliefs, and assumptions of participants in communication, and communication time refers to the time that an individual waits for another to respond. The analysis of a Communicative NGOMSL model provides some information for a common task goal in a text-based communication system: (a) the relationship between the grounding process and Communicative NGOMSL statements, (b) the ratio of communication time to execution time for each individual, and (c) the balance among individuals in terms of learning time and mental workload. A demonstration of Communicative NGOMSL is provided through a sample case -- a virtual text-based chat tool for exchanging addresses between two individuals. Future work needed to address the limitations of this study and further develop Communicative NGOMSL is discussed.
Social Mediating Technologies: Social Affordances and Functionalities BIBAFull-Text 1037-1065
  A. G. Sutcliffe; V. Gonzalez; J. Binder; G. Nevarez
A framework for analyzing computer-mediated communication is presented, based on Clark's theory of common ground. Four technologies are reviewed: Facebook, Wikipedia, Blacksburg Electronic Village, and World of Warcraft, to assess their 'social affordances,' that is, how communication is supported and how the technologies provide facilities to promote social relationships, groups, and communities. The technology affordances are related to motivations for use and socio-psychological theories of group behaviour and social relationships. The review provides new insights into the nature of long-lasting conversations in social relationships, as well as how representations of individuals and social networks augment interaction.
Rethinking Reading for Age From Paper and Computers BIBAFull-Text 1066-1082
  Robert Ball; Juan Pablo Hourcade
The human-computer interaction research community has long been interested in the role of age in the use of computing devices. The current availability of large high-resolution displays and a growing community of older adults who use computers on a regular basis are examples of a changing landscape of users and devices that calls for a reevaluation of what we know about age and computers. This article presents two studies comparing the performance of young and older adults in reading tasks. In our studies, older adults outperformed young adults in terms of reading times and reading comprehension regardless of medium (paper or computer display). In addition, the overlap of confidence intervals for reading times and comprehension by medium suggests participants performed equally well regardless of medium. Both findings are in contrast to results from similar studies from the 1980s and 1990s.
The Impact of Cognitive Style on User Preference Based on Usability and Aesthetics for Computer-Based Systems BIBAFull-Text 1083-1114
  Sangwon Lee; Richard J. Koubek
Understanding target users is a crucial issue in establishing design and marketing strategies for computer-based applications. To contribute to the comprehension of target users, this study examines the effect of cognitive style (imagers vs. verbalizers) on user preference based on perceived usability and perceived aesthetics through an experiment using four simulated systems with different levels of usability and aesthetics. Forty-two imagers and 31 verbalizers participated in the experiment. The results of the analyses of variance indicated that, before actual use, the effect of the aesthetics factor on user preference was significantly different between imagers and verbalizers but that of the usability factor was not. The difference between imagers and verbalizers with respect to the effect of the aesthetics/usability factor on time performance was not sufficiently demonstrated, nor was the difference between the two cognitive styles with regard to the effect of the aesthetics/usability factor on user preference after actual use. For the combined experimental data of users' responses before and after actual use, the interaction effect between cognitive styles and actual use on user preference was not significant. Some possible reasons for these results and the possibilities of an important role of cognitive style in users' preference making are discussed here. Further studies are necessary to better examine the impact of cognitive style.

IJHCI 2011-12-01 Volume 27 Issue 12

Haptic Seat Interfaces for Driver Information and Warning Systems BIBAFull-Text 1119-1132
  Wonsuk Chang; Wonil Hwang; Yong Gu Ji
The implementation of haptic interfaces in vehicles has important safety and flexibility implications for lessening visual and auditory overload during driving. The present study aims to design and evaluate haptic interfaces with vehicle seats. Three experiments were conducted by testing a haptic seat in a simulator with a total of 20 participants. The first experiment measured reaction time, subjective satisfaction, and subject workloads of the haptic, visual, and auditory displays for the four signals primarily used by vehicle navigation systems. The second experiment measured reaction time, subjective satisfaction, and subjective workloads of the haptic, auditory, and multimodal (haptic + auditory) displays for the ringing signal used by in-vehicle Bluetooth hands-free systems. The third experiment measured drivers' subjective awareness, urgency, usefulness, and disturbance levels at various vibration intensities and positions for a haptic warning signal used by a driver drowsiness warning system. The results indicated that haptic seat interfaces performed better than visual and auditory interfaces, but the unfamiliarity of the haptic interface caused a lower subjective satisfaction for some criteria. Generally, participants showed high subjective satisfaction levels and low subjective workloads toward haptic seat interfaces. This study provided guidance for implementing haptic seat interfaces and identified the possible benefits of their use. It is expected that haptic seats implemented in vehicles will improve safety and the interaction between driver and vehicle.
Can Convenience and Effectiveness Converge in Mobile Web? A Critique of the State-of-the-Art Adaptation Techniques for Web Navigation on Mobile Handheld Devices BIBAFull-Text 1133-1160
  Dongsong Zhang; Jianwei Lai
Proliferation of mobile handheld devices and the significant advancement of wireless technologies and infrastructures have become a strong driving force of many mobile applications, including ubiquitous web information access through those devices. Despite the tremendous flexibility, accessibility, and convenience, rendering and navigating Web content on handheld devices suffer from significant usability problems attributable to their physical constraints, especially the small screen size, restricted interaction mechanisms, and low memory. Therefore, improving the effectiveness of web content navigation on those devices is crucial and has attracted increasing attention from both academics and industry. One of the promising solutions is adaptation, which focuses on the content restructuring, rearranging, and visualization. This article attempts to provide a comprehensive review of the state-of-the-art approaches to web adaptation for mobile handheld devices. The study not only categorizes, synthesizes, and compares the pros and cons of major adaptation methods but also discusses the observed problems in research methodology adopted in related studies and highlights future research directions. The article provides an important road map to the researchers and practitioners in this field.
Predicting Attitudes Toward Knowledge Sharing by E-Mail: An Empirical Study BIBAFull-Text 1161-1176
  Yujong Hwang
Social influence factors in sharing knowledge by e-mail are important issues in developing and understanding successful knowledge management systems and human-computer interaction. This article investigates important factors in shaping attitudes toward knowledge sharing by e-mail, based on social influence theory and self-determination theory. An empirical test of the proposed model using an online survey was conducted with a sample of undergraduate college students who use group e-mails for class assignments (n=566). All social influence factors significantly influenced attitudes toward knowledge sharing by e-mail (R 2 = .57). Information systems researchers and practitioners will be able to more fully understand the roles of social influence factors in developing and designing knowledge management.
Examining Postadoption Usage of Mobile Services From a Dual Perspective of Enablers and Inhibitors BIBAFull-Text 1177-1191
  Tao Zhou; Yaobin Lu
Users' postadoption usage is crucial to the success of mobile service providers. From a dual perspective, this research examined the effects of trust, satisfaction as enablers, and switching barrier as inhibitors on the postadoption usage of mobile services. A survey was used to collect data, and data analysis was conducted with structural equation modeling. The results indicated that trust, satisfaction, and switching barrier have significant effects on the postadoption usage. In addition, service quality and perceived value strongly affect trust and satisfaction, whereas switching cost determines switching barrier. These results advance our understanding of mobile users' postadoption usage as extant research has focused on using a single perspective of enablers such as perceived usefulness to examine mobile user behavior.