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DUXU Tables of Contents: 11-111-213-113-213-313-414-114-214-314-415-115-215-3

DUXU 2015: Fourth International Conference on Design, User Experience, and Usability, Part I: Design Discourse

Fullname:DUXU 2015: 4th International Conference on Design, User Experience, and Usability, Part I: Design Discourse
Note:Volume 18 of HCI International 2015
Editors:Aaron Marcus
Location:Los Angeles, California
Dates:2015-Aug-02 to 2015-Aug-07
Volume:1
Publisher:Springer International Publishing
Series:Lecture Notes in Computer Science 9186
Standard No:DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-20886-2 hcibib: DUXU15-1; ISBN: 978-3-319-20885-5 (print), 978-3-319-20886-2 (online)
Papers:61
Pages:672
Links:Online Proceedings | Conference Website

DUXU 2015: Fourth International Conference on Design, User Experience, and Usability, Part II: Users and Interactions

Fullname:DUXU 2015: 4th International Conference on Design, User Experience, and Usability, Part II: Users and Interactions
Note:Volume 19 of HCI International 2015
Editors:Aaron Marcus
Location:Los Angeles, California
Dates:2015-Aug-02 to 2015-Aug-07
Volume:2
Publisher:Springer International Publishing
Series:Lecture Notes in Computer Science 9187
Standard No:DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-20898-5 hcibib: DUXU15-2; ISBN: 978-3-319-20897-8 (print), 978-3-319-20898-5 (online)
Papers:67
Pages:720
Links:Online Proceedings | Conference Website

DUXU 2015: Fourth International Conference on Design, User Experience, and Usability, Part III: Interactive Experience Design

Fullname:DUXU 2015: 4th International Conference on Design, User Experience, and Usability, Part III: Interactive Experience Design
Note:Volume 20 of HCI International 2015
Editors:Aaron Marcus
Location:Los Angeles, California
Dates:2015-Aug-02 to 2015-Aug-07
Volume:3
Publisher:Springer International Publishing
Series:Lecture Notes in Computer Science 9188
Standard No:DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-20889-3 hcibib: DUXU15-3; ISBN: 978-3-319-20888-6 (print), 978-3-319-20889-3 (online)
Papers:64
Pages:708
Links:Online Proceedings | Conference Website
  1. DUXU 2015-08-02 Volume 1
    1. Design Thinking
    2. User Experience Design and Usability Methods and Tools
    3. DUXU Management and Practice
    4. Emotional and Persuasion Design
    5. Storytelling, Narrative and Fiction in DUXU5
  2. DUXU 2015-08-02 Volume 2
    1. Users in DUXU
    2. Women in DUXU
    3. Information Design
    4. Touch and Gesture DUXU
    5. Mobile DUXU
    6. Wearable DUXU
  3. DUXU 2015-08-02 Volume 3
    1. Designing the Social Media Experience
    2. Designing the Learning Experience
    3. Designing the Playing Experience
    4. Designing the Urban Experience
    5. Designing the Driving Experience
    6. Designing the Healthcare Patient's Experience
    7. Designing for the Healthcare Professional's Experience

DUXU 2015-08-02 Volume 1

Design Thinking

The Cold Desert of Software Reality BIBAKFull-Text 3-11
  Jirí Bystrický; Jan Brejcha
The current state of knowledge of our lived world is in constant confrontation of two environments that does not yet fully converge. On the one hand stands a person with his or her own cultural traditions and historical development, and on the other hand stands the technology per se, in its relatively rapid development phase. These two parts constantly roam without bringing us a significant breakthrough in knowledge, which is the needed human cognitive reference point when interacting with computers. Our aim is to find out certain nodes of understanding between these two worlds, and propose a hypothesis for their possible approximation.
Keywords: Cognition; Cultural techniques; De-abstraction; De-reality; Interface hermeneutics; Knowledge; Human-computer interaction; Processive subject; Post-media; Proto-medium; Reflexive interface; Simulacra; Software reality; Visual thinking
Design Thinking Methods and Tools for Innovation BIBAKFull-Text 12-23
  Dimitra Chasanidou; Andrea Alessandro Gasparini; Eunji Lee
Design thinking (DT) is regarded as a system of three overlapping spaces -- viability, desirability, and feasibility -- where innovation increases when all three perspectives are addressed. Understanding how innovation within teams can be supported by DT methods and tools captivates the interest of business communities. This paper aims to examine how DT methods and tools foster innovation in teams. A case study approach, based on two workshops, examined three DT methods with a software tool. The findings support the use of DT methods and tools as a way of incubating ideas and creating innovative solutions within teams when team collaboration and software limitations are balanced. The paper proposes guidelines for utilizing DT methods and tools in innovation projects.
Keywords: Design thinking; Design thinking methods; Design thinking tools; Innovation; Personas; Stakeholder map; Customer journey map
Semantic Research of Military Icons Based on Behavioral Experiments and Eye-Tracking Experiments BIBAKFull-Text 24-31
  Xiao Jiao Chen; Chengqi Xue; Yafeng Niu; Haiyan Wang; Jing Zhang; Jiang Shao
As a type of symbol, there are four dimensions in icons' symbolic interpretation, namely semantic, syntactic, contextual and pragmatic dimension. Among those dimensions, semantic dimension is the most important one in user's cognitive analysis. Based on the representation of semantics, icons can be classified into four types, namely function-metaphor, operation-metaphor, object-metaphor and meaning-metaphor icon. Here we conducted behavioral experiment and eye-tracking experiment to evaluate those four types of icons selected from military aeronautical system. The behavioral experiment showed that subjects have lowest reaction time to function-metaphor icons and highest accuracy to identify object-metaphor icons. The eye-tracking system showed that subjects have the most fixations when searching for object-metaphor icons and the least fixations when searching for function-metaphor icons. Our research is the first endeavor into the investigation of human's response to different types of icons in the military systems and thus provided novel and valuable guidance to the design of icons in those systems.
Keywords: Aeronautical system; Icons; Semantics; Behavioral experiment; Eye-tracking experiment
Thinking with a New Purpose: Lessons Learned from Teaching Design Thinking Skills to Creative Technology Students BIBAKFull-Text 32-43
  Marc Fabri
This paper reports on the insights gained from introducing Design Thinking into the final year of a UK university course where students created positive behavior change interventions. The rationale for course design and teaching process is outlined, with a discussion of design as an engineering process versus an innovation process. The students followed Stanford University's d.school 5-step approach of Empathize-Define-Ideate-Prototype-Test, and their journey is described in detail. We observed that initially students found the Design Thinking approach counter-intuitive and confusing, yet on further progress they recognized the strengths and opportunities it offers. On the whole, students reflected positively on their learning and the re-evaluation of their role as a designer of digital artefacts. Lessons learned from a teaching point of view are outlined, the most poignant being the realization that it was required to 'un-teach' certain design practices students had come to adopt, in particular the view of design as a self-inspired process where users are consulted for feedback but not as a source for innovation.
Keywords: Design education; Situated learning; Design thinking; Service design; Human-Centered design; Behavior change; Persuasive design
HCI and the Community of Non-users BIBAKFull-Text 44-52
  Michael Heidt; Kalja Kanellopoulos; Linda Pfeiffer; Paul Rosenthal
HCI's success as a discipline is based on its ability of dealing with the problems, desires, and requirements of technology users. Through its turn to user experience, the community was able to create products whose use is pleasant and exciting. There are, however, design contexts where the corresponding focus on fostering use might be in need of a complementing perspective.
   During the last couple of years, the topic of technology non-use has appeared within the scope of HCI. Within this text, we will explore how these recent conceptualisations and analyses can be employed in order to turn non-use into a design resource. We do so by discussing them in the context of a concrete development project aimed at creating interactive technology for exhibition contexts.
Keywords: Non-use; HCI; Prototyping; Interdisciplinarity; Cultural informatics; Critical technical practice
The Conflict Resolution in Product Experience Design Based on Evaporating Cloud of the Theory of Constraints BIBAKFull-Text 53-62
  Lu Jin
In design practice, we will meet with various target conflict and challenges. On most of the times, compromising is usually used to solve the conflict. However, in this paper we are trying to solve it by making win-win design solution other than making compromise. This can help satisfy different needs and still target to have outstanding user experience. In order to make no compromise design solution, a new thinking process will be introduced -- the evaporating cloud of the theory of constraint to resolve the conflict during the design practice. The results obtained in this paper include a new approach to thinking method in design practice. The impacts of our obtained results are reducing the prejudice towards compromise in design practice and make people believe win-win solution existing on the complicated design practice. This thinking method can also be permeated into a wide range of detail design practice.
Keywords: Design thinking; Evaporating cloud; Conflict resolution; Product experience design
How to Design an User Interface Based on Gestures? BIBAKFull-Text 63-74
  Anna C. S. Medeiros; Tatiana A. Tavares; Iguatemi E. da Fonseca
The use of our body language to communicate with computer systems is an increasingly possible and applicable feature in the real world. This fact is intensified by the evolution of gesture recognition based commercial solutions. A gesture interface complements or replaces navigation in a conventional interface, it is up to each developer to choose the most appropriate option for their application. When opting for gesture usage, the gestures will be responsible to activate the systems functions. This work presents a gesture development process that can be used to aid the construction of gesture interfaces. The process here described, should help interface designers to incorporate gesture-based natural interaction into their applications in a more systematic way. To illustrate the Process, gestures for the actions "Select", "Rotate", "Translate", "Scale" and "Stop" were developed.
Keywords: Gestures; Process; Gesture interface; Natural interaction
User Interfaces for Cyber-Physical Systems: Challenges and Possible Approaches BIBAKFull-Text 75-85
  Volker Paelke; Carsten Röcker
Catchwords such as "Cyber-Physical-Systems" and "Industry 4.0" describe the current development of systems with embedded intelligence. These systems can be characterized by an increasing technical complexity that must be addressed in the user interface. In this paper we analyze the specific requirements posed by the interaction with cyber-physical-systems, present a coordinated approach to these requirements and illustrate our approach with a practical example of an assistance system for assembly workers in an industrial production environment.
Keywords: Industrial IT; User-Centered design; Usability; User interfaces; Cyber-Physical-Systems; Industry 4.0; Augmented reality; Development processes and methods
The Theoretical Landscape of Service Design BIBAKFull-Text 86-97
  Piia Rytilahti; Satu Miettinen; Hanna-Riina Vuontisjärvi
This conference paper discusses the theoretical landscape of service design. It will illustrate how service design is situated in a discourse on design research and outline the theoretical background of this multidisciplinary approach from a constructive and generative research perspective. In this paper, the foundation for the conceptual service design framework is based on current debates in the field. Identification of the conceptual framework is based on an analysis of co-creating service design cases that were implemented at the Service Innovation Corner (SINCO) laboratory at the Faculty of Art and Design, University of Lapland. The conceptual framework presents five themes that are closely connected with service design: (1) design research, (2) value co-creation, (3) user experience, (4) learning, and (5) citizen engagement. Using the perspective of service design, this paper attempts to elucidate the effects of service design on development and innovation processes in private and public sectors.
Keywords: Service design; Design research; Value proposition

User Experience Design and Usability Methods and Tools

Maareech: Usability Testing Tool for Voice Response System Using XML Based User Models BIBAKFull-Text 101-112
  Siddhartha Asthana; Pushpendra Singh
Interactive Voice Response Systems (IVRS) are popular voice-based systems to access information over the telephone. In developing regions, HCI researchers have shown keen interest in IVRS due to high affordability and reach among rural, poor, and illiterate users. However, IVRS are also notorious for their usability issues. This makes researchers thrive for more usable IVRS. The lack of automated usability testing tools for voice-based systems makes researchers depend on human subjects for testing their proposed IVR systems that are both costly and time-consuming. To address this research gap, we present Maareech, a usability testing tool for voice response systems using XML-based user models. Maareech has a flexible architecture to accommodate different user models that can be used to perform usability tests. In this paper, we discuss Maareech's architecture and its ability to mimic IVR user behavior based on different user models.
Keywords: User-models; Usability testing
Cultural Effects on Metaphor Design BIBAFull-Text 113-121
  Muhammad Waqas Azeem; Arslan Tariq; Farzan Javed Sheikh; Muhammad Aadil Butt; Iqra Tariq; Hafiza Maimoona Shahid
The World Wide Web has shortened the distances between people but it is still hard to find a general user interface for all the users. Because people living in different areas of the world have different cultures, religions, and traditions. Designing a user interface according to the culture of the user is important. Different minds have different views about cultural effects in user interface. This paper presents a detailed review on the recent work and research in cultural effects on metaphor design. This paper also explores the problems and issues regarding localizing metaphors in different cultures.
Chinese UI Design Guidelines 2.0 BIBAKFull-Text 122-129
  Jan Brejcha; Hui Li; Qing Xu; Huitian Miao; Menghan Xu; Li Wang; Zhengjie Liu
This paper presents the preferences of selected UI components of Chinese users. The areas of study were chosen using from a semiotic perspective, which lead us to focus on the cultural context, as well as the linguistic structure of user interaction. This quantitative study based on 50 respondents was targeted at validating the data gathered in a qualitative pilot study. The results are presented as UI design guidelines to simplify their adoption by both HCI researchers, and UX practitioners.
Keywords: Cross-cultural research; Cultural markers; Methodology; Design; Guidelines; User-interface; HCI; Semiotics
Combining Principles of Experience, Traditional Heuristics and Industry Guidelines to Evaluate Multimodal Digital Artifacts BIBAKFull-Text 130-137
  Fábio Campos; Rui Belfort; Walkir Fernandes; Edvar Neto; Walter Correia
This paper presents how combining principles of user experience, traditional usability and industry design and development guidelines can impact the user knowledge elicitation process. The main objective is to provide an alternative for practitioners and researchers who seek up to date frameworks to evaluate contemporary digital artifacts. These advances generated better results on that matter and elevated an opportunity of a new usability testing, much more adequate in the established context.
Keywords: Principles of experience; Usability testing; Design and development guidelines
Usability Heuristics for Heuristic Evaluation of Gestural Interaction in HCI BIBAKFull-Text 138-148
  Ngip Khean Chuan; Ashok Sivaji; Wan Fatimah Wan Ahmad
Heuristic evaluation, also known as discounted usability engineering method, is a quick and very effective form of usability testing performed typically by usability experts or domain experts. However, in the field of gestural interaction testing, general-purpose usability heuristic framework may not be sufficient to evaluate the usability validity of gestures used. Gestural interaction could be found in products from mainstream touchscreen devices to emerging technologies such as motion tracking, augmented virtual reality, and holograms. Usability testing by experts during the early stages of product development that utilizes emerging technologies of gestural interaction is desirable. Therefore, this study has the objective to create a set of gesture heuristics that can be used in conjunction and with minimal conflict with existing general-purpose usability heuristics for the purpose of designing and testing new gestural interaction. In order to do so, this study reviews literature of gestural interaction and usability testing to find and evaluate previous gesture heuristics. The result is a condensed set of four gesture-specific heuristics comprising Learnability, Cognitive Workload, Adaptability and Ergonomics. Paired sample t-test analysis revealed that significantly more defects were discovered when gesture heuristics knowledge were used for evaluation of gestural interaction.
Keywords: Gestural interaction; Usability testing; User experience; Heuristic evaluation; Interaction styles
Exploring and Experimenting Cooperative Design BIBAKFull-Text 149-156
  Salomão David; Lorenzo Cantoni
This paper describes a community co-design approach performed in rural Mozambique. It discusses the experiences and experiments performed in a community multimedia center towards creating services with inherent values for daily community activities. The design approach pursues a holistic interpretation of community needs, and discusses emerging, new and creative applications for future community binding.
Keywords: Community design; Co-design; ICT4D; Development; Tourism; And education
Prototyping and Testing Throughout all the Design Process as a Methodology for Developing Interaction Design Projects BIBAKFull-Text 157-166
  Lucas Cypriano; Mauro Pinheiro
Based on the experience of developing a mobile app, this paper discusses the prototyping and testing cycles not as final steps of a design process, but as a methodology to be used from the beginning to the end of a project. On the project described in this paper, prototyping was not a tool used only to test the final product, but it was present throughout the design process.
Keywords: Prototyping; Interaction design; Design process
A Living Labs Approach for Usability Testing of Ambient Assisted Living Technologies BIBAKFull-Text 167-178
  Miguel Sales Dias; Elisângela Vilar; Filipe Sousa; Ana Vasconcelos; Fernando Miguel Pinto; Nuno Saldanha; Sara Eloy
This paper presents usability tests results with real users during the prototype development phase of two applications for seniors care, AALFred and SmartCompanion. To this aim, usability testing was performed considering a Living Lab approach. Seniors were invited to use the applications in an environment that simulates the one they would use the tested technology during their everyday life. Observation methods, thinking aloud and questionnaires were used to collect data related to the systems' effectiveness and users' satisfaction, namely their expectations, frustrations and difficulties. Evaluations were performed during the initial phases of product development and results were used to improve the applications, considering the development cycle of User-Centered Design methodology.
Keywords: Usability tests; User-centered design; Ambient assisted living; Living labs
Investigating Synergies Between Interaction Design Methods BIBAKFull-Text 179-190
  Stefano Filippi; Daniela Barattin; Paula Alexandra Silva
A successful product provides a pleasurable and straightforward experience. This leads to an increasing importance of the human-computer interaction and user experience issues in design. Despite the wealth of methods and tools available to support the design process, these are frequently incomplete and difficult to use. This research contributes to fill this gap by investigating the possible synergies between two design methods, the BadIdeas method (BI) and the Interaction Design Integrated Method (IDIM). BI is an early design method especially suited for the ideation phase of the design process. IDIM deals with design, evaluation, and innovation forecasting, and covers the first part of the product development process. Two limitations are highlighted in each of these methods and their concepts and tools are mutually exploited to improve the other. Suggestions for integration and improvement are presented with examples that demonstrate the benefits of this research.
Keywords: Interaction design methods; BadIdeas; IDIM; Design process
A Posture HCI Design Pattern for Television Commerce Based on User Experience BIBAKFull-Text 191-203
  Rosendy Jess Galabo; Carlos Soares Neto
Television commerce represents a significant opportunity for worldwide market due to the digital TV transition in several countries. In order to provide a design guidance for these applications, we developed a T-commerce Posture HCI Design Pattern based on user experience research. Three focus groups are composed of twenty-five participants and an experiment with eight volunteers were performed. The results are described as a design pattern template composed of four types of t-commerce applications. Each type presents a recurrent problem, a proven solution and a context. The developed design pattern helps designers to decide the t-commerce main interactions focusing on better user experience.
Keywords: Guidelines; IDTV commerce; Home shopping; T-commerce
Investigating the Correspondence Between UMUX-LITE and SUS Scores BIBAKFull-Text 204-211
  James R. Lewis; Brian S. Utesch; Deborah E. Maher
The UMUX-LITE is a two-item questionnaire that assesses perceived usability. In previous research it correlated highly with the System Usability Scale (SUS) and, with appropriate adjustment using a regression formula, had close correspondence to the magnitude of SUS scores, enabling its comparison with emerging SUS norms. Those results, however, were based on the data used to compute the regression formula. In this paper we describe a study conducted to investigate the quality of the published formula using independent data. The formula worked well. As expected, the correlation between the SUS and UMUX-LITE was significant and substantial, and the overall mean difference between their scores was just 1.1, about 1% of the range of values the questionnaires can take, verifying the efficacy of the regression formula.
Keywords: Perceived usability; System usability scale; SUS; Usability metric for user experience; UMUX-LITE
Experimental Case Study of New Usability Heuristics BIBAKFull-Text 212-223
  Freddy Paz; Freddy Asrael Paz; José Antonio Pow-Sang
A widely used method to measure the level of usability of software applications is the heuristic evaluation. In this method, specialists commonly use the Nielsen's heuristics to assess the usability of a software product. However, these principles address to general aspects and become inappropriate when they are used to evaluate new categories of software applications. For this reason, we previously proposed a new set of usability heuristics in the Web transactional domain. In this paper, we present an empirical analysis of our new proposal. For this purpose, fifteen undergraduate students were asked to perform a heuristic evaluation in which the new set of heuristics were employed. A survey was taken in order to capture their perceptions about the heuristics in four dimensions: ease of use, usefulness, intention to use and completeness. The results showed that the new heuristics meet the expectations. In addition, this analysis was compared with the results of a similar study that was performed to the current proposal of Nielsen. The results from this study have allowed to reach promising results in this area.
Keywords: Heuristic evaluation; Usability inspection; Usability heuristics; Experimental evaluation; Perception model
A Usability Study of a Brain-Computer Interface Apparatus: An Ergonomic Approach BIBAKFull-Text 224-236
  Rafaela Q. Barros; Gabriele Santos; Caroline Ribeiro; Rebeca Torres; Manuella Q. Barros; Marcelo M. Soares
Several studies are being conducted on understanding users' behavior when using the product to analyze if the behavior that users claim to have or to demonstrate is similar to what they are actually doing at the time of the survey. Against this background, this study sets out to examine the usability of the Emotiv EPOC apparatus using heuristic analysis to detect possible problems involved in the interaction between the product and individual users.
Keywords: Electroencephalogram; Neuro-ergonomics; Neuroscience
User Experience Evaluations: Challenges for Newcomers BIBAKFull-Text 237-246
  Cristian Rusu; Virginica Rusu; Silvana Roncagliolo; Juan Apablaza; Virginia Zaraza Rusu
Human -- Computer Interaction (HCI) should be a basic part of the formative process of all computer science professionals. Usability and User Experience (UX) were (re)defined by many authors and well recognized standards. UX is usually considered as an extension of usability. To move from usability to UX seems to be a tendency lately. Forming usability/UX evaluators is a challenging task. Practice is usually more appealing and persuasive than theory. The paper presents a study on the perception of (novice) evaluators over generic and specific usability heuristics.
Keywords: Usability; User experience; Usability evaluation; Heuristic evaluation; Usability heuristics
Lessons Learned in Usability Consulting BIBAKFull-Text 247-255
  Tim Schneidermeier
User-centered design in varying domains and contexts defines the daily routine of (external) usability consultants. Understanding users, their tasks and goals is essential for a successful project. This can be quite challenging, especially in more complex domains. Documenting design decisions and solutions provides a sound basis for efficient and sustainable further development by reusing design knowledge and artifacts.
Keywords: Usability consulting; Return on investment; Sustainability; Design reuse; Documentation
Inuit: The Interface Usability Instrument BIBAKFull-Text 256-268
  Maximilian Speicher; Andreas Both; Martin Gaedke
Explicit user testing tends to be costly and time-consuming from a company's point of view. Therefore, it would be desirable to infer a quantitative usability score directly from implicit feedback, i.e., the interactions of users with a web interface. As a basis for this, we require an adequate usability instrument whose items form a usability score and can be meaningfully correlated with such interactions. Thus, we present Inuit, the first instrument consisting of only seven items that have the right level of abstraction to directly reflect user behavior on the client. It has been designed in a two-step process involving usability guideline reviews and expert interviews. A confirmatory factor analysis shows that our model reasonably well reflects real-world perceptions of usability.
Keywords: Instrument; Metrics; Questionnaire; Usability; Interfaces
Are We Testing Utility? Analysis of Usability Problem Types BIBAKFull-Text 269-280
  Kimmo Tarkkanen; Ville Harkke; Pekka Reijonen
Usability problems and related redesign recommendations are the main outcome of usability tests although both are questioned in terms of impact in the design process. Problem classifications aim to provide better feedback for designers by improving usability problem identification, analysis and reporting. However, within the classifications, quite little is discussed about the types and the contents of usability problems as well as the types of required design efforts. We address this problem by scrutinizing the findings of three empirical usability tests conducted in software development projects. As a result, 173 problems were classified into 11 categories. Specific focus was placed on the distinction between the utility and usability types of problems, in order to define the correct development phase and method to fix the problem. The number of utility problems varied from 51% to 74%, which shows that early usability testing with a think-aloud protocol and an open task structure measure both utility and usability equally well.
Keywords: Usability problem; Utility problem; Problem classification; Usability testing

DUXU Management and Practice

Supply Chain Risk Management in the Era of Big Data BIBAKFull-Text 283-294
  Yingjie Fan; Leonard Heilig; Stefan Voß
The trend of big data implies novel opportunities and challenges for improving supply chain management. In particular, supply chain risk management can largely benefit from big data technologies and analytic methods for collecting, analyzing, and monitoring both supply chain internal data and environmental data. Due to the increasing complexity, particular attention must not only be put on the processing and analysis of data, but also on the interaction between big data information systems and users. In this paper, we analyze the role of big data in supply chains and present a novel framework of a supply chain risk management system for improving supply chain planning and supply chain risk management under stochastic environments by using big data technologies and analytics. The process-oriented framework serves as a guideline to integrate and analyze big data as well as to implement a respective supply chain risk management system. As such, this paper provides a novel direction of utilizing big data in supply chain risk management.
Keywords: Supply chain risk management; Big data; Cloud computing; Framework; Supply chain management system
Practice What We Preach -- Checking the Usability of HCI Conference Websites BIBAKFull-Text 295-305
  Franziska Hertlein; Bastian Hinterleitner; Matthias Voit; Tim Schneidermeier; Christian Wolff
Today many conferences invite human-computer interaction and usability professionals for presentations, discussions and networking. Dedicated conference websites offer general information on the conference, on the submission process as well as on practical aspects of attending the conference. Considering the domain expertise of the audience, these websites should have extraordinary usability and offer a formidable user experience (UX). In order to evaluate this hypothesis, we have conducted a comparative usability study of three international conference websites with novice and expert users. The results show that previous experience has a slight influence on task efficiency, but also that the findings vary strongly from site to site. Independently from their experience, all participants rated the websites' overall usability moderate to low.
Keywords: Usability evaluation; User experience; Conference websites; Novice versus expert users; System usability scale; Attrakdiff
Learning from Experience Oriented Disciplines for User Experience Design BIBAKFull-Text 306-314
  Simon Kremer; Udo Lindemann
The emergence of positive User Experience (UX) is gaining in importance for convincing and satisfying customers with technical products. Yet, User Experience Design (UXD) is a rather young discipline within product development. Methods are not well established and traditional aspects predominate. On the other hand, other disciplines are traditionally focused on creating experiences (e.g. sports, film, gaming, etc.). The paper sets out a roadmap for transferring practices and insights from experience focused industries to User Experience Design. Analyzing these experience oriented areas, we suggest supporting UXD in three categories. Requirements for UX are derived studying experiences in other fields. Approaches how these experiences are designed enhance the process on the way to the final experience product. Analysis of persons that take part in the development of experiences in other disciplines can help defining roles to be introduced into product development.
Keywords: User Experience; Management of DUXU processes; Product development processes; Emotional design; UX methods and tools
On Chinese Online P2P Lender's Model Building on the Macro, Micro and Industry Level BIBAKFull-Text 315-327
  Qiwei Liang
Only in a few years, P2P lending prospered in China, with the annual growth rate over 300%. But in China, the extension and innovation of P2P industry is not mature yet. Especially, there is little innovation attempting from the lender-side. This paper studies on the macro, industry and micro level to investigate the Chinese lender's preference and its causes and try to dig out the opportunities in the market. On this basis, this paper gives out a typical lender's model in P2P in China. The results are worthwhile for related practitioners to innovate new financing products for lenders in China.
Keywords: Chinese online P2P; Lender-side; Macro level; Micro level; Industry level
Twenty Years on: A Second Look at 10 Important Social Impact Characteristics of Computer Technology BIBAKFull-Text 328-338
  Blaise W. Liffick
Twenty years ago, Liffick [38] explored 10 characteristics of computer technology that contributed to their impact on societal issues of that era. The purpose of this exploration was to "anticipate the social consequences of a new product and mitigate any potential negative effects it may have on society." Furthermore, "the intent of developing a list of these characteristics is that it could lead to a better understanding of the nature of the social impact of computers. In this way, it might be possible to examine a new computer project at the time of its design ... to determine its potential impacts as a social change agent". The purpose of this current paper is to review the characteristics originally proposed to determine whether they are more or less relevant, given the enormous changes in computer technology (CT) in the last 20 years.
Keywords: Human-computer interaction; HCI; Social impact; Computers and society
Startup Rio: User Experience and Startups BIBAKFull-Text 339-347
  Adriano Bernardo Renzi; Adriana Chammas; Luiz Agner; Jacob Greenshpan
UX design and UX research play an important role in startups and their projects. The expressive growth of startups around the world encouraged the Rio de Janeiro State government to foment entrepreneur culture in the city in an attempt of transforming Rio de Janeiro in a digital technology center of reference and created the Startup Rio to encourage startups' growth in the city. This paper presents the launchpad method used around the world as well as the experience and results collected during UX mentorship on the 5-day Google event (startup launchpad) with 50 startups in Rio de Janeiro, showing the close connection between startup culture and user experience.
Keywords: User experience; Startups; UX mentorship
Innovation, Exceptional Experience and Sustainable Success Made Easy: The NI© Needs Innovation Model BIBAKFull-Text 348-355
  Johannes Robier
The NI© Needs Innovation Model is a structured customized approach for product and service development.
Keywords: Innovation; Design; Thinking; User experience; UX toolbox; Customer experience
Software Project Management Combining Agile, Lean Startup and Design Thinking BIBAKFull-Text 356-367
  Bianca H. Ximenes; Isadora N. Alves; Cristiano C. Araújo
This paper describes a project management model named Converge, that combines Agile, Lean Startup and Design Thinking with the aim of producing user-centered software and sustainable innovation through empathy with users. The model is based on previous works combining the aforementioned methodologies and adjusted considering needs that arose from teams inside the lab, observed empirically. In order to test the method's validity in a real project, an undergraduate team part of an experimentation lab followed the proposed model to guide the development of a homonymous data storage app.
   The app was built in 8 weeks and, at the time of release, 80% of testers considered it a better solution compared to ones they already used. Overall test results suggest that it is productive to combine the methodologies. The model met its aim since it guided the development of a novel software solution highly regarded by users.
Keywords: Project management; Agile methodologies; Lean Startup; Design Thinking; Model; Software development; Innovation; Case study
Integration of Usability and Agile Methodologies: A Systematic Review BIBAKFull-Text 368-378
  Claudia Zapata
Nowadays, Agile Methodologies are widely used and accepted among software development teams. These methodologies allow speeding up the development process while permitting less documentation and more flexible processes. Moreover, Usability is a measure of software quality and has become more important with the changes that users have experienced. This paper aims to answer how usability and agile methodologies have been integrated into the various stages of software development through a systematic review.
Keywords: Usability; Agile methodologies; Systematic review; User centered design; Software engineering
Research on the Correspondence Between Designer End Expressions of Product Semantics with the Cognition of User End BIBAKFull-Text 379-391
  Liqun Zhang
For ICT product, the importance of the functional property of a product speaks for itself. However, as an important method of defining the product differentiation, the influence of product appearance on that whether the product property can be perceived correctly. As the engineer of human-computer cooperative relationship in product location, if the product appearance can't provide service for the macro planning and strategy made by an enterprise to the company, it will brings negative effect on the healthy development of the product system. The paper tries to provide a method to help enterprises to evaluate the appearance design scheme before putting the product into production to check the matching degree with the product planning. Then the product appearance design will conform to the product strategy of an enterprise. The evaluation method uses physical projection method to obtain the user cognitive image data about product appearance from the user end. Then using the Correspondent Analysis method, the perpetual method shows analysis result. Finally, according to the overall analysis of product system, it forms the evaluation of the new product appearance. The research shows that there are defects in the company's product system planning. And these mainly are similar perceptual location, without characteristics, inconsistency of user end cognition of appearance result with the designed definition, hard to attract the consumers' and users' interests.
Keywords: Product appearance design; Cognitive image of users; Perceptual location map

Emotional and Persuasion Design

OBDEnergy BIBAKFull-Text 395-405
  Sumayyah Ahmed; Angela Sanguinetti
This paper describes an eco-driving feedback system, OBDEnergy. Twenty-six drivers described their understanding of environmental impacts of driving before and after using OBDEnergy. Before OBDEnergy, participants discussed impacts in abstract, global terms (pollution, global warming). After OBDEnergy, participants appealed to concrete reference points (gallons of gas, trees required) with calculations and comparisons. We conclude that user-centered eco-driving feedback can contribute to pro-environmental behavior via increased awareness of the concrete environmental impacts of driving.
Keywords: Eco-driving; Feedback; Integrated technology; Carbon emissions
Emotion-Centered-Design (ECD) New Approach for Designing Interactions that Matter BIBAKFull-Text 406-416
  Eva de Lera
The emotional dimension of users of information and communications technologies (ICT) is a key aspect in user experience (UX), as designers' main objective is to ensure users are happy (satisfied, engaged) with their interaction designs. However, current UX design methods focus on ensuring that efficacy (success achieving a specific task) and efficiency (in the fastest, best way possible) are successfully achieved. The satisfaction of the user is evaluated at the end of the process, and evaluated in reference to the efficacy and efficiency of their experience. In this paper, the author presents a new approach (Emotion-Centered-Design, or ECD) in which the key to successful interaction design (happy users) is brought about by placing emotions at the center of the design process, versus doing so at the end. By doing so, designers can deliver more significant experiences, increase user experience satisfaction, and identify new ways to innovate in interaction design, as well as add more value to users.
Keywords: Emotions; Usability; Design processes; Design methodologies; User experience; Human-computer interaction; User centered design; Affective computing
Rhetoric of Interaction: Analysis of Pathos BIBAKFull-Text 417-427
  Barbara Emanuel; Camila Rodrigues; Marcos Martins
The study of rhetoric evolved from focusing solely on discourse, in Ancient Greece, to the inclusion of audiovisual elements in the 20th century. Today, a ubiquitously digital world opens a new field of research, which might be called "rhetoric of interaction". The purpose of this work is to explore rhetorical possibilities of interactive features, that is, how different interactive design solutions may influence the apprehension of messages and help the building of arguments. Based on Aristotelian concepts of classical rhetoric, this study concentrates on the presence of the appeal of pathos, that is, an appeal to the emotions of visitors, with analyses of three websites: "Pablo the Flamingo", "World Under Water", and "Sortie en Mer".
Keywords: Interaction; Rhetoric; Pathos; Interface design
Emotions Logging in Automated Usability Tests for Mobile Devices BIBAFull-Text 428-435
  Jackson Feijó Filho; Wilson Prata; Thiago Valle
This work proposes the use of a system to perform emotions logging in automated usability tests for mobile devices. Our goal is to efficiently, easily and cost-effectively assess the users' affective state by evaluating their expressive reactions during a mobile software usability evaluation process. These reactions are collected using the front camera on mobile devices. The analysis of three different emotions -- happiness, surprise and anger -- and two "emotional events" -- spontaneous smile and gazing away from screen -- performed through server software. This automated test generates a graphical log report, timing (a) current application page (b) user events e.g. tap (c) emotions levels e.g. level of happiness and finally (d) emotional events e.g. smiling or looking away from screen.
Motivators of Energy Reduction Behavioral Intentions: Influences of Technology, Personality Characteristics, Perceptions, and Behavior Barriers BIBAKFull-Text 436-446
  June A. Flora; Banny Banerjee
Motivating behavior change for energy reduction using technological solutions has led to the development of hundreds of technological products in less than a decade. Technology design in the energy reduction field is often characterized by two perspectives; "build and they will come" and "begin with human need, motivation, and desire." Using a human centered design perspective -- we experimentally evaluated the role of three personality specific motivations, in the usability and behavior change intentions of three motivationally frame energy reduction applications. We found significant usability effects with both the affective and sociability technology have greater usability. There we no difference between technologies on behavioral measures and no interactions of outcomes with personality measures. However, both NFA and NFC have independent effects on differing behavioral outcomes. Discussion called for more research on the role of personality and motivationally framed technologies along with larger samples, and longer times between pre and post assessments.
Keywords: Behavior change; Technology; Energy behavior; Personality; Motivation
Soft Computation in the Public Sphere: Enhancing Social Dynamics with Wearable Networks BIBAKFull-Text 447-457
  Raune Frankjær
The use of clothing as a vehicle for communication is as old as the garment itself. Over the last few centuries the signaling function of dress has declined into the symbolic and anonymous. Increasing privatization of society, has led to nearly half of its population suffering from debilitating loneliness. Positioned within Positive Computing, this paper examines the possibilities of non screen-based digital personal artifacts, in the form of Soft User Interfaces, to enhance social dynamics. This paper provides a case study on the use of non-verbal signaling as the foundation for soft computation deployed in the public sphere. The proposed technology is aimed at strengthening social capital, by freeing up situated user attention and facilitate the formation of wearable networks upon establishment of mutual sympathy during chance encounters in public space.
Keywords: Photonic displays; Smart fashion; Embedded electronics; Wearable networks; Interactive technology; Soft user interface; Physical computing; Soft computation; Social dynamics; Public sphere; Positive computing; Non-verbal signaling; Proximity; Artifactics
Re-sequencing the Ludic Orchestra BIBAKFull-Text 458-469
  Hans-Peter Gasselseder
A growing number of video games utilize structural and expressive methods to implement music dramaturgy 'dynamically' into a non-linear and immersive format. Nevertheless little is known about these musically supported immersive experiences and their processing at the user end. Accordingly, this paper studies the effects of dynamic music on attention allocation and subsequent cognitive-emotional involvement. Self-report data is presented from 60 subjects playing an action-adventure in dynamic as well as static music conditions with low and high arousal expression. The dynamic condition systematically affected imaginary components of immersive experience. Design recommendations for flow and self-location are given with regards to task context and regulatory effects of emotion experience.
Keywords: Dynamic music; Games; Immersion; Presence; Flow; Emotion
Exploring Digital Service Concepts for Healthy Lifestyles BIBAKFull-Text 470-480
  Jonna Häkkilä; Ashley Colley; Virve Inget; Mira Alhonsuo; Juho Rantakari
In this paper, we report our findings charting the user interfaces (UI) design trends of current mobile phone wellness applications (n=39), and report e.g. that whereas features related to sharing are already quite common, conversational UIs and gamification still play a minor role. In addition, we present the service design based development of future concepts for ubiquitous wellness services and UIs, and evaluate the concepts in an online survey based user study with 89 participants. The salient findings show that concepts that were embedded into everyday life routines and which contained clearly presented interpretation of the data were the most appreciated.
Keywords: Digital health services; Wellness; Service design; Mobile applications; Ubiquitous computing; User studies
A User Study of Netflix Streaming BIBAKFull-Text 481-489
  France Jackson; Rahul Amin; Yunhui Fu; Juan E. Gilbert; James Martin
Netflix and Hulu are examples of HTTP-based Adaptive Streaming (HAS). HAS is unique because it attempts to manage the user's perceived quality by adapting video quality. Current HAS research fails to address whether adaptations actually make a difference? The main challenge in answering this is the lack of consideration for the end user's perceived quality. The research community is converging on an accepted set of 'component metrics' for HAS. However, determining an objective Quality of Experience (QoE) estimate is an open issue. A between-subject user study of Netflix was conducted to shed light on the user's perception of quality. We found that users prefer to receive lower video quality levels first with marginal improvements made over time. Currently, content providers switch between the highest and lowest level of quality. This paper seeks to explain a better method that led to higher user satisfaction based on Mean opinion score values (MOS).
Keywords: Perceived video quality; Internet video streaming; HTTP-based adaptive streaming; Simulation modeling; Home network; Video performance assessment; User-Experience assessment
Engaging Experience with Physical Activity Tracking Products BIBAKFull-Text 490-501
  Armagan Kuru; Jodi Forlizzi
Many people use physical activity tracking products to gather personal behavioral data, make better decisions, and make changes to their behavior. While the proliferation of new products on the market makes collecting personal data easier, how to help people engage with these products over a long period of time remains an open question. To uncover which features of physical activity tracking products lead to engaging experience, we conducted a study with people who use physical activity tracking products to support or track behavior change. We conducted baseline interviews and had participants interact with either a BodyMedia armband or a FitBit activity tracker. Participants rated their experience with the product daily for a period of four weeks and reflected on their engagement at the end of the study. Through synthesis and analysis of the study findings, we draw out four characteristics for engaging experience in physical activity tracking product use: connectivity, curiosity, personalization, and motivation.
Keywords: Design; Experience; User experience; Interaction design engaging experience; Physical activity tracking
Personal Museum BIBAKFull-Text 502-512
  Lei Guo; Yipei Shen; Shiqiang Yang; Huanbo Luan
As human skills of creating and crafting improved rapidly, human and material civilization has developed, thus the man-made objects become the record of the development of human capacity of creating. The museum is an institution that demonstrates such a process. We propose the concept of a novel personal museum in this paper. Different from a traditional museum, a personal museum not only shows personal belongings but also combines personal experiences and emotions with the objects. Apart from time dimension of life, other dimensions of life will be kept in the personal museum forever, thus each person will feel his or her existence and value in the world through this personal museum. The paper contains introduction, methodology, design and insights from user study under this research topic.
Keywords: Human-computer interaction; Emotional memories; Digital museum; Human-objects relationships; Belongings
The Marriage Machine: Mobile Persuasion/Behavior Change BIBAKFull-Text 513-523
  Aaron Marcus
The author's firm undertook the Marriage Machine project aimed to persuade couples to open themselves up towards techniques of daily practice and interaction with their partners, with the objective of making their relationships with each other deeper, more enjoyable, more personally enriching, and educational. In a user-centered design process, we planned, researched, analyzed, designed, implemented (sample screens), evaluated, documented, and prepared training documents for a mobile phone application conceptual prototype. The Marriage Machine combines marriage/bonding theories with information design/visualization and persuasion design. This paper explains the development of the Marriage Machine's user-experience design. A more complete description appears in [22].
Keywords: Bonding; Couples; Culture; Dashboard; Design; Development; Emotion; Experience; Incentives; Information; Interface; Marriage; Mobile; Persona; Persuasion; Social; Scenario; User
A Study of the Fault Tree Human in Aviation BIBAKFull-Text 524-534
  Edgard Thomas Martins; Isnard Thomas Martins; Marcelo M. Soares
The emotional stability and physical health of workers on board aircraft are faced with the factors and conditions that enable professionals to carry out their activities and develop normally, despite the fact that these conditions may present themselves to professionals in adverse conditions [1]. The modern history of aviation with its great technological complexity has pilots as redundant components that integrate embedded controls in modern aircraft. This leads us to say that the value of the worker as a permanent social group in society does not receive, currently, the proper priority. In research on the health of the pilot, there are three major perspectives that have been investigated that influence his stability, as well as the mental and emotional development of the modern airline pilot [2]: The previous life of the individual directly tied to experience, age, genetic and physiological vectors, The social environment, cultural environment and formal education leading to the final result, manifested by the ability, personality, strength and character and The verifiable standards of quality and quantity of life desired, ambition and achievements and its effects.
Keywords: Automation; Manual procedures; Human factor
Scenario Analysis as a Tool for Informing the Design of Behaviour Change Interventions BIBAKFull-Text 535-547
  Luis Oliveira; Martin Maguire; Val Mitchell; Andrew May
This article presents the design process behind the specification of a behaviour change intervention method to promote energy saving. The amount of energy used for food preparation is highly influenced by people's behaviours. A user-centred design approach based on scenario analysis was applied to provide understanding of context of use and specification of user requirements. This knowledge was applied to the design of behaviour change interventions to motivate sustainable behaviours.
Keywords: Scenarios; User-centred design; Behaviour change; Temporal tensions; Sustainability; Energy saving
A Feasibility Study of the Effect of Phone-Based Feedback of Other Commuters' Subjective Experiences on Driver Intentions to Change BIBAKFull-Text 548-558
  Tracy Ross; Andrea Burris; Luis Oliveira; Bronia Arnott; Vera Araujo-Soares
Encouraging people to make sustainable transport choices remains a global challenge and many interventions have been attempted. This study investigated the reflection on own/others' subjective experiences (SE) as an intervention using a smartphone application as the intervention tool. Participants were car drivers and used the app to automatically capture and reflect on their commute journeys and experiences. The experimental group were also able to reflect upon others' experiences across car, walk and cycle modes. Others' experiences were designed based on a previous self-report study. Results of the study showed that quantitative measures of intentions to change were not affected by the intervention but that qualitative data showed that the positive experience of the active transport modes did bring about reflection on behaviour and a potential influence on opinions and intentions which warrants further study.
Keywords: Behaviour change; Sustainable transport; Active travel; Own subjective experience; Others' subjective experience; Opinions; Outcome expectations; Intention to change; Reflection; Persuasion; Socio cognitive theory; HCI; Mobile
Products with Biomimetic Shapes Convey Emotions More Effectively BIBAKFull-Text 559-566
  Tyan-Yu Wu; Hon-Kai Chen
Nowadays, a successful product should not only possess enhanced aesthetic quality and smart functionality, it should also satisfy consumers via the emotions they derive from using the product. Biomimetic designs are broadly used in product design to emphasize emotional interaction. Therefore, understanding the psychological effects of biomimetic products is becoming an important issue in the development of products with strong affective qualities. Adopting a cognitive-emotional approach, this study explored the emotions evoked in consumers by biomimetic products. This included an investigation of the following three hypotheses: (1) Consumers' emotions can be influenced by products with biomimetic features; (2) The emotions evoked in consumers by concrete biomimetic features (i.e., human contours, facial shapes and plant shapes) are greater than those evoked by less concrete features. The results indicated that consumers have different degrees of emotional responses to products exhibiting different levels of biomimicry. Furthermore, the results also showed that consumers had different degrees of emotional responses to different types of biomimetic products. Additional results are also discussed in the paper.
Keywords: Biomimicry; Product form; Product emotion
Skeuomorphism and Flat Design: Evaluating Users' Emotion Experience in Car Navigation Interface Design BIBAKFull-Text 567-575
  Lei Wu; Tian Lei; Juan Li; Bin Li
To study the difference of users' emotion experience between skeuomorphism and flat design, based on kansei engineering, cognitive psychology and human factors theory, we conducted a semantic differential (SD) experimental study in car navigation interface. The independent variables in this study was the visual representation method (VRM). The dependent variable were user experience rating (UER) and artificial texture rating (ATR). The main findings of this study are as follows: (1) we find that the users' emotion experience is mainly made up of stylization cognition factor (SCF), emotional cognitive factor (ECF) and the decorative cognitive factor (DCC); (2) The artificial texture rating (ATR) has a significant effect on user experience rating (UER). The research results can help designers to deeply understand the difference of user emotional impact between skeuomorphism and flat design, which could guide the designers better to design the car navigation interface.
Keywords: User experience; Emotion; Interface design; Skeuomorphism design; Flat design

Storytelling, Narrative and Fiction in DUXU5

Navigation in Interactive Visual Narrative for Children's Appbooks BIBAKFull-Text 579-589
  Andréa Bellotti; Pedro Biz; Washington Dias Lessa
The paper analyses the role of navigation in children's appbooks interactive visual narrative. It is based on design categories for picture books analysis, proposed by Sophie Van der Linden [1], and on categories proposed by Janet Murray for interactive narrative analysis [2]. Linden explains how the structure of printed book articulates narrative, and Murray describes the aesthetic effects of digital narrative. User's active participation in the story unfolding, as also hypertext nonlinearity, extends children's appbooks design dimensions, inserting navigation as a relevant feature for the user experience. The navigation design has been analyzed in four appbooks, namely: Jack and the Beanstalk, Monster's Socks, Petting Zoo and The Very Cranky Bear.
Keywords: Children's appbooks; Navigation; Interactive visual narrative; Film languages
Human-Robot Interaction Ethics in Sci-Fi Movies: Ethics Are Not 'There', We Are the Ethics! BIBAKFull-Text 590-598
  Myriam El Mesbahi
Human-Robot interaction is a field seeing massive growth, and as robots gain more and more capabilities they will play an increasingly prominent part in our everyday lives. But, as robotic development continues to grow, one subfield of robotics research is lagging behind other areas: roboethics or ensuring that robot behavior adheres to certain moral standards. This paper explores robot ethics through the lens of some popular sci-fi movies involving robots as characters in their storyline. Different ethical issues related to human-robot interaction are cast and discussed. To overcome those issues, a survey was conducted to detect everyone's duty. Its results and implications are presented and may be of benefit to HRI researchers.
Keywords: Human-Robot interaction; Science-Fiction movies; Ethics
Design Perspectives to the Design of Interfaces Connected and Convergent for T-Commerce Applications BIBAKFull-Text 599-608
  Marcelo Falco; Rachel Zuanon
Interactive digital television is at early stage as regards the interface design, especially in business transactions (t-commerce). Current attempts to transpose the problem related to linearity of narrative and temporal flows and audiovisual content obstruction by the interactive layer, although pointing out design perspectives -- in addition to the structural and visual web patterns -- are still insufficient as regards the design of interfaces connected and converged for t-commerce applications. This article considers these problems arise from the structural basis that support television scripts and streamings. In this sense, this article proposes the hybridization between the linear model, inherited from analogue condition, and nonlinear model, intrinsic to digital media, as a methodological strategy aiming to strength the creation of interactive audiovisual content connected and convergent for this context.
Keywords: Interface design; iDTV; T-Commerce; Second screen; Connectivity; Convergence
How to Evaluate Use Scenarios and Stories BIBAKFull-Text 609-620
  Ioanna Michailidou; Charlotte Haid; Udo Lindemann
Scenario-based methods, like the scenario-, storytelling- and storyboarding-techniques, are broadly used in the context of user experience design. Practitioners cannot yet fully appreciate the benefits of scenario-based methods, because of the uncertainty that is often linked with the corresponding decision-making processes. This work aims at introducing a methodological proceeding for supporting the evaluation of use scenarios and stories, consisting of three modules. A checklist supports the initial assessment of scenarios by their creator, a questionnaire helps to identify if the content of scenarios represents the intended user experience, while a comparison-based method enables the association of possible media to visualize a scenario in the most appropriate way. Those findings ground on a literature study and exemplary application of the support. Increasing traceability of scenarios through a systematical assessment and a selection support would encourage usage of scenario-based methods and increase their acceptance.
Keywords: Scenario; Storytelling; DUXU methods and tools
Interactive Digital Storytelling and HCI Techniques Applied for Edutainment in Interactive Health Projects: Analysis of Two USC's Labyrinth Projects BIBAKFull-Text 621-633
  Jorge I. Mora Fernández
The interactive narratives for developing interactive & educational documentaries have served for developing interactive installations & products in galleries, exhibitions, museums, universities, webs & videogames. During the last years, these previous experiences of applying interactive narrative techniques in digital historical or educational products have served to developed interactive narratives applied to health education, treatment or recovery. Two of the projects developed by the USC's Labyrinth Project, directed by Marsha Kinder, are examples of the application of experiences in other narrative genres to health edutainment. This paper analyzes the interactive narrative elements integrated on the interfaces of the projects: A Tale of Two MAO Genes & Interacting with Autism. This analysis develops a model that describes the interactive immersive narrative elements integrated on their interfaces. It serves to identify the interactive narrative elements that create immersion in edutainment health projects so they can be applied on new narratives about recovering from addiction.
Keywords: HCI analysis; Edutainment; Health; Interactive Digital Storytelling; Immersion; Agency; Narrative paradox; Narrative closure; Narrative intelligibility; Transmedia; Hipermedia; Interactive documentary; Interface design
A Toolkit for SE for Sustainability -- A Design Fiction BIBAKFull-Text 634-643
  Birgit Penzenstadler
This paper explores the what-ifs for a possible future scenario describing how to develop software systems for sustainability in different application domains in a generic software development setting. The design fiction we narrate is the following: Valery, a software developer at the fictitious software development company GreenCode, works on CodeFairy, an educational game targeted at attracting girls to computer science, and uses the software engineering toolkit GreenYaCode as development environment.
   This toolkit helps to translate domain-dependent, high-level sustainability goals into software-specific constraints -- i.e. it helps design sustainability into the software system. This is achieved by an extensive knowledge base that allows making recommendations to the software developer, and by best practices from open sources software development and user experience best practices.
Keywords: Education; Information design; Knowledge visualization; Design fiction; Future trends; Storytelling; Sustainability
Delphi Method to Explore Future Scenario Possibilities on Technology and HCI BIBAKFull-Text 644-653
  Adriano Bernardo Renzi; Sydney Fernandes de Freitas
Based on the pattern shown in the nose of innovation graphic of Bill Buxton, this paper investigates future developments and construct a future scenario regarding technology, interaction and expectations of affordances in the next 5 to 10 years. The research is based in the Delphi method to help construct scenarios of possibilities as it helps identify expectations of incremental and drastic innovations. The method brings together specialists on user experience, usability, information architecture, technology and network, with experience and points of view from five different cities around the world.
Keywords: Management of DUXU processes; Science-fiction and future trends; Usability methods and tools
Incorporating Fictionality into the Real World with Transmedia Storytelling BIBAKFull-Text 654-665
  Mizuki Sakamoto; Tatsuo Nakajima
Ubiquitous computing technologies now offer attractive possibilities to embed fictionality in the real world. This opens a new arena to navigate human behavior. Virtual forms representing fictionality and incorporated into our daily artifacts and media will become an infrastructure for navigating human behavior through the incorporated fictionality. In this paper, we describe two topics towards the realization of such a goal. The first topic presents that transmedia storytelling is a promising technique to incorporate fictionality into the real world. The second topic shows that the value-based analysis framework is a promising tool to analyze a sense of reality on the fictionality embedded into the real world and the reality is essential to make human behavior navigation successful. We present two case studies to demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach.
Keywords: Fictionality; Transmedia storytelling; Human behavior navigation; Value-based analysis framework; Reality; Ideology; Metapore

DUXU 2015-08-02 Volume 2

Users in DUXU

Effects of Packages' Color as a Cue for Hazard-Related Perceptions: A Study Using Virtual Reality BIBAKFull-Text 3-13
  Hande Ayanoglu; Rita Boto; Júlia Teles
Color is often used to communicate the level of hazard. The present study sought to determine the effect of packages' color on hazard-related perceptions in a Virtual Environment. There were two conditions: achromatic (grayscale) and chromatic (red, yellow, blue, green). A sample of 40 design students rated their hazard-related perceptions (e.g., level of hazardousness and awareness of consequences) of eight 3D packages, which differed in contents' hazardousness and familiarity, on hazard related perceptions. The results indicated that color does affect hazard-related perceptions. Compared to the achromatic versions, red and yellow produced different effects, when applied to hazardous packages which are both familiar and unfamiliar. Red increased hazard perception but did not affect awareness of consequences, and yellow did not affect the first, but decreased the latter. Blue decreased both dimensions, whereas green did not affect the first but decreased the latter. The results draw attention to the importance of color and familiarity on hazard-related perceptions.
Keywords: Package design; Colors; Safety; Hazard perception; Virtual environment
Humanizing Labor Resource in a Discrete Event Manufacturing Simulation Software BIBAKFull-Text 14-22
  Lia Buarque de Macedo Guimarães; Carlos Sergio Schneider
Simulation is a decision making support tool very useful for the design and dimensioning of manufacturing plants. Although workmanship hand is largely employed in production systems, labor involved in the process is often modeled as an inanimate predictable resource (like machines, tools or equipment). In order to make simulation more realistic, this study applied ergonomics principles (circadian rhythm and rest pauses) to the labor resource of a software that is largely used in commercial applications. Results showed that this "humanization" impact the simulation results. Production outcomes from the circadian rhythm modeling were up to 7% higher than the ones obtained with the standard PROMODEL modeling; the introduction of 5 min rest pauses increased productivity in less than 1%. Overall, these results justify the development of computational routines able to represent "humans" and their interactions with the system in a more realistic manner.
Keywords: Simulation; Ergonomics; Circadian rhythm; Production systems
Children's Mental Model as a Tool to Provide Innovation in Digital Products BIBAKFull-Text 23-33
  Adriana Chammas; Manuela Quaresma; Cláudia Renata Mont'Alvão
The technological development market is faced with the growing demand for products whose innovations break paradigms. The User-Centered Design approach is used with praise to cause incremental innovations in digital products, but it is not ideal to realize radical innovations. This article aims to present the state of the art in question and ask whether the mental model of children, whose creativity is evident, can be applied to the development process with a User Centered Design approach, and, if so, how to adapt this approach to accelerate the development of radically innovative products to the market.
Keywords: HCI; Methodology; Children; Creativity; Innovation
HARSim: Posterior Load Comparative Analysis Process BIBAKFull-Text 34-44
  Ricardo Dagge; Ernesto Filgueiras; Francisco Rebelo
Considered as a not fully appropriated way for load carriage on the spine, backpacks tend to be the elected products by students to carry their own school supplies [4]. Its use has been pointed out as a determinant aspect that contributes to the appearance of back pain and musculoskeletal disorders, mainly in growth stage children [4, 5]. Spine overload, often seen when wearing backpacks, is considered one of the main risk factor for the degeneration of intervertebral discs [1, 6, 7].
   For further understanding this matter, the difficulties found in quantifying spinal acting loads, lead to the development of a considerable amount of biomechanical computerized models. The dissemination of this kind of models, lead to the need of their results evaluation as a very important aspect to consider in the selection of the most adequate software for specific study situations.
   Major findings allowed to apprehend the best way to apply posterior loads onto the spine of backpack users using HARSim by dynamically comparing its results with the ones presented by Rose [2]. This paper presents all the process, allowing its reproduction and application for this type of carrying transportation system for further studies to come.
Keywords: HARSim; User experience; Posterior load transportation; Backpack
Study on Operating Clearance Measurement of Some Connectors by Using Motion Capture BIBAKFull-Text 45-53
  Hao Du; Li Wang; Li Ding; Yulin Xu; Changhua Jiang
In the industrial fields, many connectors and p lugs need to assemble or disassemble, but some designs make it difficult for workers to complete the operation or even impossible to finish. This problem is caused by the designer who didn't considered the people used connectors for operation need a certain amount of clearance. This paper mainly introduces the method of using motion capture to measure the 2D working clearance of human hand while the process of installing and removing the connectors. The study figure out the characteristic parameters of operating space for 13 connectors, several layouts is obtained, and verified motion capture tests can be used to research the usability of equipment. Researchers find the test results tend to be loose, so the test needed to verify or make the clearance area more rigorous. This paper provide reference for the future study of the connector panel design.
Keywords: Connector; Operating clearance; Motion capture; Layout; Operating panel
Capture and Analysis of Interaction Data for the Evaluation of User Experience with Mobile Devices BIBAKFull-Text 54-65
  Artur H. Kronbauer; Díferson Machado; Celso A. S. Santos
In recent years, after the great proliferation of mobile devices, the relationship between usability, context and emotions of users is widely discussed in studies related to the user experience (UX) theme. Evaluations indicate that each user interacts with applications in slightly different ways and has different feelings about the applications installed in their smartphones. To contribute to this area of study, this paper presents a platform for the collection and analysis of data related to the user experience of mobile data. To evaluate the potential of the platform, an experiment was conducted with the participation of 68 people, for thirty days. The study results are presented and discussed throughout the paper.
Keywords: User experience; Experimental analysis; Usability evaluation; Mobile device; ESM
A Study Customer Journey Map for User Experience Analysis of Information and Communications Technology Service BIBAKFull-Text 66-74
  Jin Ho Lee; Min Ji Kim; Sung Woo Kim
Prior research has shown that UX designers of ICT service experience various difficulties while using Service Design methodologies. This is because the characteristics of Service Design and of UX Design greatly differ; Service Design is deployed in physical space and time, while UX Design is deployed on screen with the focus on UI elements. Also, in terms of the range of design, the entire service in macroscopic perspective often becomes the range of design in Service Design, whereas the Touch Point of user and the product becomes the range of design in UX Design of ICT service. In this context, the purpose of this study is to investigate how the design methodology of Service Design should be customized when applied to the UX design of ICT service. This study was conducted around the Customer Journey Map among methodologies of Service Design. First, this study collected opinions on how the UX designers of ICT service use the Customer Journey Map while working on a UX design project and the limitations they faced. Then, a Customer Journey Map that is appropriately customized to the UX Design of ICT service will be suggested based on the findings.
Keywords: Visualization; Hierarchical task analysis; Customer journey map; Use experience design; User research; Service design; Information architecture; ITC service
Scaling Preferences of Different Stakeholders -- Using the Example of Prioritizing Quality Requirements on User Interface Texts BIBAKFull-Text 75-86
  Yiqi Li; Theo Held; Patrick Fischer
We propose a method of measuring preferences of various stakeholders quantitatively by combining the methods of direct ranking and complete paired comparison. We demonstrate the method using a concrete case of prioritizing quality requirements on user interface (UI) texts and report the primary empirical evaluation of the methods' accuracy and efficiency in this application example.
Keywords: Scaling method; Paired comparison; Ranking; Preferences of stakeholders; Prioritizing requirements
Affordances Feature on Package Design has Preference Effect on Content BIBAKFull-Text 87-94
  Jerry Lin; Cheng-Hung Lo
People use package to protect and express product, a good design feature on package will enhance preference of consumers. Affordance is human instinct that suggest action of usage and it imply attractive. This study prove that a package has affordance design not only provide consumers' a positive emotional experience, better to influence consumers' positive perception to the contents. The outcome may assist designers in selecting or modifying package designs for achieving desired consumer responses.
Keywords: Affordance; Package design; Perceptual information; Usability
Measuring Negative User Experience BIBAKFull-Text 95-106
  Dominik Pascal Magin; Andreas Maier; Steffen Hess
Nowadays, the induction of positive user experience is a vital aspect of the development of smartphone applications. Existing approaches aim at engineering good user experience to make applications more enjoyable and pleasurable. Especially in business applications, employees need to be motivated to perform their tasks, in order to increase efficiency and effectiveness. Negative user experience lowers user acceptance and decreases motivation. A study was conducted to identify factors that can cause negative user experience. This study found negative aspects of an example mobile application, of which Usability and Utility have been found to directly contribute to a negative Emotions and thus to negative user experience.
Keywords: User experience; Emotions
Chinese User-Experience Design: An Initial Analysis BIBAKFull-Text 107-117
  Aaron Marcus; Stacey Baradit
The authors have conducted initial research and analysis of similarities and differences among Chinese and non-Chinese user-experience design (specifically Western, i.e., US versions) in Web, desktop, and mobile platforms. Characteristics studied include user-interface components (metaphors, mental models, navigation, interaction, appearance, and information design/visualization); experience objectives (usability, usefulness, appeal, fun, and aesthetic form, such as density, gridded organizations, etc.); social network and underlying organizational contexts (public vs. private; work, home, school, and shopping; and sharing (cooperation, communication, and collaboration); and persuasion or motivation characteristics (e.g., use of dashboard; journey maps; focused social networks; just-in-time knowledge; and incentives, such as games, leaderboards, rewards, awards, workshops, nostalgia shops, etc.). The authors propose initial patterns and an initial framework for further research, including the possibility of developing unique Chinese approaches to UX design, Chinese UX guidelines, and eventually characteristics of unique Chinese approaches to operating systems, windowing systems, graphical user-interfaces, and applications for the Web, desktop, mobile, and wearables.
Keywords: China; Cooperation; Culture; Dashboards; Design; Development; Emotion; Ethnography; Experience; Guanxi; Incentives; Information; Innovation; Interface; Journey maps; Mobile; Organizations; Persona; Social networks; Usability; Usefulness; User; User interface
Behavioural Variables Analysis in Mobile Environments BIBAKFull-Text 118-130
  Denise Marczal; Plinio Thomaz Aquino Junior
Due to the recent proliferation of mobile applications, it has become essential to obtain a better understanding of how people use their devices and applications. However, it is not always possible to reproduce the chaotic environment where the interactions between users and applications take place. Based on this fact, the present study presents a mechanism for the collection and connection of variables of interaction (touches, navigation between screens, etc.) and variables of mobility (sensor data, such as GPS), by the means of an experiment performed in the application made available at application stores and used by real users, performing daily tasks. With the analysis of the data collected it is expected to understand user behavior during interaction and determine usage patterns associating the variables of mobility with the variables of interaction that provide new ideas for interface projects.
Keywords: Mobile usability; Variables of mobility; Large-scale studies
Experiences, Problems and Solutions in Computer Usage by Subjects with Tetraplegia BIBAKFull-Text 131-137
  Fausto O. Medola; Jamille Lanutti; Claudia G. Bentim; Adrieli Sardella; Ana Elisa Franchinni; Luis C. Paschoarelli
For the vast majority of users, the most conventional means of interaction with a computer is through the use of the keyboard and the mouse. The act of typing and clicking in a satisfactory speed requires a level of motor ability and coordination, which is provided by the integration of both sensory and neuromotor functions. Among many neurological problems that may affect movement control, tetraplegia due to spinal cord injury challenges the subject to adopt to a severe sensory-motor impairment of the lower limbs, trunk and partial or total affection of the upper limbs. Therefore, tetraplegia represents an important limitation for the user in his/her ability to interact with a computer in a satisfactory and conventional way (keyboard-typing and mouse-clicking). This paper aims to investigate the experiences, problems and solutions used by persons with tetraplegia due to spinal cord injury in daily computer usage. The study sample was comprised by five with tetraplegia due to spinal cord injury. All the subjects had a certain degree of function in the upper limbs, and their levels of injury were between C5 and C7 (fifth to seventh spinal cord segment). A questionnaire with multiple-choice questions about subjects' interaction with computers in daily usage was applied. The questions aimed to understand their experiences and problems when using a computer (typing, clicking and printing, among others), as well as the use of assistive devices aimed to facilitate the computer usage. Prior to the study, all subjects were informed about the study objectives and procedures, and signed an informed consent form after agreeing in participate in the study. Ethical approval was obtained from the Ethical Committee of the Faculty of Architecture, Arts and Communication -- UNESP. The results show that subjects with tetraplegia experience a number of problems when using a computer. These problems occur with the use of all the computer components, such as keyboard, mouse, cables and accessories. The severe upper limb impairment is, ultimately, the main factor that limit the users' ability to use a computer in an independent and efficient way. The current study contributes to the knowledge in the fields of ergonomics, design and assistive technologies, as it highlights the need of providing assistive solutions that truly contribute to the satisfactory use of computers by subjects with tetraplegia.
Keywords: Tetraplegia; Human-computer interface; Ergonomics; Assistive technologies

Women in DUXU

Introducing Computer Science to Brazilian Girls in Elementary School Through HCI Concepts BIBAKFull-Text 141-152
  Marília Abrahão Amaral; Sílvia Amélia Bim; Clodis Boscarioli; Cristiano Maciel
The participation of women in workgroups is essential to any kind of job. Nowadays Computer Science has little presence of women. Consequently, it is necessary to motivate girls to choose Computing as a career. This paper describes an experiment consisting of Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) activities that were used to demonstrate that Computing is more than only programming. The activities were based on the concepts and materials of the Computer Science Unplugged Project. Besides, this work presents the results with the HCI activities performed in the context two Brazilian projects. The results are qualitative in nature and provide insights about HCI activities to elementary school student girls. Fifty-two girls from two different cities and four different public schools participated. All students developed the five tasks designed by CSU materials and were able to articulate concepts of HCI.
Keywords: Women in computer science; Digital girls; Computer science unplugged; Human-Computer interaction
Inclusive Gaming Creation by Design in Formal Learning Environments: "Girly-Girls" User Group in No One Left Behind BIBAKFull-Text 153-161
  María Eugenia Beltrán; Yolanda Ursa; Anja Petri; Christian Schindler; Wolfgang Slany; Bernadette Spieler; Silvia de los Rios; Maria Fernanda Cabrera-Umpierrez; Maria Teresa Arredondo
The education sector in Europe is facing one of the toughest challenges on how to attract, motivate and engage students with content from an academic curriculum and at the same time supporting the formal learning process and providing a learning experience that matches the dynamics of the 21st century. More than ever, Albert Einstein's words are a reality: "It is the supreme art of the teacher to awaken joy in creative expression and knowledge." Using games in formal learning situations is an important topic of current research but is still largely underexplored. This paper presents how the "No One Left Behind" project aims at unlocking inclusive gaming creation and experiences, by and for students in day-to-day school life. It outlines the project's use cases as well as explores cultural identity and gender inclusion when games framed in an educational environment are created by and for young girls ("girly-girls").
Keywords: Pocket code; Educational application; STEM; Empowerment of girls; Gender inclusion; Teenage girls; Programming; Mobile learning; GPII; DUXU
3D Real Time Virtual Fitting Room for Women BIBAKFull-Text 162-171
  Salin Boonbrahm; Charlee Kaewrat; Lanjakorn Sewata; Patiwat Katelertprasert; Poonpong Boonbrahm
The purpose of this experiment is to set up the women virtual fitting room where user can try virtual dress without taking off her dress. The first part is to simulate virtual parts of the body that were covered with dress and then incorporate them into the real body. After having the new partial virtual body, then user can try some virtual clothes. In order to mobilize the user wearing virtual dress, Kinect was used to detect the skeleton and joints of the real body, virtual part of the body and virtual dress, which were aligned into the same position.
Keywords: Virtual reality; Fitting room
Re/Framing Virtual Conversational Partners: A Feminist Critique and Tentative Move Towards a New Design Paradigm BIBAKFull-Text 172-183
  Sheryl Brahnam; Margaret Weaver
A major research agenda in HCI is the development of believable agents. Because believability has become linked to gendered personification, designers have relied on stereotypes for both the physical rendering and verbal responses of these agents. Conversational agents are even scripted to handle "abuse" in stereotypical ways. Such scripting, however, often escalates the abuse. While the demand for anthropomorphized agents may necessitate a reliance on bodily stereotypes, the verbal responses of the agents need not be scripted according to gendered expectations. We explore the design of conversational agents as a rhetorical enterprise that can deconstruct overtly gendered patterns of interaction.
Keywords: Feminist HCI; Embodied conversational agents; Agent abuse; Rhetoric; Ethos; Anthropomorphism; Personified interface
Experiencing Early User Interfaces BIBAKFull-Text 184-195
  Martha E. Crosby
The intention of this article is to provide a slightly different perspective for the Women in Design, User Experience, and Usability discussion. This paper not only describes examples of human communication with counting artifacts and other early computing machines but it also recounts specific personal experiences with interfaces from the author's career of over fifty five years working in information sciences.
Keywords: Personal user experiences; Interface; History; Computer interfaces; Communication with computing artifacts
Incommensurable Writings -- Examining the Status of Gender Difference Within HCI Coding Practices BIBAKFull-Text 196-205
  Michael Heidt; Kalja Kanellopoulos; Arne Berger; Paul Rosenthal
Gender relations are reproduced both within HCI development processes as well as within contexts of use. Hence, theorising the subject of gender becomes part of the responsibility of HCI as a form of practice. The fledgling subfield of feminist HCI has created an epistemological basis for thinking through these challenges. The current text seeks to relate to these contributions by analysing practices of coding as they pertain to HCI. We argue that coding is of yet undertheorised regarding the subject of gender relations. By drawing on the semiotic theories of Michael Mateas and combining them with Donna Haraway's reading of material-semiotic actors, the text aims to provide new impulses for a theorisation of the practice of code-writing as a (potentially gendered) writing practice. It thus aims at increasing the translatability of HCI theory into gender-aware communities of knowledge production.
Keywords: Gender; Coding; HCI; Prototyping; Interdisciplinarity; Cultural informatics; Critical technical practice
A Study on Shopping Websites Payeasy for Female Consumers in Taiwan BIBAKFull-Text 206-213
  Hsiu Ching Laura Hsieh; Ning Chun Cheng
Online shopping, with the characteristics of time convenience, space convenience, and service diversity, successfully attracts the attention of female consumers. According to MIC, the surging female shoppers bring multiple growth for online sales in past years. As the Internet become very popular, the shopping websites for female consumers are growing faster and faster. Therefore, it is vital to comprehend the requirements of female users and their preferences. In order to exploit the market, the demands and preferences of female consumers for websites therefore need to be explored. When the information and advertising full of the shopping site, it will lead the female users distraction. Designers and websites developers require to know how to adjust the interface design for female users. This study accommodate the issue how to develope a usable, pleasant and efficient web interface to provide better online shopping experiences for female users. This study aims to discuss the demands and preference of female consumers in order to enhance the usability of shopping website. Payeasy, having females as the major consumers, was ranked on the top of electronic commerce in 2013 in Taiwan. For this reason, it is taken as the research sample. The Introduction interface in the shopping website is explored. This research is divided into two stages. First, two common types of introduction allocation (horizontal on top, vertical at left) are organized from literatures. With classical work settings, the preference of female consumers for the website design would be explored. Second, the questionnaire survey is used for evaluating the layout and text distinguishability. Finally, the research results provide innovative suggestions of female shopping websites for design researchers and website developers.
Keywords: Female consumer; Shopping websites; Interface design
Verification of Stereotype on Women Observing Gender Difference on UX of Wearable Device BIBAKFull-Text 214-223
  Hee Jae Hwang; Jung Min Lee; Da Young Ju
There has been contending views on women and men as a consumer, and we believe that it is necessary to analyze and verify who will be the upcoming consuming subject in next 10 years. Herein, using adjectives of AttrackDiff2 which analyze how people perceive the product using hedonic quality and pragmatic quality, we have conducted FGI (Focus Group Interview) on 20-25 female and male group respectively, analyzing how major consumers in 10 years perceive about current trend over the world, wearable devices. As a result of the study, we find that women tend to perceive pragmatic quality as important as men in respect of UX of wearable devices. Instead of the difference between two gender groups, there were greater gap between the individuals. Here, we suggest that stereotype on women that they are an impulsive consumer should be adjusted.
Keywords: Gender; Women; UX; Gender gap; Wearable device
Closing the Gender Divide in Tech: Challenges and Achievements in Vogue BIBAKFull-Text 224-231
  Linda Lim; Yuanqiong (Kathy) Wang
This paper investigates closing the gender divide in technology. A literature review was conducted to disclose the factors that lead to the current gender divide in the technology sector classified as stereotypes, bias, lack of female role models, low college enrollment in technology, college student experience, cultural background, interests, personality, aptitude, family responsibilities, fewer opportunities, university and college faculty bias, limited support, and inequity in leadership. A framework was developed to explain the relatively low number of female graduates getting into the technology field, the low number of female remaining in the technology field, and the low number of female in technology management roles. The challenges and achievements faced by women in technology were addressed. The strategies to bridge the gender divide in technology comprise three broad aspects, namely, childhood, education, and career.
Keywords: Gender divide; Technology; Challenges; Achievements; Ways to close the gender gap
Gender Differences in Temporal Data Analysis BIBAKFull-Text 232-242
  Ilona Nawrot
The evidence shows that time-oriented data visualizations may greatly benefit from time spatialization (organization of time along axes) adaptation. Specifically, the choice of time arrangement along axes can significantly influence performance and satisfaction of such visualizations' users. However, due to gender differences in visuospatial abilities and approaches to solve spatial problems (how males and females navigate through real or imaginary space), males and females may respond differently to time spatialization adaptations. This in turn can generate demand for gender-specific interventions or system solutions. Approaching this important theoretical and practical issue, here, we report the results of the experiment that investigated the problem of gender differences in the productivity of interactions with time-oriented data visualizations. We found no sufficient evidence to confirm the existence of such differences. We yet recommend further research in this area to completely eliminate this possibility.
Keywords: Timeline adaptation; Time perception; Time spatialization; Gender differences
The Invisible User: Women in DUXU BIBAKFull-Text 243-251
  Javed Anjum Sheikh; Aneela Abbas
"Gender digital divide" is a demoralizing issue with far reaching consequences, debarring women and girls relishing equivalent approach to ICTs usage as men and boys. Numerous reasons can be marked out behindhand this discriminative technology adaptation, e.g. societal blockades, technophobia and techno incompetency. Nonetheless, ICTs have opened new horizons for women, eventually economically enabling and empowering them. This study investigates the challenges faced by women in design and proposes the strategies to bridge the gender gap to ensure an obliging technology for tech deprived women in developing countries like Pakistan.
Keywords: DUXU; User experience; Design; Usability; HCI; Women computer interaction
The Creative Process in Digital Design: Towards an Understanding of Women's Approach BIBAKFull-Text 252-263
  Virginia Tiradentes Souto; Paula C. L. A. Faria; Fátima Aparecida dos Santos
The debate about the differences between men and women is quite old but still topical. Many researchers have been investigating the differences in users' gender while experiencing digital products. However, it seems that few studies have investigated gender differences related to the creative process in digital design. The aim of this paper is to try to understand whether there are gender differences in the creative process in digital design in Brazil. In addition, it discusses the possible influences that women have in the design process and their approach to user experience design. For that, interviews and questionnaires with Brazilian designers, both women and men, were carried out. This investigation points out some gender aspects that can make difference in the design of digital products and presents a discussion of the role of women designers.
Keywords: Gender; Women; Digital design; Creative process

Information Design

Infographics and Communicating Complex Information BIBAKFull-Text 267-276
  Michael J. Albers
With the growing use of infographics to communicate complex information, we must specifically look at how people read and understand them. Complex information depends on helping people build relationships and connect the information to the current situation. Infographics are not art displays, but are tools to communicate information. Unless we understand how people comprehend information and how those mental transformations occur when they read the content, we cannot effectively design an infographic for complex information. People come to an infographic for a purpose and with a goal, both of which require the infographics to communication complex information. A good infographic must maintain the complexity of the information while lowering the barriers to its comprehension.
Keywords: Complex information; Infographics; Communication
Building Cloud-Based Scientific Workflows Made Easy: A Remote Sensing Application BIBAKFull-Text 277-288
  Sofiane Bendoukha; Daniel Moldt; Hayat Bendoukha
In this paper, we present an approach for the specification and the execution of complex scientific workflows in cloud-like environments. The approach strives to support scientists during the modeling, deployment and the monitoring of their workflows. This work takes advantages from Petri nets and more pointedly the so called reference nets formalism, which provide robust modeling/implementation techniques. Meanwhile, we present the implementation of a new tool named RenewGrass. It allows the modeling as well as the execution of image processing workflows from the remote sensing domain. In terms of usability, we provide an easy way to support unskilled researchers during the specification of their workflows. Then, we use the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) workflow as a showcase of the implementation. At last, we introduce our methodology to move the actual implementation to the Cloud.
Keywords: RenewGrass; Cloud computing; Scientific workflows; Petri nets
Sound Design and UX: The Dynamic Audio Application Guide BIBAKFull-Text 289-300
  Luiz Roberto Carvalho; Alice T. Cybis Pereira
Aiming to expose guidelines and procedures that lead to an efficient implementation of sound elements into interfaces, and given the need to develop a formal understanding of audio applications in interactive systems, this study presents the Dynamic Audio Application Guide. From the proposed methodology by Jesse James Garrett, the Dynamic Audio Application Guide was created, which aims to systematize and simplify the process of creation, production and implementation of sound into interactive systems. The guide is intended to highlight the important role played by sound in immersion and interaction processes.
Keywords: Sound design; Dynamic audio; Interactive sound; Hypermedia design
Designing an Interactive Map of Musical Culture and a Digital Humanity App BIBAFull-Text 301-306
  Sheng-Chih Chen; Chiung-Hui Hwang
An array of elements such as history, culture, music and delicacy can easily attract travelers' attention. In this paper, we attempt to design a mobile and visual search platform to help tourists understand these elements easily. Our target area is Dadaocheng, which is a well-known destination in Taiwan. We focus on local shops and design customized signboards for their digital marketing, cultural and creativity value-adding services. In addition, these signboards can serve as user's search target. The platform of our design provides search engine services with a monitoring mechanism at the server. Each query image is captured by mobile phone's camera, and search results on time and accuracy are recorded on the monitoring platform. This research focuses on the performance of visual search accuracy under ordinary circumstances. The overall process can be completed in one second. Current experimental results indicate that recognition rate can reach 88 percent.
Applying Human Centered Design Process for Designing Air Traffic Control Interfaces BIBAFull-Text 307-316
  Satoru Inoue; Kazuhiko Yamazaki; Hajime Hirako; Toshiya Sasaki
In this research, we focused on task analysis of air traffic controllers in actual en-route Air Traffic Control (ATC) in an experimental activity based on a Human-Centered Design (HCD) approach. We discuss the method of design to develop a system of human consciousness, and created prototype design along with HCD process. In this paper, firstly, we propose an observation survey technique that can obtain survey results of high effectiveness, with a process of HCD that can be executed simply compared with current available techniques. In this analysis, we conducted a simulation at one of the air traffic sectors of the Tokyo Area Control Center. After analyzing the current ATC work, we developed a prototype design of the future ATC interface for Air Traffic Controllers based on our findings.
Synchronized Data Management and Its Integration into a Graphical User Interface for Archaeological Related Disciplines BIBAFull-Text 317-329
  Daniel Kaltenthaler; Johannes-Y. Lohrer; Peer Kröger; Christiaan H. van der Meijden; Henriette Obermaier
In this paper, we describe xBook, a generic, open-source e-Science infrastructure for distributed, relational data management that is particularly designed for the needs of archaeological related disciplines. The key feature of xBook is that it can be used as an offline resource at remote sites during excavations and can be synchronized with a central server at any time. While some scientists can record data in xBook in the field where no internet connection is available, colleagues can already work with and analyse the previously synchronized data via the central server at any location in the world. Incarnations of the xBook framework are used in archaeology, and archaeobiology (anthropology and archaeozoology). We will highlight one of them, OssoBook, an e-Science service that implements a data model for animal remains from archaeological sites (mainly bones) and has emerged as one of the European standards for archaeozoology.
Brazilian Research Panorama on Information Ergonomics and Graphic Design BIBAKFull-Text 330-340
  Luis C. Paschoarelli; João Silva; Danilo Silva; Gabriel Bonfim; Fausto O. Medola; Erica Neves
With the emergence and easy access to new interfaces that are present and necessary to current daily life, a concern about the interface projects begins, and so, new research methods and analyzes emerge to support that growing demand. In seeking to understand how those researches are being treated in Brazil, this paper uses a bibliometric study concerning the area of Graphic Design and Informational Ergonomics in the largest conferences of Design in Brazil: "EGODESIGN/USIHC" and the "P&D Design", in order to provide a panorama of the growth of research and study groups through the publications in the area. In addition it seeks to demonstrate the regions in the country which concentrates the focus on those themes and how Brazil is concerned with the issues related to the study and with the improvement of technological interfaces.
Keywords: Bibliometrics; Graphic design; Informational ergonomics; Brazilian conferences; Research
Beyond the Wall of Text: How Information Design Can Make Contracts User-Friendly BIBAKFull-Text 341-352
  Stefania Passera
This study investigates the unique contribution of layout and visual cues to the comprehension of complex texts. Contracts are taken as a key example of cumbersome, complex texts that most laypeople do not like to read, and avoid reading altogether if possible. By means of information design, the meaning of contracts can be made more readily visible and understandable to their intended user-group. An experimental evaluation shows how it is not enough to simply reorganise the text in a more logical, user-friendly order, but real improvements in comprehension speed and accuracy can only be observed when enhancements to the textual structure of the contract are accompanied by an improved layout and other visual solutions.
Keywords: Document design; Information design; Contracts; Experimental evaluation; User experience; Usability; Complex information; Cognitive load theory
Digital Collections: Analysis of Collaborative Platforms BIBAKFull-Text 353-362
  Camila Rodrigues; Barbara Emanuel; Marcos Martins
New information and communication technologies have changed the way people produce, remix and share data. The flow of ephemeral content, such as images, on social networks reveal the need to construct e analyze functional digital collections. The purpose of this work is to investigate the main standards established to build good digital collections and to apply the nine principles of NISO's report A Framework of Guidance for Building Good Digital Collection (2007) in the analyses of three collaborative platforms of digital collections: Pinterest, Arquigrafia and Street Art Rio.
Keywords: Collections; Collaboration; Memory; Interface design; Usability
Interactive Multisensory Data Representation BIBAKFull-Text 363-373
  Patricia Search
Large data sets require new forms of data representation that reduce the complexity of the information, and help users identify trends and communicate the meaning of the data to diverse audiences. With multisensory data design, it is possible to increase the number of variables and relationships that can be represented simultaneously. Sound, touch, gesture, and movement can enhance the perception of data relationships. Complex data sets also require new ways of organizing databases that encourage the development of new perspectives and facilitate collaboration. Audiovisual metadata is an alternative to text-based metadata that supports data exploration by providing a flexible format for database organization. With these new approaches to data representation, it is important to understand the semiotics of multisensory data design.
Keywords: Data visualization; Multisensory data representation; Data sonification; Audiovisual metadata
An Interactive Guide to Design Animated Visual Instructions in Brazil BIBAKFull-Text 374-381
  Carla G. Spinillo; Roberta Perozza
Animated visual instructions have been increasingly produced to support the industry of assembling products. Despite the growing demand for this type of instruction, in Brazil, little has been investigated on how animated instructions should be graphically presented to promote communication effectiveness. This paper discusses a research-based interactive guide to aid the design process of animated instructions in Brazil from user-centered design approach. First, to develop the guide, the graphic presentation of information of a sample of 23 animated instructions was assessed. Then, an experimental study on understanding and preference of narrative times (slow, spontaneous and accelerated) was investigated with 25 participants for an animation representative of the sample analyzed: the 3D puzzle assembly. Based on the results of the studies, guidelines were proposed to the interactive digital guide which usability was validated with 05 experts through checklist with heuristics, and with 10 potential users through post-interaction interviews. The results were generally positive about the content and graphic interface, but pointed to the need of improvements in navigation and menu hierarchy. Accordingly, adjustments were then made in the interactive guide in its final version.
Keywords: Animation; Visual instruction; Assembling; Interactive guide
Lyricon (Lyrics + Earcons) Improves Identification of Auditory Cues BIBAKFull-Text 382-389
  Yuanjing Sun; Myounghoon Jeon
Auditory researchers have developed various non-speech cues in designing auditory user interfaces. A preliminary study of "lyricons" (lyrics + earcons [1]) has provided a novel approach to devising auditory cues in electronic products, by combining the concurrent two layers of musical speech and earcons (short musical motives). An experiment on sound-function meaning mapping was conducted between earcons and lyricons. It demonstrated that lyricons significantly more enhanced the relevance between the sound and the meaning compared to earcons. Further analyses on error type and confusion matrix show that lyricons showed a higher identification rate and a shorter mapping time than earcons. Factors affecting auditory cue identification and application directions of lyricons are discussed.
Keywords: Auditory display; Auditory icons; Auditory user interface; Cognitive mapping; Earcons; Lyricons; Sonification

Touch and Gesture DUXU

Evaluating Interaction Design in Brazilian Tablet Journalism: Gestural Interfaces and Affordance Communicability BIBAKFull-Text 393-402
  Luiz Agner; Adriano Bernardo Renzi; Natanne Viegas; Priscila Buares; Vitor Zanfagnini
The present work aims to provide a contribution to the definition of new parameters to guide interface design and content publishing that will ensure the quality of gestural interaction in newspaper apps for tablets. Our case study is O Globo A Mais, a digital edition with unique content specially produced for iPad, launched by Rio de Janeiro's newspaper O Globo, one of the majors in Brazil. The research employed two techniques of qualitative emphasis: exploratory interviews and user observation focused on readers. We concluded that designers and journalists of O Globo A Mais should develop and refine their discourse to users through its gestural interfaces.
Keywords: Tablet; Journalism; Design; Affordance; Semiotics; Communicability
Haptic Exploration Patterns in Virtual Line-Graph Comprehension BIBAKFull-Text 403-414
  Özge Alaçam; Cengiz Acartürk; Christopher Habel
Multi-modal interfaces that provide haptic access to statistical line graphs combined with verbal assistance are proposed as an effective tool to fulfill the needs of visually impaired people. Graphs do not only present data, they also provide and elicit the extraction of second order entities (such as maxima or trends), which are closely linked to shape properties of the graphs. In an experimental study, we investigated collaborative joint activities between haptic explorers of graphs and verbal assistants who helped haptic explorers to conceptualize local and non-local second-order concepts. The assistants have not only to decide what to say but in particular when to say it. Based on the empirical data of this experiment, we describe in the present paper the design of a feature set for describing patterns of haptic exploration, which is able to characterize the need for verbal assistance during the course of haptic exploration. We employed a (supervised) classification algorithm, namely the J48 decision tree. The constructed features within the range from basic (low-level) user-action features to complex (high-level) conceptual were categorized into four feature sets. All feature set combinations achieved high accuracy level. The best results in terms of sensitivity and specificity were achieved by adding the low-level graphical features.
Keywords: A classifier for haptic exploration patterns; Haptic graph comprehension; Verbal assistance
Collaborative Tangible Interface (CoTI) for Complex Decision Support Systems BIBAKFull-Text 415-424
  Salma Aldawood; Faisal Aleissa; Almaha Almalki; Tarfah Alrashed; Tariq Alhindi; Riyadh Alnasser; Mohammad K. Hadhrawi; Anas Alfaris; Areej Al-Wabi
In this paper, we present CoTI, a Collaborative Tangible Interface to support decision making in complex systems. We start by describing the system architecture and the tangible interaction interface with an overview of design considerations for information architecture, navigation layers on multi-touch surfaces, and interaction modalities. A case study showcasing the CoTI in the context of urban planning is presented and design implications for city planning and co-located collaborative decision making is discussed.
Keywords: TUI; Urban planning; Multi-touch; Fiducial; DSS; Complex systems
User Study on 3D Multitouch Interaction (3DMi) and Gaze on Surface Computing BIBAKFull-Text 425-433
  Eugene Ch'ng; Neil Cooke
On a multitouch table, user's interactions with 3D virtual representations of real objects should be influenced by task and their perceived physical characteristics. This article explores the development and user study of an interactive 3D application that allows users to explore virtual heritage objects on a surface device. To-date, most multitouch has focused on 2D or 2.5D systems. A user-study is reported where we analyse their multimodal behaviour -- specifically how they interact on a surface device with objects that have similar properties to physical versions and the users' associated gaze patterns with touch. The study reveals that gaze characteristics are different according to their interaction intention in terms of position and duration of visual attention. We discovered that virtual objects afford the perception of haptic attributes ascribed to their equivalent physical objects, and that differences in the summary statistics of gaze showed consistent characteristics between people and differences between natural and task based activities. An awareness of user behaviours using natural gestures can inform the design of interactive 3D applications which complements the user's model of past experience with physical objects and with GUI interaction.
Keywords: Interactive 3D; Multitouch; Surface computing; Digital heritage; Gaze tracking
CubeMate: A New Communication Device as Non-verbal Interface in a Shared Space BIBAKFull-Text 434-443
  Roberta Grimaldi; Valentina Cipelli; Carlo Maria Medaglia
Communication is made of both verbal and non-verbal components. The latter often provide much more meaning than people realize. Nowadays communication is more often technology mediated, this occurrence is transforming rules and channels of human communication. In this paper we illustrate the design of a new communication device, CubeMate, which can be used as nonverbal mood interface in various contexts of shared space (house, office, shared flat). The design of CubeMate follows the Interaction Design process. Its design, embracing Weiser's Calm Computing, focus on the Calmness, using a non-verbal output that doesn't overburden users attention. During two Maker Faire we have collected unstructured feedbacks and qualitative evaluations through a prototype trial. On the basis of these considerations we could identify achievable improvements and define several and cross application fields.
Keywords: Non verbal communication; Calm computing; Interaction design process; Proactive computing; Emoticons
Transparent Organ©: Designing Luminaire Art Deco with Kinetic Interaction BIBAKFull-Text 444-451
  Scottie Chih-Chieh Huang
This paper purposed a novel concept for futuristic interactive product design, combined the emerging techniques of the digital design and fabrication, interactive kinetic structural system, and ambient display to form a hybrid luminaire art deco. This installation -- Transparent Organ developing a specific characteristic of sensitive kinetic interaction in a computer augmented physical kinetic object producing ambient atmosphere in a space. It used digital fabrication with parametric design tools for construct transparent shape plays as a light conduction. The interactive system combined of capacitive touch sensor, dimming control, and motor controller for kinetic sculpture with adaptive algorithm. Furthermore, this precedent has demonstrated alternative aesthetics with functional applications in further interactive product design.
Keywords: Computer-aided design (CAD); Kinetic sculpture; Interactive design; New media art
Usability of Touchpad Based Game Controller Interfaces BIBAKFull-Text 452-463
  Jonathon Kissinger; Tony Morelli
This paper examines the use of a new input device that is available on two video game systems released in the past year. The Ouya controller and the Dual Shock 4 controller for the Playstation 4 contain a touchpad located in the center of the controller. This type of input mechanism is also expected be a feature of the planned Steam Controller by Valve. Even though the touchpad is currently available to developers, few games take advantage of it. This paper analyzes the usability of touchpad based game interfaces for the Ouya Controller and the Dual Shock 4 controller in both a gaming environment and in a controlled user interface study. The results show that traditional thumbstick controls are preferred and perform significantly better than the touchpad interfaces for 2D driving games, and that hand posture can significantly affect the usability of game controller based touchpad interfaces.
Keywords: Video games; Console; Ouya; Android; iOS; Apple; Sony
Usability Evaluation of Kinect-Based System for Ballet Movements BIBAKFull-Text 464-472
  Milka Trajkova; Mexhid Ferati
Since the 1800s, ballet education is influenced by the use of mirrors. The aim of this study is to evaluate a Kinect-based system called Super Mirror, to discover if it has an impact on the usability in ballet instruction. Ballet students were evaluated on eight ballet movements (plié, élevé, grand plié, battement tendu (front, side and back), passéand délveloppé) to measure the Super Mirror's impact. The results show a potential usage in ballet education but improvements of Super Mirror are needed to comply with the standardized subject-matter expert's criteria.
Keywords: Usability; Kinect; Ballet; User evaluation
Integrating a Cognitive Modelling Framework into the Design Process of Touchscreen User Interfaces BIBAKFull-Text 473-484
  Patrick K. A. Wollner; Patrick M. Langdon; P. John Clarkson
Interface design is often constrained by the limited scope and resource-intensive nature of conventional user studies. We aim to unburden this process by introducing an automated user modelling framework that continuously injects design guidelines into the development process. We present a pipeline that converts a given user interface design into a widgetised data structure, executes a performance simulation based on the cognitive model of a user, and analyses its output to give design guidelines. We introduce the research methodology employed to create the model, implementation details of the model, and initial results from its validation. These include the dynamics of age-based modelling, the temporal integrity of the output of the cognitive model, and indications of the accuracy of the overall design guidelines produced.
Keywords: Inclusive design; Universal design; User interfaces; User experience; Usability testing; Cognitive modelling; Cognitive architectures

Mobile DUXU

Change News Reading Habit in the Information Age and Digital Mobile Devices BIBAKFull-Text 487-494
  Juliana Nunes; Manuela Quaresma
The news broadcasts are looking for their media formats as well as users are choosing their news consumption preferences. Will be these companies that produce and transmit news know who are these new users? Where the touch points are and what kind of users are they interacting with? The purpose of this paper is to present a study applied with users who consume print and online newspaper and an analysis of two respectable newspapers: The New York Times (USA daily news) and Estado de São Paulo (Brazilian daily news). The questionnaire applied with users pointed behaviors and expectations about current news consumption and the analysis of four smartphone apps evaluated how these two newspapers are presenting its contents, and if these presentations are in accordance with some data found in this study.
Keywords: Digital information; Mobile devices; Apps; News
Towards a Requirements Catalogue for Prototyping Tools of Mobile User Interfaces BIBAKFull-Text 495-507
  Benjamin Bähr
User-Interface prototypes are important for testing software design ideas in early stages, where changes can still be considered. This is especially true for mobile app interfaces that have to take into account a number of specific challenges. Accordingly, prototyping tools are needed that consider the specific conditions under which mobile apps are usually developed. Research on the topic provides a fragmented picture of categories to rate the usefulness of development tools; a comprehensive taxonomy is missing. In this paper we address this gap in identifying a set of 16 requirements, which were derived from literature research and evaluated with experts. The categories were then applied by experts to judge a newly introduced prototyping platform, which can be used to develop mixed-fidelity app prototypes on the basis of paper sketches. Although we do not claim that the developed set of requirements is complete, the described work can already help builders of mobile app development and prototyping tools. It provides a guideline that displays the importance of different requirement criteria, dependent on different development conditions.
Keywords: App development; App design; Interface prototyping; Requirements metrics
Approaching Users and Context of Use in the Design and Development of Mobile Systems BIBAKFull-Text 508-519
  Eyal Eshet; Harry Bouwman
Mobile systems are used by a large variety of users in heterogeneous and dynamic everyday life situations. Approaching users in these contexts poses a challenge for practitioners. To examine practitioners' effort in understanding users and contexts of use, we conducted 15 in-depth interviews with those involved in the design and development of mobile systems for media and finance. We observed that the efforts of design practitioners in subcontracting companies are commonly hindered by strict resource constraints from the client, which result in opportunistic and more obscured data on users. The findings draw attention to the role of the business environment on approaching users and context of use.
Keywords: Interaction design; Mobile computing; User studies; Context of use
The Importance of Metaphors for User Interaction with Mobile Devices BIBAKFull-Text 520-529
  Chrysoula Gatsou
The use of metaphor is essential in user interface design, particularly for the mobile landscape, as the visual environment continues to be populated with more and more mobile electronic devices. A metaphor allows us to understand one concept in terms of another. Although considerable research has gone into the mobile technology, little attention has been paid to mobile interface metaphor, which is the key to user interaction. This paper explores the role of metaphor in interfaces in facilitating user interaction with mobile devices. It presents a classification of metaphors. It also proposes a framework with salient factors in relation to visual communication with metaphors. It also offers some thoughts on the use of new metaphors.
Keywords: Metaphors; Mobile devices; Visual communication; Mental models; User experience
Keyword Input via Digits: Simplified Smartphone Interface for Information Retrieval BIBAKFull-Text 530-540
  Masanobu Higashida; Toru Ishida
This paper reports an application for smartphones that allows users to use digits for simple keyword input and its usability evaluation. This input method, called "one touch character", helps users to enter keywords into a search engine entry field. Its easy-to-learn and easy-to-use characteristics make it highly effective in encouraging the elderly, who generally dislike IT systems, to search for information on the Internet. This smartphone application was tested by 30 subjects, ranging from young adults to the elderly, from the aspects of operation time and error rate. "One-touch-character" is also compared with other character input methods, such as "multi-touch-per-character" and "flick".
Keywords: Smartphone application; Character input method; One-touch-character; Flick; Multi-touch-per-character
Smartphone Application Usability Evaluation: The Applicability of Traditional Heuristics BIBAKFull-Text 541-550
  Ger Joyce; Mariana Lilley; Trevor Barker; Amanda Jefferies
The Heuristic Evaluation method has been popular with HCI experts for over 20 years. Yet, we believe that the set of heuristics defined by Nielsen in 1994 needs to be modified prior to the usability evaluation of smartphone applications. In this paper, we investigate the applicability of each of Nielsen's traditional heuristics to the usability evaluation of smartphone applications following an analysis of 105 peer-reviewed papers. It is anticipated that this work might benefit HCI practitioners, educators and researchers as they attempt to define usability heuristics for smartphone applications. This set of heuristics, once defined, could enable the discovery of usability issues early in the smartphone application development life cycle, while continuing to be a discount usability engineering method as originally defined by Nielsen.
Keywords: Mobile; Usability; Heuristic evaluation; Smartphone application
Elements of Properties of User Experience in Cloud Computing Documentation Platform According to Smart Device Screen Size Changes: Focus on Google Docs and Naver Office BIBAKFull-Text 551-562
  Min Kyung Kang; Sung Woo Kim
As the smart devices marketplace becomes increasingly more competitive, the usage accessibility of individuals has improved and services development is more active. Among these developments, use of the Cloud Office Platform as a collaboration tool for cooperation in Cloud Computing is on the rise. The N-Screen, with its limited function and amount of information displayed depending on screen size, also requires that a seamless user environment be provided. This paper analyzes user experience (UX) factors and characteristics using patterns and functions that should be taken into consideration for utilization of the Cloud Office Platform based on web browsers on PCs and Mobiles. This analysis is called the "Consistency of Character" analysis, and this paper proposes a research method in which it is incorporated.
Keywords: Mobile services; User experience (UX); Consistency of character; Cloud computing; Online office; Document authoring tool
Virtual Touchpad for Cursor Control of Touchscreen Thumb Operation in the Mobile Context BIBAKFull-Text 563-574
  Yu Ren Lai; T. K. Philip Hwang
This study formulated existing virtual pointing techniques for cursor control in the mobile context of touchscreen thumb operation. Three virtual pointing models were developed, including: Virtual Touchpad, Virtual Joystick and Virtual Direction Key. In order to verify their usability and feasibility, a user study was employed to evaluate the usability of three virtual pointing models, followed by the focus group interview to experienced usability designers, in which, constraints of touchscreen cursor control in mobile context were defined and rated against three virtual pointing models. Research findings: (1) Virtual Touchpad was significantly efficient than others, while Virtual Direction Key presented lower error rate, although insignificantly. (2) Constraints of touchscreen cursor control in mobile context include: stable and simple operation, Interruptible operation is better and avoids accurate pointing. Virtual Direction Key stood out as the most stable, simple and interruptible pointing control.
Keywords: Virtual touchpad; Cursor control; Thumb operation
The Interaction with Smartphones in the Brazilian Driving Context BIBAKFull-Text 575-586
  Manuela Quaresma; Rafael Cirino Gonçalves; Jhonnata Oliveira; Marcela Rodrigues
This article presents a survey, constructed in an online platform, with the aim to analyze and understand the Brazilians' attitudes and strategies when interacting with smartphone in the driving context. The survey was composed of 30 questions with the purpose to gather information of the target group: Brazilians with 18 years old or more, with license to drive and with the habit of using the smartphone while driving. The results show that Brazilian drivers have non-safety behavior when interacting visually and manually with the smartphone inside the vehicle, which reflects an existing behavior in the context of Brazilian traffic.
Keywords: Driver behavior; Smartphone; In-vehicle devices; Interface design
Significance of Line Length for Tablet PC Users BIBAKFull-Text 587-596
  Waqas Ali Sahito; Hashim Iqbal Chunpir; Zahid Hussain; Syed Raheel Hassan; Frederik Schulte
This paper presents key findings about on-screen optimal line length for tablet personal computers (PCs). It examines the effects of four different line lengths on the reading speed and reading efficiency. Seventy participants ranging between the ages of 20 and 40 participated in this study. They read four different texts with an average length of 2000 characters. The texts contained substitution words, which were to be detected by the subjects to measure reading accuracy. Moreover, the subjects were asked to subjectively vote on their reading experience in the context of subjective measures like reading speed and accuracy. The results of the study revealed that 90 characters per line (CPL) were preferred by most of the participants. Nonetheless, some participants falling between the ages of 35 and 40 years preferred 60 CPL. The findings presented in this paper are quite worthwhile as the Tablet PC are extensively used for e-reading. In essence, this study suggests optimal line length for reading on screen using Tablet PC and eventually benefiting people who use Tablet PC for reading, hailing from every walk of life.
Keywords: Optimal line length; Reading efficiency; E-reading; Substitution of words
A Field Study on Basic Usage Patterns of Traditional Watch and Smart Phone for Designing Smart Watch BIBAKFull-Text 597-608
  Zijian Zhu; Haidi Song; Sung Woo Kim
This paper researches towards people who used traditional watches and smart phone at the same time for 8 participants by diary method. Smart watch look same with the traditional watch and the basic mechanism of interaction is same as Smartphone, not taking special characteristics of watch into account. In this research, we extracted basic design elements and framework for designing smart watches based on basic usage patterns derived from a series of systematic user studies.
Keywords: Design thinking; Diary study; User experience; User behavior

Wearable DUXU

Adapting Smart Textiles to Develop Soft Interactive Tool Kits for Applying in Sewing Projects BIBAKFull-Text 611-621
  Aqua Chuan-Yu Chen
Characteristics of Smart Textiles are not only have the tactile, somatosensory, temperature, etc., but also provides the effects of light, temperature regulation, power storage, water, and other functions, and mean while preserving the fabric originally unique soft feature which can be braided, stitching, folding, extended class organic qualities, to replace environment unfriendly plastic products, more affinity exists in life. The research starts with the textiles that can achieve the electronic functions. And base on the setting function of sensors and receivers to design many customized modules. We make textiles as electronic circuits to provide proper interactions modes that are corresponding to the situational reaction as well as input and output context design for the desirable behaviors. The establishment of an integrated modeling original design draft, electronic circuits, and smart textile design flow of customized products provide niche related industry to establish a smart fabric in the integrity of the program of customized products designed to integrate the use of soft wearable models. The development of soft too kits by smart textiles is according to the investigations of interaction concept from electronics, then design and develop the interaction IC boards by adapting textiles that can conduct or with optic and heating functions. For the interaction, we need to decide the interactive scenarios corresponding to the behaviors, design electronic circuits and control program. Overall, a well-designed process integration soft tool kits will be introduced. The use of digital printing and embroidery to accurately reproduce the original creative spirit. The establishment of this design research of customized textile goods providing benefit to establish a niche model in the relevant industry. Based on this, the purpose of the study is as follows:
  • (1) The establishment of the custom product design process of smart textile in
        order to be understood and used by their customers and designers
        coordination between each issues.
  • (2) Analysis of smart textiles to develop interaction modes of soft tool kits.
  • (3) Dissemble performance of smart textiles and apply textiles made soft tool
        kits on design projects for hand crafts.
    Keywords: Product design; E-fabric; Smart textiles; Interactive; Toolkits
  • Evolutionary Wearables BIBAKFull-Text 622-630
      Patricia Flanagan
    Early development of Wearables emerged through professional silos of computer science and fashion design and resulted in two distinct branches typified by an aesthetic approach from fashion and by a function and ocular-centric approach from science. Attempts at collaboration between these silos tended to bring the two methodologies into conflict and often produced awkward results. Computer science is a field traditionally dominated by men and fashion design by women, so what is the future for wearable's evolution as professions are becoming less gendered? In 2009 the author established the Wearables Lab in Hong Kong. In 2012 and 2014 the Wearables Lab hosted research initiatives specifically focused on haptic interfaces where wearables are viewed as an interface between the body and the world. This article maps key themes of this research leading to speculative designs for evolutionary wearables.
    Keywords: Wearables; Haptic interface; Sunaptic sculpture; Cyborganic; Cybernetics; Systems thinking; Neganthropocene; Gender equality
    Transcending Disciplinary, Cultural and National Boundaries: Emergent Technologies, New Education Landscape and the Cloud Workshop Project BIBAFull-Text 631-642
      Rafael Gomez; Patricia Flanagan; Rebekah Davis
    As technology continues to become more accessible, miniaturised and diffused into the environment, the potential of wearable technology to impact our lives in significant ways becomes increasingly viable. Wearables afford unique interaction, communication and functional capabilities between users, their environment as well as access to information and digital data. Wearables also demand an inter-disciplinary approach and, depending on the purpose, can be fashioned to transcend cultural, national and spatial boundaries. This paper presents the Cloud Workshop project based on the theme of 'Wearables and Wellbeing; Enriching connections between citizens in the Asia-Pacific region', initiated through a cooperative partnership between Queensland University of Technology (QUT), Hong Kong Baptist University (HKBU) and Griffith University (GU). The project was unique due to its inter-disciplinary, inter-cultural and inter-national scope that occurred simultaneously between Australia and Hong Kong.
    Digital Craftsmanship BIBAKFull-Text 643-654
      Tobias Klein
    The paper discusses the possibilities for 3D printing to help overcome the historic schism between manual labour/craftsmanship versus technology, specifically its potential to enable digital craftsmanship. Firstly, It contextualizes digital craftsmanship and introduces debates relating to tooling, application and design strategies, in particular in the field of architecture. Secondly, the paper articulates digital craftsmanship's properties and associated strategies by discussing three examples of the author's work. Lastly, it draws attention to the confluence of these properties and agencies through an analysis of the design and 3D printing of a fully wearable dress, titled Incunabula.
    Keywords: 3D printing; Digital craftsmanship
    Designing a Vibrotactile Language for a Wearable Vest BIBAKFull-Text 655-666
      Ann Morrison; Hendrik Knoche; Cristina Manresa-Yee
    We designed a wearable vest that houses a set of actuators to be placed at specific points on the body. We developed vibrotactile patterns to induce five sensation types: (1) Calming, (2 patterns, Up and Down back) (2) Feel Good (4 patterns in different directions around the waist), (3) Activating (2 patterns, Tarzan and Shiver, on top front of body and then down the back as well for Shiver), (4) Navigation (2 patterns, Turn Left and Turn Right, prompting on back then opposite side front waist) for full body turning and (5) Warning, (1 pattern on solar plexus) to slow down or stop the wearers. We made an overlap between the pulses, which were of longer durations than the short burst saltation pulses designed to induce muscle movement. Our participants responded well to the Calming and Feel Good patterns, but reported mixed responses to Activation, Navigation and Warning patterns.
    Keywords: Wearable technology; Vibrotactile patterns; Calming effects
    TattooAR: Augmented Reality Interactive Tattoos BIBAKFull-Text 667-674
      Gabriela Schirmer Mauricio; João de Sá Bonelli; Maria das Graças Chagas
    This paper describes the design process of TattooAR mobile app, an experimental project that explores the use of tattoos as an artistic, interactive and dynamic wearable ornament. Tattoos have been used as different forms of expression throughout history, and in contemporary society people have been increasingly using tattoos as a form of art and a way to express themselves. TattooAR explores the frontiers between Art, Design and Technology by using Augmented Reality (AR) technologies in order to allow a basic skin tattoo to receive layers of image that transform it into different virtual tattoos that can be viewed on the screen of a mobile device and can also be shared in social networks.
    Keywords: Interaction design; Education; Augmented reality; Tattoos
    Flexible and Wearable Sensors BIBAKFull-Text 675-684
      Kuniharu Takei; Shingo Harada; Wataru Honda; Yuki Yamamoto; Kenichiro Kanao; Takayuki Arie; Seiji Akita
    Wearable devices using solid device components have recently been released to purchase for different kinds of applications. However, ideal "wearable" devices should be like a cloth, so that they can be attached on a human skin or cloth without awareness. To realize flexible and wearable electronics, a challenge is how to form mechanically flexible electrical materials on a flexible substrate. To address this requirement, we here propose and develop nanomaterial film formations on a macroscale flexible substrate using printing methods. As examples, we present an artificial electronic skin (e-skin) for robotic/prosthesis and a wearable device. By considering strain engineering, composition of materials into the film, and surface interaction to form uniform printing films, a variety of flexible devices can be readily fabricated without using an expensive tool such as a vacuum system.
    Keywords: Flexible sensor; Wearable sensor; Printed electronics; Artificial skin
    Tattoo Antenna Temporary Transfers Operating On-Skin (TATTOOS) BIBAKFull-Text 685-695
      James Tribe; Dumtoochukwu Oyeka; John Batchelor; Navjot Kaur; Diana Segura-Velandia; Andrew West; Robert Kay; Katia Vega; Will Whittow
    This paper discusses the development of RFID logo antennas based on the logos of Loughborough University and the University of Kent which can be tattooed directly onto the skin's surface. Hence, this paper uses aesthetic principles to create functional wearable technology. Simulations of possible designs for the tattoo tags have been carried out to optimize their performance. Prototypes of the tag designs were fabricated and read range measurements with the transfer tattoos on a volunteers arm were carried out to test the performance. Measured read ranges of approximately 0.5 m have been achieved with the tag only 10 µm from the body.
    Keywords: Aesthetic design; Body centric communication; Conducting ink; RFID
    Hairware: Designing Conductive Hair Extensions for Seamless Interfaces BIBAKFull-Text 696-704
      Katia Vega; Ricardo Aucelio; Hugo Fuks
    Due to increasing advances in electronics, devices are getting even more small and powerful, making it possible the widespread of wearable computing. However, most wearable devices have the electronics very distinguished and placed on clothes and accessories. Our proposal is Beauty Technology, a wearable computing subfield that uses the body's surface as an interactive platform by integrating technology into beauty products applied directly to one's skin, fingernails, and hair. This paper presents Hairware, a Beauty Technology that fosters a seamlessly looking approach to wearables. It is artificial hair extensions that are chemically metalized to maintain a natural coloration and when connected to a microcontroller could be used as both, input and output devices. This paper describes the design process in creating these conductive hair extensions and discuses lessons learned in the development of them.
    Keywords: Hairware; Conductive hair extensions; Beauty technology; Wearable computing
    Commiticator: Enhancing Non-verbal Communication by Means of Magnetic Vision BIBAKFull-Text 705-714
      Anne Wiedau; Daniel Gilgen; Raune Frankjær; Tristan Goerlich; Michael Wiedau
    Commitment is a key element in social behavior, especially when it comes to communication between two individuals in close relation to each other. Between people who have known each other for a longer period of time, communication often revolves around recent events and the act of sending a life sign takes precedence to the actual content of the information itself. Furthermore the constant accessibility through mobile media devices is increasingly creating the expectation of permanent communication between couples. The ongoing spread of wearable devices allows a permanent communication across physical distance but it sometimes also supports a leakage of situat awareness among their users.
       The main concern of the Commiticator project lies within the development of a wearable device that can support the expression of commitment as an act of social interaction between two wearers. To study the acceptance of such a device, the already culturally established character of jewelry is used to create a jewelry set consisting of a ring and a locket.
       To make an intuitive form of communication possible, the wearer's tactile sense is enhanced by the jewelry giving them a sense for a magnetic field that is enabled by the locket if it is activated by the partner. This creates a ping-pong like interaction between the wearers.
    Keywords: Jewellery; Jewelry; Locket; Wearable; NUI; Smart object; Smart accessory; Magnetic vision; Communication; Commitment; Commiticator

    DUXU 2015-08-02 Volume 3

    Designing the Social Media Experience

    Social Media Interactions and the Use of Third-Party Management Applications on Effectiveness and Perception of Information BIBAKFull-Text 3-12
      Çakir Aker; Özgürol Öztürk
    Social media has a significant impact in our daily social lives, which challenges the traditional face-to-face interaction and/or other conventional media. Most of the social media platforms provide unique and effective web sites that enable the users to connect and interact with one another yet they also update their sites with Web 2.0 improvements and innovative ways of interaction. Twitter and Facebook have launched their own applications that became really popular among users. However, there are also third-party applications, which enable the use of diverse social networking sites through one platform. These platforms are within the reach of everyone and can be accessed directly from desktop without any browser needed. This research focuses on the usability of these third-party management applications. In this context, it will explore whether the desktop versions (third-party software) of those platforms enhance the interaction capabilities and improve user experience. In this regard the focus will be on an application that enables the use of multiple social media sites simultaneously through a single graphical user interface, 'Yoono'. The user interaction with multiple accounts and social media services at the same time presents the ability to show the information in one screen rather than having separate tabs like has been done in typical browser view. Also it might be possible to have an estimate about if the user prefers to have separate tabs or just one tab to show all of the information regarding the social media that he/she is using. In order to understand this, a qualitative usability test, based on multi-method approach, was carried out with a sample of 8 participants who were experienced mobile social network site (SNS) users. Tests were conducted on a desktop computer with Yoono. After a background questionnaire, the participants were observed during the task executions and additional data was collected through eye-tracking. After the session, participants were asked to fill out a post-test form while having a small debriefing interview to gain a detailed insight into their experience. Findings support the notion that the usability problems might shroud the new and innovative capabilities of Yoono and prevents it to become an application that users would chose to use instead of browser interaction and needs further development in order to be an alternative to browsing.
    Keywords: User experience; Dashboard applications; Social networking
    Design Process of a Social Network System for Storage and Share Files in the Workplace BIBAKFull-Text 13-24
      Heloisa Candello; Silvia Bianchi; Leandro Cassa
    This paper explores the design process of a social network based storage and share application in the workplace. One of the big challenges of our era is to handle the amount of data available. This may result in a high cost with additional servers to store the data and guarantee availability and reliability. We interviewed ten employees to understand better their share and storage practices in everyday life, and also identify opportunities to inspire the design of storage applications. As a result, we provided 20 recommendations to develop social network storage systems. Additionally, we created personas and scenarios inspired by interviewed participants. We envisioned how the system should work and we illustrated it by interaction cycles with a low-tech prototype. Finally, we provide lessons learned towards the design of storage and share files in the workplace leveraging the social relationship amongst co-workers.
    Keywords: Design process; Social networks; Distributed storage systems
    Evolution of e-Research: From Infrastructure Development to Service Orientation BIBAKFull-Text 25-35
      Hashim Iqbal Chunpir; Thomas Ludwig; Dean N. Williams
    E-Research has reframed the process of research. Researchers can now access distributed data around the globe with the help of e-Research infrastructure. This paper presents an overview of the developmental process and evolution of an e-Research platform: Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF) that evolved from a research infrastructure test-bed to a services oriented platform, in subsequent phases. ESGF is a leading distributed peer to peer data grid system in Earth System Modelling having around 27000 users distributed all over the world. Currently, it is a challenge faced by most of the e-Research facilities to provide user oriented services. Moreover, there is a strong need to conduct user experience and usability studies of e-Research facilities like ESGF, which is in demand. However, very few steps have been taken in practice to create a better user experience (UX), so that users' interest can be generated to interact with e-infrastructures, on an intuitive basis. Hence, thriving the practice of e-Research and making it more interesting overtime. Finally, this paper indicates at the service oriented and usability aspects of e-Science infrastructures.
    Keywords: Service orientation of e-Science systems; E-Research; User support; Help desk; User experience; User-centered design; Federated e-Research facilities
    Visualizing Group User Behaviors for Social Network Interaction Design Iteration BIBAKFull-Text 36-45
      Zhenyu Gu; Jia Ming Yu; Zhanwei Wu; Zhan Xun Dong
    Considering the popularity of UCD methods in recent years, it's no surprise that User behavior data analysis has become an important tool in design process. Behavior tools based on data mining technology, such as Flurry and Google Analytics, is widely used in web-based applications to support quantitative user research. However, information visualization provided by those tools is usually adapted to business other than design needs, which could be hardly used by designers. In this paper, successful experience from CRM system is analyzed, relations between user behavior and pattern is studied according to design factors. A prototype visualizing user data gathered from a social photo app is developed to integrate user behavior visualization into interaction design iteration process. User experiments are conducted to evaluate the prototype system. Results shown, interactive visualization on real-time user data could help to promote design iteration.
    Keywords: Quantitative analysis; Information visualization; Design iteration
    Understanding the Semantics of Web Interface Signs: A Set of Ontological Principals BIBAKFull-Text 46-53
      Muhammad Nazrul Islam; A. K. M. Najmul Islam
    Interface signs are the communication artifacts of web interfaces, with which users interact. Examples of interface signs are small images, navigational links, buttons and thumbnails. Although, intuitive interface signs are crucial elements of a good user interface (UI), prior research ignored these in UI design and usability evaluation process. This paper argues that ontology (the set of concepts and skills for understanding the referential meaning of an interface sign) mapping is critical for intuitive sign design. A light weighted experiment with six participants and twelve signs has been carried out in order to demonstrate the importance of ontology mapping in understanding the semantics of interface signs. The paper concludes with some practical implications and suggestions for future research.
    Keywords: Ontology; Web interface sign; Web usability; User interface design; Usability evaluation
    Cultural Reflections in Qatari Government Websites BIBAKFull-Text 54-62
      Nouf Khashman
    Localizing a website by incorporating culturally appropriate design features arguably helps it become more functional and usable for its users. This paper seeks to explore cultural reflections in government websites from Qatar using the influential cultural model of Geert Hofstede. Through using systematic content analysis, the examination focused on Web design elements which have been proven to be good indicators of preferences within cultural groups. The results showed that Arab culture which Qatar belongs to is somewhat reflected in the design of Qatari websites.
    Keywords: Web design; Usability; Qatar; Culture; Hofstede
    Usability Analysis of IxDA.org BIBAKFull-Text 63-73
      Julija Naskova
    The International Standards Organization definition of usability as documented in ISO 9241-11 is for "...specified users... specified goals... particular environments" which implies that usability varies based on those three factors. The System Usability Scale (SUS) is a ten item questionnaire developed to evaluate systems' usability. Consequently, SUS became the scale of choice for measuring usability, broadly applied to various systems including websites. Contemporary websites are visited by a wide range of users for different reasons and from all kinds of environments -- can SUS still effectively measure their usability? For a professional organization such as IxDA whose focus is user interface design a heuristic evaluation aided by the Expert Review Checkpoints provides detailed feedback on its website's compliance with contemporary design standards that affect usability.
    Keywords: ISO; SUS; UX; Expert Review Checkpoint; Usability; IxDA
    How We Perceive Search Engines BIBAKFull-Text 74-81
      Leonardo Penna; Manuela Quaresma
    This article presents a literature review related to users' perceptions about search engines. Its motivation was establish an information source upon a topic that directly affects people's interactions with these tools and currently is scattered in the literature. It was discussed impact generated in users' behavior by the confidence degree in the companies producing search engines and by credit given to algorithms responsible for selection and ordering of results. It was also analyzed the public view about impartiality, accuracy and reliability of these tools.
    Keywords: Search engines; Search; Perception; Users; Results; Ordering; Ranking
    Clicking Through Endless Seas: Understanding User Experience in the Design of Journalistic Websites BIBAKFull-Text 82-93
      Ben Posetti
    The research explores the visual design of journalistic content websites, from a producer and user perspective, to understand the forces underlying the design. A genre analysis approach is combined with an understanding of user experience (UX) in interaction design to investigate the meaning embedded in the design features of three websites. Ethnographic Content Analysis (ECA), observation tasks, and in-depth interviews reveal a negotiation process between users and producers in achieving their purposes through the website product.
    Keywords: User experience; Website design; Ethnographic content analysis
    Origins and Perspectives on Designing Virtual Communities of Practice for Permanent Education: A Case Study in the Collective Health Sector BIBAKFull-Text 94-103
      Carlos Eduardo Ribeiro; Cláudia Renata Mont'Alvão
    With the advance of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs), information sharing is getting faster. The use of ICTs facilitates the circulation of information and knowledge, but the cognitive ability and the capacity for innovation are not affected by the technology. By this mean, the communities of practice using traditional technological tools used in corporate, personal or relationship websites, only change their goals and forms of use. This paper describes the development of a conceptual interface to the community of practice platform used as support for Brazilian National Policy of Permanent Education in Health, of the Ministry of Health.
    Keywords: Online communities; Telemedicine; Education in health; Interface design
    The Challenges and Opportunities of Designing National Digital Services for Cross-Border Use BIBAKFull-Text 104-115
      Molly Schwartz; Heli Kautonen
    By creating a centralized online access points for Finnish library, archives, and museum materials, the National Library of Finland's web portal, called Finna, is playing an active role in the wider movement to open and expand access to cultural content. But as its ever-expanding online audience is no longer constricted by physical or national borders, the National Library must cope with the challenges of designing personalized user experiences for diverse users. This study contains data from a survey and interviews of users accessing Finnish materials from abroad to determine the nature of potential target audiences for Finna outside of Finland and determine the major usability barriers for this group.
    Keywords: Digital library; User studies; Open knowledge

    Designing the Learning Experience

    Heuristic Evaluation of University Institutional Repositories Based on DSpace BIBAKFull-Text 119-130
      Maha Aljohani; James Blustein
    The number of Institutional Repositories (IRs) as part of universities' Digital Libraries (DLs) has been growing in the past few years. However, most IRs are not widely used by the intended end users. To increase users' acceptability, evaluating IRs interface is essential. In this research, the main focus is to evaluate the usability of one type of IR's interface following the method of Nielsen's heuristics to uncover usability problems for development purposes. To produce a reliable list of usability problems by applying the heuristic evaluation approach, we examine the impact of experts and novices on the reliability of the results. From the individual heuristic analyses (by both experts and novices), we distilled 66 usability problems. Those problems are classified by their severity. The results of applying the heuristic evaluation show that both experts and non-experts can uncover usability problems. We analyzed the differences between these types of assessors in this paper. Experts tend to reveal more serious problems while novices uncover less severe problems. Interestingly, the best evaluator is a novice who found 21% of the total number of problems. The ability to find difficult and easy problems are recorded with both types of evaluators. Therefore, we cannot rely on one evaluator even if the evaluator is an expert. Also, the frequency of each violated heuristic is used to assigned priority to the uncovered usability problems as well as the severity level. The result of the heuristic evaluation will benefit the university through improving the user interface and encouraging users to use the library services.
    Keywords: Human computer interaction; Heuristic evaluation; Digital libraries; Digital repositories; Institutional repositories; Usability problems; Scholarly output; Dspace
    Building Information Architecture Criteria for Assessing and Evaluating Universities' Web Portals BIBAKFull-Text 131-141
      Hamad Ibrahim Alomran
    Information architecture (IA) or web information design is the art and science of organizing information on web pages. It creates ways for people to find, understand, exchange, and manage information.
       This paper aims to highlight the development of IA evaluation by proposing and explaining its main features, and by providing IA stakeholders with the necessary tools for assessing IA qualities, ensuring their suitability for business needs. This research will contribute to a greater understanding of building web IA criteria for assessing and evaluating universities' web portals.
       This paper uses the Delphi technique to identify the most important questions to build these criteria. Input from three disparate professional areas, each with a specialized area of expertise: web designers, web masters, researchers and faculty members in web design. Data collected over a three-month period.
       This paper illustrates 45 criteria and types of evidence, which are divided into seven sections: users, content, content management, structure, design and build, navigation, and security.
    Keywords: Information architecture; IA criteria; Web page evaluation; Academic websites
    Designing with Young Children: Lessons Learned from a Co-creation of a Technology-Enhanced Playful Learning Environment BIBAKFull-Text 142-152
      Nanna Borum; Eva Petersson Brooks; Anthony Lewis Brooks
    This paper reports on the lessons learned from working with creative visual methods with young children between the ages of 3 to 5 years-of-age in an early years educational setting in Southern Denmark as part of an 18-month project on Digital Playful Learning. The overarching goal of the study was to create a practice-based technology-enhanced playful learning environment. Collaboration was with the pedagogical education University College SydDanmark, the preschool teachers and the children. 55 children took part in the sessions. The study investigated a selection of methods developed for children, but not necessarily young children, such as the Bags of Stuff technique and the Mixing Ideas technique. This paper will discuss the advantages and challenges of these when applying them together with young children. The findings suggest that when working with younger children researchers should make efforts into understanding the children and their conceptual framework before engaging in design activities. In addition, young children need support in their creative expression.
    Keywords: Early years education; Creative visual methods; Designing with young children
    Application of Dashboards and Scorecards for Learning Models IT Risk Management: A User Experience BIBAKFull-Text 153-165
      Ernesto Celi
    The process of education of students and professional training in themes such as IT Risk Management entails use frameworks such as Magerit or Octave. The understanding of these frameworks becomes difficult when learning sessions are short, even if we use specific software, due to the large number of elements to identify, understand, relate and apply. Using dashboards and scorecards prepared in tools like Excel helps enhance this learning. The purpose of this study was to measure the usability and effectiveness in achieving the expected outcomes, evaluating the experience of users through questionnaires type System Usability Scale (SUS); and to examine the needs and expectations of users. The results show that participants learn faster the practical application of the frameworks studied, because the dashboards and scorecards allows them easier to identify its elements and its practical application.
    Keywords: User experience; Ease of use; Usability; Learning; Dashboard; IT risk management
    Mapping Metaphors for the Design of Academic Library Websites BIBAKFull-Text 166-172
      Ming-Hsin Phoebe Chiu
    Internet has changed the way people acquire and consume information. In the academic setting, students turn to the library websites in the stead of visiting the library for their information needs. Using metaphor in the design of library website creates a resemblance that is grounded sensorily, psychologically, and conceptually on the physical library. This study aims to identify the analogies that connect the library website elements to the real-life library experience. Organizational, functional, visual, and textual metaphors elicited from the participating library users may provide an integrative design construct that incorporates real-life library experience into the design of library website.
    Keywords: Metaphor design; Metaphor; Academic library website; Usability
    A Holistic Approach to User Experience in the Context of an Academic Library Interactive System BIBAKFull-Text 173-184
      Andrea Alessandro Gasparini
    This paper addresses the impact the user perspective has on an interactive system, when designing for experience. The context is the introduction of a discovery tool in an academic library, where the effects of addressing the users experience (UX) are gathered in the digital and the physical space. How the UX was addressed before the introduction of this new discovery tool and how the users experience was tested afterward, will be discussed. The paper analyzes the results of a multi-folded testing of the discovery tool, including a large survey, focus groups, observations and usability testing. The main focus of this paper is on how the results may support the re-design of this system, and how the library staff made sense of the new insight gained by this approach. This new insight is also a point of entrance to look at those usability and design processes, both intensive and somehow chaotic, that influence the design for the user experiences. This holistic approach will give new insight both to the research community and to the academic libraries.
    Keywords: User experience; Usability testing; Academic library search tool
    Antique School Furniture, New Technological Features Needs BIBAKFull-Text 185-196
      Andreia Gomes; Ernesto Filgueiras; Luís Lavin
    Question: Over the years the demands of teaching design contributed to the differentiation of school furniture, giving it a specific and distinctive character from the traditional classrooms. This fact is mainly due to the tools used by the students in the activities performed in this kind of classes. However, the material used by the students and the teaching methods have undergone significant changes over the years. A recent example is the replacement of traditional design methods by computer-aided ones as a consequence of the rapid evolution of technology. The generation of students now entering higher education, millennium generation, grew up with the presence of technology and the internet, so the pencil and paper are for previous generations as the computer is for millennial. Today's furniture does not show signs of this evolution, thus still features characteristics of the beginning of the twentieth century. This absence of modern adapted furniture forced schools to provide supplementary material to compensate the problems caused by constant changes. Purpose: It is part of this article's goals to perform a morphological and evolutionary analysis of the products with which the students interact directly. The analysis of some reference situations, such as the environment in school study rooms and in the classrooms, will allow students to identify their needs. In order to achieve our goal, data will be collected through observation techniques, surveys and morphological analysis of the current and antique furniture.
    Keywords: School furniture; Observation method; Morphological product methodology analysis; Conceptual product design
    Analysis of Usability and Information Architecture of the UFRN Institutional Repository BIBAKFull-Text 197-207
      Débora Koshiyama; André Luís Santos de Pinho; José Guilherme Santa Rosa
    In order to identify the possible problems of usability and information architecture of the institutional repositories, the case study of the Institutional Repository of the Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte was chosen. As research hypothesis, it was established that the information architecture of the UFRN Institutional Repository interface, version 1.8.1, disadvantage usability in performing the tasks by system user groups. Data collection was carried out by applying the techniques of Cooperative Evaluation and Usability Testing of the UFRN/IR system. Problems of usability and information architecture were found in the Institutional Repository from the results obtained. The redesign of the UFRN Institutional Repository interface on areas related to the tasks presented in the research, and considering the aspects of usability and information architecture, mentioned above, we will contribute to access and visibility of information improvement.
    Keywords: Design; Information ergonomics; Institutional Repository; Usability; Information architecture
    Ergonomic and Usability Analysis of Interactive Whiteboards in the Academic Environment BIBAKFull-Text 208-217
      Eduardo Oliveira; Erick Vasconcelos; Elzani Sobral; Sayonara Bittencourt; Tiago Ramos; Marcelo M. Soares
    This paper presents the usability analysis about the using of interactive whiteboards, specifically the EPSON Brightlink 475wi + model, evaluating its functionality for didactic purposes in classrooms. The research was done in CAC, the Centre of Arts and Communication of the Federal University of Pernambuco, where observations, interviews and questionnaires with potential users have been done. The aim of this research is to propose possible improvements that could be done in its hardware, software and interface, in addition to evaluate the educator's preparing in relation to all the tools that the interactive whiteboard disposes, and how its knowledge is shared to the students when using this equipment. The purpose of this investigation is to do an ergonomic analysis of this important educational tool, which is generally underused by the educators, and to bring the users possible solutions so they can explore its maximum resources in their classrooms.
    Keywords: Technology in education; Ergonomics; Usability
    E-Learning Platforms and Lacking Motivation in Students: Concept of Adaptable UI for Online Courses BIBAKFull-Text 218-227
      Hana Ovesleová
    Current trend of facilitating education for masses through MOOC (Massive Open Online Course) does not much respects different individual specifics influencing success rate of users during the learning process. This paper focuses on issues of MOOC user interfaces from the viewpoint of users' individual needs. It deals with the question of motivation of users depending on an interface, with the question of persuasive design and its potentials in a given context. The paper analyzes effects influencing the user along the learning process, the aim being to specify evaluation criteria for adaptable interface formulation. EdX, Coursera and user interfaces of e-learning courses of the largest Czech universities serve as examples.
    Keywords: Persuasive technology; User interface; Motivation; Massive online open course; E-learning; Learning machine; Human computer interaction; Semiotic
    A Usability Study with Children on an Online Educational Platform BIBAKFull-Text 228-239
      Tuba Ugras; Orhan Sener
    Online education has become widely popular in the last decade. Although there are various online educational portals for children in the World and in Turkey, the number of usability studies focusing on the needs of children is limited. This study aims to fill this gap. The study focuses on Vitamin online educational platform in Turkey and investigates the find and search strategies that child users employ when navigating in the web site. A qualitative usability test with a multi-method approach was conducted with a sample of 12 Turkish students between the ages of 9-13. Observations were made while the participants were executing the given tasks. Additional data was collected by using the retrospective think aloud procedure, pre-test survey and video recordings. The findings showed that several improvements can be made in terms of information architecture in order to improve the usability of the platform for children.
    Keywords: Usability; Children; Educational platforms
    Evaluating an Education Department Portal: A Case Study BIBAFull-Text 240-247
      Xiaojun Yuan; Huahai Yang; Kathleen Moorhead; Kathleen DeMers
    We performed a series of usability studies to evaluate an education department portal for New York State Education Department (NYSED) (www.nysed.gov) in order to measure the quality of a user's experience when interacting with specific sections of this Web site. This study is composed of two phases: 1. heuristic evaluation and cognitive walkthrough were carried out to evaluate 25 web pages of the site; and 2. a user testing was performed to evaluate three components of the site that have been redesigned based on the findings and recommendations from the Phase 1. The results will assist NYSED in identifying opportunities for improving customer service and enhancing the website.

    Designing the Playing Experience

    Ads-on Games and Fake Brands: Interactions, Commercials and Playful Branding BIBAKFull-Text 251-262
      Herlander Elias; Ernesto Filgueiras; Breno Carvalho
    Today's communication-based world relies on advertising as a positive medium, and branding is no exception. Also, the gaming industry relies on videogames as a heavy player in our time, since "narrative", "graphics" and "gameplay" are constantly worked out in the name of the best digital experiences, where the user is the center. We have noticed that a fusion is taking place between commercials, real and/or fake brands, in order to turn digital worlds more convincing for the user-player. Relying on analytics, media theory and user experience, we have conducted a study to better understand, in analytical and experimental form, what is happening between the user, the brands, the games and the outputs of such experiences in terms of interaction and playfulness. Gamification seems to be the new rule.
    Keywords: Brands; Videogames; User experience; Interaction; Advertisement; Connection; Player; Gamification
    Heartbeat Jenga: A Biofeedback Board Game to Improve Coordination and Emotional Control BIBAKFull-Text 263-270
      Yu-Chun Huang; Chung-Hay Luk
    In most biofeedback interfaces, the user learns his/her biometric reading, but does not need it to guide consequent motor control. Here we demonstrate a game that requires the user to actively adjust his/her play in response to his/her heartbeat. The game is based on Jenga, where players take turns removing a wooden block from a tower of blocks and putting it on the top without causing the tower to collapse. Heartbeat Jenga's added biofeedback component changes the difficulty of the game based on real time monitoring of the player's heart rate during the player's turn. If heart rate increases (indicating that the player is not calm), the platform holding the blocks shakes and the room lights dim, making the game harder to play. Through such manipulation, the player actively prompts him/herself to calm down, while improving coordination.
    Keywords: Biofeedback; Board game; Heart rate monitoring; Tangible interfaces; Soft circuits
    Evaluation of User Experience in Interaction with Computer Games BIBAKFull-Text 271-282
      Tihana Lapaš; Tihomir Orehovacki
    Positive user experience (UX) is considered to be one of the main predictors of users' loyalty. In the context of Massively Online Battle Arena (MOBA) games, absorption & dissociation, immersion, presence, flow, and social play constitute a set of essential user experience (UX) facets. With an objective to determine to what extent the aforementioned UX dimensions contribute to MOBA games players' continuance intentions, an empirical study was carried out. Participants in the study were randomly selected MOBA games players. Data were collected by means of an online post-use questionnaire. The psychometric features of the conceptual model that reflects an interplay of UX facets and players' loyalty were examined by means of the partial least squares (PLS) structural equation modelling (SEM) technique. Implications for both researchers and practitioners are presented and discussed.
    Keywords: Massively Online Battle Arena (MOBA); Computer games; User experience; Empirical study; Post-use questionnaire; Conceptual model; SEM-PLS
    Doctor Who: Legacy, an Analysis of Usability and Playability of a Multi-platform Game BIBAKFull-Text 283-291
      Rennan Raffaele; Renato Alencar; Iran Júnior; Bruno Colley; Gabriel Pontes; Breno Carvalho; Marcelo M. Soares
    Doctor Who: Legacy is a multiplatform game, available for web and smartphones, which pays tribute to the sci-fi adventure serial Dr Who from the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) as part of the 50th anniversary commemorations of the program. The game is a Puzzle Quest, in which the user has to destroy blocks by turns, full of collectible characters. The central plot features the "Doctor" who has to travel through time and space to bring together all his friends and ex-assistants so as to prevent a war that threatens the universe. This study sets out to investigate the gameplay and usability of the game on mobile and web platforms, grounded on the concepts set out by Preece, Rogers and Sharp, and by observing the interactions that users engaged on.
    Keywords: Multi-platform; Social games; Usability and gameplay; User's experience; Doctor who
    Newsgames: Gameplay and Usability in Simulation Games BIBAKFull-Text 292-302
      Carla Teixeira; Breno Carvalho; Jarbas Agra; Valeska Martins; Anthony Lins; Marcelo M. Soares; André Neves
    Newsgames are a game format that use the news as a basis for constructing their narrative. Observations made between 2012 and 2014 indicated a gap in the observation of gameplay and usability of this kind of game, which has arisen as a different format of publishing information. The objective of this study was to analyze the usability and playability of newsgames produced since 2000, for which three simulation newsgames were chosen: Iced -- I can end deportation, Heartsaver and The Candidate. The analysis was based on studies by Niesen and Preece and Rogers, who observed users interacting with newgames. From the results obtained we intend to investigate other genres of newsgames, with a view to improving the game experience.
    Keywords: Newsgames; Gameplay; Usability; Simulation games
    Improving Song Guessing Games Through Music Track Composition BIBAKFull-Text 303-314
      João Marcelo Teixeira; Dicksson Almeida; Edvar Neto; Veronica Teichrieb
    In this work we propose a different scheme for music guessing games, based on a constructive approach. By analyzing current available mobile games, we show the barriers that must be surpassed to make such games viable and how novel this work is. We have implemented a game prototype called "What's the Song" and performed user tests with both usual and constructive approaches. A Likert questionnaire was answered by all users and it points out that the constructive approach improves game engagement and overall user experience.
    Keywords: Game experience; Music guessing games; Casual games
    Evaluating and Customizing User Interaction in an Adaptive Game Controller BIBAKFull-Text 315-326
      Leonardo Torok; Mateus Pelegrino; Jefferson Lessa; Daniela Gorski Trevisan; Cristina N. Vasconcelos; Esteban Clua; Anselmo Montenegro
    When playing a game, the user expects an easy and intuitive interaction. While current game console controllers are physical pre-defined hardware components with a default number, size and position of buttons. Unfortunately, different games require different buttons and demand different interaction methods. Despite that, the play style of each player differs according to personal characteristics (like hand size) or past gaming experiences. To achieve an optimal controller configuration for each player, this work proposes a virtual controller based on a common touchscreen device, such as smartphone or tablet, that will be used as a joystick to control a game on a computer or console, collecting user input data and applying machine learning techniques to adapt the position and size of its virtual buttons, minimizing errors and providing an enjoyable experience. With the prototype controller, tests were performed with a set of users and the collected data showed considerable improvements in the precision and game performance of the players.
    Keywords: Adaptive interfaces; Adaptive game control; Machine learning; User behavior; Mobile; Touchscreen
    New Research Methods for Media and Cognition Experiment Course BIBAKFull-Text 327-334
      Yi Yang; Shengjin Wang; Liangrui Peng
    With the development of human-brain cognition and signal processing techniques, there is more attention on media and cognitive disciplines, especially focus on human-computer interaction and human's brain function analysis. Electronic media is a new expression of human civilization, culture and arts. Media and cognition experiment course is to complete the goal of training talents through a large number of state-of-the-art methods. This paper describes the understanding of the new practical engineering projects on media and cognition course. Students were asked to complete several sets of practical engineering courses. Some optional contents are also included. After this training, we were able to select and train more high-level talents further. In fact, this kind of practical engineering course can improve the students' ability to grasp related knowledge points. Eventually they will have the ability to plan projects and solve practical problems.
    Keywords: Media and cognition; Analysis of human brain; Human-computer interaction; High-level talents; Investigation of project programming

    Designing the Urban Experience

    Learning from Hourly Household Energy Consumption: Extracting, Visualizing and Interpreting Household Smart Meter Data BIBAKFull-Text 337-345
      Sam Borgeson; June A. Flora; Jungsuk Kwac; Chin-Woo Tan; Ram Rajagopal
    In this paper, we present the Energy Visualization and Insight System for Demand Operations and Management platform (VISDOM), a collection of smart meter data analysis algorithms and visualization tools designed to address the challenge of interpreting patterns in energy data in support of research, utility energy efficiency and demand response programs. We provide an overview of how the system works and examples of usage, followed by a discussion of the potential benefits of using VISDOM to identify and target participants whose electricity consumption is best aligned with the goals of efficiency and demand response programs.
    Keywords: Information design; Data visualization; Energy; Sustainability; Energy efficiency; Customer segmentation; Machine learning
    Defining HCI/UX Principles for Urban Environment BIBAKFull-Text 346-356
      Pavel Farkas
    Interaction design works successfully with several design principles that are widely implemented and used in the community of designers and theoreticians. In this article, the author argues that urban designers and architects who are designing built environment may very well face similar questions and problems as the interaction designers in Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) design. The text sets the design thinking and semiotics of interaction in a large scale and tries to outline the connections between the UX design and urban design for cities we live in. Moreover it targets means of interaction and attempts to encourage designers of to engage in turning our modern cities into more livable, user-friendly and inclusive environments.
    Keywords: Architecture; Communication; City; Design thinking; Information; Interaction; Semiotics; Smart city; UX; Wayfinding
    Participatory Explorations on a Location Based Urban Information System BIBAKFull-Text 357-367
      Özge Genç; Damla Çay; Asim Evren Yantaç
    In this paper, we share our user research experiences from an ongoing participatory location based urban information system design study. While the geographical information system (GIS) field advanced by means of sensors, data collection and data processing, there is still a limited number of visualization studies. Here, we envision novel solutions that represent spatio-temporal data for effective use in daily life. With this intention in mind, as early stage studies in our research process, we conducted a series of participatory design (PD) workshops together with an ethnographic artifact, a custom sketchbook to identify user scenarios and explore possible visualization techniques. The main objective of the study is to explore new ways of visualizing and interacting with the complex location based data that will provide intuitive yet easier and more effective daily life information for the public.
    Keywords: Participatory design; Design research; Journal; Urban information visualization; Spatio-temporal data; Ethnographic research
    Diffusion of Feedback: Perceptions and Adoption of Devices in the Residential Market BIBAKFull-Text 368-379
      Beth Karlin; Angela Sanguinetti; Nora Davis; Kristen Bendanna; Kristen Holdsworth; Jessie Baker; David Kirkby; Daniel Stokols
    Providing households with energy feedback is widely promoted as a conservation strategy and its effectiveness has been established in field studies. However, such studies actively recruit participants and little is known about naturalistic consumers. Despite hundreds of products emerging, few have taken hold in the market. Diffusion of innovation is a theory of technology adoption that details both the general process by which innovation spreads as well as the individual process of technology adoption. The current study analyses survey data from 836 individuals through a diffusion framework to assess the current and potential market of energy feedback. Questions related to knowledge and perceptions of feedback reveal important insights about customer acceptance and statistical comparison of adopters and non-adopters identify key characteristics related to adoption. Implications for the design and marketing of feedback technologies are discussed.
    Keywords: Sustainability; Feedback; Energy; Usability user experience
    Design and Implementation of a Mobile Cloud Environmental Application for Riyadh City BIBAKFull-Text 380-389
      Heba Kurdi; Amani Al-Fayez; Anfal Al-Tuwaim; Hanan Al-Mohammadi; Mona Al-Mutairi; Sarah Al-Kharji
    Environmental problems are a global issue that everyone should contribute to minimize. As it is difficult for people in charge alone to locate all the cases of the environmental hazards and to address them on time, this paper proposes a cloud based mobile application with a user friendly interface that allows citizens to help their government make their city a better place by reporting environmental violence. The aim is to help the responsible agencies have easy and quick access to notifications provided by the community about environmental issues, so they can be addressed promptly. We choose to customize the mobile application to Riyadh City, the capital of Saudi Arabia. However, the software is generic and can be customized to any other city.
    Keywords: Mobile application; Environmental software; Cloud computing; Android
    How Do I Get to Room 3106? BIBAKFull-Text 390-399
      Judith A. Moldenhauer
    Built in 1895, Old Main is the oldest building on the Wayne State University campus. The building is a warren of rooms and hallways that is occupied by a wide variety of academic disciplines. However, there has never been any signage system for Old Main. Through using the experience of volunteers who specifically navigated to rooms and locations in Old Main, design students developed signage prototypes that connected the "story" of the building's information (e.g., rooms and locations, landmarks, stairs and elevators, hallways) with the "story" of the volunteers (e.g., the time it took to get to room, their use of landmarks, obstacles they encountered). This paper describes the students' design process and design work to demonstrate the importance of user-testing and the use of storytelling in design education.
    Keywords: Wayfinding; Storytelling; Information design; User-testing; User-based design; Design education
    A Practice on Wayfinding System Design with Service Design Thinking BIBAKFull-Text 400-411
      Jing Pan; Zhengsheng Yin
    Environment around people has become more complex than ever before due to the development of society and economy. It is easy to feel lost when exposed to wide-open and unfamiliar environments. Thus, wayfinding system design becomes increasingly important. Various factors affect people's wayfinding experience. Factors such as color, symbol or material of wayfinding facilities have been discussed a lot while the importance of systematic planning of wayfinding system has been ignored. This study combined service design thinking with wayfinding system design. Different service design methods had been applied to the different stages of wayfinding system design process in order to help designers make a more comprehensive design strategy. The wayfinding system design of Tea Experience Museum had been taken as a practice to show how service design thinking was used in wayfinding system design process.
    Keywords: Wayfinding system; Service system; Design; Experience
    Hidden Presence: Sensing Occupancy and Extracting Value from Occupancy Data BIBAKFull-Text 412-424
      Larissa Suzuki; Peter Cooper; Theo Tryfonas; George Oikonomou
    In this paper we review various technical architectures for sensing occupancy in commercial real estate spaces and discuss the potential benefits of applications that could be built upon the collected data. The technical capabilities reviewed range from simple presence detection to identifying individual workers and relating those semantically to jobs, teams, processes or other elements of the business. The volume and richness of accumulated data varies accordingly allowing the development of a range of occupancy monitoring applications that could bring multiple benefits to an organization. We find that overall occupancy-based applications are underappreciated in the Smart Buildings mantra due to occupancy's inability to align to traditional building engineering silos, a lack of common view between stakeholders with respect to what is 'value' and the current client assessment tendencies which use predominantly demonstrator-based logic rather than a combination of practical demonstrators and theoretical value. We demonstrate that in commercial office buildings, occupancy-based Smart Building concepts have the potential to deliver benefits that can be orders of magnitude greater than current practice associated with silos such as energy and lighting. The directness of value in these is far more variable however, and the barriers and enablers to its realization are non-trivial. We identify and discuss these factors (including privacy, perceived additional capital expenditure, retrofitting requirements etc.) in more detail and relate them to stages of design and delivery of the built environment. We conclude that, on the presumption costs of development and implementation are relatively similar, the value streams of occupancy-based systems, while requiring more careful and bespoke design in the short term, could produce greater lifetime value in commercial office scenarios than leading smart building technologies.
    Keywords: Smart built environments; Occupancy detection
    Designing Apps for Tourists: A Case Study BIBAKFull-Text 425-436
      Virginia Tiradentes Souto; Caio Cristo; Maria Gabriela Araújo; Lucas Santos
    With the popularity of new digital media, such as smartphones and tablets, many applications have been designed in order to help tourists at different moments of their trips. This study shows the creative process of designing an app for tourists. The design of this mobile app is a part of a project that aims to investigate the design of mobile apps for tourists and their implications for interaction design and information visualization fields. It also describes the method, the stages, and different approaches taken during the creative process. In addition, some related studies on designing such apps are reviewed. It finally shows some reflections on the possibilities, difficulties and challenges designers have while trying to create an innovative app for tourists.
    Keywords: Designing apps; Mobile tourist applications; Visualization information; Creative process

    Designing the Driving Experience

    Designing for the Naturalistic Driving Experience BIBAKFull-Text 439-449
      Wanda Eugene; Jerone Dunbar; Alison Nolan; Juan E. Gilbert; Renesha L. Hendrix
    We designed a naturalistic driving study to compare voice-texting alternatives. The design accounts for the nuances we have discovered through research in our simulations studies and through the literature. We then conducted a pilot study to gauge the practice implications of our design. In this paper, we present the problems we encountered, solutions we developed, and other challenges faced in moving from a simulator experience to a real-world naturalistic study. Leveraging these findings, we put forth a set of design principles that will inform future research endeavors and provide instructions for conducting naturalistic driving studies. We hope this research serves as a comprehensive design guide for an effective naturalistic distracted driving study.
    Keywords: Naturalistic driving study; Road safety; Transportation; Distracted driving; Design guidelines
    Exploring User Experience in the Wild: Facets of the Modern Car BIBAKFull-Text 450-461
      Dimitrios Gkouskos; Ingrid Pettersson; MariAnne Karlsson; Fang Chen
    Experiential approaches to technology create opportunities for facilitating a wider range of in-car user experiences, however holistic knowledge regarding experiences that car users find enjoyable is lacking. We present the experience themes of the car as a caretaker, the car as a space for relatedness, the car as a space for stimulation, and the car as a space for transition, collected through a holistic study of 16 drivers, using contextual interviews, reflexive photography and the UX curve method. The use of the themes is exemplified through a design example. The experience themes can help designers empathize with users and create design solutions that can support positive in-car experiences, while the methodology used, serves as an example of how user's experiences with technology can be studied.
    Keywords: User experience; Automotive; Qualitative; Holistic; HMI
    Drivers and Automation: A Study About Cultural and Behavioral Influence in the Interaction with Driver Assistants BIBAKFull-Text 462-472
      Rafael Cirino Gonçalves; Manuela Quaresma
    ADAS or advanced driving assistant systems are rapidly gaining popularity all over the world, but in order to work properly and prevent risks, ADAS must be designed considering the context that it will be working on. The problem is that most ADAS sold in Brazil were developed based in others cultures, not considering specific issues of Brazilian traffic. This study aimed to point out the most relevant problems of interaction between Brazilian drivers and their ADAS. The results of this research concluded that the problem is not related to individual aspects of Human-Machine communication, but to social and cultural factors that misrepresents the way that people should use this kind of system.
    Keywords: ADAS; Automation; Safety; Ergonomics; Drivers' behavior
    Going on a Road-Trip with My Electric Car: Acceptance Criteria for Long-Distance-Use of Electric Vehicles BIBAKFull-Text 473-484
      Julian Halbey; Sylvia Kowalewski; Martina Ziefle
    In this study we report on four focus group discussions to examine cognitions, attitudes of a broad variety of users with respect to battery electric vehicles (BEV). Specifically, we identified relevant criteria for the use of electric cars as a long distance vehicle and gathered first impressions of where users wish to locate such charging stations. Four main aspects were identified as acceptance relevant: The battery's capacity, given in the driving range in kilometers, the time it takes to regain this given range (charging time), the density of the charging stations grid and the attractiveness of the places where the charging stations are located, which could for example be a service area or a simple parking lot off the highway. Results of this study might provide detailed insights into conditions and technical specifications that have to be met beyond the possibility of quick charging to reach higher acceptance and a broad willingness to use BEVs for more than short-tracks in the city.
    Keywords: Battery electric vehicles (BEV); User acceptance; Quick charging; Infrastructure; Adoption of novel technologies
    A Study on a Split-View Navigation System BIBAKFull-Text 485-495
      Jongsung Lee; Heewon Lee; Sung Woo Kim
    CNS (Car Navigation System) provides traffic information with an intention to offer safe and comfortable driving experience. However, because too much information is presented into a single screen it often becomes information-crowded. This paper analyzed four commercial CNS products to collect information elements and conducted user studies such as focused groups, surveys and interviews to determine what information is needed for each position of the seat; the driver and the passenger seat. The result showed that there is clear difference in information priority between driver and the person on passenger seat. Based on such finding, this paper proposes using split-view based CNS. Split-view CNS contributes to enhance user satisfaction of driving experience by providing different information to needed for a driver and a passenger.
    Keywords: Navigation; Split-view; Information delivery element
    What Travelers Want: An Investigation into User Needs and User Wants on Display BIBAKFull-Text 496-504
      Tingyi S. Lin; Chia-Nien Chang
    Travel information about public transportation is essential for all commuters and travelers before and during their journey. The experience from a journey creates long-lasting impressions for each traveler. Positive impressions create good reputations for public services in and between cities. The effectiveness of public transportation often relies on brief transfers between connections. Even if they already have a clear touring map, travelers always need on-site information to confirm schedules and so on. The improvement of travel information for passengers is not only a must for enhancing transportation flow, but also a necessary condition for passengers' anxiety-free experience of transportation. Wayfinding and signage systems have been important aspects of public transportation for decades and, in recent years, have attracted more and more attention owing to rapid technology changes that allow for extraordinarily innovative creations. This information-saturated era gives us an opportunity to rethink and to re-make information so that it is more visible and more understandable.
       A successful design for information delivery and communication can successfully guide users through their journey and can reduce confusion considerably. In the current study, we examine the representation of railway information relative to display-interface sections. The very first and essential step in such an examination is to consider users. Here, our aim is to define the information needs attributable to travelers during their journeys by train. In order to understand what users need and what can motivate them, we observed and interviewed users and conducted a task-based analysis -- all to clarify user perceptions and reactions. The results will help future design thinking and processing in the field of information services.
       Our study's results show that (1) the types of information needed for long trips differ from the types of information needed for short trips; (2) current displays suffer from several problems such as ambiguity, low legibility, and unaesthetic layouts; and (3) users like to have rapidly conveyed information at stops, on routes, and at transfers. Technical information and entertainment are of secondary importance. The two principal issues are what to show (i.e., the issue of organizing needed information) and how to show it (i.e., the issue of designing easy-to-understand information). The results and findings from this study should be references for re-design processes, and should also be key items for checking usability tests of new models for train displays. Through this passenger-focused process serving to meet travelers' demands, it is vital to take into account visual information for short- and long-distance transport networks.
    Keywords: Railways and transportation networks; Wayfinding; Visual-Information; User experience; Interface design
    Head Up Display in Automotive: A New Reality for the Driver BIBAKFull-Text 505-516
      Annie Pauzie
    In the context of automotive, Human Systems Interactions Design is a great challenge, taking into account the road safety issues and the complexity of the driving task under high time constraint. To support this task, existing on-board systems display mainly visual messages, forcing the drivers to move their eyes away from the road. This paper presents an overview of studies related to drivers' perception and cognition when this information is displayed on the windshield (Head-Up Display or HUD), as it can be a solution to reduce the duration and frequency drivers look away from the traffic scene. Nevertheless, HUD might have also shortcomings raising new critical contexts, which are discussed. The Augmented Reality (AR) concept is also presented, as this solution can bear HUD potential drawbacks such as the risk of occluding relevant objects of traffic as well as phenomena like perception tunneling and cognitive capture.
    Keywords: Head Up Display; Augmented Reality; Road safety; Human factors in automotive; Advanced driver information system
    What Are the Expectations of Users of an Adaptive Recommendation Service Which Aims to Reduce Driver Distraction? BIBAKFull-Text 517-528
      Nadine Walter; Benjamin Kaplan; Carmen Wettemann; Tobias Altmüller; Klaus Bengler
    Adaptive systems are a promising approach to reduce driver distraction caused by using functions of the infotainment system while driving. The number of operation steps can be reduced through proactive recommendations based on the user behavior in the past. We describe the methods and results conducted in the first two iterations of an user-centered design process to develop an interaction concept for an adaptive recommendation service. The result of an extensive requirements analysis is described and how different concepts perform in comparison with each other.
    Keywords: Adaptation; Recommendation service; User-centered design process; Heuristic evaluation; User study
    Cross Cultural Comparison of Users' Barge-in with the In-Vehicle Speech System BIBAKFull-Text 529-540
      Peggy Wang; Ute Winter; Timothy Grost
    The focus of this paper is user barge-in behavior during interactions with an in-vehicle speech system. This study is part of a cross-cultural research conducted in the US and China that explored the cultural differences regarding users' expectations and interactions with in-vehicle speech applications. In this paper, we describe the methodology of the field study, the interface of the prototype, the experimental set up, the analysis procedure, as well as the participants' demographics from both the US and China. We categorize the observed barge-in behavior and the typical scenarios in which it occurred, from both prompt timing and a dialog sequence perspective. After analyzing all barge-in instances, we discuss design implications for a barge-in feature and system prompts of an in-vehicle speech system that considers the different cultural norms of the two regions.
    Keywords: User barge-in; In-vehicle speech system; Human-machine communication; Turn-taking; Cross cultural comparison

    Designing the Healthcare Patient's Experience

    PostureMonitor: Real-Time IMU Wearable Technology to Foster Poise and Health BIBAKFull-Text 543-552
      Fatemeh Abyarjoo; Nonnarit O-Larnnithipong; Sudarat Tangnimitchok; Francisco Ortega; Armando Barreto
    This paper presents the prototype development and verification of a simple wearable posture monitor system, based on a miniature MEMS Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU). The Inertial Measurement Unit uses accelerometers and gyroscopes to estimate the orientation of the module through sensor fusion algorithms. The system provides a warning to the user wearing it when he/she is departing by an adjustable margin from the posture indicated to the system as correct. Continuous real-time warnings of this type will help the user acquire good posture habits, which has the potential to prevent or assuage health problems caused by chronic bad posture.
    Keywords: Posture monitoring; Inertial measurement system; Accelerometer; Gyrosscope; MEMS; Sensor fusion
    Robot-Era Project: Preliminary Results on the System Usability BIBAKFull-Text 553-561
      Roberta Bevilacqua; Elisa Felici; Fiorella Marcellini; Sebastian Glende; Susann Klemcke; Isabel Conrad; Raffaele Esposito; Filippo Cavallo; Paolo Dario
    The European project Robot-Era is an ambitious integrated project (FP7-ICT-2011.5.4), which objective is the development of advanced robotic services, integrated in intelligent environments, to provide independent living to older people.
       In order to guarantee the matching of the users' need and the demands, two loops of experimentation were conceived, in realistic and real setting.
       The aim of the paper is to described the methods applied and the main results coming from the first experimental loop, concerning the degree of usability of the interfaces and provide guidelines for testing socially assistive robots with older people.
    Keywords: Usability assessment; Older people; HRI; HCI; Acceptability
    User Experience Research on the Rehabilitation System of Speech-Impaired Children BIBAKFull-Text 562-574
      Wenyi Cai; Jun Liu; Qiang Liu; Ting Han
    A large number of Chinese speech-impaired children and their families face long-term tough training and lack of professional speech therapists and training products. The rehabilitation experience of preschool children in the critical period of speech learning need attention. By the analysis to the traditional treatment, it shows that young children generally have difficulty in concentration. Parents worry about time-consuming, economic pressure, fatigue from training, uncontrollable children. Speech therapists concern about the problem of searching record, limitation of treatment. Accordingly, ICT-based speech training product which suits Chinese learning has been designed to improve these stakeholders' experience. The product has interaction, gamification, professional knowledge, substitute for parents' demonstration in part, visualization of the progress and training program. By comparing using the product in the training with the traditional way, the experience has been improved in attracting the attention of children, reducing the burden of parents, lifting participation of speech therapists.
    Keywords: User experience; Speech rehabilitation; Speech-impaired children and their parents; Speech therapist; ICT; Speech training product
    "Keep What You've Earned": Encouraging Sailors to Drink Responsibly BIBAKFull-Text 575-586
      Kristina Cook; Erin Brennan; Colleen Gray; Teha Kennard
    The U.S. Navy contracted Booz Allen Hamilton, a strategy and technology consulting firm, to develop and implement a social marketing campaign to encourage Sailors to drink responsibly. The "Keep What You've Earned" campaign, launched in April 2013, aims to encourage Sailors to drink responsibly through the use of affirmative messaging, reminding them of all they have accomplished in their Navy careers. The primary product of the social marketing campaign is a mobile application game that combines role-playing with real-life tools to help encourage Sailors to drink responsibly. Navy leadership has indicated that the Keep What You've Earned campaign, in combination with other cultural and policy-related changes, contributed to a decline in the number of reported alcohol-related incidents.
    Keywords: Social marketing; Alcohol abuse prevention; Health communication model; Gamification; Behavior change; U.S. Navy
    The Use of Generative Techniques in Co-design of mHealth Technology and Healthcare Services for COPD Patients BIBAKFull-Text 587-595
      Anita Das; Silje Bøthun; Jarl Reitan; Yngve Dahl
    People suffering from COPD commonly experience exacerbations leading to hospital admissions. mHealth technologies holds a potential for improved healthcare delivery to this group, with a possible impact on preventing COPD exacerbations. Designing appropriate technology and services for people with COPD requires an in-depth understanding of their needs, values and life situation. Co-design is an approach where users are actively involved in the design process, with democratic participation and empowerment at its center. We involved COPD patients in exploring their perspective on how mHealth technology and appurtenant healthcare services could support them. By the use of generative tools, we identified central aspects that the participants experienced to be of importance related to their health condition and disease. We here report on the main findings using this approach and on reflections on the process.
    Keywords: Design thinking; mHealth; Service design; Generative techniques; COPD
    Human-Computer Interaction in Bed BIBAKFull-Text 596-605
      Gustavo Desouzart; Ernesto Filgueiras
    Sleep disorders are increasingly common view and it is a growing problem in modern societies. There are several problems that can cause this type of disturbance, being the demanding obligations of work and study, a current problem, which leads individuals to allocate more time their rest period in at home. Currently, we are seeing the replacement of handwork by mental, automated and computerized work, which translates into an increasing percentage of time spent performing repetitive static character tasks (physical effort), being able to compare yourself to your work done in industry, traditional production lines (Caetano and Vala 2002). It is no less demanding contexts of labor among which are those activities that involve the long hours spent at the computer. This paper presents a study whose objective was to research the human-computer interaction with the time spent by young adults in carrying out activities with computing devices (computer, tablet or mobile phone) in residences' bedrooms of air force military and university students in rest time periods and with ecological validation with observation method to video analysis and using a Software iSEE. A sample of 32956 observations, which corresponds to 1824 sleep-hours of 24 young adults, was classified into two (2) Interaction Categories (IC), body position while participants were awake in bed (2873 observations) and doing activities (3001 observations). The image registration was performed during the period of six months, divided into two periods with each participant, to enable the analysis of different times of the year and not just a single period can mean a higher specific activity. The results show that 38.7% (N = 1113 observations) of the participants presented the sitting as the most common postural behavior during awake in bed when the participants doing activities. In reference of activities in bed, 49.2% (N = 1475) used the computer, followed by Using mobile devices, with 16.7% (N = 501) of observations. When we analyze the group of participants, the students showed 49.2% of the period of activity in bed, using the computer, and 13.8% used mobile equipment. In the same reference, the military also used the computer (49%) as the main activity in bed during the night rest, but they used more mobile devices (19.4%) than students.
       Regarding the postures, students used the sitting (57.1%) as the main active posture when in bed, however, the military was the only sitting 3rd indication posture in bed, being the 1st observation of posture in bed, was the supine position with 30.7%. This data set the type of use of computer devices in bed (studying, playing games, watching movie or playing). Findings of this study allow suggesting what graphical interface designers must seek as new strategies and solutions for posture in bed, exploring other peripheral equipment for using informatics equipment in bed position.
    Keywords: Human-Computer interaction; Activities in rest period; Health care professionals' procedures; ISEE
    Designing an Interface Agent-Based Architecture for Creating a Mobile System of Medical Care BIBAKFull-Text 606-615
      Ariel Escobar Endara; Carlos José Pereira de Lucena
    This paper presents a software-based architecture aiming to provide a mechanism for creating computer systems for telemedicine. The proposed architecture has two execution environments. First, the server environment where all the system information is centralized, processed by agents that are executed in this environment. Secondly, the mobile environment. Highlighting the interface agent, which exploits the information that is provided by the patient and the other agents in order to become a personal assistant to the patient. Together they are able to guide the patients in the care of their health and help the physician on patient's care remotely.
    Keywords: Agents; Interface agents; Healthcare; Telemedicine
    A Study of Conversation Support System Between the Elderly Person and Young Adults by Using Facial Expression Analysis BIBAKFull-Text 616-627
      Miyuki Iwamoto; Noriaki Kuwahara; Kazunari Morimoto
    Japanese society is recently facing a problem of a super-aging population. The proportion of aged people is growing. The number of families with old couples and old singles is increasing. In some case s/he passes a day without speaking a word, and that causes a disuse of cognitive functions and a risk for dementia and/or depression. In the future, it is expected that young adults in the region will be involved with the elderly actively as a conversational partner. They focused on reminiscence technique which is effective to control dementia in order to reduce the mental burden of the partner young adult. We have already examined the difference of the mental burden and the quality of communication between the elderly and young adults when they use any photographs as content for communication support. As a result, depending on the category of the photo as a content for conversation support we are sure that there is tension in conversation. So, we went to build a conversation support system for the elderly and young adults to provide content according to the circumstances of the conversation to allow the conversation to go smoothly without feeling a sense of tension and discomfort. In previous studies, the frustration and discomfort was determined by using wearable devices (such as for heart or brain wave). However, in order to construct a system, it is necessary to use a non-contact device that can easily measure the frustration and discomfort. We measure the dissatisfaction, discomfort during a conversation using the expression analysis sensor. Therefore, in this study, it is an object of comparison and evaluation of the data obtained by measuring the dissatisfaction, discomfort in wearable devices (heart-EEG) and non-contact devices (expression analysis).
    Keywords: Elderly; Reminiscence videos; Dementia; Conversation
    The Turkish Central Doctor Rendezvous System Under Spotlight: A User Study with Turkish Senior Users BIBAKFull-Text 628-637
      Edibe Betül Karbay; Kerem Rizvanoglu
    The Central Doctor Rendezvous System (MHRS), which is one of the platforms within "Health in Transformation Project" to provide efficient health services, is promulgated by Turkish Republic Ministry of Health. The aim of this multi-method qualitative user study is to test the usability of MHRS web site with senior users. The sample includes 10 senior users. The test procedure is based on three steps: The semi-structured pre-test interview, the task observation phase and a debriefing post-test interview. The participants are asked to execute the pre-selected tasks through think-aloud protocol and the audio/mouse tracks are recorded during the navigation. The findings support the notion that the system comprises fatal problems not only for senior users who -- due to relevant literature -- already fight an uphill battle when interacting with any web environment, but also for a regular citizen who tries to find healthcare support.
    Keywords: Usability; Healthcare; Senior users; User experience
    Evaluation of Users Acceptance of a Digital Medicine Fact Sheet: Findings from a Focus Group BIBAKFull-Text 638-647
      Amélia Lageiro; Catarina Lisboa; Emília Duarte
    Most medicine fact sheets are printed in small type and have information hierarchy and layout issues. In Europe, these sheets are individual bulletins that are put inside the packages. Users frequently report difficulties in reading the material, finding the required information and understanding the technical jargon, and/or have lost the sheet. The purpose of this study was to assess the participants' needs and major difficulties in using a medicine paper fact sheet, as well as their acceptance of a digital solution. Two focus groups sessions were conducted on a sample of 15 participants, divided into three groups (young adults, middle-aged adults, young-older adults). Differences among groups were found for difficulties with the paper version and the expectations regarding the digital version. Findings suggest that digital fact sheet may serve as a positive solution, but is mostly seen by the participants as a complement of the paper version.
    Keywords: Medication; Fact sheet; Focus group; Information design; Interaction design

    Designing for the Healthcare Professional's Experience

    An Internet of Things Application with an Accessible Interface for Remote Monitoring Patients BIBAKFull-Text 651-661
      Chrystinne Oliveira Fernandes; Carlos José Pereira de Lucena
    E-health area is a research field whose exploration can bring numerous benefits to society. In this paper, we present results from a case study performed in a healthcare environment supported by an Internet of Things (IoT) solution to automate techniques commonly used in patients' treatment and data collection processes. This solution comprises hardware prototypes including sensors, micro-controllers and software agents that work together to make hospital environments more proactive. In addition, the proposed solution provides remote storage of patient data in cloud-based platforms, allowing for any authorized person, including external professionals to work collaboratively with the local team. A web system enables real-time visualization of patient's record as graphical charts through an intuitive interface. Software agents constantly monitor collected data to detect anomalies in patients' health status and send alerts to health professionals when they occur. This work also aims to enable remote patient monitoring to increase proactivity and save resources.
    Keywords: Healthcare; Medical systems; Internet of things; Multi-agent systems; E-health; Sensors; Monitoring; Accessibility
    Three-Dimensional Models and Simulation Tools Enabling Interaction and Immersion in Medical Education BIBAKFull-Text 662-671
      Soeli T. Fiorini; Leonardo Frajhof; Bruno Alvares de Azevedo; Jorge R. Lopes dos Santos; Heron Werner; Alberto Raposo; Carlos José Pereira de Lucena
    The article proposes the creation of a library of clinical cases generated from images of minimally invasive procedures, which will enable students to experience immersive way of performing procedures enabling the implementation of a Biodesign Lab in Medicine, which will bring real cases (initially in the domain of obstetrics and cardiology) as a premise, to the virtual world, hands-on learning and experimentation of advanced technologies based on a multidisciplinary and active participation of physicians and computing engineers, experiencing and sharing experiences.
    Keywords: Virtual reality; 3D modeling; Visual simulation; Minimally invasive surgery; Noninvasive diagnostic methods
    MedData: A Mobile Application Designed for Medical Teams to Monitor Clinical Evolution of Inpatient in ICU Context BIBAKFull-Text 672-681
      Carlos Alberto Pereira de Lucena; Cláudia Renata Mont'Alvão; Bruno Alvares de Azevedo
    Intensive Care Units inside hospitals are usually managed by different teams of physicians. Each team is in charge of a specific number of patients and are composed by physicians that cover different specialties. The information gathered by the physicians regarding each patient is crucial to their treatment and is also very valuable for the rest of their team. In the reality of the majority of the Brazilian hospitals, this type of information is recorded in paper notes and later archived in hospital records. In order to share this information with the rest of the medical team, physicians nowadays regularly create their own digital files and saves them in cloud based servers such as Drop Box or Google drive in order to give access of the data with their peers. Aiming to solve this problem, research teams from PUC-Rio university developed a mobile application named MedData. This app is currently being developed and tested, as described in this paper.
    Keywords: Healthcare; Design; HCI; Mobile; E-health; Application
    A Usability Study of a Gesture Recognition System Applied During the Surgical Procedures BIBAKFull-Text 682-692
      Antonio Opromolla; Valentina Volpi; Andrea Ingrosso; Stefano Fabri; Claudia Rapuano; Delia Passalacqua; Carlo Maria Medaglia
    Within an operating room, surgeons need to interact with a large amount of patient's medical information and data. In order to avoid misunderstandings among the staff and protecting the patient safety, the medical staff may use a touchless interaction system that allows the surgeons to directly interact with digital devices that visualize digital images. The RISO project aims to create a gesture recognition system for the visualization and manipulation of medical images, useful for the surgeons even during the surgical procedures. In this paper we show the main findings from a usability study carried out with the aim to evaluate, among others, the learnability of the system and the memorability of the gestures employed for the interaction.
    Keywords: Touchless interaction; Gesture recognition; Usability; Surgery; Operating room
    A Novel User-Specific Wearable Controller for Surgical Robots BIBAFull-Text 693-701
      Carmen C. Y. Poon; Esther Y. Y. Leung; Ka Chun Lau; Billy H. K. Leung; Yali L. Zheng; Philip W. Y. Chiu; Yeung Yam
    Wearable sensors have emerged as an active field of research in human-computer interaction. This study explores the use of wearable sensors to detect human motion for precise control of a two-arm surgical robot designed for gripping and dissecting tissues. The wearable sensory sheath was designed with flexible e-textile bipolar electrodes to collect forearm electromyogram (EMG) and inertial measurement units (IMU) to capture arm motions of the user. Four pairs of bipolar electrodes were used to collect EMG from the forearm muscles and two IMU for detecting rotation and translation of each arm of the subject. Features were extracted from the EMG and linear discriminant analysis was used as the decoding method to classify the signals of the muscles. A calibration procedure was setup in the beginning for calibrating the IMU sensors to familiarize the user with the working space environment and the mapped-motions of the robot arms. A training session was then conducted for each user to control wrist flexion, wrist extension, hand opening and hand closure of the robot arms. Six users were asked to perform random arm and hand movements to ensure satisfactory mapping of the movements of the surgical robot. To evaluate the system, two tasks which were important in controlling surgical robots were designed: (1) using the dissector to mark dots along a straight line and (2) lifting a weight from one location to another. The results of this study found that the performance of different users in operating the motion controller and the wearable sensory sheath were similar in accuracy. Most users completed the same task in a shorter time with a standard motion controller than the wearable sensory sheath. The results show that most users adapt to a standard motion controller faster than the wearable sensors although the latter can be calibrated individually and is a user-specific approach for the control of robot.