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DUXU Tables of Contents: 11-111-213-113-213-313-414-114-214-314-415-115-215-3

DUXU 2014: Third International Conference on Design, User Experience, and Usability, Part IV: User Experience Design Practice

Fullname:DUXU 2014: Third International Conference on Design, User Experience, and Usability, Part IV: User Experience Design Practice
Note:Volume 11 of HCI International 2014
Editors:Aaron Marcus
Location:Heraklion, Crete, Greece
Dates:2014-Jun-22 to 2014-Jun-27
Volume:4
Publisher:Springer International Publishing
Series:Lecture Notes in Computer Science 8520
Standard No:DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-07638-6 hcibib: DUXU14-4; ISBN: 978-3-319-07637-9 (print), 978-3-319-07638-6 (online)
Papers:45
Pages:488
Links:Online Proceedings | Conference Website
  1. DUXU 2014-06-22 Volume 4
    1. DUXU in the Enterprise
    2. Design for Diverse Target Users
    3. Emotional and Persuasion Design
    4. User Experience Case Studies

DUXU 2014-06-22 Volume 4

DUXU in the Enterprise

Methodological Framework for Control Centres Evaluation and Optimization BIBAKFull-Text 3-11
  Ana Almeida; Francisco Rebelo; Paulo Noriega
Workers in control centers often pay attention to a large amount of information from several sources and must be able to identify, at all times, the system state to, in an emergency, take correct decisions. In this context, this article aims to present a preliminary framework for the development of a virtual reality simulator for the study of control centres in order to prevent Human errors occurrence. It will also be presented an example of the framework use to study the excessive number of alarms in a railway control centres. The paper discuss the next steps of this work, the evaluation of it sensitivity and the usability characteristics of the VR simulator inside to our framework.
Keywords: framework; virtual reality; control centre; simulator
A UX Maturity Model: Effective Introduction of UX into Organizations BIBAKFull-Text 12-22
  Lorraine Chapman; Scott Plewes
Getting products out the door with a fantastic user experience (UX) is becoming increasingly more important in all aspects of the business world. Large companies have raised the bar in consumer products in terms of UX design, which has leaked into non-consumer organizations and contexts. The same people, who are also consumers, are now going to work with equally high expectations in their enterprise applications or even using their "consumer" product at work. Naturally, organizations that create products have responded by hiring consultants or professional UX designers. Yet, despite having the right skills, organizations are not necessarily getting the results they want. Achieving great UX design is not just a function or talent of individuals, it is an organizational characteristic. Understanding the organization's "maturity" level is a necessary first step for improving the effective delivery of UX design and for enabling the organization to advance to the proverbial "next level."
Keywords: UX maturity; maturity models usability; user-centered design; user satisfaction
A Perception Oriented Approach for Usable and Secure Interface Development BIBAKFull-Text 23-31
  Mehmet Göktürk; Ibrahim Ssaneci
Developers generally try to make their systems secure by adding Information Security measures and components to User Interfaces. While applying these measures, usability of interfaces may decrease seriously. Developing secure and usable user interfaces became a necessity due to the fact that security and usability are both indispensable for users. To develop secure and usable interfaces, first, users' perception of information security is analyzed. In this study, An Enhanced Users' Perception of Information Security Model (EUPoIM) and Perception Oriented Usable & Secure Interface Development Model (POSUIDM) are proposed to empower developers in developing both secure and usable user interfaces.
Keywords: Enterprise UX structure and process; security perception; usable security; perception oriented approach
Activities to Improve System Integration and Service Quality and Add Additional Values -- Reducing the Cost in Applying Human-Centered-Design Process BIBAKFull-Text 32-38
  Rieko Hamachi; Ichiro Tsukida; Hisashi Noda
NEC Soft has organized a team of Human-Centered-Design (HCD) specialists who have been engaging in activities to apply the HCD process to system integration (SI) and service projects for improving usability since 2007. HCD is an effective method for improving usability in SI and services. However, many engineers do not focus on improve usability because of the difficulty measuring the effectiveness of its benefits, unlike quality control actions such as eliminating bugs. In this paper, we will propose a method for applying the HCD process for minimal cost to convince engineers of the quantitative effects of using the HCD process for improving usability.
Keywords: HCD; cost benefit; system integration; small start; reducing HCD cost
ISO 9241-210 and Culture? -- The Impact of Culture on the Standard Usability Engineering Process BIBAKFull-Text 39-48
  Rüdiger Heimgärtner
In this paper, some ideas are presented regarding the question of whether standards can be valid internationally, i.e. worldwide and independent of the different cultures in the world, and how this question can be tackled. Exemplified by the standard usability engineering process in ISO 9241-210, the impact of culture on the main steps in the usability engineering process is analyzed. The output of the process is influenced by the process. If the process of usability engineering is culturally influenced and different for different cultures, the output of the usability engineering process, i.e. the user interface of the product, is also culturally influenced and different. Furthermore, the results are possibly not those as expected by the desired target culture. The presented ideas represent a first step towards deeper research in this area.
Keywords: User-Centered Design; ISO 9241-210; Culture; HCI; Approach; Process; Structure; Intercultural; Intercultural User Interface Design; Standard; Usability Engineering; Intercultural Usability Engineering
Design, Deployment and Evaluation of a Social Tool for Developing Effective Working Relationships in Large Organizations BIBAKFull-Text 49-60
  Athanasios Karapantelakis; Yonghui Guo
In an attempt to raise public awareness and promote their objectives, organizations increasingly strive for social media presence. Similarly to using social media tools to communicate externally, organizations are starting to adopt such tools internally to promote information exchange. This is especially the case for large technology companies with a skilled workforce, where exchange of knowledge and ideas can help establish working relationships and eventually improve organizational performance. Past experience shows that successful adoption of social media tools differs between cases, and is closely related to organizational culture. In this paper, we present an application designed to arrange custom lunches between randomly-selected employees and argue that a study of the organizational culture and subsequent application of the findings of this study to the design of the application has contributed to it's success. We determine success by exposing the application to trial use and evaluating feedback from real users.
Keywords: social media; enterprise; organizational culture
Humanizing the Enterprise BIBAKFull-Text 61-70
  Janaki Kumar
To deliver best in class user experiences to business users, design practitioners need to consider not just the user interface of applications, but the end-to-end customer experience. The enterprise software industry is undergoing a transformation as users expect simple, easy-to-use experiences from their business software. However, to deliver on this expectation, enterprise software vendors face three primary hurdles: The complexity of their customer's information technology landscapes, Complexity of business processes in their customer's organizations, and Lack of design skills in customer's IT organizations. This paper describes these changing expectations and unique challenges in enterprise software user experience design. It outlines the user experience strategy that SAP, a leading enterprise software company, SAP, has developed to overcome these challenges, and deliver best in class user experiences to business users.
Keywords: User Experience; UX; Strategy; UX Management; UX Leadership; Customer Experience; Human Centered Design; Information Technology
Designing Financial Literacy and Saving Tools for the Unbanked and under-banked in Brazil BIBAKFull-Text 71-80
  Ananya Mukherjee; Catherine Winfield; Shan He; Federico Casalegno; Wilson Ruggiero
In this paper, we are interested in designing a novel approach to financial learning and saving for the unbanked and under-banked populations in emerging economies, more specifically in Brazil. Despite efforts by governments, non-profits and privately held banks, unbanked and under-banked populations remain prone to unfavorable financial habits and are ill equipped to utilize financial services. In proposing new modes of engagement with the topic of financial literacy and saving, we evaluate 1) social and behavioral aspects of financial lives of said populations 2) productive learning models 3) results from an ethnographic study, to finally demonstrate potential applications.
Keywords: Design for behavioral change; financial literacy; user experience design for financial products
Enabling Better User Experiences across Domains: Challenges and Opportunities Facing a Human Factors Professional BIBAKFull-Text 81-89
  Emrah Onal; Susan McDonald; Corey Morgan; Olga Onal
Human Factors is a multidisciplinary field studying the design of systems and equipment that fit the human physical and cognitive abilities. Human factors professionals are in a unique position to practice their trade within a variety of domains including government, industry, and military. Regardless of the domain, good user experience, as provided by a human factors practitioner, affords more effective human systems interaction. In this paper, we offer insights into the value of a good user experience and the consequences of not providing it; we discuss organizational and practical challenges that may lead to neglecting user experience; and finally, we offer ideas on how to bring human factors into projects and provide better user experience.
Keywords: user experience; human factors; domains; challenges; opportunities
Brands Analysis Using Informational Ergonomics Concepts: A Proposal BIBAKFull-Text 90-101
  João Carlos Riccó Plácido da Silva; Luis Carlos Paschoarelli; José Carlos Plácido da Silva
Currently, a lot of visual information present in all media is form vehemently, for example, in print media and interfaces used for publicity in conjunction with informational design. This visual information has great influence in the life of human beings, since the vision of these individuals is the most used sense. Studies on visual identity have not explored this issue in a satisfactory manner, favoring thus the subject of this small development projects in the area. It is noted the need for analyzes to enable implementation principles of project, making them accessible to the comprehension of most individuals. This study aimed to propose an evaluation of visual identities, which were analyzed by means of visual concepts of usability, design methodologies and Gestalt. We contacted design firms specialized in visual identity projects, places where interviews were conducted to collect the brands allowed for analysis. The results point to a frequent demand for the employment of visual usability principles, design methodologies and Gestalt design in visual identities.
Keywords: Ergonomic; Graphic Design; Guidelines; Visual Identities

Design for Diverse Target Users

The Design and Development of Empathetic Serious Games for Dyslexia: BCI Arabic Phonological Processing Training Systems BIBAKFull-Text 105-112
  Arwa Al-Rubaian; Lama Alssum; Rawan Alharbi; Wafa Alrajhi; Haifa Aldayel; Nora Alangari; Hadeel Al-Negheimish; Aljohara Alfayez; Sara Alwaalan; Rania Aljindan; Ashwag Alshathri; Dania Alomar; Ghada Alhudhud; Areej Al-Wabil
In this paper, we describe the User Interface (UI) design issues for serious games aimed at developing phonological processing skills of people with specific learning difficulties such as dyslexia. These games are designed with Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCI) which take the compelling and creative aspects of traditional computer games designed for Arabic interfaces and apply them for cognitive skills' development purposes. Immersion and engagement in the games are sought with novel interaction methods; the interaction mode for these games involved mind-control coupled with cursor-based selection. We describe the conceptual design of these serious games and an overview of the BCI software development framework.
Keywords: Brain-Machine Interface; BMI; SpLD; Learning Difficulty; Dyslexia; Brain-Computer Interface; BCI; Usability
Considering People Living with Dementia When Designing Interfaces BIBAKFull-Text 113-123
  Claire Ancient; Alice Good
Dementia is an escalating problem which is estimated to affect 35.6 million people worldwide. In an environment which is becoming increasingly dependent on technology, the interaction needs of people living with dementia is being ignored by interface designers. This paper aims to highlight the factors which should be considered when designing interfaces to be "dementia-friendly". The article draws on the limited previous research to suggest that interfaces need to consider two main factors: personalisation (which includes both accessibility and usability) and user acceptance (including the experience produced by the interfaces and barriers to technology adoption).
Keywords: Dementia; Interface Design; Personalisation; User Acceptance
Ergonomic Evaluation of Manual Force Levels of the Elderly in the Handling of Products: An Analysis Using Virtual Reality BIBAKFull-Text 124-132
  Rafaela Q. Barros; Marcelo Márico Soares; Maria Goretti Fernandes
Data from the World Health Organization -- WHO [1] estimated that from 2000 to 2050, there will be a threefold increase in the population over 60-year-old population, which will rise to nearly 2 billion. It is important to designer understand the aging process and its peculiarities, such as those issues that affect cognitive issues and physical skills, thus enabling the understanding of products targeted on elderly people. The Virtual Reality via using haptic gloves to simulate everyday activities (EDAs) in a virtual environment. Thus, it is intended that this technology will enable the study of the measurement of forces applied in performing tasks. Data on measuring the levels of manual strength in the virtual environment were not found in the literature. Based on the data obtained in this review of the literature, the intention is to simulate elderly people's manual activities with a view to quantifying levels of force.
Keywords: Virtual Reality; Manual strength and ergonomics
Accessibility of Mobile Platforms BIBAKFull-Text 133-140
  Alireza Darvishy
This paper compares accessibility features of two popular platforms from a user perspective. The comparison is based on accessibility features for different kinds of disabilities such as vision, hearing or physically challenged users. A section on accessibility in mobile applications follows. According to a survey [1], the use of mobile platforms by people with disabilities is dramatically increasing. New accessibility features are introduced for each release of these platforms which makes them an affordable assistive technology.
Keywords: Accessibility; mobile devices; screen-readers; people with disabilities; assistive technologies; accessible apps
TAC-ACCESS -- Technologies to Support Communication from Interfaces Accessible and Multimodal for People with Disabilities and Diversity: Context-Centered Design of Usage BIBAKFull-Text 141-151
  Cristiani de Oliveira Dias; Liliana Maria Passerino; Carlos de Castro Lozano; Enrique García Salcines
The school and the family can use technological resources to provide the individual with disabilities the opportunity to obtain a good quality of life, autonomy and cognitive development. It is known that the process of inclusion of this subject in the school may not be enough to meet your needs. In both activities both in school and family, using digital services to more intensive monitoring may be a proposal to include homeschooling (Passerino, de Castro, 2013). It was thought therefore, a computing platform that assists subjects, family and school to participate in these scenarios, integrating them. A partnership between one University in Brazil and one University in Spain allow this integration. The research plans to join the Alternative Communication (AC) named SCALA and an operating system and platform in the cloud whose main goal is to give conditions for development to people who are dependent (elderly, disabled) Siesta Cloud software. This integration has aimed at creating opportunities for these people to obtain autonomy, communicative interaction and improvement in their quality of life. For this platform reach the largest number of people, it was necessary to choose the method of usability and we chose for Context-Centered Design of Usage and in this article the process that led to this choice are shown.
Keywords: Usability; Alternative Communication; Context-Centered Design of Usage
Designing with the User in Mind a Cognitive Category Based Design Methodology BIBAKFull-Text 152-163
  Joseph Kramer; Sunil Noronha
To design products and experiences that are highly intuitive and resonate with their target users the designer must have an accurate understanding of those users 'mental models'. New research in cognitive science, in particular in the area of cognitive category theory, provides clues how to better elicit and apply mental models in design. The resultant outcome is guaranteed to be more natural and understandable to its users. In this paper we will briefly review the cognitive science research and describe our resultant empirically grounded concept and definition of a 'mental model'. We then explain how we use the mental model and related design principles to build intuitive designs.
Keywords: Mental model; psychology; cognitive category; design method
The Impact of Human Likeness on the Older Adults' Perceptions and Preferences of Humanoid Robot Appearance BIBAKFull-Text 164-172
  Kerem Rizvanoglu; Özgürol Öztürk; Öner Adiyaman
There's a growing interest towards human-robot interaction (HRI) as an area of research within human-computer interaction (HCI). Although nowadays robotics studies provide enough knowledge on social robots in major settings, there are still a limited number of studies that investigate expectations, attitudes and behaviors towards humanoid robots in the area of HRI. This study aims to investigate the older adults' perceptions and preferences of a humanoid robot appearance, which is planned to assist in healthcare activities. The preferences and the perceptions of a sample of 6 older adults are assessed through semi-structured in-depth interviews. By adopting a user-centered design process through the execution of techniques such as persona and user journeys, two different appearances are designed for the assessment: A cartoon-like, simplistic face with no specific gender and a more realistic feminine illustrative face. Findings support the notion that perceptions evoked in the users would depend on the human likeness of the robot's face. However, gender stereotypes also had impact on the perception and preference of the humanoid faces. A majority of older adults preferred a female human appearance for the robot by referring both to the human likeness and to the task of healthcare. The participants were able to understand the basic facial gestures in both appearances. However, they could not achieve to interpret the intensity of emotions in the expressions. In this context, when compared, simple cartoon-like faces seemed more affective to support detailed understanding of the expressions. Besides, the findings revealed that experience with technology and culture-specific aspects could also affect the perception of robot technology.
Keywords: Humanoid; Robot; Appearance; Perception; Older Adults
Aging and New Technologies: Challenges and Perspectives BIBAKFull-Text 173-184
  Cláudia Stamato; Manuela Quaresma; Cláudia Renata Mont'Alvão
This article discusses the results of an online questionnaire distributed to 393 participants residing in Brazil. The tool is an important part of the doctoral thesis of Design whose goal is to understand how older people socialize these days, when communication occurs much more virtually than in person. The world advocates that the elderly find it difficult to use technology and have little interest in using it. The relationship with technology can set about their inclusion or exclusion.
Keywords: Socialization; Elderly; Questionnaire; Active Aging; Social Relationship
A Challenging Design Case Study for Interactive Media Design Education: Interactive Media for Individuals with Autism BIBAKFull-Text 185-196
  Asim Evren Yantaç; Simge Esin Orhun; Ayça Ünlüer Çimen
Since 1999, research for creativity triggering education solutions for interactive media design (IMD) undergraduate level education in Yildiz Technical University leaded to a variety of rule breaking exercises. Among many approaches, the method of designing for disabling environment, in which the students design for the users with one or more of their senses disabled, brought the challenge of working on developing interactive solutions for the individuals with autism spectrum conditions (ASC). With the aim of making their life easier, the design students were urged to find innovative yet functional interaction solutions for this focused user group, whose communicational disability activate due to the deficiencies in their senses and/or cognition. Between 2011 and 2012, this project brief supported by participatory design method motivated 26 students highly to develop design works to reflect the perfect fit of interaction design to this challenging framework involving the defective social communication cases of autism.
Keywords: Autism; Interaction; Design Education; Innovation; Affordance

Emotional and Persuasion Design

Further Investigation of the Effects of Font Styles on Perceived Visual Aesthetics of Website Interface Design BIBAKFull-Text 199-207
  Ahamed Altaboli
Findings of an earlier study indicated that a webpage using the "Times New Roman" font type was perceived as having better visual aesthetics than a webpage using the "Calibri" font type. The current study is a continuation of this research, the purpose of the study is to investigate how using a mixture of the two font types in the same webpage would affect perception of visual aesthetics. Four webpage designs were compared in the current study; the two designs used in the earlier study and another two designs containing a mixture of both fonts. Results showed that mixing the two font types on the same page didn't improve perception of visual aesthetics. Still, the webpage design with only the Times New Roman font type perceived as having a better visual aesthetics than all the other three designs.
Keywords: font style; font type; perceived visual aesthetics; website interface design
You Can Interact with Your TV and You May Like It an Investigation on Persuasive Aspects for an iDTV Application BIBAKFull-Text 208-219
  Samuel B. Buchdid; Roberto Pereira; M. Cecília C. Baranauskas
Interactive Digital TV (iDTV) is a technology that has many challenges that surround it and that may discourage the passive viewers to interact with TV. To face the challenging scenario of designing for iDTV, we draw on the Social Aware Computing (SAC) approach to design, looking at the problem and proposing solutions on various abstraction levels (informal, formal and technical) according to the viewpoint of different stakeholders, including prospective end users. This paper presents a motivational analysis conducted through Analytical and Empirical evaluations and Questionnaires, to understand whether and how an iDTV application designed through the SAC motivates users to interact with it. As results, our analysis pointed out application features that are likely to motivate users to interact, and features that emerged during the design process and were reflected on the application prototype. Moreover, we discuss whether and how the SAC design process may support iDTV applications that make sense to users and motivate them to interact.
Keywords: Interactive Digital TV; Persuasive Design; HCI; Socially Aware Computing; Organizational Semiotics; Participatory Design; Design Patterns
Mood Boards as a Universal Tool for Investigating Emotional Experience BIBAKFull-Text 220-231
  Huang-Ming Chang; Marta Díaz; Andreu Catalá; Wei Chen; Matthias Rauterberg
Emotion is an essential part of user experience. While researchers are striving for new research tools for evaluate emotional experiences in design, designers have been using experience-based tools for studying emotions in practice, such as mood boards. Mood boards were developed for communicating emotional qualities between designers and clients, but have not yet been considered as an evaluation tool for investigating emotional experience. In this study we examined whether design students and non-design students have similar criteria in evaluating these mood boards. The results showed that the inter-rater reliability among all participants were considerably high, which suggested that mood boards are potential to be used as an evaluation tool for research on emotion.
Keywords: mood boards; emotion; evaluation tool; user experience
Cool in Business: Developing a Data-Based Instrument Measuring "Cool" BIBAKFull-Text 232-243
  Carol Farnsworth; Karen Holtzblatt; Theo Held; Shantanu Pai
Cool products deliver a leap of value -- so much so that people exclaim they are "cool". Cool products are transformative but cool can fade with time as people get used to them. Compared to other measures, the cool measures are assumed to be more subjective and qualitative in nature. Cool is being redefined all the time; what is cool today will probably not be cool in a few years. In extensive research activities, we identified "cool concepts" that are assumed to be quite independent from time and fashions. Impact on life is a strong element of coolness. For example, after many years the DVR continues to hold its position as a transformative, cool product that has had widespread positive impact and benefits on life. The seven constructs of cool, the Cool Concepts, and the 40 measures of coolness derived from them are grounded in data, with almost 900 consumers and over 2000 business professional participants in various research activities, conducted over 3 years.
Keywords: Cool; Field Research; Consumer Research; Measurement; Affinity Diagrams
From Inexperienced Users to Co-creators: An Exploration of a Generative Method BIBAKFull-Text 244-252
  Chrysoula Gatsou
One of the main challenges for improving user experience in systems and artifacts lies in how designers, development managers and IT professionals can cultivate empathy in users. The present study offers an empirical example of how inexperienced users can be involved in the early stages of design process. It examines the findings from a generative technique which employs inexperienced users as co-creators in collaboration with the designer, in a collage session during the early design stages of a mobile tablet application centred on the topic of "first aid". The findings of this study identify five points for eliciting users' needs. Both designers and practitioners can benefit from such knowledge.
Keywords: user experience; generative method; co-design; empathic design; inexperienced user
From Wearables to Soft-Wear: Developing Soft User Interfaces by Seamlessly Integrating Interactive Technology into Fashionable Apparel BIBAKFull-Text 253-260
  Daniel Gilgen; T. Raune Frankjaer
The development of electronic features for use in apparel has advanced rapidly in recent years, and applications in athletic wear have been particularly successful. However, 'Smart Fashion' has not yet been integrated into everyday garments. In this paper we propose a new approach to the design of interfaces in Smart Fashion, which we refer to as the Soft User Interface (SUI). The ways in which e-textiles physically convey information differs greatly from traditional ways in that information is communicated via graphical user interfaces on computers, smartphones or on WearComp devices. As a result of our research, we advocate the use of iconic and indexical signs for Smart Fashion as these are widely accessible and understood. As an extension to this new interface paradigm, we expect that the harvesting of biometric data, including bodily gestures, will significantly extend the possibilities of SUIs.
Keywords: Smart Fashion; applied semantics; gestural input; embedded electronics; physical computing; wearable networks; hybrid space; interactive technology; Soft User Interface; SUI
Beyond Wearables: Experiences and Trends in Design of Portable Medical Devices BIBAKFull-Text 261-272
  Rafael Gomez; Anna Harrison
The use of Portable Medical Devices (PMDs) has become increasingly widespread over the last few years. A combination of factors; including advances in technology, the pressure to reduce public health costs and the desire to make health solutions accessible to a wider patient base are contributing to the growth in the PMD market. Design has a clear role to play in the current and future context of the PMD landscape. In this paper, we identify emerging trends in the design of PMDs; including changes in the form, purpose and mode of use, and explore how these trends are likely to fundamentally impact the nature of healthcare and the patient experience from an experience design perspective. We conclude by identifying a research opportunity for design within the healthcare and PMD context.
Keywords: Portable Medical Device; Implantable Medical Devices; Mobile Health; Patient Experience; Experience Design
On Feelings of Comfort, Motivation and Joy that GUI and TUI Evoke BIBAKFull-Text 273-284
  Julián Esteban Gutiérrez Posada; Elaine C. S. Hayashi; M. Cecília C. Baranauskas
New ways to interact with technology are gaining ground over the familiar Graphical User Interfaces (GUI). The Tangible User Interfaces (TUI) are one example of this. However, while it may seem intuitive that such interfaces should evoke rather positive responses from users -- e.g. feelings associated with pleasure -- little has been studied in this sense. In this challenge of understanding the feelings that GUI and TUI have the potential to evoke, we present our findings from a research that involved more than a hundred people. The research question that guided our endeavors was: What are the relations between the feelings of joy, motivation and comfort when using TUI and GUI? We analyze the results and discuss some hypotheses to explain the behavior observed.
Keywords: Feeling; Comfort; Motivation; Joy; TUI; GUI; Kodu; Scratch
The Wearable Self: Braiding a Feminist Critique within a Somaesthetics Framework for Design BIBAKFull-Text 285-296
  Emily Ip; Wynnie (Wing Yi) Chung; Sunmin Lee; Thecla Schiphorst
This paper describes the exploratory design process of Wo.Defy, a bioresponsive wearable garment that integrates interaction design with feminist critique through an emphasis on intimacy, self-agency and self-reflection. Our research is based on a Somaesthetics framework addressing values of self-experience, poetics, materiality, and interaction semantics. Wo.Defy critically engages concepts of cultural history and identity to develop a richer understanding of design for the self. Our research design is informed by the historical precedent of the Self-Combing Sisters, a suffragette group in early 20th century Chinese society, who challenged the traditional Chinese status quo of gender roles and social conceptions of pre-arranged marriages through their chosen dress and styling of their hair. Wo.Defy contributes to the design discourse of wearable, embodied interaction by integrating cultural historical research into contemporary wearable design practice, braiding a feminist HCI agenda within a somaesthetics framework.
Keywords: Bioresponsive Wearable Technology; Somaesthetics; Feminist HCI; Embodied Interaction; Cultural Research; Breath interaction; Kinetic Response; Design for the Self; Materiality; Silk; Hair
Throwing a Smile: Using Smile Icons to Design Social Interfaces BIBAKFull-Text 297-307
  Kyoko Ito; Shumpei Hanibuchi; Shogo Nishida
A social interface is defined as that which allows for the visualization of potential social relationships between a human and an object, or between humans. In this study, we focus on facial expression, because it is an important source of non-verbal information. We aim to apply this study in designing a social interface. More specifically, we are concerned with the functions of smile. We have designed a "smile icon" as a way of carrying the visual information that the sender is smiling, and developed an experimental system. We have conducted an experiment of conversation between two persons, using TalkWithSmile. The results of the experiment show that the use of smile icons leads participants in a conversation to form the impression that the conversation is more active than otherwise. In the near future, we will expect more experimental trials and investigate the boundary between the condition in which the smile icon facilitates a conversation and the condition in which it does not.
Keywords: Smile icon; social interface; interface design; conversation; tabletop
User Experience Milestones BIBAKFull-Text 308-318
  Simon Kremer; Ioanna Michailidou; Constantin von Saucken; Udo Lindemann
The approach of User Experience (UX) can help to create a unique selling proposition in mature markets like the automobile industry by meeting motives of users and evoking positive emotions. Yet, the User Experience goal is not continuously implemented in existing product development processes. In this paper we discuss the question: How can a continuous focus on the user's experience with a new product and the demands of a heterogeneous and mostly technical development process be brought together. We suggest six continuous, consistent, evolutionary UX milestones for the development of successful experience products. These milestones embody the intended UX, accompany the developers and evolve from a rough UX orientation, to more and more detailed user stories, to physical prototypes, the final product and its UX evaluation. By defining six UX milestones as compulsory checkpoints we facilitate the anchorage of UX aspects in established development processes.
Keywords: Management of DUXU processes; Product development processes Emotional design; Storytelling; UX methods and tools
Not So Fun? The Challenges of Applying Gamification to Smartphone Measurement BIBAKFull-Text 319-327
  Michael W. Link; Jennie Lai; Kelly Bristol
Gamification and engagement techniques (points, status, virtual badges, and social-sharing) are applied to a mobile and on-line data collection tool to determine if these approaches can improve respondent compliance with a requested task: recording their television viewing over the course of several weeks by increasing their engagement with the app. In a series of tests, we demonstrate that virtual badges appear to be a salient and positively viewed technique for app engagement among teens and younger adults. However, not all of these approaches have positive impact especially with older adults and, in the end, do not improve compliance with the primary task.
Keywords: smartphones; mobile apps; gamification; motivation; user engagement
The Power of Negative Feedback from an Artificial Agent to Promote Energy Saving Behavior BIBAKFull-Text 328-338
  Cees Midden; Jaap Ham
In this paper we analyze the role of negative feedback as provided by artificial agents. We examine the hypothesis that negative feedback offers substantial potential to enhance persuasive interventions aimed to change behavior. This hypothesis is tested based on a review of several studies using the same experimental paradigm that includes a virtual washing machine, in which users have to make choices how to program the washing machine. The studies show how the provision of positive and negative feedback influences these choices under various experimental conditions. Results show that negative feedback can be more effective than positive feedback, also independent of the presence of positive feedback. Negative feedback is in particular effective when the feedback is social instead of factual. Furthermore, the analysis suggests that the effect of negative feedback is enhanced under conditions of task similarity, which stimulate using the feedback for performance improvement. Finally, we show that negative feedback is superior to positive feedback under multiple goals conditions.
Keywords: Persuasive technology; artificial social agents; social evaluation; sustainability
Emotion, Affectivity and Usability in Interface Design BIBAKFull-Text 339-346
  Renato Nascimento; Carlos Dias Limeira; André Luís Santos de Pinho; José Guilherme Santa Rosa
The intent of this paper is to provide an overview of the influence of emotion, affection and feelings during the contact between users and interfaces. Definitions of each of the aspects and relations established between them, and perceived usability and user satisfaction are presented. It was concluded that the process of interface design should include analyzes of the context, objectives and specific features and requirements.
Keywords: emotion; affectivity; usability; interface design
New Methods for Measuring Emotional Engagement BIBAKFull-Text 347-357
  Andrew Schall
Truly understanding the feelings of a user has always been a dream of user experience (UX) researchers. Current methods for understanding emotional response has been limited to self-reporting from study participants or qualitative methods such as surveys or focus groups. New biometric and neurometric devices allow us to collect behavioral data in ways that were not previously practical for user researchers. This paper will provide an overview of these new technologies and how they can be applied to the study of emotional responses during user experience evaluation.
Keywords: Emotion research; emotional design; user experience; physiological measurements; biometric; neurometric; EEG; eye tracking; GSR; facial response analysis
Does Social User Experience Improve Motivation for Runners? BIBAKFull-Text 358-369
  Frank Spillers; Stavros Asimakopoulos
In efforts to enhance the user experience (UX), mobile fitness applications are beginning to incorporate gameplay mechanics and social elements in their design. Unlike the more traditional health applications, m-health applications can provide a richer social user experience that caters to mobile usage contexts, such as fitness. In this paper we discuss to what extent gamification and social elements improve user motivation and lead to short-term positive behavior change. We examine the efficacy of social features in three different m-health running applications with varying levels of social and gamification functionality, each supporting the core task of tracking a user's running activity. Data was collected over a week from 15 mobile app users and runners based in the USA with an online diary study followed by short interviews. The analysis of the diary entries indicates that apps can provide motivation to maintain or increase physical activity, but that the usability, design and feature richness of social and gamification elements negatively impacted user adoption. Moreover, the adoption of social elements, was impacted by interface usability, integration with new music services like Spotify, accuracy of the GPS and so on. The results show that intrinsic motivation and individual goals can enhance short-term positive behavior change, an important dimension for the design of m-health apps. In addition, many users were comfortable with social UX elements, but social elements in and of themselves did not contribute to motivation in running due to the design and usability of each apps social UX strategy. The results from this study will be useful for designers of m-health apps in formulating appropriate design strategies for incorporating social and game mechanics into mobile UX strategy.
Keywords: Social user experience; Ramification; Mobile usability; Intrinsic motivation; Behavior change; mHealth
Motive-Oriented Design BIBAKFull-Text 370-377
  Constantin von Saucken; Ioanna Michailidou; Simon Kremer; Udo Lindemann
Modern car interiors are often overloaded and not self-explanatory. We supported running development projects within car industry and observed the following reasons: Similar functions are developed in different departments without a sufficient coordination and integration into the car. Functions are arranged according to technologies. Engineers have trouble with putting themselves in a user's position. Therefore, we present a motive-oriented approach: It supports engineers in taking the user's perspective by tools for investigating users' motives, clustering them in use scenarios, matching them with functions, illustrating them in an understandable way and running real-user tests.
Keywords: Emotional design and persuasion design; management of DUXU processes; mental model design; metaphor design; usability methods and tools

User Experience Case Studies

A Validation Study of a Visual Analytics Tool with End Users BIBAKFull-Text 381-391
  Heloisa Candello; Victor Fernandes Cavalcante; Alan Braz; Rogério Abreu De Paula
In this paper we describe an user evaluation that aimed to understand how a group of endusers interpret a visual analytics tool in the context of service delivery. It is common for service factories to have an organization devoted to handle incidents. Many incident management systems have strict controls on how fast incidents should be handled, often subjected to penalties when targets are not met. We call Time-Bounded Incident Management (TBIM) those systems, which require clearly defined incident resolution times. In our project, research scientists proposed a method and a visual representation named Workload Profile Chart (WPC) that had as primary goal to understand the area of incident management in a service delivery department. The objective of this visual representation is to help characterizing the performance of TBIM systems and diagnosing major issues such as resource and skill allocation problems, abnormal behavior, and incident characteristics. Researchers wanted to understand if end-users, the quality analysts (QAs), would comprehend the charts and would be able to use them to identify problems and propose effective improvement actions related to TBIM activities. The study was conducted with ten QAs of a service delivery department of a IT company based in Brazil. The data was analyzed using descriptive statistical and qualitative methods. As a result, participants were mainly guided by the axes titles and chart legends to interpret the visualizations, and not always understood what kind of data the chart was displaying. Those results served as insights of how QAs think when analyzing TBIM information in a service delivery department and what improvements in the visual representation tool may be proposed to facilitate their activity. At last we identified evidences of how to design better visual analytics tools based on participant's perceptions and interpretations of color differences and verbal information in chart labels and legend.
Keywords: visual analytics; service design; user evaluation
User Support System in the Complex Environment BIBAKFull-Text 392-402
  Hashim Iqbal Chunpir; Amgad Ali Badewi; Thomas Ludwig
e-Science infrastructures have changed the process of research. Researchers can now access distributed data around the globe with the help of e-infrastructures. This is particularly a very important development for the developing countries. User support services play an important role to provide researchers with the required information needs to accomplish their research goals with the help of e-infrastructures. However, the current user-support practices in e-infrastructures in the climate domain are being followed on intuitive basis, hence over-burdening infrastructure development staffs who partly act as human support agents. The main contribution of this paper is to present the environmental complexity with-in the contemporary user support practices of climate science e-infrastructure known as Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF). ESGF is a leading distributed peer-to-peer (P2P) data-grid system in Earth System Modelling (ESM) having around 25000 users distributed all over the world.
Keywords: e-Science; systems; research; user support; help desk; developing countries
Increasing Family Involvement in Elderly Care BIBAKFull-Text 403-411
  Jasper Jeurens; Koen van Turnhout; René Bakker
This paper describes the design and field trial of the Dynamic Collage, a system which aims support extended family members to take part in the care for an elderly person in a light way manner by sending photos to a digital frame in the elderly home. We evaluated the dynamic collage in a field trial of 4-6 weeks with two families, yielding positive results. Photo-sharing was seen as a valuable contribution by the elderly person and all family members, it provided narrative support for visitors of the elderly and it led to an increased awareness of caregiving behavior and increased cohesion in the family. The study shows there is an opportunity to include Awareness Systems and Persuasive Technology within a participation ecology, which could be beneficial for health care.
Keywords: Persuasive Technology; Awareness System; Health Care
User Experience of Video-on-Demand Applications for smart TVs: A Case Study BIBAKFull-Text 412-422
  Linda Miesler; Bettina Gehring; Frank Hannich; Adrian Wüthrich
The convergence of internet and TV and its consequences on TV producers as well as TV users has been a highly discussed topic over the past few years. With the rapid growth of high-speed broadband connections and the development of high-performance TVs, the foundation for the creation and proliferation of smarter TVs enabling the user with a more personalized viewing experience was laid. As a consequence, new business opportunities have opened up and new players have entered the market. Facing a rapidly changing environment with hardly any standards established yet, the consideration of customer satisfaction and user experience plays a major role. Especially in the entertainment industry, user experience is of high relevance and user-centered design an important precondition for service adoption. Therefore, the case study below investigated success factors and barriers which influence usage of a video-on-demand application for smart TVs. Based on a case study of a European video-on-demand service different usability evaluation methods had been applied and combined in order to evaluate and enhance platform performance.
Keywords: smart TV; Video-on-demand; User experience; Usability evaluation procedure; Closed loop
Usability Methodological Procedures Applied on an Institutional Site BIBAKFull-Text 423-433
  Lúcia Satiko Nomiso; Luis Carlos Paschoarelli
This study is based on the diverse usability methodological procedures, applied during 2008 and 2010, on an institutional site and brief review in 2013. Problems reported by potential users were analyzed and then applied in a redesign of the institutional site. After redesigning, more tests were performed in an attempt to improve the usability of site. In 2013, this institutional site was updated to a new version with reorganized structure and content. Our research presents the changes, the usability improvements applied as well as other advances improved the site significantly.
Keywords: Usability tests; Institutional site; CMS
Interactions around a Multi-touch Tabletop: A Rapid Ethnographic Study in a Museum BIBAKFull-Text 434-445
  Evelyn Patsoule
Interactive multi-touch tabletops are increasingly making their way into public spaces such as museums, galleries or visitor centres, aiming to support interactions between friends or families. An 'in-the-wild' rapid ethnography was carried out in a museum to explore the interactions between users of different age groups who gather around a multi-touch table and investigate whether the spatial factor affects their behavior. Observations and interviews focused on the factors that attract visitors' attention, the impressions after the first touch and the group interactions. Honey-pot effect, latency times and the tabletop's physical appearance were the main factors that influenced visitors' behavior. Another interesting finding highlighted the importance of sound in attracting visitors' attention. This study identifies implications in developing engaging and usable applications used in real-world settings and provides suggestions on how interactive installations may integrate into a particularly constrained physical context to support and enrich the overall user experience.
Keywords: Multi-touch table; in-the-wild; rapid ethnography; public space
Skill Specific Spoken Dialogues Based Personalized ATM Design to Maximize Effective Interaction for Visually Impaired Persona BIBAKFull-Text 446-457
  Muhammad Shafiq; Jin-Ghoo Choi; Muddesar Iqbal; Muhammad Faheem; Maqbool Ahmad; Imran Ashraf; Azeem Irshad
Making machines for visually impaired persons is very challenging because they do not receive any useful information through SIGHT. The perception of background activities can be a good supportive mechanism for visually impaired users. In this work we focus on ATMs and propose a new ATM design, i.e., skill specific spoken dialogues based ATM (3s ATM). The personalized ATM design fulfills the requirements of visually impaired people while provisioning services for normal users also. Our proposed ATM is designed to assimilate into conventional ATMs and enable the effective interaction of visually impaired users with the machine. We first analyze the conventional ATM system through heuristics index to simulate its standardized design. For peer evaluation, visually impaired participants carry out the task analysis for simulated systems, i.e., both conventional ATM and 3s ATM. We found that 3s ATM design achieves 47% higher learnablility and 76% better usability than conventional ATMs. Thus we can achieve the machine compliance by overlooking the barriers and needs of the visually impaired persons in design stage.
Keywords: Usability; task evaluation; heuristics index; HCI; 3s ATM
Consideration for Interpretation of Brain Activity Pattern during Car Driving Based on Human Movements BIBAKFull-Text 458-468
  Shunji Shimizu; Hiroaki Inoue; Hiroyuki Nara; Fumikazu Miwakeichi; Nobuhide Hirai; Senichiro Kikuchi; Eiju Watanabe; Satoshi Kato
The purpose in this research is to contribute to developing of assistive robot and related-apparatus. Recently, there is a pressing need to develop a new system which assists and acts for car driving and wheelchair for the elderly as the population grows older. In terms of developing a new system, it is thought that it is important to examine behaviors as well as spatial recognition. Therefore, experiments have been performed for an examination of human spatial perceptions, especially right and left recognition, during car driving using NIRS. In previous research, it has been documented that there were significant differences at dorsolateral prefrontal cortex at left hemisphere during virtual driving task and actual driving. In this paper, brain activity during car driving was measured and detailed analysis was performed by segmentalizing brain activity during car driving on the basis of subjects' motion. So, we report the relationship between brain activity and movement concerned with perception during driving in this paper.
Keywords: brain information processing during driving task; spatial cognitive task; determining direction; NIRS
Cross-Platform Product Usability and Large Screen User Experience: A Teleconference System U&E Research BIBAKFull-Text 469-479
  Yinting Zhang; Chuncheng Zhao; Gang Liu; Ting Han
In this paper, researchers focus on product usability and user experience on a teleconference system that was in development, aiming at using a effective method to focus on the whole user experience, looking for product defects and improving the product usability and experience (U&E) in the mid stage of the product development. The main method applied in this study are Users Performance, User Experience Map and CSUQ. The most important finding is that the large screen is the key experience when user interact with the large screen system.
Keywords: Teleconference system; User Experience; Product Usability; Large Screen Experience