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DAPI Tables of Contents: 131415

DAPI 2013: 1st International Conference on Distributed, Ambient, and Pervasive Interactions

Fullname:DAPI 2013: First International Conference on Distributed, Ambient, and Pervasive Interactions
Note:Volume 25 of HCI International 2013
Editors:Norbert Streitz; Constantine Stephanidis
Location:Las Vegas, Nevada
Dates:2013-Jul-21 to 2013-Jul-26
Publisher:Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Series:Lecture Notes in Computer Science 8028
Standard No:DOI: 10.1007/978-3-642-39351-8 hcibib: DAPI13; ISBN: 978-3-642-39350-1 (print), 978-3-642-39351-8 (online)
Papers:55
Pages:517
Links:Online Proceedings | Conference Webpage
  1. Natural Interaction
  2. Context-Awareness in Smart and Intelligent Environments
  3. Design and Evaluation of Smart and Intelligent Environments
  4. Smart Cities
  5. Multi-user, Group and Collaborative Interaction
  6. Smart Everyday Living and Working Environments

Natural Interaction

Comparative Evaluation among Diverse Interaction Techniques in Three Dimensional Environments BIBAKFull-Text 3-12
  Giannis Drossis; Dimitris Grammenos; Maria Bouhli; Ilia Adami; Constantine Stephanidis
This paper reports on the results of a user-based evaluation that was conducted on a 3D virtual environment that supports diverse interaction techniques. More specifically, the interaction techniques that were evaluated were touch, gestures (hands and legs) and the use of a smart object. The goal of the experiment was to assess the effectiveness of each interaction modes as a means for the user to complete common tasks within the application. A comparison is attempted in order to provide an insight to the suitability of each technique and direct future research in the area.
Keywords: multimodal interaction; 3D user interfaces; gestural interaction; usability evaluation; comparative evaluation
Understanding the Influence of Viewpoint and Image Geometry in Linear Perspective Paintings to Enhance Embodied Interaction BIBAKFull-Text 13-21
  Franziska Hannß; Rainer Groh
Museums are attracted by new technologies, for example tracking systems and multitouch displays. They try to include them into their concepts, to expand the access to the artifacts. The intention of this work appears out of the image geometry of a linear perspective painting. We assume that the position of the perspective painting on the wall should depend on the observer's viewpoint. To prove this hypothesis we undertook an experiment with 20 participants and four perspective paintings. We detected a relevant connection between observer and the image geometry of the painting. Accordingly the observer, the room in front of the painting and the image itself are related together. Therefor this relation of the parameters is part of the research field of embodied interaction.
Keywords: body; movement; embodied interaction; image geometry; perspective paintings; interactive environments
Long-Range Hand Gesture Interaction Based on Spatio-temporal Encoding BIBAFull-Text 22-31
  Jaewon Kim; Gyuchull Han; Ig-Jae Kim; Hyounggon Kim; Sang Chul Ahn
We present a novel hand gesture interaction method which has a long-range working space (1m~5m) overcoming conventional approaches' limitations in cost-performance dependency. Our camera-free interaction system is composed of a pair of lighting device and an instrumented glove with photosensor markers. The lighting devices spatiotemporally encode user's interaction space via binary infrared light signals and markers' 3D position at fingertips is tracked at high speed (250 Hz) and fair accuracy (5mm at 3m working distance). Each marker consisting of a photosensor array allows a wide sensing range and minimizes fingers' self-occlusion. Experiment results demonstrate various applications where hand gestures are recognized as input commands to interact with digital information mimicking natural human hand gestures toward real objects. Our system has strengths in accuracy, speed, low price, and robustness comparing with conventional long-range interaction techniques. Ambiguity-free nature in marker recognition and little cost-performance dependency are additional advantages of our method.
A Taxonomy-Based Approach towards NUI Interaction Design BIBAKFull-Text 32-41
  Florian Klompmaker; Volker Paelke; Holger Fischer
The rapid development in the domain of Natural User Interfaces (NUIs) and the proliferation of the hardware required to implement them places an increasing burden on interaction designers. Designers should be aware of research results relevant to their interaction problem but the increasing volume of NUI related research makes it difficult and thus hinders the development of usable real-world products. To address this problem, we have developed a decision-making tool that uses an interaction taxonomy in combination with definable application requirements. Using our tool, designers as well as HCI researchers can search for existing guidelines for a specific interaction problem fast and easily. In this paper we present the structure of the taxonomy, the decision-making process and tool as well as an evaluation and discussion of the overall approach.
Keywords: Interaction Design; Taxonomy; 3D User Interfaces; Tangible Interaction; Embodied Interaction; Geo-Visualization; Virtual Reality
Fusion of Color and Depth Video for Human Behavior Recognition in an Assistive Environment BIBAFull-Text 42-51
  Dimitrios I. Kosmopoulos; Paul Doliotis; Vassilis Athitsos; Ilias Maglogiannis
In this paper we investigate the effects of fusing feature streams extracted from color and depth videos, aiming to monitor the actions of people in an assistive environment. The output of fused time-series classifiers is used to model and extract actions. To this end we compare the Hidden Markov model classifier and fusion methods like early, late or state fusion. Our experiments employ a public dataset, which was acquired indoors.
Subtle, Natural and Socially Acceptable Interaction Techniques for Ringterfaces -- Finger-Ring Shaped User Interfaces BIBAKFull-Text 52-61
  Mikko J. Rissanen; Samantha Vu; Owen Noel Newton Fernando; Natalie Pang; Schubert Foo
This study analyzes interaction techniques in previously proposed 16 user interface concepts that utilize the form factor of a finger-ring, i.e. "ringterfaces". We categorized the ringterfaces according to their interaction capabilities and critically examined how socially acceptable, subtle and natural they are. Through this analysis we show which kind of ringterfaces are likely to become general-purpose user interfaces and what factors drive their development toward commercial applications. We highlight the need for studying context awareness in ambient intelligence environments and end-user programming in future research on ringterfaces.
Keywords: Interaction techniques; Subtle interaction; Social acceptability; Natural user interface; Finger-ring
MTIS: A Multi-Touch Text Input System BIBAKFull-Text 62-71
  Michael Schmidt; Anja Fibich; Gerhard Weber
Entering text by gesture alphabets is not one of the most efficient methods. However, there are special applications and contexts where it shows advantages. Input with little focus of attention is possible and, for short phrases, transition to other input options may be more involving. The work at hand presents a new multi-touch gesture alphabet. Multi-touch can accelerate gesture input and provides the diversity that allows to confine to single strokes that demand less attention. We analyzed the characteristics of the alphabet and compared it to a single-touch variant. Detailed investigations of text input by gestures and results of a user study are provided. The investigations revealed preferences of users and showed the need for individualization and self-definition of gestures. To meet this demands, our approach for classifying template defined letters is demonstrated.
Keywords: gesture alphabet; text input; classification; recognition; template-based; multi-touch
Enabling Interactive Surfaces by Using Mobile Device and Conductive Ink Drawing BIBAKFull-Text 72-77
  Shu-Chuan Chiu; Chen-Wei Chiang; Kiyoshi Tomimatsu
Tangible user interfaces enable users to interact with digital information by directly interacting with physical objects. Aesthetic interaction is about triggering imagination, it is thought provoking and encourages people to think differently about the encountered interactive systems, what they do and how they might be used differently to serve differentiated goals. The aesthetic experience is one of the main elements in interaction design. We propose to combine ubiquitous computing with aesthetic interaction. In this paper, we present a new aesthetic interaction concept, a technology that enables aesthetic interaction on capacitive multi-touch devices. Our proposed a kit consists of iPhone device (Tangible device) and conductive ink sketching. We supply user draw lines or any sketches on it via conductive ink, which makes the simply interaction connection between the iPhone's capacitive touch screen. Sketching conductive ink on a paper creates an aesthetic interaction by the capacitive surfaces.
Keywords: Interaction design; Tangible device; Conductive ink drawing; Musical and Light composition
How to Click in Mid-Air BIBAFull-Text 78-86
  Florian van de Camp; Alexander Schick; Rainer Stiefelhagen
In this paper, we investigate interactions with distant interfaces. In particular, we focus on how to issue mouse click like commands in mid-air and we propose a taxonomy for distant one-arm clicking gestures. The gestures are divided into three main groups based on the part of the arm that is responsible for the gesture: the fingers, the hand, or the arm. We evaluated nine specific gestures in a Wizard of Oz study and asked participants to rate each gesture using a TLX questionnaire as well as to give an overall ranking. Based on the evaluation, we identified groups of gestures of varying acceptability that can serve as a reference for interface designers to select the most suitable gesture.
PhotoLoop: Implicit Approach for Creating Video Narration for Slideshow BIBAKFull-Text 87-96
  Keita Watanabe; Koji Tsukada; Michiaki Yasumura
People often have difficulty in browsing a massive number of pictures. To solve this problem, we focused on the activities of people who share slideshows with their friends: that is, they often talk about the each picture shown on the display. We think these activities are useful as narrations for the slideshows. Therefore, we propose a novel slideshow system, PhotoLoop, which can automatically capture people's activities while watching slideshows using video/audio recordings and integrates them (slideshows and video narrations) to create attractive contents. In this paper, first, we describe people's behavior while watching slideshows. Next, we present the PhotoLoop prototype based on our observations. Finally, we confirm the effectiveness of the system through evaluation and discussion.
Keywords: Photograph; Slideshow; Narration; Implicit creation

Context-Awareness in Smart and Intelligent Environments

A Human-Probe System That Considers On-body Position of a Mobile Phone with Sensors BIBAKFull-Text 99-108
  Kaori Fujinami; Yuan Xue; Satoshi Murata; Shigeki Hosokawa
In recent years, various sensors are embedded into a so-called smartphone. A human-probe community is paying great attention to a smartphone as a sensing node because it allows users to participate sensing activity easily. However, on-body localization of a sensor is critical issue if we utilize a smartphone as a sensing platform for human-probe. For instance, acceleration, temperature or humidity values are affected significantly by on-body position of a terminal.
   In this paper, we propose a human-probe system that considers on-body position of a sensor. A general architecture is presented, and a heatstroke alert map is implemented, which visualizes a risk of heatstroke by taking into account on-body position of a sensor. Additionally, we introduce TALESEA, which is an external environmental sensing module for an Android smartphone.
Keywords: environmental sensing; human-probe; heatstroke; smartphone; on-body positional of a device
Multi-person Identification and Localization for Ambient Assistive Living BIBAKFull-Text 109-114
  Georgios Galatas; Shahina Ferdous; Fillia Makedon
In this paper, we present a novel, non-intrusive system that uses RFID technology and the Kinect sensor in order to identify and track multiple people in an assistive apartment. RFID is used for both identification and location estimation while information from the Kinect sensor is used for accurate localization. Data from the various modalities is fused using two techniques. During the experiments conducted, our system exhibited high accuracy, thus proving the effectiveness of the proposed design.
Keywords: Person localization; context-awareness; multi-sensory fusion; depth information; Microsoft Kinect; RFID
Unobtrusive Recognition of Working Situations BIBAKFull-Text 115-121
  Tobias Grosse-Puppendahl; Sebastian Benchea; Felix Kamieth; Andreas Braun; Christian Schuster
In many countries, people are obliged to remain in their jobs for a long time. This results in an increased number of elderly people with certain disabilities in working life. Therefore, a support with technical assistance systems can avoid further health risks and help employees in their everyday life. An important step for offering a suitable assistance is the automatic recognition of working situations. In this paper we explore the unobtrusive data acquisition and classification of working situations above a tabletop surface. Therefore, a grid of capacitive sensors is deployed directly underneath the tabletop.
Keywords: activity recognition; capacitive sensing; working situations
Blog Based Personal LBS BIBAKFull-Text 122-127
  Hideki Kaji; Masatoshi Arikawa
One of the problems in the current commercial LBS (Location-based Service) is weak functionality for users to use their own generated content on the LBS. This paper proposes a new framework of Personal LBS which solves the problem by using blog as both a description language for the extension and a simple CMS (Content Management System). A blog entry is a kind of story. Better a story is, more easily and efficiently readers can understand it. One of the most important LBS applications is a location-based guided tour which can be created as geotagged stories on a blog. The framework allows the geotagged stories to be moved from a blog to a local software application on mobile devices as story packages for publishing, reproducing and exchanging on LBS. We also discuss the capability and importance of personal LBS for location-based communication among ourselves, families, friends, groups and all users beyond time.
Keywords: Blog; Geotag; Location-based service; Story-based LBS package; User generated content; private content; sustainability
Detecting Emotion from Dialogs and Creating Personal Ambient in a Context Aware System BIBAKFull-Text 128-137
  Lun-Wei Ku; Cheng-Wei Sun
This paper presents a personal ambient creation system, IlluMe, which detects users' emotion from their chatting context in instant messages and then analyze them to recommend suitable lighting and music to create a personal ambient. The system includes a mechanism for recording users' feedback of the provided ambient to learn their preference. The aim of the proposed system is to link human language and emotion with the computer created environment seamlessly. To achieve this, we propose four approaches to calculate emotion scores of words: Topical Approach, Emotional Approach, Retrieval Approach and Lexicon Approach. Natural language processing techniques such as normalization, part of speech tagging, word bigram utilization, and sentiment dictionaries lookup are incorporated to enhance system performance. Experiments results are shown and discussed, from which we find the system satisfactory and several future research directions are inspired.
Keywords: emotion detection; blog articles; instant messages; ambient creation; context aware system
Creating Rule Sets for Smart Environments through Behavior Recording BIBAKFull-Text 138-143
  Alexander Marinc; Tim Dutz; Felix Kamieth; Maxim Djakow; Pia Weiss
In recent years, there has been a steady rise in the installation of smart environment systems. These systems can consist of a wide range of sensors and actuators and as such can become very complex, which brings the average user to the limits of her technical understanding. Consequently, innovative methods are required to simplify the interaction with such systems. This paper describes an approach for recording events triggered by a user and for linking those to actuator effects. Through this, even those end-users who are inexperienced with modern day technology can create custom rule sets for smart environment systems.
Keywords: Smart Environments; User Interaction; Behavior Recording
The Mobile Context Framework: Providing Context to Mobile Applications BIBAKFull-Text 144-153
  Luís Oliveira; António Nestor Ribeiro; José Creissac Campos
The spread of mobile devices in modern societies has forced the industry to create software paradigms to meet the new challenges it faces. Some of these challenges are the huge heterogeneity of devices or the quick changes of users' context. In this scenario, context becomes a key element, enabling mobile applications to be user centric and adapt to user requirements. The Mobile Context Framework, proposed in this paper, is a contribution to solve some of these challenges. Using Web servers running on the devices, context data can be provided to web applications. Besides the framework's architecture, a prototype is presented as proof of concept of the platform's potential.
Keywords: Context; mobile devices; mobile web servers; RIA; Web 2.0
Web Based Me-Centric Resource Management System for Pervasive Environment BIBAKFull-Text 154-162
  Daeil Seo; Sang Chul Ahn; Heedong Ko
This paper presents a design and implementation of a web-based scalable me-centric resource management platform to support pervasive applications. The proposed system, LinkMe, builds me-centric overlay network, a private network of resources, for managing devices located in the user's situated environment, as permitted resources. A resource may be atomic or a set of fine-grained resources. By this resource hierarchy, pervasive applications can choose a variety of resources combinations based tasks situated in the physical environment. Using web, resources are identified by URI and can be manipulated using HTTP verbs. Pervasive application can access resources using a set of RESTful APIs. To reduce technical barrier, developers can choose proper resources using URI and build a pervasive application easily based on web technologies such as HTML5, CSS and JavaScript.
Keywords: Me-centric; Resource management system; Pervasive; Resource decomposition; Web technology; URI; HTML5; CSS; JavaScript
SemanticRadar: AR-Based Pervasive Interaction Support via Semantic Communications BIBAFull-Text 163-172
  Heesuk Son; Byoungoh Kim; Taehun Kim; Dongman Lee; Soon Joo Hyun
Augmented Reality (AR) overlays relevant virtual information onto a real world view and allows the user to interact and virtually manipulate surroundings. Since virtual information resides not only in a virtual space, but also in a physical space, users can be spontaneously given a number of opportunities for enriched interactions with their environments. In this paper, we propose an AR-based pervasive interaction support, SemanticRadar, which allows a user to spontaneously interact with smart objects through semantic communications, leveraging the placeness of a user's current location.
Architecture for Organizing Context-Aware Data in Smart Home for Activity Recognition System BIBAKFull-Text 173-182
  Konlakorn Wongpatikaseree; Junsoo Kim; Yoshiki Makino; Azman Osman Lim; Yasuo Tan
Knowing human activity in each day is relevant information in several purposes. However, existing activity recognition systems have limitation to identify the human activity because they cannot get the appropriate information for recognition. To address this limitation, we present three relevant components in Context-aware Activity Recognition Engine (CARE) architecture for organizing context-aware information in home. First, we introduce Context Sensor Network (CSN). The CSN provides the raw environment information from the diversity of sensors. Second, data manager component is proposed to process the pre-processing in the raw data from the CSN. The data must be normalized and transformed in order to make the system more efficient. The last component is system repository that composes of three essential tasks for controlling the information in the system. In this paper, the ontology based activity recognition (OBAR) system is used to evaluate the data from proposed components. The high accuracy of results can refer to the well organization of proposed components.
Keywords: Human activity; context-aware activity recognition engine; ontology based activity recognition
A Context-Aware Middleware for Interaction Device Deployment in AmI BIBAKFull-Text 183-192
  Tao Xu; Huiliang Jin; Bertrand David; René Chalon; Yun Zhou
Miniaturization of smart devices and sensors, as well as widespread use of new interaction modalities make Ambient Intelligence (AmI) not a prospect for the future but an impending reality of existence. This requires methods for solving the issues on how to integrate interaction devices into a context-aware environment. We thus designed a middleware to provide a promising approach. Our middleware adopts a two-layer structure. The low layer is the enterprise service bus, which is in charge of integrating context sensors and interaction devices, and of discovering context. The high layer is the versatile context interpreter, which is responsible for context inference, expressive query, and persistent storage. Finally, we implemented the prototype of this middleware on the street and store marketing scenario.
Keywords: Middleware; Context Awareness; Ambient Intelligence; Human Computer Interaction

Design and Evaluation of Smart and Intelligent Environments

How Does User Feedback to Video Prototypes Compare to that Obtained in a Home Simulation Laboratory? BIBAFull-Text 195-204
  Prina Bajracharya; Thelxi Mamagkaki; Alexandra Pozdnyakova; Mariana Viera da Fonseca Serras Pereira; Tetiana Zavialova; Tin de Zeeuw; Pavan Dadlani; Panos Markopoulos
This paper compares the user feedback obtained from viewing a video prototype of a domestic Ambient Intelligence application called MatchMaker to that obtained by evaluating the user experience in a home simulation laboratory. The video was reverse engineered, from the final application to ensure that it provides a valid representation of the system tested in the lab. The comparison indicates that video prototypes give results consistent with the laboratory evaluation. It seems to be harder to uncover issues of appropriation of the technology as only a narrow and typically normative use of it is shown on a video prototype. Given the ease with which feedback from many people can be collected, video prototyping seems better able to identify variety of contextual factors that may influence acceptance and use of the intended system.
Experience the World with Archetypal Symbols: A New Form of Aesthetics BIBAKFull-Text 205-214
  Huang-Ming Chang; Leonid Ivonin; Marta Diaz; Andreu Catala; Wei Chen; Matthias Rauterberg
According to the theories of symbolic interactionism, phenomenology of perception and archetypes, we argue that symbols play the key role in translating the information from the physical world to the human experience, and archetypes are the universal knowledge of cognition that generates the background of human experience (the life-world). Therefore, we propose a conceptual framework that depicts how people experience the world with symbols, and how archetypes relate the deepest level of human experience. This framework indicates a new direction of research on memory and emotion, and also suggests that archetypal symbolism can be a new resource of aesthetic experience design.
Keywords: Human Experience; Symbols; Phenomenology; Archetypes
A Prototyping and Evaluation Framework for Interactive Ubiquitous Systems BIBAKFull-Text 215-224
  Christine Keller; Romina Kühn; Anton Engelbrecht; Mandy Korzetz; Thomas Schlegel
Ubiquitous systems often come with innovative design ideas and interaction concepts. To enhance and ensure the user's acceptance, it is necessary to test and evaluate those ideas in early design stages. In addition, early tests also validate the feasibility of those concepts. Rapid prototyping of ubiquitous systems enables researchers and practitioners to quickly test and implement new ideas, but is also necessary in iterative system development. We introduce a framework that supports rapid prototyping and evaluation of ubiquitous interactive systems using a modular approach, incorporating different interaction modes.
Keywords: Rapid Prototyping; Framework; Ubiquitous Systems; Interaction
Parametric Ideation: Interactive Modeling of Cognitive Processes BIBAKFull-Text 225-234
  Jörg Rainer Noennig; Sebastian Wiesenhütter
Our paper contributes to discourses on Computer Aided Thinking and introduces new techniques for the modeling of mental processes. The objective of our investigations is to support the description and creation of ideas through physical externalizations of cognition, and their subsequent translation into evolutionary algorithms. Through different types of tangible idea models derived from architectural design practice, we developed spatial representations of complex knowledge dynamics. As a central method we employed Parametric Design, a new way of spatial-architectural modeling.
Keywords: Computer Aided Thinking; Idea Creation; Parametric Design; Physical Modelling; Spatial representation
Requirements for Applying Simulation-Based Automated Usability Evaluation to Model-Based Adaptive User Interfaces for Smart Environments BIBAKFull-Text 235-244
  Michael Quade; Andreas Rieger; Sahin Albayrak
Users in smart environments benefit from context-aware applications that are able to adapt their user interfaces (UI) to specific situations. In the same way as the development of adaptive applications poses high demands on the designers, the evaluation of their usability also becomes more complex and time consuming because the context of use and different adaptation variants need to be considered. While automated usability evaluations cannot fully replace user tests in this domain, they can be applied to multiple adaptation variants at an early stage of development and thus reduce time and complexity. This paper presents general requirements for applying automated model-based usability evaluations that apply simulated user interaction as an approach to evaluate UIs of adaptive applications based on the underlying development models.
Keywords: automated usability evaluation; adaptive user interfaces; model-based UI development; smart environments
A User-Centered-Design Perspective on Systems to Support Co-located Design Collaboration BIBAKFull-Text 245-254
  Javier Quevedo-Fenández; Derya Ozcelik-Buskermolen; Jean-Bernard Martens
This paper describes a context mapping study that was conducted with designers from three companies to elicit design design-relevant insights into systems that can more optimally support co-located design collaboration. The study aim is to better understand the current and envisioned way of working of design professionals. The main results are a series of considerations regarding preferred ways to: 1) bring and share information in meetings, 2) document their outcome, 3) support multi-user interactions, 4) deal with social norms and protocols, 5) fit the exiting workflow, and 6) facilitate remote collaboration.
Keywords: Groupware; Human activity modeling and support; Ambient and Pervasive Interactions; CSCW; UCD
Design Considerations for Leveraging Over-familiar Items for Elderly Health Monitors BIBAKFull-Text 255-261
  Edward Wang; Samantha Ipser; Patrick Little; Noah Duncan; Benjamin Liu; Shinsaku Nakamura
Japan is facing the phenomenon of an aging population. Elderly individuals in Japan are becoming increasingly isolated, with no one to look after him or her as the elderly individual's health deteriorates. To prevent this decline in elderly individuals, the Japanese government has been introducing various devices to monitor the health of elderly individuals. However, existing products in Japan do not fully address customer needs because they focus solely on functionality. As a result, elderly individuals that do not depend on monitoring may find the system too inconvenient. However, it is still important for elderly individuals in good health to be monitored to identify risks and prevent a decline in health. Therefore, health monitor designers must reduce the inconvenience to the user caused by systems that monitor elderly individuals.
Keywords: User Interface; Health Monitoring; Gernotechnology

Smart Cities

Portable Health Clinic: A Pervasive Way to Serve the Unreached Community for Preventive Healthcare BIBAKFull-Text 265-274
  Ashir Ahmed; Sozo Inoue; Eiko Kai; Naoki Nakashima; Yasunobu Nohara
One billion people (15% of the world population) are unreached in terms of accessing to quality healthcare service. Insufficient healthcare facilities and unavailability of medical experts in rural areas are the two major reasons that kept the people unreached to healthcare services. Recent penetration of mobile phone and the unmet demand to basic healthcare services, remote health consultancy over mobile phone became popular in developing countries. In this paper, we introduce two such representative initiatives from Bangladesh and discuss the technical challenges they face to serve a remote patient. To solve these issues, we have prototyped a portable health clinic box with necessary diagnostic tools, we call it a "portable clinic" and a software tool, "GramHealth" for archiving and searching patients' past health records. We carried out experiments in three remote villages and in two commercial organizations in Bangladesh by collaborating with local organization to observe the local adoption of the technology. We also monitored the usability of the portable clinic and verified the functionality of "GramHealth". We display the qualitative analysis of the results obtained from the experiment. GramHealth DB has a unique combination of structured, semi-structured and un-structured data which can be considered as BigData. We have partly analyzed the data manually to find common set of rules to build a better clinical decision support. The model of analyzing the GramHealth BigData is also presented.
Keywords: Portable Clinic; Personal Health Records (PHR); Remote Health Consultancy; BigData; CDSS (Clinical Decision Support System)
Do Strollers in Town Needs Recommendation?: On Preferences of Recommender in Location-Based Services BIBAKFull-Text 275-283
  Kenro Aihara
When we discuss about recommendation especially in Location-Based Services (LBS), we need to reveal whether users really want recommendations or not in fact while they are strolling in town, prior to evaluate each recommendation model.
   In this paper, a Location-Based Service, called nicotoco, is shown. nicotoco is an iPhone-based LBS in Futako-tamagawa area, Tokyo, Japan and provides information about stores and events to users. In the experiment using nicotoco, recommendations may be preferred more than rankings which was made from access counts.
Keywords: context-aware computing; location-based service; behavioral cost
Empowering People through Mobile Devices for Smarter Places BIBAKFull-Text 284-293
  Federico Devigili; Daniele Magliocchetti; Giuseppe Conti; Raffaele De Amicis
Increase in traffic volumes in urbanized areas of the world has caused a rise in congestion with negative consequences on safety, environment and quality of life of citizens. Only in Europe the cost of traffic congestion is 1% of the GDP, and this does not take into account the cost in terms of deaths caused by road network saturation. On top of this 30% of energy consumed by our population goes into public or private transport system. More than 55000Km of roads and railroads are monitored by webcams or vehicle counters. Some technologies to assess road network state and improve safety and quality of life of travelers already exists but many are limited to small networks or a particular public transport operator. Smart use and harmonization of available data on top of other real-time data acquisition methods can provide a better service to European citizens. Smart use of public transport possibilities can have a huge positive impact on traveling speed, quality and safety. In the last years availability of public transport real time data and the spread of smart mobile devices, allowed us to develop pervasive travel assistant applications for mobile phones. The project presented in this paper, i-Tour, shows how an IT solution for mobile phones can have sensible impact on personal mobility quality by promoting the use of mixed public-private transport. The application takes into account user preferences as well as real-time information on road conditions, weather and public transport network status. I-Tour also promotes a new approach to data collection based on a recommender system where the information provided by the whole user community enriches the trusted-knowledge common database with local up-to-date knowledge consisting of point of interest and real-time road network information. The client can adapt to user preferences to better meet user needs, young users may prefer using bikes or just walking while adults may prefer taking the car or public transports. At the same time some users need to always use the fastest mean of transport while other may prefer a more eco-friendly choice. Innovative user-friendly interfaces have been developed to create new interface metaphors; when a user search for a travel solution a set of possible routes will be given to the user on a graph showing not only each path but also the different meaning of transport, the quality of service, traffic conditions and waiting times of each route. The software also is potentially profitable since many areas of the client are adaptable to integrate ads or provide visibility to sponsored locations or commercial point of interests. The client provides 3 types of map visualization system, top-down 2D Map, full 3D map, and Augmented Reality visualization. To seamlessly switch between different visualization methods an innovative system based on device orientation has been ideated. When the user keeps the device horizontal the client set the visualization to 2D map, when the device is kept vertical the device switch to augmented reality view; in between the map shows full 3D terrain visualization. Questionnaires responses shown that many solutions adopted were well appreciated by the users.
Keywords: Smart Cities; i-Tour; Ambient Intelligence; Personal Mobility Assistant
Experimental Study on Display of Energy-Related Information in Smart Homes Using Virtual Reality BIBAKFull-Text 294-301
  Kodai Ito; Michiko Ohkura
Environmental pollution and electrical power shortages are serious issues, especially in Japan recently. Since private households are clearly constitute one of the main energy consumers today, positive effects on the environment can be expected if home energy consumption is reduced. Accordingly, our research purpose is to develop a prototype smart home that can offer "smart" quality of life, QOL, to its residents and reduce both CO2 emissions and energy consumption. An important issue toward achieving this aim is how to show energy-related information to the home's residents.
   As a first step, we perform a preliminary experiment on reducing the numbers of candidates of locations and contents of energy-related information. Next, we perform another experiment to clarify the locations and contents of energy-related information expected to be in demand for display in actual smart homes.
Keywords: Smart home; energy saving; user interface; information presentation
A Precision Navigation System for Public Transit Users BIBAFull-Text 302-308
  Masaki Ito; Satoru Fukuta; Takao Kawamura; Kazanuri Sugahara
In this paper, we propose a context aware navigation for public transportation users. In the travel with public transportation, a user needs to switch several modality of moving such as walking, waiting at the station, and riding a vehicle. We developed a navigation system that automatically detect user's state how he/she is using public transportation, and then provide suitable information for each state. We developed the system as an Android application, and demonstrate its basic functionality in the field experiment with five examinees.
Rapid Development of Civic Computing Services: Opportunities and Challenges BIBAKFull-Text 309-315
  Shin'ichi Konomi; Kenta Shoji; Wataru Ohno
Designing the right computing service for citizens can be extremely difficult without participatory and iterative service development processes. We discuss opportunities and challenges for quick, participatory service development by citizens, based on our experiences with two experimental context-aware services.
Keywords: civic computing; open-source hardware; data; collaboration
Note: Best paper award
VIA -- Visualizing Individual Actions to Develop a Sustainable Community Culture through Cycling BIBAKFull-Text 316-325
  Benjamin Watson; David Berube; Nickolay Hristov; Carol Strohecker; Scott Betz; Louise Allen; Matthew Burczyk; Amber Howard; William Anthony McGee; Matthew Gymer; Daniel Cañas; Mark Kirstner
Improving the sustainability of our society requires significant change in our collective behavior. But today, individuals in our society have no regular way of seeing that collective behavior, or how their own behavior compares to it. We are creating a research network that will study how new technologies such as mobiles and visualization can encourage individuals to change their behavior to improve sustainability. In Winston-Salem NC, network members will use new technologies to engage the community about its use of transportation -- especially biking -- and study how that communication affects sustainability awareness and behavior.
Keywords: sustainability; biking; mobiles; visualization; persuasion; measurement
A Novel Taxi Dispatch System for Smart City BIBAKFull-Text 326-335
  Qingnan Zou; Guangtao Xue; Yuan Luo; Jiadi Yu; Hongzi Zhu
Taxis as a kind of public transit have been taken by citizens thousands of times every day in urban areas. However, it is economically inefficient for vacant taxis to randomly cruise around to seek for passengers. In this paper, we propose a dynamic taxi dispatch system for smart city which dispatches routes with high probability to encounter passengers for vacant taxis. In the system, a dynamic probabilistic model has been established, which considers the impact of time on passenger appearance and the effect of different vacant taxis traveling route on each other's pick-up probability. Specifically, a novel feedback system has been introduced in the system, which utilizes the information about where taxis pick up passengers to amend system probabilistic model. Moreover, extensive trace-driven simulations based on real digital map of Shanghai and historical data of over 2,000 taxis demonstrate the good performance of our system.
Keywords: taxi dispatch system; passenger probabilistic model; hot spot; feedback mechanism

Multi-user, Group and Collaborative Interaction

MIDAS: A Software Framework for Accommodating Heterogeneous Interaction Devices for Cloud Applications BIBAKFull-Text 339-348
  Euijai Ahn; Kangyoon Lim; Gerard Jounghyun Kim
Even though the computational power and storing capacities of mobile computing platforms have recently increased dramatically, so have the needs of mobile applications. With the advent of the cloud computing and wireless network technology, the mobile device finds itself as an ideal candidate as a multi-purpose interaction client device instead of as a stand alone computing station. In the line of such a trend, we present a software framework (called MIDAS) that enables an application to lend itself to many different types of interaction methods (namely, sensing and display) and accommodate users with variant client devices without platform specific coding. The paper discusses the requirements and the design of the software architecture, and in addition, demonstrates its effectiveness with several case studies.
Keywords: Cloud based Interaction; Ubiquitous Interaction; Multimodal Interaction; Software Framework
Marker-Free Indoor Localization and Tracking of Multiple Users in Smart Environments Using a Camera-Based Approach BIBAKFull-Text 349-357
  Andreas Braun; Tim Dutz; Michael Alekseew; Philipp Schillinger; Alexander Marinc
In recent years, various indoor tracking and localization approaches for usage in conjunction with Pervasive Computing systems have been proposed. In a nutshell, three categories of localization methods can be identified, namely active marker-based solutions, passive marker-based solutions, and marker-free solutions. Both active and passive marker-based solutions require a person to carry some type of tagging item in order to function, which, for a multitude of reasons, makes them less favorable than marker-free solutions, which are capable of localizing persons without additional accessories. In this work, we present a marker-free, camera-based approach for use in typical indoor environments that has been designed for reliability and cost-effectiveness. We were able to successfully evaluate the system with two persons and initial tests promise the potential to increase the number of users that can be simultaneously tracked even further.
Keywords: Indoor localization; Computer Vision; Pervasive Computing
The Effects of Multimodal Mobile Communications on Cooperative Team Interactions Executing Distributed Tasks BIBAKFull-Text 358-367
  Gregory M. Burnett; Andres Calvo; Victor Finomore; Gregory Funke
Mobile devices are rapidly becoming an indispensible part of our everyday life. Integrated with various embedded sensors and the ability to support on-the-move processing, mobile devices are being investigated as potential tools to support cooperative team interactions and distributed real-time decision making in both military and civilian applications. A driving interest is how a mobile device equipped with multimodal communication capabilities can contribute to the effectiveness and efficiency of real-time, task outcome and performance. In this paper, we investigate the effects of a prototype multimodal collaborative Android application on distributed collaborating partners jointly working on a physical task. The mobile application's implementation supports real-time data dissemination of an active workspace's perspective between distributed operators. The prototype application was demonstrated in a scenario where teammates utilize different features of the software to collaboratively assemble a complex structure. Results indicated significant improvements in completion times when users visually shared their perspectives and were able to utilize image annotation versus relying on verbal descriptors.
Keywords: Multimodal interfaces; mobile computing; remote collaboration
Aesthetics and Design for Group Music Improvisation BIBAKFull-Text 368-377
  Mathias Funk; Bart Hengeveld; Joep Frens; Matthias Rauterberg
Performing music as a group -- improvised or from sheet music -- is an intensive and immersive interaction activity that bears its own aesthetics. Players in such a setting are usually skilled in playing an instrument up to the level where they do not need to focus on the "operation" of the instrument, but can instead focus on higher-level feedback loops, e.g., between players in their section or the entire group. Novel technology can capitalize on these higher level feedback loops through the creation of interactive musical instruments that stimulate playing in groups (collaborative music rather than parallel music). However, making this experience accessible to fresh or novice players involves two challenges: how to design (1) musical instruments for such a setting and experience, and (2) instrument support that extends the interaction between players to their instruments. This allows to interact not only via their instrument with other human players, but directly with other instruments, producing a much richer and more intertwined musical experience. The paper shows results from a class of design students and reports on the lessons learned.
Keywords: Design; Interaction design; System design; Music; Improvisation; Co-creation
Proxemic Interaction Applied to Public Screen in Lab BIBAKFull-Text 378-387
  Huiliang Jin; Tao Xu; Bertrand David; René Chalon
Proxemics is the terminology used to describe spatial relationships among humans while communicating with each other. It could be interesting to apply the proxemics theory to the domain of human computer interaction, namely proxemic interaction. Computers, unlike people, find it hard to interpret instantly and precisely the user's nonverbal hints, such as body postures, movement, and distance. With the development of computer vision, these tasks can be performed with simple devices. In this paper, we build the abstract model for calculation in proxemic interaction, and further illustrate the prototype based on research life in the lab. We then describe evolution of the prototype through investigation of proxemic interaction. Finally, we ask users for their opinion via a preliminary user study and usability test. Our study shows that users are attracted by this kind of interaction, and especially by the application scenario in the lab with a large public screen.
Keywords: Proxemics; Proxemic interaction; Public screen; implicit interaction
Context-of-Interest Driven Trans-Space Convergence for Spatial Co-presence BIBAKFull-Text 388-395
  Hyeongmook Lee; Taejin Ha; Seungtak Noh; Woontack Woo
In this paper, we propose a Trans-Space convergence system that exploits realistic 3D remote collaboration with spatial co-presence by using augmented reality technology. To experience it, we define two major enabling technologies: 1) Context-of-Interest (CoI) based Trans-Space registration and selective augmentation and 2) augmented object interaction for realistic collaboration. Through these technologies, a user wearing augmented reality (AR) glasses can naturally experience remote collaboration with spatial co-presence while moving in space. We implemented a prototype of the Trans-Space for a preliminary test experiencing spatial co-presence in an indoor environment. With an assumption that a common physical CoI is in each space, a distant mirror space can be conveniently linked with real user's mirror space and they are merged together as a Trans-Space. Through the proposed convergence system, a human's co-presence experience can be enlarged by selectively context sharing and effectively spatial interaction between remote mirror spaces. We expect this is applicable to AR-based time/space transcended smart applications, such as the next generation of experimental education, training, medical surgery, and entertainment.
Keywords: Context-of-Interest; Trans-Space; augmented reality; spatial co-presence
The New Communication Interface to Determine the Lifespan of Digital Information BIBAKFull-Text 396-404
  Sooyeon Maeng; Bong-Gwan Jun
In cyber space, freedom of self-expression prevails and millions of people enjoy the benefit of this right. Unfortunately, sometimes this privilege is taken for granted and what was written casually in the past remains permanently online and later becomes a label that marks one's identity. This enduring characteristic of online data stored in a form of digital information is known as digital eternity. In this paper, we will introduce a system which overcomes the limitations of digital eternity by using volatile messages that will leave no trace online. This system ensures freedom of expression and reduces regrets of past posting in online space. As a result, it was found that the digital eternity is a potential psychological threat which suppresses freedom of expression and the use of volatile messages reduces the burden and encourages greater degree of freedom.
Keywords: Social Network System; Digital Eternity; Digital Communication; Volatile Message; Communication Interface; Lifespan of Digital Information

Smart Everyday Living and Working Environments

Application of Bio-inspired Metaheuristics to Guillotined Cutting Processes Optimize in an Glass Industry BIBAKFull-Text 407-413
  Flavio Moreira da Costa; Tiago Vieira Carvalho; Renato Jose Sassi
Nowadays, sustainability is becoming a strong worry of our society. It can be defined as using resources to meet the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. An optimized cutting process minimizes the materials waste and is an important factor for production systems performance at glassworks industries, impacting directly in the products final cost formation and contributing for more environmentally sustainable products and production processes. Several studies have shown that combinations of bio-inspired meta-heuristics, more specifically, the Genetic Algorithms (GA) and Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) are efficient techniques to solving constraint satisfaction problems and combinatorial optimization problems. GA and ACO are bio-inspired meta-heuristics techniques suitable for random guided solutions in problems with large search spaces. GA are search methods inspired by the natural evolution theory, presenting good results in global searches. ACO is based on the attraction of ants by pheromone trails while searching for food and uses a feedback system that enables rapid convergence in good solutions. The results from the combination of these two techniques, when compared with the results from usual processes, are encouraging and have presented interesting solutions to the problem of optimizing guillotined cutting processes.
Keywords: Genetic Algorithms; Ant Colony Optimization; Guillotined Cutting; Glass Industry; Sustainability
Understanding Privacy and Trust Issues in a Classroom Affective Computing System Deployment BIBAKFull-Text 414-423
  Shaundra Bryant Daily; Dante Meyers; Shelby Darnell; Tania Roy; Melva T. James
Our research group is in the midst of working with teachers to co-design an affective computing system that uses physiological measures, gathered via wrist worn sensors, to understand how students are engaging with classroom instruction. Optimally, our goal is to find new ways of supporting empathetic practices in the classroom by providing teachers real-time (or reflective) feedback on student engagement. In parallel, with our work with teachers, we are working to pinpoint the privacy and trust issues that might be associated with this type of system. The objective of this paper is to present the results of a series of studies conducted to understand the challenges associated with introducing a pervasive affective computing system into classroom environments. While we focus on physiological sensors, the implications apply to other pervasive technologies as well.
Keywords: Affective Computing; Privacy; Adoption
An Approach to the Content-to-Content Interactivity in Performing Arts over Networks BIBAKFull-Text 424-429
  Boncheol Goo
This paper discusses another potential dimension of interactivity in networked performance that enables the real time imagery of performer's impression and the continuous reaction of actors in different locations as if they were in the same stage. To realize this, an artist makes croquis of the scene immediately during the actual performance seeing the video received from far end site in real time via internet. Simultaneously, the captured video of the drawing croquis is transmitted back to the screen of the far end site. As a result, the content-to-content interactivity can form an sympathetic stage. To demonstrate its effectiveness, the author applied the concept to the Internet2 Distributed Interactive Multimedia Performance at NYU, US.
Keywords: networked performance; interactivity; communication
Attractiveness of an Interactive Public Art Installation BIBAKFull-Text 430-438
  Jun Hu; Duy Le; Mathias Funk; Feng Wang; Matthias Rauterberg
Interaction experiences with public art installations are becoming ubiquitous recently, however, interaction is usually unidirectional and the actual experience not very rich. This work reports on an interactive public art installation aiming at increasing the level of social connectedness among visitors, and the results of evaluating the attractiveness of the installation. By connecting visitors and computers physiologically, the installation has clear impact on social interaction and it also shows the attractiveness to people from aspects such as creativity, novelty, inviting and motivating. In this work we also found that the AttrakDiff instrument to be useful and convenient in evaluating the attractiveness of public art installations.
Keywords: Interactive Installation; Public Art; Attractiveness; Social Connectedness; Computers as Social Actors
Improving Motive-Based Search BIBAKFull-Text 439-448
  Mandy Keck; Martin Herrmann; Andreas Both; Ricardo Gaertner; Rainer Groh
In complex search scenarios like planning a vacation or finding a suitable gift for a friend, the user usually does not know exactly what he is looking for at the beginning. However, this is the question that most search interfaces present as first step. In this paper, we discuss approaches for supporting the user in expressing a search query based on vague feelings and ideas. We therefore consider search interfaces on the syntactic, semantic and pragmatic level and discuss different mechanisms of these levels to support the first stages of the information seeking process.
Keywords: search interfaces; motive-based search; implicit interaction; context-aware systems; emotional interfaces
An Efficient Motion Graph Searching Algorithm for Augmented Reality Characters BIBAKFull-Text 449-458
  Sukwon Lee; Sung-Hee Lee
Realistic motion of virtual characters is a crucial factor for the reality and immersiveness of an AR application. Motion graph-based approach allows for generating infinitely many types of motions and may create remarkably realistic human motion from a limited set of motion data. In this paper, we present a method to efficiently search the motion graph using A* search algorithm in an AR environment. Specifically, we introduce three types of heuristic functions: the distance, previewed distance, and directional heuristic functions. The proposed heuristic functions reduce compute time significantly while not sacrificing the quality of motion. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our method by implementing an interactive AR application.
Keywords: Augmented reality; character animation; motion graph; A* search algorithm
Intelligent Machine Space for Interacting with Human in Ubiquitous Virtual Reality BIBAKFull-Text 459-465
  Youngho Lee; Young J. Ryoo; Jongmyung Choi; Sungtae Moon
Various computing paradigms such as ubiquitous computing, pervasive computing, ambient intelligence, and ubiquitous virtual reality have appeared. Now we should consider interaction between human and robots in ubiquitous virtual reality known as DigiLog space. In this paper, we propose intelligent machine space for human robot interaction in DigiLog space. For the human robot interaction in DigiLog space, a robot has to recognize the current situation and select proper behavior by itself. It has to receive information and context from DigiLog space and transfer current state of robot itself bidirectional way. Moreover, the robot has to accept user's commands and provide proactive services to users.
Keywords: human robot interaction; ubiquitous virtual reality; intelligent machine space
The Association of In-world Avatar Investment with Expectations of Behavioral Change BIBAKFull-Text 466-473
  Jacquelyn Ford Morie; Sin-Hwa Kang; Eric Chance
We explore whether watching the behavior of an avatar created by a user can affect that users' behavior in the actual world. This research aims to determine if we can achieve results similar to those obtained from an experimental design detailed in Study 3 of "Virtual Self-Modeling: The Effects of Vicarious Reinforcement and Identification on Exercise Behaviors" (Fox and Bailenson, 2009), but using avatars created by observers rather than experimenter provided ones enhanced with a photographic likeness. Fox and Bailenson theorized that the behavioral change elicited stems from modeling the behavior of physically similar people as supported by social cognitive theory. In this study, we focused more on investigating whether people's own avatars' behavior would elicit behavioral change based on social-perception theory. Therefore, users observed their own avatars that were doing exercise or not regardless of any physical similarity between the avatars and their owners. The preliminary results showed there was a strong trend for users to engage in physical activities more when they watched their own avatars exercise, compared to observing their own avatars that did not exercise. The results also demonstrated that users with higher body mass index (BMI) engaged in physical activities more when they watched their own avatars with exercise behavior, compared to users with lower BMI. This study seeks to clarify whether or not the notions of psychological reflexivity and avatar ownership/investment are possible factors influencing avatar owners' behavioral outcomes.
Keywords: Avatar; virtual worlds; investment; VRE; self-perception theory
Atmospheres and Socio-spatial Patterns: Designing Hyperspaces for Knowledge Work BIBAKFull-Text 474-483
  Jörg Rainer Noennig; Lars Schlenker
The paper focuses on the importance of socio-spatial patterns and atmospheric qualities for knowledge work in real and virtual environments. On the background of research in the fields of Knowledge Architecture, Online Worlds and Environmental Design we show the interdependence between architectural design and human-computer interaction. The paper presents a design approach for "hyper-spaces" that fuses the qualities and opportunities of both realms into defined design-patterns.
Keywords: Atmosphere; Socio-Spatial Patterns; Knowledge Work; Architecture; Environmental Design; Virtual Worlds
Smart Technology in the Field of Interior Design BIBAKFull-Text 484-494
  Ela Tekkaya Poursani
This paper has two main objectives. The first objective is to present a set of design projects of interior design students focused on distributed, ambient and ubiquitous interactions. In this context, student works are analyzed under a theoretical framework. The second objective is to introduce the field of interior design as one of the forthcoming parties in smart technology implications. Interior design is a multi-faceted profession in which creative and technical solutions are applied to achieve a built interior environment. These solutions involve functionality, enhancement of the quality of life and the culture of the occupants and aesthetics. Interior design includes a scope of services to protect and enhance the health, life safety and welfare of the public. The paper analyzes and discusses nine design projects of the Topics Studio at the Interior Design Program, College of Architecture, University of Texas at San Antonio. In the 2012 Spring Semester, interior design students have applied an intense research pairing healthcare design strategies and smart technologies to two self-directed design thesis projects: A residence for Alzheimer's Disease patient, and a healthcare clinic for medical professionals who treat patients including Alzheimer's Disease. Projects are designed through the research and hypothetical application of remote control technologies, automation technologies, monitoring technologies, prompting / reminding technologies and prediction technologies. Physical and cognitive impairments, ADL limitations of older adults and patients, difficulties faced by family members and caregivers and clinical interventions in community health are considered not only from the interior design standpoint but also through technological advances. Results of this paper discuss how advanced technology is used as a design element by interior design students and merged with patient, caregiver and physician needs triad of healthcare projects. Perspectives on the studio experience are emphasized for future integrated design and practices of smart technology and interior design.
Keywords: Interior Design; Smart Technology; Smart Home; Smart Clinic; Ubiquitous Computing; Healthcare Design; Alzheimer's Disease; Aging in Place
SmartAssist: Open Infrastructure and Platform for AAL Services BIBAKFull-Text 495-504
  Peter Rothenpieler; Darren Carlson; Andreas Schrader
In this paper we present the open health monitoring platform SmartAssist, which combines flexible in-home and mobile sensing features with a comprehensive social network that is designed to enhance communication between caretakers, caregivers and the community. SmartAssist supports the integration of new sensor types, algorithms, and mobile components through an integrated platform, which consists of an in-home sensor network; a web based service portal; and an extensible infrastructure for mobile devices. Through the adoption of open standards (Android, OSGi, OpenSocial, etc.), the system addresses issues of data protection and privacy, while simultaneously providing support for third-party extensions and context-aware services. In this paper, we will present the individual building blocks of the SmartAssist Platform as well as some illustrative example services.
Keywords: AAL; OpenSocial; Android; OSGi; Sensor Network
Design and Evaluation of a Nonverbal Communication Platform between Assistive Robots and their Users BIBAKFull-Text 505-513
  Anthony L. Threatt; Keith Evan Green; Johnell O. Brooks; Jessica Merino; Ian D. Walker; Paul Yanik
Inevitably, assistive robotics will become integral to the everyday lives of a human population that is increasingly mobile, older, urban-centric and networked. How will we communicate with such robots, and how will they communicate with us? We make the case for a relatively "artificial" mode of nonverbal human-robot communication [NVC] to avoid unnecessary distraction for people, busily conducting their lives via human-human, natural communication. We propose that this NVC be conveyed by familiar lights and sounds, and elaborate here early experiments with our NVC platform in a rehabilitation hospital. Our NVC platform was perceived by medical staff as a desirable and expedient communication mode for human-robot interaction [HRI] in clinical settings, suggesting great promise for our mode of human-robot communication for this and other applications and environments involving intimate HRI.
Keywords: assistive robotics; nonverbal communication; human factors; human-centered design