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DAPI Tables of Contents: 131415

DAPI 2014: 3rd International Conference on Distributed, Ambient, and Pervasive Interactions

Fullname:DAPI 2015: Third International Conference on Distributed, Ambient, and Pervasive Interactions
Editors:Norbert Streitz; Panos Markopoulos
Location:Los Angeles, California
Dates:2015-Aug-02 to 2015-Aug-07
Publisher:Springer International Publishing
Series:Lecture Notes in Computer Science 9189
Standard No:DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-20804-6 hcibib: DAPI15; ISBN: 978-3-319-20803-9 (print), 978-3-319-20804-6 (online)
Papers:63
Pages:702
Links:Online Proceedings | Conference Website
  1. Designing and Developing Intelligent Environments
  2. Natural Interaction
  3. Design and Development of Distributed, Ambient and Pervasive Interactions
  4. Smart Devices, Objects and Materials
  5. Location, Motion and Activity Recognition
  6. Smart Cities and Communities
  7. Humor in Ambient Intelligence

Designing and Developing Intelligent Environments

Visualizing Human-Environment Interactions: Integrating Concepts and Techniques from HCI, Human Factors and Media Psychology BIBAKFull-Text 3-12
  Bimal Balakrishnan; Loukas Kalisperis; Danielle Oprean
As architecture becomes increasingly integrated with information technology, we need to envision new approaches for architectural visualization. In this paper, we describe an evolving approach for architectural visualization that integrates affordable virtual reality tools, motion capture technology and psychophysiological measurement tools. We start by tracing the development and validation of our two virtual reality labs. Next, we describe our current attempts at visualizing embodied interaction and the use of behavioral agents for simulating human-environment interaction. We conclude by discussing our current work and future directions, particularly our idea to integrate psychophysiological tools for measuring cognitive and affective responses to these information rich environments.
Keywords: Architectural visualization; Virtual reality; Motion capture
Using the GQM Method to Evaluate Calmness in Ubiquitous Applications BIBAKFull-Text 13-24
  Rainara M. Carvalho; Rossana M. C. Andrade; Káthia M. Oliveira
Ubiquitous systems change the way users interact with computers, because their services must be available everywhere at any time, supporting users in various everyday activities. An essential element for these systems is their calm interaction with users, which means the system should not disturb them unnecessarily. Literature currently lacks work focusing on how to evaluate calmness and case studies made in a real usage situation. The aim of this work is to propose a model, defined using the Goal-Question-Metric (GQM) method, for calmness evaluation in ubiquitous systems and to show our results from a case study with three ubiquitous applications.
Keywords: Ubiquitous applications; Calmness; Software measures; GQM
Distributable Interface Design for Web Applications BIBAKFull-Text 25-35
  Gianni Fenu; Lucio Davide Spano
The increasing number of devices available for each person allows to create unconventional interfaces that coordinate more than one device for supporting the interaction. In this paper, we introduce a framework for designing distributable web applications, which supports moving and sharing the different parts of a user interface across different devices. We depict the architectural solution and we introduce a set of distribution patterns. In addition, we describe a concrete application of the framework for a distributable video player application.
Keywords: Distributed interfaces; Web applications; User Interface Engineering; Development tools
The Map as a Tool for Identifying Pervasive Interactions in Today's Home BIBAKFull-Text 36-48
  Konstantinos Grivas; Stelios Zerefos
The task of making the spectrum of home network connections visible in its entirety and details is a necessary first step towards a renewed understanding of home and domestic life as well as of the technical systems that underpin it. This paper proposes the categorization of pervasive interactions that take place in contemporary living spaces through certain criteria and tries to map them into the predefined spaces of today's home, by creating a basic visualization tool. The research concludes with an example of a "composite map" that shows all the interlinked interactions that take place in a contemporary home. This map can become a potential tool for further research in the fields of the structure, behaviour and countenance of home networks, of advances in intimate media, applications and networked devices, and of augmented architectural spaces that interact with complex and pervasive communication networks.
Keywords: Home mapping; Pervasive computing in architecture; Home automation; Automation control
Makers with a Cause: Fabrication, Reflection and Community Collaboration BIBAKFull-Text 49-61
  Foad Hamidi; Melanie Baljko
The potential of using maker and DIY approaches for collaborative learning is widely recognized. Maker techniques such as rapid prototyping are being increasingly adopted by schools, universities and colleges in order to effectively teach core design and science concepts. We describe our approach to facilitating a series of "MakeShops", maker workshops, for undergraduate engineering students, in which we used a maker atelier model to facilitate the design and implementation of self-directed maker projects that combined making and tinkering with reflection and community collaboration.
Keywords: Maker movement; Design facilitation; Pedagogy; Interdisciplinary collaboration; Self-directed learning
Enabling Programmability of Smart Learning Environments by Teachers BIBAKFull-Text 62-73
  Asterios Leonidis; Margherita Antona; Constantine Stephanidis
The evolution of Information Technology (IT) and the emergence of the Ambient Intelligence paradigm have drastically affected the way users live and learn. Ambient Intelligence is a vision of the future that offers great opportunities to enrich everyday activities (e.g., on the road, at home, at work, etc.) and has been proven to play an important role in education. In smart learning environments, learning activities are enhanced with the use of pervasive and mobile computing. This paper presents an extensible software infrastructure that empowers teachers to design and program purposeful and engaging learning activities for formal and informal learning environments, by combining and orchestrating cloud-based, ambient and pervasive facilities and services.
Keywords: Visual programming; End-user development; Ubiquitous environments; Smart learning environments
Co-creation in Context: The User as Co-creator Approach BIBAKFull-Text 74-84
  Ingrid Mulder; Fenne Van Doorn; Pieter Jan Stappers
By providing a platform for systemic innovation and co-creative partnerships, Living Labs open opportunities to get users involved early into the creative process of new ICT, product and services development. The concept leaves, however, much room on how to get users actually involved, and does not explain how to keep users engaged during the entire design process. The current work elaborates upon the user as co-creator approach and illustrates how current methods stressing participation and co-creation can be deployed to strengthen Living Lab practices. We present examples from the ProFit-lab Delft that demonstrate co-creation in context as well as the user as co-creator approach. We conclude with a discussion on the results and challenges to actively co-creating in context.
Keywords: Children; Co-creation; Context; Design methods; Empowerment; Living Labs; Systemic innovation
Star(t) to Shine: Unlocking Hidden Talents Through Sharing and Making BIBAKFull-Text 85-96
  Emilia Louisa Pucci; Ingrid Mulder
The current article embraces the transformational role digital fabrication has to empower people doing things previously unthinkable while making it accessible to a larger audience. Using a research-through-design approach, we have co-designed a six-step workshop series to activate young adults' hidden talents through sharing and making. The division in steps was meant to empower the students gradually and from within their own interests and qualities. The resulting workshop platform serves as a best practice in learning 21st century skills, lowering the threshold of access to digital fabrication in education. The students were active co-creators and obviously learnt new skills. Some students even had a mind-shifting experience, and demonstrated that it is indeed possible to transform dropouts into engaged and successful individuals, who are role models for their peers: "stars shining bright in their local community".
Keywords: 21st century skills; Empowerment; FabLabs; Maker Movement; Transforming society
A Framework for Navigating Human Behavior Through Gameful Digital Rhetoric BIBAKFull-Text 97-108
  Mizuki Sakamoto; Tatsuo Nakajima
The use of gameful digital rhetoric presented in this paper becomes a bridge between the areas of behavior science and cultural studies, and a promising tool to enhance the real world to enable people to realize human well-being. In this paper, we propose two models to enhance meaning in the real world based on the concepts typically used in digital games to assist in the analysis and design of gameful digital rhetoric. The models offer appropriate abstractions to enhance the real world with gameful digital rhetoric. We also show results of experiments to incorporate gameful digital rhetoric in the real world.
Keywords: Gameful digital rhetoric; Games; Persuasive technologies; Human well-being
Evaluating Ubiquitous Computing Environments Using 3D Simulation BIBAFull-Text 109-118
  Arlindo Santos; Helena Rodrigues
Human activity is very dynamic and subtle, and most physical environments are also highly dynamic and support a vast range of social practices that do not map directly into any immediate ubiquitous computing functionally. Identifying what is valuable to people is very hard and obviously leads to great uncertainty regarding the type of support needed and the type of resources needed to create such support. We have addressed the issues of system development through the adoption of a Crowdsourced software development model [13]. We have designed and developed Anywhere places, an open and flexible system support infrastructure for Ubiquitous Computing that is based on a balanced combination between global services and applications and situated devices. Evaluation, however, is still an open problem. The characteristics of ubiquitous computing environments make their evaluation very complex: there are no globally accepted metrics and it is very difficult to evaluate large-scale and long-term environments in real contexts. In this paper, we describe a first proposal of an hybrid 3D simulated prototype of Anywhere places that combines simulated and real components to generate a mixed reality which can be used to assess the envisaged ubiquitous computing environments [17].
The Transformative Potential of Making in Teacher Education: A Case Study on Teacher Training Through Making and Prototyping BIBAKFull-Text 119-128
  Susanna Tesconi; Lucía Arias
The paper describes an ongoing research on teacher education for the implementation of making and digital fabrication in educational settings taking part at LABoral Art Centre, Spain. It aims to define key points and indications for the design of learning environments for teachers through making and prototyping in the context of an art centre as an open education lab. We present a qualitative instrumental case study articulated around two dimensions: the analysis of the context of the art centre, and the design of two teaching education programs. The analysis of LABoral context aims to explore the potentiality of an open lab and its related community as a learning environment for teacher education. The study of the teaching education programs is set to define the principles in order to put forward a proposal for the design of a learning environment for teacher education in making.
Keywords: Making; Teacher training; Prototyping; Empowerment; Art; Design

Natural Interaction

Brain Signal for Smart Offices BIBAFull-Text 131-140
  Ghada Al-Hudhud; Noha Alrajhi; Nouf Alonaizy; Aysha Al-Mahmoud; Latifah Almazrou; Dalal bin Muribah
Many people in their work environment are interested and focused on their work, and they do not want to interrupt their work progress by doing simple office tasks like Increasing or decreasing the light brightness in the office or the temperature of the office. In addition, a more important issue is to consider cases where some of people have major disabilities in their bodies that prevent them from doing that. In this situation, Brain Signals for Smart Offices (BSSO) is considered to be a preferable solution.
Developing and Evaluating Two Gestural-Based Virtual Environment Navigation Methods for Large Displays BIBAKFull-Text 141-151
  Paulo Dias; João Parracho; João Cardoso; Beatriz Quintino Ferreira; Carlos Ferreira; Beatriz Sousa Santos
In this paper we present two methods to navigate in virtual environments displayed in a large display using gestures detected by a depth sensor. We describe the rationale behind the development of these methods and a user study to compare their usability performed with the collaboration of 17 participants. The results suggest the users have a better performance and prefer one of them, while considering both as suitable and natural navigation methods.
Keywords: Navigation in virtual environments; Gestural interaction; 3DUIs
Immersing Users in Landscapes Using Large Scale Displays in Public Spaces BIBAKFull-Text 152-162
  Giannis Drossis; Antonios Ntelidakis; Dimitris Grammenos; Xenophon Zabulis; Constantine Stephanidis
This paper reports on the design and implementation of BeThereNow, a public interactive information system where users are depicted immersed in various sceneries. The work is focused on the domain of info-tainment in public spaces using large displays and aims on short-time usage. The implemented system employs a mixed reality application through which users are informed about different sceneries and also create personalized digital postcards. This process is accomplished using computer vision algorithms in order to depict users and objects, while removing the background of the scene. Finally, the lessons learned from the long-term deployment of the system out-in-the-wild are presented, providing an insight on the users' actions and reactions and feedback on future research directions.
Keywords: Large scale displays; Interactive public spaces; Immersive user experience; Background segmentation; Green screen; Interactive postal cards
A Gesture Recognition Method for Proximity-Sensing Surfaces in Smart Environments BIBAKFull-Text 163-173
  Biying Fu; Tobias Grosse-Puppendahl; Arjan Kuijper
In order to ease the daily activities in life, a growing number of sophisticated embedded systems is integrated into a users environment. People are in need to communicate with the machines embedded in the surroundings via interfaces which should be as natural as possible. A very natural way of interaction can be implemented via gestures. Gestures should be intuitive, easy to interpret and to learn. In this paper, we propose a method for in-the-air gesture recognition within smart environments. The algorithm used to determine the performed gesture is based on dynamic time warping. We apply 12 capacitive proximity sensors as sensing area to collect gestures. The hand positions within a gesture are converted into features which will be matched with dynamic time warping. The gesture carried out above the sensing area are interpreted in realtime. Gestures supported can be used to control various applications like entertainment systems or other home automation systems.
Keywords: Gesture recognition; Dynamic time warping; Capacitive proximity sensing
Developing Intuitive Gestures for Spatial Interaction with Large Public Displays BIBAKFull-Text 174-181
  Yubo Kou; Yong Ming Kow; Kelvin Cheng
Freehand gestures used in gestural-based interactive systems are often designed around technical limitations of gesture capturing technologies, resulting in gestures that may not be intuitive to users. In this paper, we investigated freehand gestures that are intuitive to users with common technical knowledge. We conducted a gesture solicitation study with 30 participants, who were asked to complete 21 tasks on a large display using freehand gestures. All gestures in the study were video-recorded. We conducted in-depth interviews with each participant to ask about the gestures they had chosen and why they had chosen them. We found that a large proportion of intuitive freehand gestures had metaphoric origins from daily uses of two-dimensional surface displays, such as smart phones and tablets. However, participants may develop new gestures, particularly when objects they are manipulating deviated from those commonly seen in surface technologies. In this paper, we discuss when and why participants developed new gestures rather than reusing gestures of similar tasks on two-dimension surface displays. We suggest design implications for gestures for large public displays.
Keywords: Large displays; Gestures; Freehand; Spatial interaction
AR Coloring Jigsaw Puzzles with Texture Extraction and Auto-UV Mapping Algorithm BIBAKFull-Text 182-187
  Youngho Lee
There have been many applications with AR technology such as advertisement, education, etc. Books with AR technology are the most interesting application area. In this paper, we propose an AR coloring jigsaw puzzles which provides users with puzzle pieces for coloring and AR/VR worlds for colored 3D animations. The proposed puzzle is composed of a jigsaw puzzle with unpainted pieces and a smart phone application. The jigsaw puzzle with unpainted pieces is designed large pieces of puzzle and several uncolored pieces. The smart phone application has an AR scene for extracting color from puzzle and a VR world for user interaction with colored animals.
Keywords: Augmented reality; Virtual reality; Coloring book; Vuforia SDK
Smart Kiosk with Gait-Based Continuous Authentication BIBAKFull-Text 188-200
  Duong-Tien Phan; Nhan Nguyen-Trong Dam; Minh-Phuc Nguyen; Minh-Triet Tran; Toan-Thinh Truong
The authors propose to develop a smart kiosk that plays the role of an identity selector activated implicitly when a user is approaching that kiosk. The identity of a user is recognized implicitly in background by a mobile/wearable device based on his or her gait features. Upon arriving at a smart kiosk, the authentication process is performed automatically with the current available user identity in his or her portable device. To realize our system, we propose a new secure authentication scheme compatible with gait-based continuous authentication that can resist against known attacks, including three-factor attacks. Furthermore, we also propose a method to recognize users from their moving patterns using multiple SVM classifiers. Experiments with a dataset with 38 people show that this method can achieve the accuracy up to 92.028%.
Keywords: Gait-based recognition; Continuous authentication; Smart kiosk; Mobile device; Wearable device
Gesture-Based Configuration of Location Information in Smart Environments with Visual Feedback BIBAKFull-Text 201-211
  Carsten Stocklöw; Martin Majewski
The location of objects and devices in a smart environment is a very important piece of information to enable advanced and sophisticated use cases for interaction and for supporting the user in daily activities and emergency situations. To acquire this information, we propose a semi-automatic approach to configure the location, size, and orientation of objects in the environment together with their semantic meaning. This configuration is typically done with graphical user interfaces showing either a list of objects or a representation of objects in form of 2D or 3D virtual representations.
   However, there is a gap between the real physical world and the abstract virtual representation that needs to be bridged by the user himself. Therefore, we propose a visual feedback directly in the physical world using a robotic laser pointing system.
Keywords: Smart environments; Configuration; Personalization
Subjective User Experience and Performance with Active Tangibles on a Tabletop Interface BIBAKFull-Text 212-223
  Jan B. F. van Erp; Alexander Toet; Koos Meijer; Joris Janssen; Arnoud de Jong
We developed active tangibles (Sensators) that can be used in combination with multitouch tabletops and that can provide multisensory (visual, auditory, and vibrotactile) feedback. For spatial alignment and rotation tasks we measured subjective user experience and objective performance with these Sensators. We found that active feedback increased accuracy in both tasks, for all feedback modalities. Active visual feedback yielded the highest overall subjective user experience and preference scores. Our contribution is that active feedback improves subjectively perceived performance and reduces perceived mental workload. Additionally, our findings indicate that users prefer to be guided by visual signs over auditory and vibrotactile signs.
Keywords: Tangible interfaces; User experience; Tabletop; Multimodal; Active feedback
Auditory Browsing Interface of Ambient and Parallel Sound Expression for Supporting One-to-many Communication BIBAKFull-Text 224-233
  Tomoko Yonezawa
In this paper, we introduce an auditory browsing system for supporting one-to-many communication in parallel with an ongoing discourse, lecture, or presentation. The live reactions of audiences should reflect the main speech from the viewpoint of active participation. In order to browse numerous live comments from audiences, the speaker stretches her/his neck toward a particular section of the virtual audience group. We adopt the metaphor of "looking inside" toward the direction of the seating position with repositioned and overlaid audiences' voices corresponding to the length of the voice regardless of the seating of real audiences. As a result, the speaker could browse the comments of the audience and show the communicative behaviors when she/he was interested in a particular group of the audience's utterances.
Keywords: Auditory space; One-to-many parallel communication; Browsing interface; Audience interaction

Design and Development of Distributed, Ambient and Pervasive Interactions

Immersiveness of Ubiquitous Computing Environments Prototypes: A Case Study BIBAKFull-Text 237-248
  Tiago Abade; José C. Campos; Rui Moreira; Carlos C. L. Silva; José Luís Silva
The development of ubiquitous computing (ubicomp) environments raises several challenges in terms of their evaluation. Ubicomp virtual reality prototyping tools enable users to experience the system to be developed and are of great help to face those challenges, as they support developers in assessing the consequences of a design decision in the early phases of development. Given the situated nature of ubicomp environments, a particular issue to consider is the level of realism provided by the prototypes. This work presents a case study where two ubicomp prototypes, featuring different levels of immersion (desktop-based versus CAVE-based), were developed and compared. The goal was to determine the cost/benefits relation of both solutions, which provided better user experience results, and whether or not simpler solutions provide the same user experience results as more elaborate one.
Keywords: Ubiquitous computing; Virtual environments; Prototyping; Evaluation; Immersiveness; APEX
Employing Virtual Humans for Interaction, Assistance and Information Provision in Ambient Intelligence Environments BIBAKFull-Text 249-261
  Chryssi Birliraki; Dimitris Grammenos; Constantine Stephanidis
This paper reports on the design, development and evaluation of a framework which implements virtual humans for information provision. The framework can be used to create interactive multimedia information visualizations (e.g., images, text, audio, videos, 3D models) and provides a dynamic data modeling mechanism for storage and retrieval and implements communication through multimodal interaction techniques. The interaction may involve human-to-agent, agent-to-environment or agent-to-agent communication. The framework supports alternative roles for the virtual agents who may act as assistants for existing systems, standalone "applications" or even as integral parts of emerging smart environments. Finally, an evaluation study was conducted with the participation of 10 people to study the developed system in terms of usability and effectiveness, when it is employed as an assisting mechanism for another application. The evaluation results were highly positive and promising, confirming the system's usability and encouraging further research in this area.
Keywords: Virtual humans; Virtual agents; Virtual assistants; Embodied agents; Multimodal interaction; User-agent interaction; Usability evaluation
From Collaborative Scenario Recording to Smart Room Assistance Models BIBAKFull-Text 262-273
  Gregor Buchholz; Peter Forbrig
There is still much to be done in implementing assistance systems for Intelligent Environments. Different approaches exist that aim at providing the user with useful and pleasant functionality. One group of methods uses behavioral models to derive supportive actions from the observation by sensors. This is a promising approach but creating such models is a laborious and error-prone task. Examples of the behavior of persons in intelligent environments and their interactions with the devices are a starting point for the (partial) generation of such models. In this paper we present an approach to record user behavior without the need of real users performing in the real environment. As a special thematic priority we will focus on the preparation phase of collaborative scenario recording and the used notation. Additionally, the paper will explain the generation of models from the recorded traces.
Keywords: Intelligent environments; Ubiquitous computing; Task models
Hierarchical Narrowcasting BIBAFull-Text 274-286
  Michael Cohen
Narrowcasting, in analogy to uni-, broad-, and multicasting, is a formalization of media control functions that can be used to adjust exposure and receptiveness. Its idioms have been deployed in spatial sound diffusion interfaces, internet telephony, immersive chatspaces, and collaborative music audition systems. Here, we consider its application to desk-top music composition systems, using Pure Data ("Pd"), a dataflow language for audio and multimedia, to develop a proof-of-concept. A hierarchical model of a drum kit is deployed, applying narrowcasting at various levels of aggregation to drum machine sequences. These ideas can also be extended to audio augmented reality situations.
Development of a User-Oriented IoT Middleware Architecture Based on Users' Context Data BIBAKFull-Text 287-295
  Taehyun Ha; Sangwon Lee; Narae Kim
How to manage the connections of things efficiently with heterogeneous things is one of the important issues for IoT middleware development. Many researches have been focused on this issue but still no one accepted as the common model in the IoT environment. In this sense, we aim to develop a new IoT middleware architecture containing simple key-value model based and no-model based context-awareness function. The suggested middleware represents the context data without strictly defined data structure. Rather, it processes the context more focusing on the other technical aspects. We build the middleware architecture based on the basic structure of GSN (Global Sensor Networks). Also, by adapting no-model based context representation method suggested by Habit, we added the context-awareness function to the GSN. Through the middleware, many heterogeneous things not integrated on the standard structure can be managed effectively. We expect the suggested middleware can provide a flexible solution in current IoT development situation.
Keywords: IoT middleware architecture; GSN; Context-awareness
Measuring the Arrangement of Multiple Information Devices by Observing Their User's Face BIBAKFull-Text 296-304
  Saori Kikutani; Koh Kakusho; Takeshi Okadome; Masaaki Iiyama; Satoshi Nishiguchi
We propose to measure the 3D arrangement of multiple portable information devices operated by a single user from his/her facial images captured by the cameras installed on those devices. Since it becomes quite usual for us to use multiple information devices at the same time, previous works have proposed various styles of cooperation among the devices for data transmission and so on. Other previous works propose to coordinate the screens so that they share the role of displaying contents larger than each screen. Those previous works obtain the 2D tiled arrangement of the screens by detecting their contacts with each other using sensing hardware equipped on their edges. Our method estimates the arrangement among the devices in various 3D positions and orientations in relation to the user's face from its appearance in the image captured by the camera on each device.
Keywords: Multiple portable devices; Device coordination; Screen arrangement; Facial image processing; Camera calibration
SpreadView: A Multi-touch Based Multiple Contents Visualization Method Composed of Aligned Layers BIBAKFull-Text 305-316
  Joong Ho Lee; Hyoyoung Kim; Ji-Hyung Park
There have been many studies concerning development of large scalable interactive displays employing multi-touch interfaces, which is rapidly replacing conventional static methods of presenting information to the public. Interactive large displays are used in various fields, such as in the education sector as interactive whiteboards, way-finding screens in retail and hospital environments and so on. We propose the SpreadView, a new method for displaying digital contents on public large display, which generates pages corresponding to the traditional content files included in the traditional folder in PC, and generates an information display layer including a folder display portion corresponding to the traditional folder and giving output the aligned information display layers. The SpreadView senses multi-touch events to change an output format of the information display layer according to various user manipulation patterns such as one point touch or one point drag on a page, two point touches or pinch on a page, multiple touches on multiple pages in the information. Through these various touch manipulations the SpreadView rearrange information display so as to correspond the user's expectations. The SpreadView may provide a design motivation to improve the usability in manipulating big amount of digital contents under the other forms of computing environment such as tabletop computing, virtual reality and augmented reality.
Keywords: Multi-touch; Interactive large display; Contents visualization
Bandage Man: A Spatial Interaction Design in a Sensible Space for Connecting Family BIBAKFull-Text 317-324
  Min-Nan Liao; Teng-Wen Chang
The alienation between family members is mainly caused by the descendant's work and study, which causes that the elderly live in the countryside lonely and cannot be actually concerned and cared by the descendants. Gradually, the relation between family members is alienated. In this paper, the life information of the elderly is recorded with sensing network through furniture. The physical object on the child end can receive the emotional information of the elderly. Through the interaction mode of feeling transmission between the sensing network and Bandage Man, it is to synchronize the inter-generational family affection contact, so as to increase the interaction opportunity between family members and form a feeling concern network between families.
Keywords: Elderly living alone; Feeling network; Man-machine interaction; Family concern
Learning Instead of Markers: Flexible Recognition of Mobile Devices on Interactive Surfaces BIBAKFull-Text 325-336
  Philipp Mock; Jörg Edelmann; Wolfgang Rosenstiel
We propose an approach for recognition of mobile devices on interactive surfaces that do not support optical markers. Our system only requires an axis aligned bounding box of the object placed on the touchscreen in combination with position data from the mobile devices integrated inertia measurement unit (IMU). We put special emphasis on maximum flexibility in terms of compatibility with varying multi-touch sensor techniques and different kinds of mobile devices. A new device can be added to the system with a short training phase, during which the device is moved across the interactive surface. A device model is automatically created from the recorded data using support vector machines. Different devices of the same size are identified by analyzing their IMU data streams for transitions into a horizontally resting state. The system has been tested in a museum environment.
Keywords: Human computer interaction; Tabletop interaction; Markerless object tracking; Machine learning
GlassNage: Layout Recognition for Dynamic Content Retrieval in Multi-Section Digital Signage BIBAKFull-Text 337-348
  Adiyan Mujibiya
We report our approach to support dynamic content transfer from publicly available large display digital signage to users' private display, specifically Glass-like wearable devices. We aim to address issues concerning dynamic multimedia signage where the content are divided into several sections. This type of signage has become increasingly popular due to optimal content exposures. In contrast to prior research, our approach excludes computer vision based object recognition, and instead took an approach to identify how contents are being laid-out in a digital signage. We incorporate techniques to recognize basic layout features including corners, lines, edges, and line segments; which are obtained from the camera frame taken by the user using their own device. Consequently, these layout features are combined to generate signage layout map, which is then compared to pre-learned layout map for position detection and perspective correction using homography estimation. To grab a specific content, users are able to choose a section within the captured layout using the device's interface, which in turn creates a request to contents server to send respective content information based on a timestamp and a unique section ID. In this paper, we describe implementation details, report user study results, and conclude with discussion of our experiences in implementation as well as highlighting future work.
Keywords: Digital signage; Public display; Public-to-private; Multi section; Layout recognition; Computer vision; Visual features; Line segment; User study
Manseibashi Reminiscent Window: On-Site AR Exhibition System Using Mobile Devices BIBAKFull-Text 349-361
  Naoya Okada; Jun Imura; Takuji Narumi; Tomohiro Tanikawa; Michitaka Hirose
In this research, we propose the design of a sustainable on-site past-scene experience system applied in a public location using personal mobile user devices. Through our system, to experience an AR exhibition, users simply download an AR application onto their personal mobile device. By superimposing a past-scene image of an actual site onto the present scene, users can appreciate the past scene on-site through their own device without the need for any special AR device or support staff. We held both attended and unattended on-site exhibitions to evaluate the social acceptableness and effectiveness of the proposed unattended exhibition system. The results show that, using the personal mobile devices of the users, the proposed system is deemed socially acceptable, and that our unattended exhibition system can evoke and maintain user interest as much as an attended exhibition. In addition, we have been distributing this system as an iPad/iPhone application through the Internet, and the number of users is continuously increasing, thereby proving the sustainability of our proposed exhibition system.
Keywords: Augmented reality; Digital museum; Mobile device; Public exhibition
Enhancing Facial Impression for Video Conference BIBAKFull-Text 362-369
  Sungyeon Park; Heeseung Choi; Ig-Jae Kim
Most people have their preferred impression to be seen by others. Our face warping method can make this real. In this paper, we propose a new technique for automatic transformation of facial impression, for example, look more attractive or baby-face from the original. We build an impression score function, trained by scores from human raters, and the function is used to get displacement vectors for a given face. To preserve the facial identity as much as possible, we constrain the facial deformation range with facial classification. In case of real time application, such as video conference, there are frequent facial expressions variation and position changes. Face tracker is used to cope with this changing situation. Through our experiments, our proposed method can be one of the promising methods for future video conference system.
Keywords: Transformation of facial impression; Face warping; Face tracker; Machine learning; Deformation of face
Art and Coffee in the Museum BIBAKFull-Text 370-381
  Nikolaos Partarakis; Emmanouil Zidianakis; Margherita Antona; Constantine Stephanidis
Natural interaction refers to people interacting with technology as they are used to interact with the real world in everyday life, through gestures, expressions, movements, etc., and discovering the world by looking around and manipulating physical objects [16]. In the domain of cultural heritage research has been conducted in a number of directions including (a) Personalised Information in Museums, (b) Interactive Exhibits, (c) Interactive Games Installations in Museums, (d) Museum Mobile Applications, (e) Museums presence on the Web and (f) Museum Social Applications. Most museums target family groups and organize family-oriented events in their programs but how families choose to visit particular museums in response to their leisure needs has rarely been highlighted. This work exploits the possibility of extending the usage of AmI technology, and thus the user experience, within leisure spaces provided by museums such as cafeterias. The Museum Coffee Table is an augmented physical surface where physical objects can be used for accessing information about artists and their creations. At the same entertainment for children is facilitated through the integration of popular games on the surface. As a result, the entire family can seat around the table, drink coffee and complete their visit to the museum acquiring additional knowledge and playing games.
Keywords: Ambient intelligence; Tabletop interaction; Augmented reality; Cultural heritage; Interactive surfaces
Context-Based Document Management in Smart Living Environments BIBAKFull-Text 382-394
  Julian von Wilmsdorf; Alexander Marinc; Arjan Kuijper
Nowadays an increasingly wide variety of multimedia devices can be networked together in ever-growing smart environments. Although these networks, thanks to mobile technology and Wi-Fi, are almost ubiquitous by now, the players therein are still working largely distinct from one another. To simply play a file on the playback device A, which is originally housed on device B, is therefore a complicated task, despite the theoretical possibility provided by existing networking. Especially playing and viewing files on multimedia devices under various circumstances and limited reproduction capabilities is a non-trivial problem. Current solutions from industry still put little interoperable approaches in proprietary systems. Individual multimedia devices of the same manufacturer can be combined intelligently, but with respect to the usability the system scales poorly, the (also physical) distribution increases the difficulty of access to the functions and control is largely independent of the user's context. In this work, a solution is developed, which focuses in particular on the context-based playback of files: sending video, music, image and text files to output devices with different display options, as well as the distribution of these multimedia files between devices. Activities are centered on a mobile device for visualizing the spatial distribution of all devices, including the user's position and the intuitive movement of files of various types between them.
Keywords: Image processing and computer vision; Enhancement; Filtering

Smart Devices, Objects and Materials

The Capacitive Chair BIBAKFull-Text 397-407
  Andreas Braun; Sebastian Frank; Reiner Wichert
Modern office work often consists of spending long hours in a sitting position. This can cause a number of health-related issues, including chronic back pain. Ergonomic sitting requires suitably adjusted chairs and switching through a variety of different sitting positions throughout the day. Smart furniture can support this positive behavior, by recognizing poses and activities and giving suitable feedback to the occupant. In this work we present the Capacitive Chair. A number of capacitive proximity sensors are integrated into a regular office chair and can sense various physiological parameters, ranging from pose to activity levels or breathing rate recognition. We discuss a suitable sensor layouts and processing methods that enable detecting activity levels, posture and breathing rate. The system is evaluated in two user studies that test the activity recognition throughout a work week and the recognition rate of different poses.
Keywords: Capacitive proximity sensor; Posture recognition; Smart furniture
Aspects Concerning the Calibration Procedure for a Dual Camera Smartphone Based ADAS BIBAKFull-Text 408-417
  Mihai Duguleana; Florin Girbacia; Cristian Postelnicu; Andreea Beraru; Gheoghe Mogan
We present the architecture of an Advanced Driver Assistance System (ADAS) based on common dual camera smartphones, emphasizing on the calibration procedure which is active during the initialization phase (prior to the actual driving). NAVIEYES project attempts to make use of the video information received from both the front and the rear cameras of the phone in order to infer and alert drivers upon potential dangerous situations. This study focuses on the information received from the front camera. 10 different mobile devices were tested, in order to choose the most powerful and ergonomic platform. A calibration experiment is carried by 22 subjects, and the first version of the application is tested using a driving simulator. The system is deployed on a real car, and several warning paradigms such as audio, video and mixed alerts are also analyzed. We present the HCI questionnaire, analyze the data and propose further developments.
Keywords: Personal navigation assistant; Smartphone; Dual camera; Driver assistant; ADAS
Task Specific Paper Controller that Can Be Created by Users for a Specific Computer Operation BIBAKFull-Text 418-428
  Daisuke Komoriya; Buntarou Shizuki; Jiro Tanaka
We describe Paper Controller, a paper based controller that allows users to design and create their own task specific controllers with touch-sensing capability for controlling a desktop computer. Casual users of computers can design and create a task specific Paper Controller by printing and/or drawing buttons freely with conductive ink and by drawing annotations including text and figures with regular ink. We implemented a prototype system for the Paper Controller. The system consists of the Paper Controller, a Clipboard for the Paper Controller, and a parameterization software running on a computer. We conducted an experiment to examine whether users can create a Paper Controller. The results show that the users can create and use their own Paper Controllers.
Keywords: Paper controller; Prototyping; Conductive ink; Capacitive sensing
Re-appropriating Old Furniture via IoT, in an Artistic Context: The Case of "DolceVita" BIBAKFull-Text 429-436
  Irene Mavrommati; Konstantinos Grivas
An old 1950's buffet was re-appropriated with QR tagging and internet resources, in the context of a design exhibition. This paper describes its concept and IoT realization for a monthly deployment in the AntiDesign2014 venue.
Keywords: IoT; WPF; QR code recognition; Dropbox; Vintage furniture; Design
Novel Method for Notification from Interactive Smart Cover BIBAKFull-Text 437-448
  Young Hoon Oh; Da Young Ju
Traditional interaction method on mobile device often causes notification stress. Several research projects based on the software approach were attempted but it is not always perfect solution. In this design work, we propose a new interaction method with Interactive Smart Cover. This mobile device accessory adds a new notification channel as well as protects device. We extend its potential to future devices such as smartwatch. Future applicability of the accessory and its limitation will be discussed as well.
Keywords: Notification; Interactive; Accessory; Appcessory; Cover
Combining Generative Art and Physiological Information for New Situation of Garden Restaurant BIBAKFull-Text 449-460
  Tung-Chen Tsai; Chao-Ming Wang
Restaurant consumers often spend most of their time queuing outside garden restaurants during mealtimes, waiting for a table. If restaurant owners and customers can effectively utilize these idle times, both of them will inevitably benefit. This study developed an interactive device that can be used to divert customers' attention during waiting times and enable them to enjoy the fun of using this device, thereby helping restaurant owners promote their garden restaurants and local postcards.
   A literature review on human-computer interaction, wearable devices, and generative art was conducted to propose the design principle of the interactive device. Subsequently, prototyping, user manual, and recommendations for users were developed, and the effectiveness of the prototype was assessed.
   This study developed an interactive device with which users can use during their waiting or idling time. The prototype of this interactive device involves combining the concept of generative art and a pulse sensor. Participants can use the garden restaurant's postcard as an interactive media, which can then be converted into images through image processing. According to rules and motion of a graphics, the prototype can provide unique visual feedback. In addition, the proposed prototype entails a wearable pulse sensor that enhances the graphic rules and motions, enabling users to see their own heartbeat information. Moreover, a novel interactive thinking for wearable devices was proposed.
   The contributions of this study included (1) completing the prototyping of a pulse sensor based on the concept of generative arts, and (2) developing a novel wearable interactive device that can be used in garden restaurants.
Keywords: Generative art; Human-computer interaction; Pulse sensor; Interactive technology
Design of Co-evolving Textiles Applied to Smart Products BIBAKFull-Text 461-470
  Rachel Zuanon; Geraldo Coelho Lima Júnior
Among the main barriers to the production of smart textiles on an industrial scale, there are the difficulty of integration of electronic and textile raw materials; the maintenance of textiles, especially with regard to their washing; and the poor durability of smart capabilities associated with the textile structure. Moreover, most breakthroughs in the development of smart textiles occur in a limited way and targeted to meet the specific features of the project or wearable product. This article proposes the hypothesis of co-evolving smart textile as a contribution to overcome these problems. Memorization and customization features are viable due to nanotechnology and assigned to the textile basis. These characteristics aim to contribute to the progress in the design and production process of smart textiles in large scale, aimed at daily use, and able to co-evolve with the user's body and the surrounding environment.
Keywords: Textile design; Smart textile; Co-evolving smart textile; Smart products

Location, Motion and Activity Recognition

User Location Modeling Based on Heterogeneous Data Sources BIBAKFull-Text 473-484
  Patrick Gottschaemmer; Tobias Grosse-Puppendahl; Arjan Kuijper
Over the past decade, interest in home automation systems constantly grew. This yields especially for daily life -- considering the connection of intelligent everyday devices through the Internet of Things. To allow automatic actions on these devices, user localization systems have become a major input modality for smart home systems. The location of a user (or rather a subject) can be determined by different localization techniques, such as sensitive floor systems, discrete activity sensors like light switches or RSSI-based WLAN/Bluetooth beacons (e.g. smartphones). These heterogeneous data sources provide various means of user location certainty, the ability to identify a user or the ability to recognize multiple subjects in the same location. In order to achieve a higher grade of accuracy, multiple data sources can be combined by location fusioning algorithms. However, to allow the integration of such algorithms on a hardware independent basis, a common user location model is needed, which can represent all important aspects of these localization techniques. This paper investigates the concepts of existing user localization systems and develops a new model to represent the location of subjects based on already existing location models. An implementation is provided based on Eclipse SmartHome, an open-source building automation framework.
Keywords: Location modeling; User location; Location fusion
Monitoring Wildlife in Contaminated Environments via the Carrier Pigeon-Like Sensing System BIBAFull-Text 485-495
  Hill Hiroki Kobayashi; Hiromi Kudo; Kaoru Sezaki
This paper presents a Carrier Pigeon-like Sensing System (CPSS), a future-present archetype that will enable the observation of inaccessible and contaminated environments, such as the area surrounding the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. Our system employs wildlife-borne sensing devices with Animal- Touch'n Go (ATG) and animal-to-animal Internet sharing capabilities; such devices expand the size of monitoring areas where electricity and information infrastructures are limited or nonexistent. Through our approach, monitoring information can be collected from remote areas safely and cost-effectively. Based on the human-computer-biosphere interaction (HCBI) concept, CPSS is presented in this paper, with an overview of the concept, methods employed, and current work in progress. We provide a clear scope for CPSS in the context of natural ecosystems. Furthermore, we implement a documentation framework that describes how complex interactions between living organisms within such natural ecosystems are connected with HCI.
Crowd Monitoring BIBAFull-Text 496-505
  Joseph El Mallah; Francesco Carrino; Omar Abou Khaled; Elena Mugellini
Festivals and big scale events are becoming more and more popular, they can attract thousands of spectators. Ensuring the safety of the crowd has become a top priority to many organisers after the multitude of dramatic accidents that resulted in losses in human lives. Monitoring the crowd via smartphones is a relatively new technique that emerged recently with the capabilities of mobile phones to transmit their GPS location data. We present a novel approach, based on the local crowd pressure, combined with the detection of groups in a crowd, to detect critical situations and propose evacuation plans that does not separate groups of people that are together. Groups were detected using DBSCAN clustering algorithm with 80% accuracy. Location acquisition was tested during the Campus Fever event, and 87% of the collected data had an accuracy lower than 10 m while 29% of the total data had 5 m of accuracy. During 2 h of monitoring, activity of the application, reduced the battery of 20%.
Indirect Monitoring of Cared Person by Onomatopoeic Text of Environmental Sound and User's Physical State BIBAFull-Text 506-517
  Yusuke Naka; Naoto Yoshida; Tomoko Yonezawa
In this paper, we propose a nonverbal, descriptive method for creating daily life logs, in text format, on behalf of people who require monitoring and/or assistance in taking care of themselves. The users environmental situations are converted into and recorded as onomatopoeic texts in order to preserve their privacy. The users ambient context is detected by the accelerometer, gyro sensor, and microphone in her/his smart device. We propose a soft monitoring system that utilizes nonverbal expressions of both onomatopoeic text logs and symbolic sound expressions that is named Soundgram. We have investigated impressions regarding the monitoring of the elderly and the proposed system via a questionnaire distributed to two groups of potential users, the elderly and middle-aged people, which captures the viewpoint of both the recipient and the caregiver.
Estimating Positions of Students in a Classroom from Camera Images Captured by the Lecturer's PC BIBAKFull-Text 518-526
  Junki Nishikawa; Koh Kakusho; Masaaki Iiyama; Satoshi Nishiguchi; Masayuki Murakami
We propose to estimate the position of each student in a classroom by observing the classroom with a camera attached on the notebook or tablet PC of the lecturer. The position of each student in the classroom is useful to keep observing his/her learning behavior as well as taking attendance, continuously during the lecture. Although there are many previous works on estimating positions of humans from camera images in the field of computer vision, the arrangement of humans in a classroom is quite different from usual scenes. Since students in a classroom sit on closely-spaced seats, they appear with many overlaps among their regions in camera images. To cope with this difficulty, we keep observing students to capture their faces once they appear, and recover the positions in the classroom with the geometric constraint that requires those positions to be distributed on the same plane parallel to the floor.
Keywords: Classroom; Position estimation; Student positions; Continuous observation
Activity Context Integration in Mobile Computing Environments BIBAKFull-Text 527-535
  Yoosoo Oh
In this paper, we propose an approach of activity context integration as a means of evaluating semantic information, by integrating situational information from heterogeneous sensors in a smartphone. The proposed activity context integration is a method to provide a foundation for interacting with situation-aware mobile computing systems. Moreover, we develop a context-aware embedded middleware that generates high-level integrated contexts through the fusion of internal * external sensors in a smartphone. The proposed system extracts semantic information such as the user's activities.
Keywords: Activity recognition; Context integration; Embedded middleware
BearWatcher: Animal Motion Estimation Application for Tourism and Welfare BIBAKFull-Text 536-546
  Keni Ren; Jani Hourunranta; Joni Tolonen; Johannes Karlsson
This paper purposes an application based on video supervision systems in the zoo for human animal computer interaction. BearWatcher system covers the entire process from collecting animal's visual data, analyzing their movement and behavior, and presenting them to user interface for tourism and animal welfare. With the interaction between the users and animal movement information, the system gives the tourist more digital, more available, more involved experience. In the meanwhile, zoo keepers get reliable, accurate, cost-effective way to take care of animals.
Keywords: Animal sensor networks; Computer vision; Motion tracking; Interaction
Children Tracking System in Indoor and Outdoor Places BIBAKFull-Text 547-553
  Mounira Taileb; Wejdan Wajdi; Hind Hamdi; Galia Al-Garni; Sarah Al-Shehri; Manal Al-Marwani
The issue of loss or kidnapping children has become unfortunately a widespread phenomenon in many countries. To address this issue, this paper presents a children tracking system. It consists of a small device carried by the child and a mobile application that enables the user to track his child movements by tracking that device. That will be done by using GPS and Bluetooth 4.0 technology to track children in indoor and outdoor locations. For indoor, the application searches for the child by detecting the beacon device using Bluetooth 4.0. And for the outdoor locations, the application uses the GPS/GPRS chip.
Keywords: GPS/GPRS; Bluetooth 4.0; Beacon

Smart Cities and Communities

Spending Precious Travel Time More Wisely: A Service Model that Provides Instant Travel Assistance Using Input from Locals BIBAKFull-Text 557-567
  Kenro Aihara; Susumu Kono; Shizuhiro Sugino
We propose a new service model that incorporates input from locals to provide instant travel assistance.
   No matter how well travelers plan, circumstances at their destination invariably force them to modify their plans, especially towards the end of a tour. However, it is difficult for travelers to get useful information or support.
   Accordingly, we propose a service model whereby on-site travelers can instantly access planning suggestions from locals. Travelers send a personalized plan request with conditions such as desired end point (destination and time), preferences (e.g. dining, historical spots, etc.), and group information. The service delivers this to participating locals, who create appropriate plans and register them with the service.
   We conducted a preliminary survey of the model in March, 2014 in Matsuyama, Japan. Despite an insufficient volume of data the questionnaire results support our approach. Locals provided useful information that was perceived as more credible than online search results.
Keywords: Context-aware computing; Location-based service; Cyber-physical systems; Behavior log
Interpreting Food-Venue Visits: Spatial and Social Contexts of Mobile Consumption in Urban Spaces BIBAKFull-Text 568-577
  Shin'ichi Konomi; Kenta Shoji; Tomoyo Sasao
The increasing amount of mobility data introduces an opportunity to develop novel urban applications that are integrated with everyday practices. Although simple events (e.g., visits to places) can be inferred from mobility traces, events have very different meanings in different contexts. To contribute to the body of work that aims to uncover effective methods to integrate ubiquitous computing technologies in urban spaces and context, we discuss interpretation of ubiquitous events in urban computing: food-venue visits. Based on a survey and a small supplemental study, we identify the spatial and social contexts that influence the meanings of food-venue visits. We also suggest a possibility of novel technological support for eating out.
Keywords: Eating out; Food; Consumption; Urban context
Co-design Practice in a Smart City Context Through the Gamification Approach: A Survey About the Most Suitable Applications BIBAKFull-Text 578-589
  Antonio Opromolla; Valentina Volpi; Andrea Ingrosso; Carlo Maria Medaglia
In a "smart" city context, citizens' participation allows to create public services and products meeting the real people's needs. In this regard, the co-design process is a useful practice for encouraging city users to co-create new effective solutions. However, it is fundamental to renovate methodologies and tools for citizens' engagement. In this paper, we argue that the gamification approach could increase the willingness of city users in getting involved in Public Administration (PA) decision-making processes and in co-design practices. Assuming that, we present the main findings of a survey conducted to investigate city users' behaviours and needs on gamification and co-design issues. These findings will be useful to identify the most suitable applications combining these two practices.
Keywords: Co-design; Gamification; Game design; Survey; Smart city; Decision-making processes; Citizen engagement and participation
Activity Recipe: Spreading Cooperative Outdoor Activities for Local Communities Using Contextual Reminders BIBAKFull-Text 590-601
  Tomoyo Sasao; Shin'ichi Konomi; Keisuke Kuribayashi
Recently, many civic engagement platforms have appeared on the web and for mobile devices to collect public comments and local information. However, it is difficult to cope with diminishing civic engagement due to the loss of diverse outdoor activities in towns using existing civic engagement platforms. In this paper we present Activity Recipe, a framework for supporting citizens to create and share activities in public spaces and thereby promoting their cooperative outdoor activities. We discuss the methods to 'spread' effective activities for local communities and cultivate citizens' awareness for these activities based on Activity Recipe.
Keywords: Activity recipe; Mobile phones; Civic engagement; Community development; Sharing citizen's activity
Personalized Energy Reduction Cyber-physical System (PERCS): A Gamified End-User Platform for Energy Efficiency and Demand Response BIBAKFull-Text 602-613
  Nicole D. Sintov; Michael D. Orosz; P. Wesley Schultz
The mission of the Personalized Energy Reduction Cyber-physical System (PERCS) is to create new possibilities for improving building operating efficiency, enhancing grid reliability, avoiding costly power interruptions, and mitigating greenhouse gas emissions. PERCS proposes to achieve these outcomes by engaging building occupants as partners in a user-centered smart service platform. Using a non-intrusive load monitoring approach, PERCS uses a single sensing point in each home to capture smart electric meter data in real time. The household energy signal is disaggregated into individual load signatures of common appliances (e.g., air conditioners), yielding near real-time appliance-level energy information. Users interact with PERCS via a mobile phone platform that provides household- and appliance-level energy feedback, tailored recommendations, and a competitive game tied to energy use and behavioral changes. PERCS challenges traditional energy management approaches by directly engaging occupant as key elements in a technological system.
Keywords: Games; Gamification; Psychology; Energy efficiency; Human factors; Cyber-physical systems
Tou Hsiang Kun -- A Platform for Elderly and Neighborhood to Help Each Other BIBAKFull-Text 614-624
  Yi-Sin Wu; Teng-Wen Chang; Ying-Ru He; Yi Wang; Wei-Hung Chen; You-Cheng Zhang
Tou Hsiang Kun, with the meaning of "assistance" in Minnan dialect, is a platform developed by people who help each other in communities. Society or geographical features cause the isolation in Xizhou, but it aids residents to strengthen the network of neighborhood. Hence, the relationship of mutual help is built by helping the elderly with chronic diseases or with the need for articles of daily use. Five services provided are shopping, government information, diet, repair and medical. Interactive TV and Pad are used for prototypes as well as cloud service are designed. Except for accepting assistance, elderly people who live alone can serve others at the same time.
Keywords: Elderly; Solitary Elders; iTv; TV; Platform; User-centered design
Consumer Concerns About Smart Meters BIBAKFull-Text 625-635
  Rani Yesudas; Roger Clarke
Modernisation of the grid is inevitable as aging and outdated traditional power infrastructure is subject to challenges of cost, climate change, distributed power generation, and unstable demand patterns. Engineers identified smart meters as a vital element for modernisation and hastily implemented and deployed them without fully considering their implications. There has been significant consumer concern, and rollouts in various countries have been delayed and even stopped entirely. The resistance from consumers makes it evident that their requirements were inadequately addressed. A major reason for this is that the requirements elicitation process was seriously deficient. This article first analyses the functionalities of a smart metering system from a consumer perspective and discusses the risks to consumer assets that are perceived to, and in some cases do, arise from the introduction of smart meters. It then proposes that proponents of smart meter schemes need to improve their risk assessment and requirements elicitation processes, in order to better understand user realities, needs and concerns and ensure that their designs address them effectively.
Keywords: Consumer perspective; Risk; Smart meters; Consumer concerns; Consumer segments

Humor in Ambient Intelligence

Laughter as the Best Medicine: Exploring Humour-Mediated Health Applications BIBAKFull-Text 639-650
  Claire Dormann
Despite the physiological and psychological benefits of humour on health, many health applications for aging hold very little humour. We investigate the potential of humour in health for aging, reviewing studies from humour therapy. To show the potential of humour in this domain, we look at the functions of humour and discuss their application to the design of virtual agents. Then, we propose new conceptual designs based on the therapeutic use of humour: agents as comic relief, agent as comic partners, and agents as virtual clowns. We aim to initiate a new research agenda in this domain and stimulate further investigations in the use of humour-mediated technology.
Keywords: Humour; Virtual health agent; Therapeutic agent; Aging; Seniors
An AI for Humorously Reframing Interaction Narratives with Human Users BIBAKFull-Text 651-658
  Christian F. Hempelmann; Max Petrenko
This paper presents a hybrid approach to computational humor generation. The approach consists (a) of a probabilistic, LSA-based method to identify text instances in HCI environments, specifically computer games, where humor can be inserted, and (b) a knowledge-based method to generate the actual humorous text by minimally varying the input to create an appropriate incongruity. We discuss two examples in detail and provide suggestions for the actual implementation.
Keywords: Computational humor; Video games; Human-computer interaction; LSA; Spreading activation
Humor Techniques: From Real World and Game Environments to Smart Environments BIBAKFull-Text 659-670
  Anton Nijholt
In this paper we explore how future smart environments can be given a sense of humor. Humor requires smartness. Entering witty remarks in a conversation requires understanding of the conversation, the conversational partner, the context and the history of the conversation. We can try to model interaction smartness and how to use it in creating not only witty remarks, but also to create humorous events. Smart sensors and actuators, embedded in our environments and our wearables allow us to make changes to a digitally enhanced physical environment. Witty remarks in language can have their counterpart in witty events in digital environments, including social media environments with their own communication characteristics. Sequential and parallel juxtapositions of incongruous and contrasting events invade our communication and, in addition, can be expected to emerge or to be created in digitally enhanced physical environments too, accidentally and intentionally.
Keywords: Incongruity humor; Computational humor; Intended humor; Accidental humor; Sense of humor; Ambient intelligence; Internet of things
On Algorithmic Discovery and Computational Implementation of the Opposing Scripts Forming a Joke BIBAKFull-Text 671-679
  Victor Raskin
The paper deals with the notion of 'script'. Scripts have been essential for the dominant formal theories of verbal humor since their inception in the late 1970s, and the formal theories gave rise to meaningful computational humor a decade or so later. Recent developments in computational semantics and computational humor have required a tighter definition of 'script' as a computational entity.
Keywords: Humor; Formal humor theory; Computational humor; Script
Different Knowledge, Same Joke: Response-Based Computational Detection of Humor BIBAKFull-Text 680-688
  Julia M. Taylor
The paper explores the very basis of linguistic theories of humor with a view of applying them to computational humor. Computation requires tighter definitions. The paper analyzes joke-carrying texts based on the existing script-based methods. It compares jokes that have the same setup but different punchlines by examining the background knowledge that should be available to detect humor. It then moves into jokes where the same joke text elicits different responses from the reader, and conjectures that the responses are based on the readers' world knowledge and preferences. Such responses make it possible not only to analyze humor, but also to understand more about the people that produce the responses.
Keywords: Humor; Computational detection of humor; Semantics; Knowledge-based humor detection
Twitter: The Best of Bot Worlds for Automated Wit BIBAKFull-Text 689-699
  Tony Veale; Alessandro Valitutti; Guofu Li
Language affords a great many opportunities for the intelligent reuse of linguistic content. Rather than always putting our own thoughts into our own words, we often convey feelings through the words of others, by citing, quoting, mimicking, borrowing, varying or ironically echoing what others have already said. Social networking platforms such as Twitter elevate linguistic reuse into an integral norm of digital interaction. On such platforms, who you follow and what you re-tweet can say as much about you as the clothes you wear or the art you hang on your walls. But not everyone that is worth following is human, and not everything that is worth re-tweeting was first coined by a real person. More and more of the witty and thought-provoking content on Twitter is generated by bots, artificial systems that write their own material and vie for our attention just as humans do. Real people knowingly follow artificial bots for reasons that are subtle and diverse, but a significant reason is surely Twitter itself. This paper explores Twitter as a smart environment for automated wit, and describes the mechanics of a wittily inventive new Twitterbot named @MetaphorMagnet.
Keywords: Twitter; Twitterbot; Metaphor; Reuse; Irony; Social networks; Wit