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W4A Tables of Contents: 040506070809101112131415

Proceedings of the 2013 International Cross-Disciplinary Conference on Web Accessibility (W4A)

Fullname:Proceedings of the 10th International Cross-Disciplinary Conference on Web Accessibility
Editors:Giorgio Brajnik; Paola Salomoni
Location:Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Dates:2013-May-13 to 2013-May-15
Publisher:ACM
Standard No:ISBN: 978-1-4503-1844-0; ACM DL: Table of Contents; hcibib: W4A13
Papers:33
Links:Conference Website
  1. Guidelines and accessibility evaluation
  2. Universal access, multimodal and mobile interaction
  3. W4A Google student awards and W4A camp report
  4. ARIA
  5. Web accessibility and dyslexia
  6. After dinner "William Loughborough" speech
  7. Keynote
  8. The Paciello group challenge
  9. Crowdsourcing for accessibility
  10. Content adaptation

Guidelines and accessibility evaluation

Benchmarking web accessibility evaluation tools: measuring the harm of sole reliance on automated tests BIBAFull-Text 1
  Markel Vigo; Justin Brown; Vivienne Conway
The use of web accessibility evaluation tools is a widespread practice. Evaluation tools are heavily employed as they help in reducing the burden of identifying accessibility barriers. However, an over-reliance on automated tests often leads to setting aside further testing that entails expert evaluation and user tests. In this paper we empirically show the capabilities of current automated evaluation tools. To do so, we investigate the effectiveness of 6 state-of-the-art tools by analysing their coverage, completeness and correctness with regard to WCAG 2.0 conformance. We corroborate that relying on automated tests alone has negative effects and can have undesirable consequences. Coverage is very narrow as, at most, 50% of the success criteria are covered. Similarly, completeness ranges between 14% and 38%; however, some of the tools that exhibit higher completeness scores produce lower correctness scores (66-71%) due to the fact that catching as many violations as possible can lead to an increase in false positives. Therefore, relying on just automated tests entails that 1 of 2 success criteria will not even be analysed and among those analysed, only 4 out of 10 will be caught at the further risk of generating false positives.
Web accessibility snapshot: an effort to reveal coding guidelines conformance BIBAFull-Text 2
  Vagner Figueredo de Santana; Rogério Abreu de Paula
In the last decades, the Web has grown from dozens of webpages to the current 13.5 billion pages. This growth was not followed by a major conformance to markup coding guidelines. This impacts negatively the access of people with disabilities to the vast socio-economic-cultural transformations the Web engenders. For example, a form field without the proper label markup is an accessibility barrier for blind users. In this context, this work presents a study involving the Alexa.com's top 1,000 popular websites and a sample of random 1,000 websites to verify and contrast the conformance of these disjoint sets with the accessibility markup guidelines. The initiative proposed in this paper is the first iteration of the Web Accessibility Snapshot (WAS) project, which will from now on present regular updates on the numbers regarding the status of Web accessibility. With the presented results, one expects to support accessibility professionals, researchers, and practitioners by providing up-to-date information. Beyond that, we expect governments and other accessibility governance agency to consider the provided information when designing programs for fostering and enforcing the conformance to existing accessibility regulations and laws accordingly.
"Bring your own problems": the path to WCAG 2.0 conformance through industry based training BIBAFull-Text 3
  Denise Wood; Scott Hollier
The importance of access to online government information is articulated in the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UNCRPD) [1] through Article 9, which focuses on accessibility and Article 29, which protects the right of people with disability to participate in political and public life. The Australian Government as a signatory to the UNCRPD has made a commitment to ensure that all Federal, State and Territory websites are accessible to World Wide Web (W3C) Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (2.0) [2] through the National Transition Strategy (NTS), which was formalized on the 30 June 2010 [3]. However, as Hollier [4] notes, the transition to Web accessibility requires a concerted effort to address a range of potential barriers to adoption. This paper reports on the implementation of a university accredited non-award certificate program to address several of the identified issues likely to impact the achievement of the Australian Government's NTS goals and timelines. The paper outlines the aims, objectives, and structure of the course, interim evaluation findings and issues identified by participants as challenges in the transition to web accessibility compliance.

Universal access, multimodal and mobile interaction

Efficient and effective information finding on small screen devices BIBAFull-Text 4
  Pauli P. Y. Lai
The use of handheld devices to access the World Wide Web has been increased significantly in recent years. It is time consuming to seek information when desktop-oriented webpages that contain tons of information are squeezed to be displayed on a handheld device. Therefore, presenting useful information in an efficient and effective way on pocket-sized mobile devices is very significant especially in the coming outbreak of mobile Internet era. We propose a content model to represent the relationships between semantic elements on webpages. From the model we generate different adaptations for people with different needs. Our objective is to discover author's intention of webpages by analyzing the relationships of semantic elements on webpages and to provide various adaptations for efficient and effective Web browsing and information seeking on pocket-sized mobile devices. Experiments show that the adapted versions improve efficiency and effectiveness for information seeking on pocket-sized mobile devices in general.
Essential components of mobile web accessibility BIBAFull-Text 5
  Shadi Abou-Zahra; Judy Brewer; Shawn Lawton Henry
The Web Accessibility Initiative (WAI) of the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) develops strategies, guidelines, and resources to make the Web accessible to people with disabilities. This includes ensuring that core web technologies such as HTML and CSS provide support for accessibility; developing complementary web specifications to support accessibility, such as WAI-ARIA and IndieUI; and maintaining a set of internationally recognized guidelines that define accessibility criteria for web authoring tools such as content management systems and code editors, for user agents such as web browsers and media players, and for web content including text, images, scripts, audio-visual media, and more. This communication paper explores the impact on these essential components of web accessibility as the Web rapidly evolves into an increasingly mobile and ubiquitous medium, and highlights opportunities for research and development to help make the Web universally accessible to all users.
GenURC: generation platform for personal and context-driven user interfaces BIBAFull-Text 6
  Gottfried Zimmermann; J. Bern Jordan; Parikshit Thakur; Yuvarajsinh Gohil
The Universal Remote Console (URC) framework enables pluggable user interfaces. It is suitable for applications where the "one-size-fits-all approach" fails due to a heterogeneous user group with diverse needs and preferences. This paper reports about research and development work aiming at extending the URC's adapt-at-design-time approach by a complementary adapt-at-runtime approach. A new component (GenURC) within the URC environment generates a personal and context-driven user interface in a two-step process. A rich grouping file is used as an intermediate user interface description, containing "flexion points" for runtime adaptations based on the use context. This will allow for the integration of the URC framework with the GPII user preference model.
Evaluating accessibility-in-use BIBAFull-Text 7
  Markel Vigo; Simon Harper
Evidence suggests that guidelines employed in conformance testing do not catch all the accessibility barriers encountered by users on the Web. Since accessibility is strongly tied to the users' experience there is a subjective perception of accessibility barriers and their severity. What is more, not only intangible qualities characterise the way in which these barriers are perceived, but also navigation styles, age, onset, expertise and abilities play a key role. In order to overcome the limitations of conformance testing and catch the problems that emerge during the interaction we propose a user-interaction-driven method to automatically report accessibility problems. To do so, we initially isolate the problematic situations faced by users and the tactics employed in such situations. These tactics are considered behavioural markers of cognitive processes that indicate problematic situations; the presence of tactics denotes the presence of problems. Then, we design and deploy algorithms to automatically detect the exhibition of these tactics and consequently detect problematic situations. WebTactics, a tool that unobtrusively detects and reports the problematic situations undergone by visually disabled users illustrates the method we propose.

W4A Google student awards and W4A camp report

Using simultaneous audio sources to speed-up blind people's web scanning BIBAFull-Text 8
  João Guerreiro
Sighted users are able to sift through a website quickly to find their information of interest. In contrast, screen readers present the information sequentially to blind users, which contrast with the visual presentation on screen that portrays more information at once. We believe that blind users will benefit from multiple simultaneous sound sources while scanning websites with several information items, in order to find their information of interest faster.
Towards web accessibility repair BIBAFull-Text 9
  Nádia Fernandes
Rich Internet Applications (RIAs) are becoming a new trend on the Web. Despite that, current evaluators and repairing tools do not access all the possible variation of RIAs producing incomplete results. Thus, it is important to fully understand the impact of RIAs in accessibility, identify development and repair patterns. We perform that using an extended version of QualWeb evaluator, which allows to simultaneously understand, evaluate and propose repairing practices to some accessibility problems of RIAs.
W4A camp report: "2012 edition" BIBAFull-Text 10
  Simon Harper; Yeliz Yesilada; Markel Vigo
The W4A Camp is an all day event set up to discuss accessibility research. Participants decide the topics to be discussed and they also organise the session during morning devoted to the camp. It is an ad-hoc unconference born from the desire for people to share and learn in an open environment. It is an intense event with discussions, demos and interaction from attendees. Anyone with something to contribute or with the desire to learn is welcomed and invited to join. The first edition was organised after the ninth International Cross-Disciplinary Conference on Web Accessibility (W4A 2012) in Lyon, France. There were around 30 attendees and four themes emerged which focused on 1. accessibility body of knowledge; 2. evaluation, conformity and certification; 3. breaking accessibility automation barriers and 4. mobile web and accessibility. This communication paper reports the experiences gained, lessons learnt, research areas discussed and major findings from the first edition of the W4A Camp.

ARIA

Providing access to the high-level content of line graphs from online popular media BIBAFull-Text 11
  Priscilla S. Moraes; Sandra Carberry; Kathleen McCoy
This paper presents extensions to Interactive_SIGHT (Summarizing Information Graphics Textually), a system developed to provide sight-impaired individuals with access to information graphics present in multimodal documents from popular media. SIGHT is a Web-based tool that automatically recognizes the high-level knowledge of a graphic and generates natural language text, so screen readers are able to access it. Prior to this work, the SIGHT system was able to process and generate text only for simple bar charts. However, for graphics that are represented with lines and groups of bars, only the message recognition module has been developed. This work presents the steps that have been taken in order to construct a brief natural language summary that conveys the most important high-level content of single line graphs. It describes how the features of a line graph are identified and contextualized; how the content selection strategy was chosen and implemented; and how the propositions selected to convey the knowledge in the graphic are organized, allowing the discourse to be as clear and coherent as possible.
Three web accessibility evaluation perspectives for RIA BIBAFull-Text 12
  Nádia Fernandes; Ana Sofia Batista; Daniel Costa; Carlos Duarte; Luís Carriço
With the increasing popularity of Rich Internet Applications (RIAs), several challenges arise in the area of web accessibility evaluation. A particular set of challenges emerges from RIAs dynamic nature: original static Web specifications can change dramatically before being presented to the end user; a user triggered event may provide complete new content within the same RIA. Whatever the evaluation alternative, the challenges must be met.
   We focus on automatic evaluation using the current WCAG standards. That enables us to do extensive evaluations in order to grasp the accessibility state of the web eventually pointing new direction for improvement.
   In this paper, we present a comparative study to understand the difference of the accessibility properties of the Web regarding three different evaluation perspectives: 1) before browser processing; 2) after browser processing (dynamic loading); 3) and, also after browser processing, considering the triggering of user interaction events.
   The results clearly show that for a RIA the number of accessibility outcomes varies considerably between those tree perspectives. First of all, this variation shows an increase of the number of assessed elements as well as passes, warnings and errors from perspective 1 to 2, due to dynamically loaded code, and from 2 to 3, due to the new pages reached by the interaction events. This shows that evaluating RIAs without considering its dynamic components provides an erroneous perception of its accessibility. Secondly, the relative growth of the number of fails is bigger than the growth of passes. This signifies that considering pages reached by interaction reveals lower quality for RIAs. Finally, a tendency is shown for the RIAs with higher number of states also exposing differences in accessibility quality.
Understanding users in the wild BIBAFull-Text 13
  Aitor Apaolaza; Simon Harper; Caroline Jay
Laboratory studies are a well established practice that present disadvantages in terms of data collection. One of these disadvantages is that laboratories are controlled environments that do not account for unpredicted factors from the real world. Laboratory studies are also obtrusive and therefore possibly biased. The Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) community has acknowledged these problems and has started exploring in-situ observation techniques. These observation techniques allow for bigger participant pools and their environments can conform to the real world. Such real-world observations are particularly important to the accessibility community who has coined the concept accessibility-in-use to differentiate real world from laboratory studies. Real-world observations provide low-level interaction data therefore making a bottom-up analysis possible. This way behaviours emerge from the obtained data instead of looking for predefined models. Some in-situ techniques employ Web logs in which the data is too coarse to infer meaningful user interaction. In some other cases an exhaustive manual modification is required to capture interaction data from a Web application. We describe a tool which is easily deployable in any Web application and captures longitudinal interaction data unobtrusively. It enables the observation of accessibility-in-use and guides the detection of emerging tasks.
Dynamic injection of WAI-ARIA into web content BIBAFull-Text 14
  Andy Brown; Simon Harper
WAI-ARIA enables Web developers to make dynamic content accessible to users of assistive technologies (ATs) but there remain many sites on the Web that do not use it. Unfortunately the default behaviour of ATs when handling such pages is often sub-optimal, leaving users struggling to use the content. We present ACup: a flexible approach that injects JavaScript into the page to detect and classify any changes to the Document Object Model (DOM). These changes are then presented to the user using a WAI-ARIA live region that was injected when the page was loaded. The style of presentation varies according to the characteristics of each update (using rules previously bound to be effective) and can simply be changed, for example to test novel presentation approaches, or to apply a more fine-grained classification. This may be used to enable AT users to benefit more rapidly from advances in user-interface design.

Web accessibility and dyslexia

Simplify or help?: text simplification strategies for people with dyslexia BIBAFull-Text 15
  Luz Rello; Ricardo Baeza-Yates; Stefan Bott; Horacio Saggion
We present a user study for two different automatic strategies that simplify text content for people with dyslexia. The strategies considered are the standard one (replacing a complex word with the most simpler synonym) and a new one that presents several synonyms for a complex word if the user requests them. We compare texts transformed by both strategies with the original text and to a gold standard manually built. The study was undertook by 96 participants, 47 with dyslexia plus a control group of 49 people without dyslexia. To show device independence, for the new strategy we used three different reading devices. Overall, participants with dyslexia found texts presented with the new strategy significantly more readable and comprehensible. To the best of our knowledge, this is the largest user study of its kind.
Firefixia: an accessibility web browser customization toolbar for people with dyslexia BIBAFull-Text 16
  Vagner Figueredo de Santana; Rosimeire de Oliveira; Leonelo Dell Anhol Almeida; Marcia Ito
People with dyslexia often face difficulties on consuming written content at the Web. This occurs mainly because websites' designs do not consider the barriers faced by them, since dyslexia is not taken into account as often as other functional limitations. Guidelines for designing accessible Web pages are being consolidated and studied. Meanwhile, people with dyslexia face barriers and develop workarounds to overcome these difficulties. This work presents a customization toolbar called Firefixia, especially designed to support people with dyslexia to adapt the presentation of Web content according to their preferences. Firefixia was tested by 4 participants with diagnosed dyslexia. The participants evaluated and provided us feedback regarding the toolbar most/least useful features. From the presented results, one expects to highlight the need for end-user customization features that are easy to access, easy to use, and easy to explore. Participants reported that the most useful customization features are the text size, the text alignment, and the link color. Finally, this work indicates promising directions for end-user customization tools such as Firefixia.
Size matters (spacing not): 18 points for a dyslexic-friendly Wikipedia BIBAFull-Text 17
  Luz Rello; Martin Pielot; Mari-Carmen Marcos; Roberto Carlini
In 2012, Wikipedia was the sixth-most visited website on the Internet. Being one of the main repositories of knowledge, students from all over the world consult it. But, around 10% of these students have dyslexia, which impairs their access to text-based websites. How could Wikipedia be presented to be more readable for this target group? In an experiment with 28 participants with dyslexia, we compare reading speed, comprehension, and subjective readability for the font sizes 10, 12, 14, 18, 22, and 26 points, and line spacings 0.8, 1.0, 1.4, and 1.8. The results show that font size has a significant effect on the readability and the understandability of the text, while line spacing does not. On the basis of our results, we recommend using 18-point font size when designing web text for readers with dyslexia. Our results significantly differ from previous recommendations, presumably, because this is the first work to cover a wide range of values and to study them in the context of an actual website.

After dinner "William Loughborough" speech

Pushing the Raman principle BIBAFull-Text 18
  Clayton Lewis
T V Raman has said, "The way to think about the visual system is as a way to answer queries against a spatial database. If you have an alternate way to ask the queries and get the answers, you don't need the visual system." If we push this Raman Principle, where can it take us? This paper describes one application of the Raman Principle, the Noodle system for non-visual visual programming. It then offers some reflections on the larger implications of the Principle.

Keynote

The false dichotomy between accessibility and usability BIBAFull-Text 19
  Ed H. Chi
Traditionally, accessibility researchers have focused on the barrier-free designs that make information available to a diverse set of user abilities and constraints. Usability practitioners and researchers have focused their efforts on making information interfaces usable by the average abled-bodied user.
   The problem in this dichotomy is the myth of two assumptions. First, there is the myth of the "average" user. The first rule about psychology experiments is that often the individual subject variations in an experiment often overwhelm any effects that you're attempting to observe. We use the "average user" as a concept so that we have a prototypical user to design for, when in fact, often we're designing for a set of different user persona, use cases, and skill levels. Second, there is the myth of "barrier-free" design. Design is inherently an exercise in which we optimize for a certain set of use cases, while de-emphasizing other less important use cases. As a result, a design can never be entirely "barrier-free".
   If we treat this dichotomy as false, we start to realize that a whole set of problems between the two fields are one and the same. If we reject the dichotomy, then we see that many accessibility problems are also usability problems, and vice versa. For example, language barriers in social media, mobile devices and their ease of use while walking, and the ability to input text using voice rather than typing are all accessibility and usability problems. To emphasize, usability and accessibility are both fundamentally about the ability to get at information resources and knowledge. Broadly, I see many opportunities to bridge this false dichotomy and will attempt to give examples during this talk.

The Paciello group challenge

Dyslexia exercises on my tablet are more fun BIBAFull-Text 20
  Luz Rello; Clara Bayarri; Azuki Gòrriz
Worldwide, around 10% of the children have dyslexia, a learning disability characterised by difficulties with accurate word recognition and poor spelling. These difficulties can be overcome by language exercises. Typically, they come in the form of books. Hence, they are static and do not adapt to a child's specific needs. We present Dyseggxia, a game for mobile devices for children with dyslexia. It features five different exercises, which were derived from previous research on dyslexic errors. A study with 12 children with dyslexia confirmed that the game is fun and more attractive than traditional exercises. When playing, the exercises adapt to the specific difficulties of the individual player. The game is available for free for iOS and Android and it has been adopted into the program of institutions which support children with dyslexia. This is the first time English and Spanish reinforcement exercises are presented in an adaptive and fun-to-do way.
Smarter board: a community-oriented communication tool BIBAFull-Text 21
  Mateus Molinaro; Sergio Borger; Carlos Cardonha; Diego Gallo; Ricardo Herrmann; Ademir Ferreira; Fernando Koch; Priscilla Avegliano; Kelly Shigeno
In this demo we present the Smarter Board, a platform designed to facilitate the creation of a community-focused social network, with a special focus on groups of people with disabilities. The communication is based on text messages, which makes the system easy to use and more accessible to communities where network connections are not well-developed and where the people do not have much experience with more advanced technological tools. The solution also provides a manage interface, through which administrators are able to mediate the messages and the users. We also implemented a matching procedure for the identification of related posts (e.g., it can check if there are compatible car ride offers and car ride requests) in order to make users aware of what is being posted and, even more important, adopt the technology.
Legion scribe: real-time captioning by the non-experts BIBAFull-Text 22
  Walter S. Lasecki; Christopher D. Miller; Raja Kushalnagar; Jeffrey P. Bigham
Real-time captioning provides people who are deaf or hard of hearing access to aural speech in the classroom and at live events. The only reliable approach currently is to recruit a local or remote expert stenographer who is able to type at natural speaking rates, who charge more than $100 USD per hour and must be scheduled in advance. We introduce Legion Scribe (Scribe) that allows 3-5 ordinary people who can hear and type to collectively caption speech in real-time together. Each individual is unable to type at natural speaking rates, and so each is only asked to type part of what they hear. Scribe computationally stitches the partial captions together to form a final caption stream. We have shown that the accuracy of Scribe captions approaches those of a professional stenographer, while its latency and cost is dramatically lower.
A mobile interactive maps application for a visually impaired audience BIBAFull-Text 23
  Nikolaos Kaklanis; Konstantinos Votis; Dimitrios Tzovaras
Existing spatial information resources on the Web are graphically-orientated and are usually presented through interactive maps. As a consequence, in most of the cases, visually impaired users and especially blind users have very restricted access while they find it extremely difficult to recognize this kind of visual representation. Multimodal and mobile interactive maps could be a solution for presenting the spatial information resources to visually impaired people. In this paper, we present an interactive multimodal map application by investigating ways of presenting alternative formats that would replace visual information. "Open Touch/Sound Maps" is an Android mobile application, which enforces the accessibility of interactive maps for the visually impaired users. Multimodal interaction including sonification, Text-To-Speech (TTS) and vibration feedback enables access to OpenStreetMap data for the visually impaired and blind users using a common mobile device.
Citizen sensing for collaborative construction of accessibility maps BIBAFull-Text 24
  Kelly Shigeno; Sergio Borger; Diego Gallo; Ricardo Herrmann; Mateus Molinaro; Carlos Cardonha; Fernando Koch; Priscilla Avegliano
In this demo we present IBM Sidewalks, a mobile application designed to facilitate the identification of accessibility issues in a city via crowdsourcing. This application connects to our Citizen Sensing platform, providing to city administrators an integrated view about issues in the city, such as sidewalks that are obstructed or in bad condition. If a representative amount of data is collected through people engagement, a significant number of issues will be registered, and analytics tools can be used to identify the impact these issues have on people with disabilities' lives. Consequently, we can use such information to build accessibility maps, and possibly to define an appropriate action plan to address the issues, optimizing resource allocation.
DysWebxia 2.0!: more accessible text for people with dyslexia BIBAFull-Text 25
  Luz Rello; Clara Bayarri; Azuki Gòrriz; Ricardo Baeza-Yates; Saurabh Gupta; Gaurang Kanvinde; Horacio Saggion; Stefan Bott; Roberto Carlini; Vasile Topac
Even if dyslexia is neurological in origin, certain text modifications could make texts more accessible for people with dyslexia. We introduce DysWebxia 2.0, a model that integrates our findings from research conducted with this target group. It alters content and presentation of the text to make it more readable. We also present the current integrations of DysWebxia in different reading software applications.

Crowdsourcing for accessibility

A crowdsourcing platform for the construction of accessibility maps BIBAFull-Text 26
  Carlos Cardonha; Diego Gallo; Priscilla Avegliano; Ricardo Herrmann; Fernando Koch; Sergio Borger
We present in this article a crowdsourcing platform that enables the collaborative creation of accessibility maps. The platform provides means for integration of different kind of data, collected automatically or with user intervention, to augment standard maps with accessibility information. The article shows the architecture of the platform, dedicating special attention to the smartphone applications we developed for data collection. The article also describes a preliminar experiment conducted on field, showing how the analysis of data produced by our solution can bring novel insights in accessibility challenges that can be found in cities.
How cloud computing can support on-demand assistive services BIBAFull-Text 27
  Davide Mulfari; Antonio Celesti; Antonio Puliafito; Massimo Villari
This paper investigates how Cloud computing can meet the demands of people with disabilities who occasionally use a shared computer. In this situation, customized assistive software can not be available to the user since security policies prevent from having enough privileges to change local system preferences. In order to address such issue, we discuss an open source software architecture combining a web-based remote desktop management solution with virtualization technology. This system allows disabled users to access a virtual desktop running personal assistive software solutions. Hence, the disabled user can interact with the same virtual environment from any networked physical computer via a standard web browser. In the end, we discuss the major technological issue for the achievement of such a scenario.
Crowdsourcing platform for workplace accessibility BIBAFull-Text 28
  Hironobu Takagi; Akihiro Kosugi; Shin Saito; Masayoshi Teraguchi
Our modern workplace is filled with information sources such as the Web, videos, documents and images. Each employee is required to learn from these sources to work effectively and to contribute to the company's business. Crowdsourcing services have a great potential to improve workplace accessibility by providing captions for meeting videos, describing key diagrams, and converting scanned materials into text files. However, it is risky to expose confidential materials in a public crowd. Crowdsourcing to employees who have knowledge and expertise may solve the issue of confidentiality, but it is difficult to reach them to access their "niche" spare time for tasks given their busy work schedules. Therefore, we propose a crowdsourcing platform to securely disseminate tasks to employees by inviting them to do microtasks. The basic strategy is akin to Web advertising. The system automatically suggests tasks to employees as a part of intranet webpages and in e-mail clients by considering work contexts, employee interests and expertise, and the security of the materials. We will first discuss the pros and cons of intraorganizational crowdsourcing and then propose the new crowdsourcing platform.

Content adaptation

User individuality management in websites based on WAI-ARIA annotations and ontologies BIBAFull-Text 29
  Xabier Valencia; Myriam Arrue; J. Eduardo Pérez; Julio Abascal
In this paper, we describe a system for adapting websites based on an annotation approach. The system adapts annotated websites according to the user characteristics. The core of the system is composed of a repository containing a comprehensive set of adaptation techniques. 99 techniques have been identified and classified, 48 of them have been fully implemented in the system. This wide range of implemented techniques provides the system with the necessary mechanisms for adapting diverse aspects of website interfaces, such as the content to display, the layout and the structure. The techniques to apply for a given user are inferred according to the information stored in an ontology. This defines the bases for associating user characteristics with the adaptation techniques to apply for specific interaction elements annotated in a website. An annotation language based on the roles and properties of WAI-ARIA has been elaborated. Therefore, any website annotated in this language can be adapted. This adaptation system has been applied to two different websites and adapted interfaces have been obtained for three different user groups.
Experiential transcoding: an EyeTracking approach BIBAFull-Text 30
  Yeliz Yesilada; Simon Harper; Sukru Eraslan
Transcoding web pages for ease of use for small screen device users and for disabled users have been researched extensively. However, there has been very little research on transcoding web pages based on understanding and predicting users' experiences. In this paper, we discuss the concept of experience-based transcoding, called "experiential transcoding", and present our initial work on identifying patterns in eye-tracking data to guide transcoding of web pages for improving the experience of blind and situationally impaired users.
Towards the usage of pauses in audio-described videos BIBAFull-Text 31
  Benoît Encelle; Magali Ollagnier Beldame; Yannick Prié
Classical audio description process for improving video accessibility sometimes finds its limits. Depending on the video, required descriptions can be omitted because these may not fit in the durations of "gaps" in the video soundtrack (i.e. "void" spaces between dialogues or important sound elements). To address this issue, we present an exploratory work that focuses on the usage of "artificial" pauses in audio-described videos. Such pauses occur during the playing of the video so as to transmit more audio-descriptions. Our results show artificial pauses offer a good acceptability level as well as a low disturbing effect.
Captions versus transcripts for online video content BIBAFull-Text 32
  Raja S. Kushalnagar; Walter S. Lasecki; Jeffrey P. Bigham
Captions provide deaf and hard of hearing (DHH) users access to the audio component of web videos and television. While hearing consumers can watch and listen simultaneously, the transformation of audio to text requires deaf viewers to watch two simultaneous visual streams: the video and the textual representation of the audio. This can be a problem when the video has a lot of text or the content is dense, e.g., in Massively Open Online Courses. We explore the effect of providing caption history on users' ability to follow captions and be more engaged. We compare traditional on-video captions that display a few words at a time to off-video transcripts that can display many more words at once, and investigate the trade off of requiring more effort to switch between the transcript and visuals versus being able to review more content history. We find significant difference in users' preferences for viewing video with on-screen captions over off-screen transcripts in terms of readability, but no significant difference in users' preferences in following and understanding the video and narration content. We attribute this to viewers' perceived understanding significantly improving when using transcripts over captions, even if they were less easy to track. We then discuss the implications of these results for on-line education, and conclude with an overview of potential methods for combining the benefits of both onscreen captions and transcripts.
Adapting data table to improve web accessibility BIBAFull-Text 33
  Pauli P. Y. Lai
Web table understanding is challenging for people with visual disability. They depend on screen readers to convey the table information. Screen readers present content linearly to users, but if the table is large, the user may have long forgotten the heading before the last row is read. Even in table navigation mode, it can still be confusing if the table is not marked up properly. Though there are guidelines for web developers to create accessible web tables, some authors may still not properly mark up the web tables. There are also lots of legacy web tables that are not designed with accessibility in mind. These unstructured web tables arouse a need for web accessibility improvements. Existing solutions mainly focus on interpreting tables by screen readers and providing guidelines to create accessible web table, so there is a research gap on how to adapt unstructured table to improve web accessibility. In this regard, we propose a method to extract the structure from these tables and re-organize them into multiple levels of abstractions so that the visually impaired users can access the tables level by level by selecting the corresponding option number. This has enhanced the table content understanding for people without visual perception and has greatly improved web accessibility of unstructured web table for both PC users and mobile users with visual disabilities.