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VAMR Tables of Contents: 13-113-214-114-215

VAMR 2013: 6th International Conference on Virtual, Augmented and Mixed Reality, Part II: Applications of Virtual and Augmented Reality

Fullname:VAMR 2014: 6th International Conference on Virtual, Augmented and Mixed Reality, Part II: Applications of Virtual and Augmented Reality
Note:Volume 17 of HCI International 2014
Editors:Randall Shumaker; Stephanie Lackey
Location:Heraklion, Crete, Greece
Dates:2014-Jun-22 to 2014-Jun-27
Volume:2
Publisher:Springer International Publishing
Series:Lecture Notes in Computer Science 8526
Standard No:DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-07464-1 hcibib: VAMR14-2; ISBN: 978-3-319-07463-4 (print), 978-3-319-07464-1 (online)
Papers:43
Pages:480
Links:Online Proceedings | Conference Website
  1. VAMR 2014-06-22 Volume 2
    1. VAMR in Education and Cultural Heritage
    2. Games and Entertainment
    3. Medical, Health and Rehabilitation Applications
    4. Industrial, Safety and Military Applications

VAMR 2014-06-22 Volume 2

VAMR in Education and Cultural Heritage

Touching the Past: Haptic Augmented Reality for Museum Artefacts BIBAKFull-Text 3-14
  Mariza Dima; Linda Hurcombe; Mark Wright
In this paper we propose a novel interaction technique that creates the illusion of tactile exploration of museum artefacts which are otherwise impossible to touch. The technique meets the contextual necessity, often requested by museum curators, to background technology and to direct the focus of the museum visitor's experience to the artefact itself. Our approach relies on the combination of haptic interaction and the adaptation of a well-known illusion that enables museum visitors to make sense of the actual physical non-touchable artefact in an embodied way, using their sensory and motor skills. We call this technique Haptic Augmented Reality.
Keywords: Museum; haptics; touch; authenticity; haptic augmented reality
Augmented and Geo-Located Information in an Architectural Education Framework BIBAKFull-Text 15-26
  Ernest Redondo; Janina Puig; David Fonseca; Sergi Villagrasa; Isidro Navarro
This work aims to design an academic experience involving the implementation of an augmented reality tool in architecture education practices to improve the motivation and final marks of the student. We worked under different platforms for mobile devices to create virtual information channels through a database associated with 3D virtual models and any other type of media content, which are geo-located in their real position. The basis of our proposal is the spatial skills improvement that students can achieve using their innate affinity with user-friendly digital media such as smartphones or tablets, which allow them to visualize educational exercises in real geo-located environments and to share and evaluate students' own-generated proposals on site. The proposed method aims to improve the access to multimedia content on mobile devices, allowing access to be adapted to all types of users and contents. The students were divided into various groups, control and experimental, in respect of the function of the devices and activities to perform. The goal they were given was to display 3D architectural geo-referenced content using SketchUp and ArMedia for iOS and a custom platform or Android environment.
Keywords: Augmented reality; e-learning; geo-e-learning; urban planning; educational research
The Didactical Design of Virtual Reality Based Learning Environments for Maintenance Technicians BIBAKFull-Text 27-38
  Tina Haase; Nathalie Weisenburger; Wilhelm Termath; Ulrike Frosch; Dana Bergmann; Michael Dick
The paper at hand describes the necessity of developing didactically designed Virtual Reality (VR) based learning environments. Changing industrial processes triggered by the fourth industrial revolution will influence working and learning conditions. VR based learning environments have the potential to improve the understanding of complex machine behavior. The paper describes possibilities for the investigation and documentation of expert knowledge as a crucial source for developing VR scenarios. The consideration of learning objectives and the current state of the learners know how are essential for designing an effective learning environment. The basic theoretical approaches of didactics and their application to virtual learning environments will be presented with an example for the maintenance of a high voltage circuit breaker. Finally experiences from the practical use will be reflected and next steps on the way to a user specific learning environment will be discussed.
Keywords: Virtual Reality; Maintenance; Expert knowledge; learning theory; learning objectives
Bridging the Gap between Students and Laboratory Experiments BIBAKFull-Text 39-50
  Max Hoffmann; Katharina Schuster; Daniel Schilberg; Sabina Jeschke
After having finished studies, graduates need to apply their knowledge to a new environment. In order to professionally prepare students for new situations, virtual reality (VR) simulators can be utilized. During our research, such a simulator is applied in order to enable the visit of remote laboratories, which are designed through advanced computer graphics in order to create simulated representations of real world environments. That way, it is our aim to facilitate the access to practical engineering laboratories.
   Our goal is to enable a secure visit of elusive or dangerous places for students of technical studies. The first step towards the virtualization of engineering environments, e.g. a nuclear power plant, consists in the development of demonstrators. In the present paper, we describe the elaboration of an industry relevant demonstrator for the advanced teaching of engineering students. Within our approach, we use a virtual reality simulator that is called the "Virtual Theatre".
Keywords: Virtual Reality; Virtual Theatre; Remote Laboratories; Immersion
Applying Saliency-Based Region of Interest Detection in Developing a Collaborative Active Learning System with Augmented Reality BIBAKFull-Text 51-62
  Trung-Nghia Le; Yen-Thanh Le; Minh-Triet Tran
Learning activities are not necessary to be only in traditional physical classrooms but can also be set up in virtual environment. Therefore the authors propose a novel augmented reality system to organize a class supporting real-time collaboration and active interaction between educators and learners. A pre-processing phase is integrated into a visual search engine, the heart of our system, to recognize printed materials with low computational cost and high accuracy. The authors also propose a simple yet efficient visual saliency estimation technique based on regional contrast is developed to quickly filter out low informative regions in printed materials. This technique not only reduces unnecessary computational cost of keypoint descriptors but also increases robustness and accuracy of visual object recognition. Our experimental results show that the whole visual object recognition process can be speed up 19 times and the accuracy can increase up to 22%. Furthermore, this pre-processing stage is independent of the choice of features and matching model in a general process. Therefore it can be used to boost the performance of existing systems into real-time manner.
Keywords: Smart Education; Active Learning; Visual Search; Saliency Image; Human-Computer Interaction
A 3D Virtual Learning System for STEM Education BIBAKFull-Text 63-72
  Tao Ma; Xinhua Xiao; William Wee; Chia Yung Han; Xuefu Zhou
A recent boom has been seen in 3D virtual worlds for entertainment, and this in turn has led to a surge of interest in their educational applications. Although booming development has been seen, most of them only strengthen the traditional teaching methods using a new platform without changing the nature of how to teach and learn. Modern computer science technology should be applied in STEM education for the purpose of rising learning efficiency and interests. In this paper, we focus on the reasoning, design, and implementation of a 3D virtual learning system that merges STEM experiments into virtual laboratory and brings entertainment to knowledge learning. An advanced hand gesture interface was introduced to enable flexible manipulation on virtual objects with two hands. The recognition ability of single hand grasping-moving-rotating activity (SH-GMR) allows single hand to move and rotate a virtual object at the same time. We implemented several virtual experiments in the VR environment to demonstrate to the public that the proposed system is a powerful tool for STEM education. The benefits of this system are evaluated followed by two virtual experiments in STEM field.
Keywords: 3D virtual learning; Human machine interface (HCI); hand gesture interaction; single hand grasping-moving-rotating (SH-GMR); STEM education
Visible Breadboard: System for Dynamic, Programmable, and Tangible Circuit Prototyping with Visible Electricity BIBAKFull-Text 73-84
  Yoichi Ochiai
This paper reports a new system for prototyping circuits called the Visible Breadboard. The Visible Breadboard is a solderless breadboard that allows users to make or erase physical wirings with tangible input by hand and to see the voltage level of each hole at all times by a colored LED light.
   The Visible Breadboard has 60 solid-state relays set in parallel crosses and controlled by a micro-controller. These relays connect the 36 holes on the system surface. The connected holes work as wirings in the circuit into which users can insert electronic materials. Each hole has an AD converter function working as a voltmeter and a full-color LED. The voltage of each hole can be visualized by these full-colored LEDs. Users can operate this system by touching the surface with their fingertips. Users can also connect the Visible Breadboard to a PC. When the Visible Breadboard is connected to the PC, it functions as a new kind of interface for developing and sharing circuits.
   Our experimental results showed that this device enables users to build circuits faster and more easily than an ordinary solderless breadboard.
Keywords: Rapid Prototyping; Physical Computing; HCI
The Application of Augmented Reality for Reanimating Cultural Heritage BIBAKFull-Text 85-95
  Sasithorn Rattanarungrot; Martin White; Zeeshan Patoli; Tudor Pascu
This paper presents the design of a service-oriented architecture to support dynamic cultural content acquisition on a mobile augmented reality system for reanimating cultural heritage. The reanimating cultural heritage system provides several domain interfaces (Web, Web3D, Mobile and Augmented Reality) for presenting cultural objects accessed from an aggregated RCH data repository via web services. This paper largely focuses on the augmented reality system, but discusses the Web, Web3D and Mobile domains to set the paper in context. The mobile augmented reality system performs multiple objects tracking to augment digital media contents on real world cultural object scenes. The proposed mobile augmented reality system is composed of a mobile interface (smartphone, tablet), middleware including the augmented reality SDK and supporting software modules for the augmented reality application, and a web service framework.
Keywords: service-oriented architecture; multiple object tracking; web service framework; augmented reality
Training to Improve Spatial Orientation in Engineering Students Using Virtual Environments BIBAKFull-Text 96-104
  Cristina Roca-Gonzalez; Jorge Martín-Gutiérrez; Cristina Mato Corredeguas; Melchor García-Domínguez
This work present the results obtained from a experience performed with freshmen students of the Industrial Engineering degree at Las Palmas de Gran Canaria University aiming for improvement of their spatial abilities. The work linked to spatial abilities show a great lack of uniformity according to the adopted terminology as a consequence of different approaches, researchers' field of study and the research's scale. But all research agree on the relationship between a high level of spatial ability and the possibility of success in certain professional careers and university degrees such as engineering which is our actual case. The pilot study described in this paper, aims to improve the Spatial Orientation component of spatial abilities and for this we conducted two experiences or trainings based on orienteering sports: one was performed in a real environment meanwhile the other took place in a virtual environment. The results show that this component can be trained and improved in both environments without finding any significant difference between both types of training.
Keywords: Spatial abilities; Spatial orientation; Environmental scale; Orienteering; Virtual worlds
Staging Choreographies for Team Training in Multiple Virtual Worlds Based on Ontologies and Alignments BIBAKFull-Text 105-115
  Emanuel Silva; Nuno Silva; Leonel Morgado
In this paper we present an approach that makes possible the staging of choreographies for education and training purposes in potentially any virtual world platform. A choreography is seen here as the description of a set of actions that must or may be executed by a group of participants, including the goals to be achieved and any restrictions that may exist. We present a system-architecture and the formalization of a set of processes that are able to transform a choreography from a platform-independent representation into a specific virtual world platform's representation. We adopt an ontology-based approach with distinct levels of abstraction for capturing and representing multi-actors and multi-domain choreographies to be staged in virtual world platforms with distinct characteristics. Ontologies are characterized according to two complementary dimensions -- choreography's domain (independent and dependent) and virtual world platform (independent and dependent) -- giving rise to four ontologies. Ontology mappings between these ontologies enable the automatic generation of a choreography for virtually any target virtual world platform, thus reducing the time and effort of the choreography development.
Keywords: virtual worlds; training; choreography; multi-user; model-driven; ontology; mapping
"Make Your Own Planet": Workshop for Digital Expression and Physical Creation BIBAKFull-Text 116-123
  Hiroshi Suzuki; Hisashi Sato; Haruo Hayami
We propose the "Make Your Own Planet" workshop, which combines handicraft and digital representation tools (3DCG effects). In this workshop, a child uses a USB camera to select textures freely in the process of making an original 3DCG planet. All 3DCG planets are then placed in a simulated universe for public viewing. By watching this universe, viewers can appreciate the planet of each child. Further, the texture of each 3DCG planet is translated to a polyhedron template and printed out as a paper-craft template. In this process, children employ computers to transform their planets into physical objects that they can bring home. We first describe the workshop concept and then the method by which it was implemented. Finally, we evaluate the workshop.
Keywords: Digital workshop; 3DCG; Unity; I/O device
Usability Evaluation of Virtual Museums' Interfaces Visualization Technologies BIBAKFull-Text 124-133
  Stella Sylaiou; Vassilis Killintzis; Ioannis Paliokas; Katerina Mania; Petros Patias
This paper reports on a user-centered formative usability evaluation of diverse visualization technologies used in Virtual Museums. It initially presents the selection criteria and the five museum websites involved in the analysis. Then, it describes the evaluation process, in which a group of subjects explored the museums' on-line resources and answered in two usability questions concerning overall reaction to the website and the subjective satisfaction of the users. After user testing, quantitative and qualitative data have been collected and statistically analysed. However, much research remains to be done on future research in terms of larger sample, different methodologies and varied contexts.
Keywords: history and culture; digital humanitis; cultural informatics
Manasek AR: A Location-Based Augmented Reality Application for Hajj and Umrah BIBAKFull-Text 134-143
  Mounira Taileb; Elham Al-Ghamdi; Nusaibah Al-Ghanmi; Abeer Al-Mutari; Khadija Al-Jadani; Mona Al-Ghamdi; Alanood Al-Mutari
In this paper a location-based augmented reality application is presented. It is a mobile application whose goal is to facilitate the journey of millions of pilgrims when performing Hajj and Umrah and overcome the difficulties they face. Using the Augmented Reality, the application displays different types of information about the pilgrims surroundings in a mobile camera view. The usability testing of the proposed application ended successfully with a very high rate of positive feedback from users.
Keywords: Location-based Augmented Reality; GPS; compass; accelerometer
Support of Temporal Change Observation Using Augmented Reality for Learning BIBAKFull-Text 144-155
  Takafumi Taketomi; Angie Chen; Goshiro Yamamoto; Hirokazu Kato
An augmented reality (AR) technology enables to show an additional information by superimposing virtual objects onto the real world. The AR technology is gradually used in the learning environment for observing unseeable objects. Observation is the important process of inspecting a target object with significant details. It forms the basic of all scientific knowledge in education. However, there are only few AR applications which can visualize the temporal changes of the objects. In addition, the effect of this temporal change visualization by AR is not investigated from a scientific aspect. In this study, in order to clarify the effect of temporal change visualization by AR, we have compared the AR-based temporal change visualization method with the conventional temporal change visualization methods in the experiment. Especially, we set an observation of the plant growth as a practical scenario. Through the experiment, we have confirmed that superimpose the past appearance onto the user's viewpoint is effective for temporal change observation scenario.
Keywords: Augmented Reality; Temporal Change Visualization; Leaning Support
Augmented Reality Workshops for Art Students BIBAKFull-Text 156-166
  Marcin Wichrowski; Ewa Satalecka; Alicja Wieczorkowska
In this paper, we describe the program of our AR workshops dedicated to art students. Our observations regarding supervising such lab courses and students' works are presented. We would like to present a methodology for AR training when the students are not experienced in computer programming. We hope this will encourage other art and IT teachers to join efforts and incorporate AR into curriculum as a very promising concept of merging technology with visual communication. The potential of AR is very high and, therefore, it is important to introduce students to AR and the process of creating their own working projects.
Keywords: Augmented Reality; education; AR workshops; art projects; mobile AR

Games and Entertainment

Serious Games as Positive Technologies BIBAKFull-Text 169-177
  Luca Argenton; Esther Schek; Fabrizia Mantovani
Serious games are emerging as innovative tools to promote opportunities for human psychological growth and well-being. The aim of the present paper is to introduce them as Positive Technologies. Positive Technology is an emergent field based on both theoretical and applied research, whose goal is to investigate how Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) can be used to empower the quality of personal experience at three levels: hedonic well-being, eudaimonic well-being and social well-being. As Positive Technologies, serious games can influence both individual and interpersonal experiences by nurturing positive emotions, promoting engagement, as well as enhancing social integration and connectedness. An in-depth analysis of each of these aspects will be presented in the chapter, with the support of concrete examples.
Keywords: Positive psychology; positive technology; serious games; wellbeing
An Experience-Based Chinese Opera Using Live Video Mapping BIBAKFull-Text 178-189
  Xiang-Dan Huang; Byung-Gook Lee; Hyung-Woo Kim; Joon-Jae Lee
In this work, we choose Chinese Opera as research material, hoping to increase people's acceptance and intimate to the performance. The theme is "Havoc the Dragon Palace", one chapter of the sixteenth century Chinese novel "Journey to the West" by Wu Cheng'en. We developed the rendering technique and named "Live Video Mapping". It focuses on both the movement of human detection and the interaction with background video real-time. The virtual images on the stage not only generate good of view but also make audience experience the illusion of space in which the space is expanding and enhancing. Taking into account the above factors, this study explore the possibility of interactive video mapping, as well as understanding and increasing the affinity of Chinese Opera to promote the value of the Chinese Opera.
Keywords: Journey to the West; Chinese Opera; real-time interactive experience; live video mapping
Serious Games: Customizing the Audio-Visual Interface BIBAKFull-Text 190-199
  Bill Kapralos; Robert Shewaga; Gary Ng
Serious games are gaining in popularity within a wide range of educational and training applications given their ability to engage and motivate learners in the educational process. Recent hardware and computational advancements are providing developers the opportunity to develop applications that employ a high level of fidelity (realism) and novel interaction techniques. However, despite these great advances in hardware and computational power, real-time high fidelity rendering of complex virtual environments (found in many serious games) across all modalities is still not feasible. Perceptual-based rendering exploits various aspects of the multi-modal perceptual system to reduce computational requirements without any resulting perceptual effects on the resulting scene. A series of human-based experiments demonstrated a potentially strong effect of sound on visual fidelity perception, and task performance. However, the resulting effects were subjective whereby the influence of sound was dependent on various individual factors including musical listening preferences. This suggests the importance of customizing (individualizing) a serious game's virtual environment with respect to audio-visual fidelity, background sounds, etc. In this paper details regarding this series of audio-visual experiments will be provided followed by a description of current work that is examining the customization of a serious game's virtual environment by each user through the use of a game-based calibration method.
Keywords: Serious games; virtual simulation; audio-visual interaction; audio-visual fidelity; calibration
Designing AR Game Enhancing Interactivity between Virtual Objects and Hand for Overcoming Space Limit BIBAKFull-Text 200-209
  Kyungyeon Moon; Jonghee Sang; Woonteak Woo
We propose real-time interactive game that is based on Augmented Reality (AR). It is composed of AR marker, Head Mounted Display and depth camera. By using marker, the proposed system augments game space, fishing place. And player can interact virtual game object such as bait or fish with bare hands based on computer vision. The rapid development of AR technologies has raised profound interests in the design of AR games, but the existing games have not provided realistically felt game environments because the way to play games remains the same when the platform is changed. In addition, studies in this field did not fully utilize AR technologies, so that inherent characteristics of AR game do not impact user experience and draw attention explicitly on design concepts. Our system gives the experience that is grasping the virtual objects. Also, it can be applied to various game contents that are actually felt as real.
Keywords: entertainment; augmented reality; 3D interaction; HMD; hand-tracking
THE GROWTH: An Environmental Game Focusing on Overpopulation Issues BIBAKFull-Text 210-221
  Charn Pisithpunth; Panagiotis Petridis; Petros Lameras; Ian Dunwell
THE GROWTH is an environmental game aiming to tackle growing population issues and its impact on natural environment. The game also extends to cover social issues and unsustainable resources consumption caused by rapid population growth. Unlike many environmental games, THE GROWTH demonstrates that financial, social and health factors can be improved simply by committing to sustainable consumption patterns. The game aims to investigate the possibility of using serious games to promote players' environmental awareness and ultimately, the possibility of using serious games to modify players' consumption patterns. This game is designed for a specific target group of male population between 20-30 years of age in Bangkok (Thailand) and is focused on environmental issues raising the residential accommodation. Early experimental sessions were conducted with 17 participants and this paper presents the preliminary results of the study.
Keywords: Applications: Education; Applications: Entertainment; Applications: Virtual worlds and social computing; Interaction and navigation in VR and MR: Immersion; serious games

Medical, Health and Rehabilitation Applications

Responses during Facial Emotional Expression Recognition Tasks Using Virtual Reality and Static IAPS Pictures for Adults with Schizophrenia BIBAKFull-Text 225-235
  Esubalew Bekele; Dayi Bian; Zhi Zheng; Joel Peterman; Sohee Park; Nilanjan Sarkar
Technology-assisted intervention has the potential to adaptively individualize and improve outcomes of traditional schizophrenia (SZ) intervention. Virtual reality (VR) technology, in particular, has the potential to simulate real world social and communication interactions and hence could be useful as a therapeutic platform for SZ. Emotional face recognition is considered among the core building blocks of social communication. Studies have shown that emotional face processing and understanding is impaired in patients with SZ. The current study develops a novel VR-based system that presents avatars that can change their facial emotion dynamically for emotion recognition tasks. Additionally, this system allows real-time measurement of physiological signals and eye gaze during the emotion recognition tasks, which can be used to gain insight about the emotion recognition process in SZ population. This study further compares VR-based facial emotion recognition with that of the more traditional emotion recognition from static faces using a small usability study. Results from the usability study suggest that VR could be a viable platform for SZ intervention and implicit signals such as physiological signals and eye gaze can be utilized to better understand the underlying pattern that is not available from user reports and performance alone.
Keywords: facial expression; emotion recognition; virtual reality; IAPS; adaptive interaction; eye tracking; physiological processing; schizophrenia intervention
Attention Training with an Easy-to-Use Brain Computer Interface BIBAKFull-Text 236-247
  Filippo Benedetti; Nicola Catenacci Volpi; Leonardo Parisi; Giuseppe Sartori
This paper presents a cognitive training based on a brain-computer interface (BCI) that was developed for an adult subject with an attention disorder. According to the neurofeedback methodology, the user processes in real time his own electrical brain activity, which is detected through a non-invasive EEG device. The subject was trained in actively self modulating his own electrical patterns within a play therapy by using a reward-based virtual environment. Moreover, a consumer easy-to-use EEG headset was used, in order to assess its suitability for a concrete clinical application. At the end of the training, the patient obtained a significant improvement in attention.
Keywords: Play therapy; Attention training; Rehabilitation; Brain-computer interface (BCI); Neurofeedback
Augmented Reality Treatment for Phantom Limb Pain BIBAKFull-Text 248-257
  Francesco Carrino; Didier Rizzotti; Claudia Gheorghe; Patrick Kabasu Bakajika; Frédérique Francescotti-Paquier; Elena Mugellini
Mirror therapy is used from many years to treat phantom limb pain in amputees. However, this approach presents several limitations that could be overcome using the possibilities of new technologies. In this paper we present a novel approach based on augmented reality, 3D tracking and 3D modeling to enhance the capabilities of the classic mirror therapy. The system was conceived to be integrated in a three steps treatment called "Graded motor imagery" that includes: limb laterality recognition, motor imagery and, finally, mirror therapy. Aiming at a future home care therapy, we chose to work with low-cost technologies studying their advantages and drawbacks.
   In this paper, we present the conception and a first qualitative evaluation of the developed system.
Keywords: Augmented Reality; 3D tracking; 3D modeling; phantom limb pain treatment; mirror therapy
Comparing Data from a Computer Based Intervention Program for Patients with Alzheimer's Disease BIBAKFull-Text 258-266
  Agisilaos Chaldogeridis; Thrasyvoulos Tsiatsos; Moses Gialaouzidis; Magdalini Tsolaki
Nowadays, dealing with Alzheimer's disease (AD) includes a combination of pharmaceutical and non-pharmaceutical treatment. But, current drugs do not, and potential future drugs might not, improve quality of life. Evidence suggests psychosocial interventions, like educational and arts programs, do in fact have such a benefit. Supportive and enriching information technology may be more important than biotechnology (Whitehouse, 2013). So non-pharmaceutical treatment including physical and mental exercising as well seem to perform better. There are many forms of mental exercising from simple crosswords puzzles to sophisticated video games that exercise different cognitive skills. Main object of this report is to present the results of a computer-based intervention program for people with AD that take place in two Day Care Centers of Greek Association of Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders in Thessaloniki, Greece. There is a significant amount of data that include patients, who have taken part in interventions programs since 2009. For the purpose of this study we included data for a period of one year only. These patients have been tested before and after each intervention program (pre-test and post-test). Our work was to compare these data to examine how the program performs and which cognitive skills seem to have better improvement. The results showed that patients' overall scores were preserved for this period of time and had a slightly improvement which is a promising result indicating that this intervention program has positive effects.
Keywords: computerized cognitive training; Alzheimer's disease; cognitive rehabilitation
Virtual Reality-Based System for Training in Dental Anesthesia BIBAKFull-Text 267-276
  Cléber G. Corrêa; Fátima de Lourdes dos Santos Nunes; Romero Tori
This paper presents the development and preliminary evaluation of a Virtual Reality-based system for training in dental anesthesia. The development focused the simulation of an anesthesia procedure task. The evaluation involved graphic and haptic issues and had the presence of experts in the dentistry area. The assessment aimed at attributes that may influence the human-computer interaction, hindering realism, an important challenge in systems of this type. The attributes selected were: the update rate, the appearance of the virtual models and the number of viewpoints of the virtual environment, as well as the characteristics of the haptic device. Despite constraints were found, in the perception of the experts, the system may provide realism and help with the training of certain tasks.
Keywords: dental anesthesia; human-computer interaction; Virtual Reality
Adaptive Architecture to Support Context-Aware Collaborative Networked Virtual Surgical Simulators (CNVSS) BIBAKFull-Text 277-286
  Christian Diaz; Helmuth Trefftz; Lucia Quintero; Diego Acosta; Sakti Srivastava
Stand-alone and networked surgical virtual reality based simulators have been proposed as means to train surgical skills with or without a supervisor nearby the student or trainee. However, surgical skills teaching in medicine schools and hospitals is changing, requiring the development of new tools to focus on: (i) importance of mentors role, (ii) teamwork skills and (iii) remote training support. For these reasons a surgical simulator should not only allow the training involving a student and an instructor that are located remotely, but also the collaborative training session involving a group of several students adopting different medical roles during the training session.
   Collaborative Networked Virtual Surgical Simulators (CNVSS) allow collaborative training of surgical procedures where remotely located users with different surgical roles can take part in a training session. Several works have addressed the issues related to the development of CNVSS using various strategies. To the best of our knowledge no one has focused on handling heterogeneity in collaborative surgical virtual environments. Handling heterogeneity in this type of collaborative sessions is important because not all remotely located users have homogeneous Internet connections, nor the same interaction devices and displays, nor the same computational resources, among other factors. Additionally, if heterogeneity is not handled properly, it will have an adverse impact on the performance of each user during the collaborative session. In this paper we describe the development of an adaptive architecture with the purpose of implementing a context-aware model for collaborative virtual surgical simulation in order to handle the heterogeneity involved in the collaboration session.
Keywords: Context Aware; Collaborative Networked Surgical Simulators; Remote Medical Training
Three-Dimensional Fitt's Law Model Used to Predict Movement Time in Serious Games for Rehabilitation BIBAKFull-Text 287-297
  Sergio García-Vergara; Ayanna M. Howard
Virtual reality serious game platforms have been developed to enhance the effectiveness of rehabilitation protocols for those with motor skill disorders. Such systems increase the user's motivation to perform the recommended in-home therapy exercises, but typically don't incorporate an objective method for assessing the user's outcome metrics. We expand on the commonly used human modeling method, Fitt's law, used to predict the amount of time needed to complete a task, and apply it as an assessment method for virtual environments. During game-play, we compare the user's movement time to the predicted value as a means for assessing the individual's kinematic performance. Taking into consideration the structure of virtual gaming environments, we expand the nominal Fitt's model to one that makes accurate time predictions for three-dimensional movements. Results show that the three-dimensional refinement made to the Fitt's model makes better predictions when interacting with virtual gaming platforms than its two-dimensional counterpart.
Keywords: Fitt's law; virtual reality games; physical therapy and rehabilitation; linear modeling
Multi-users Real-Time Interaction with Bacterial Biofilm Images Using Augmented Reality BIBAKFull-Text 298-308
  Mohammadreza Hosseini; Tomasz Bednarz; Arcot Sowmya
Augmented Reality (AR) applications may be used to enhance understanding of physical objects by addition of digital information to captured video streams. We propose new bio-secure system for interactions with bacterium biofilm images using the AR technology to improve safety in experimental lab. In proposed application we used state-of-the-art real-time features detection and matching methods. Also, various methods of feature detection and matching were compared with each other for real-time interaction and accuracy. The implementation of an app on a tablet device (Apple iPad) makes it useable by multi users in parallel.
Keywords: Multi-user; Real-time; biofilm; Augmented reality
Attention Control and Eyesight Focus for Senior Citizens BIBAKFull-Text 309-315
  Miikka Lääkkö; Aryan Firouzian; Jari Tervonen; Goshiro Yamamoto; Petri Pulli
The population is aging fast and with aging come cognitive impairments that often require costly facility care. This paper proposes Smart Glasses that can help alleviate these impairments at their early stages and thus allow senior citizens stay away from facility care longer. The Smart Glasses produce exogenous cues to attract user attention. Four usability experiments are described to evaluate the utility of the cues and other usability factors of the proposed system. We expect the results will give us valuable information on how to improve the design of the system based on senior citizens' needs.
Keywords: smart glasses; aging in-place; assistive technology; attention control; cognitive impairment
Sense of Presence and Metacognition Enhancement in Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy in the Treatment of Social Phobias and the Fear of Flying BIBAKFull-Text 316-328
  Ioannis Paliokas; Athanasios Tsakiris; Athanasios Vidalis; Dimitrios Tzovaras
The aim of this research effort is to identify feeling-of-presence and metacognitive amplifiers over existing well-established VRET treatment methods. Patient real time projection in virtual environments during stimuli exposure and electroencephalography (EEG) report sharing are among the techniques, which have been used to achieve the desired result. Initialized from theoretical inferences, is moving towards a proof-of-concept prototype, which has been developed as a realization of the proposed method. The evaluation of the prototype made possible with an expert team of 28 therapists testing the fear of public speaking and fear of flying case studies.
Keywords: Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy; Anxiety Disorders; Sense of Presence; Metacognition; Fear of Public Speech; Fear of Flying
Severe Neglect and Computer-Based Home Training BIBAKFull-Text 329-339
  Inge Linda Wilms
Cognitive rehabilitation from a functional perspective often requires intensive training over a longer period of time. In the case of rehabilitation of unilateral neglect, the frequency and intensity needed is expensive and difficult to implement both for the therapists and the patients. For this reason, this case study tests the possibility of using computer-based training in the rehabilitation efforts for a patient with severe neglect who had no previous skills in computer usage. The article describes the results of the training both in terms of neuropsychological tests and the reading ability of the patient.
Keywords: optokinetic training; home training; computer-based training; unilateral neglect; prism adaptation training; bottom-up

Industrial, Safety and Military Applications

Spatial Augmented Reality in Collaborative Design Training: Articulation between I-Space, We-Space and Space-Between BIBAKFull-Text 343-353
  Samia Ben Rajeb; Pierre Leclercq
This paper analyses the use of augmented reality in advanced project-based training in design. Our study considers how augmented environments can contribute to this type of group training: what types of interaction spaces constitute these new learning environments and how are these spaces constructed so as to promote collective reflection?
Keywords: Project based learning; collaborative design; augmented reality
Passenger Ship Evacuation -- Design and Verification BIBAKFull-Text 354-365
  Luis Guarin; Yasmine Hifi; Dracos Vassalos
This paper introduces the concept of escape and evacuation from passenger ships from a perspective of ship design and risk management. As part of that process, the use of computer simulation tools for analysing the evacuation performance of ships carrying large numbers of persons on board is becoming more relevant and useful. The objective of this paper is to present the pedestrian dynamics simulation tool EVI, developed to undertake advanced escape and evacuation analysis in the design verification of cruise vessels, passenger ferries and large offshore construction vessels, among others.
Keywords: Evacuation analysis; passenger ships; offshore vessels
Evaluation of User Experience Goal Fulfillment: Case Remote Operator Station BIBAKFull-Text 366-377
  Hannu Karvonen; Hanna Koskinen; Helena Tokkonen; Jaakko Hakulinen
In this paper, the results of a user experience (UX) goal evaluation study are reported. The study was carried out as a part of a research and development project of a novel remote operator station (ROS) for container gantry crane operation in port yards. The objectives of the study were both to compare the UXs of two different user interface concepts and to give feedback on how well the UX goals experience of safe operation, sense of control, and feeling of presence are fulfilled with the developed ROS prototype. According to the results, the experience of safe operation and feeling of presence were not supported with the current version of the system. However, there was much better support for the fulfilment of the sense of control UX goal in the results. Methodologically, further work is needed in adapting the utilized Usability Case method to suit UX goal evaluation better.
Keywords: remote operation; user experience; user experience goal; evaluation
Increasing the Transparency of Unmanned Systems: Applications of Ecological Interface Design BIBAKFull-Text 378-389
  Ryan Kilgore; Martin Voshell
This paper describes ongoing efforts to address the challenges of supervising teams of heterogeneous unmanned vehicles through the use of demonstrated Ecological Interface Design (EID) principles. We first review the EID framework and discuss how we have applied it to the unmanned systems domain. Then, drawing from specific interface examples, we present several generalizable design strategies for improved supervisory control displays. We discuss how ecological display techniques can be used to increase the transparency and observability of highly automated unmanned systems by enabling operators to efficiently perceive and reason about automated support outcomes and purposefully direct system behavior.
Keywords: Ecological Interface Design (EID); automation transparency; unmanned systems; supervisory control; displays
Collaborative Visualization of a Warfare Simulation Using a Commercial Game Engine BIBAKFull-Text 390-401
  Hyungki Kim; Yuna Kang; Suchul Shin; Imkyu Kim; Soonhung Han
The requirement about reusable 3D visualization tool was continuously raised in various industries. Especially in the defense modeling and simulation field, there are abundant researches about reusable and interoperable visualization system, since it has a critical role to the efficient decision making by offering diverse validation and analyzing process. Also to facilitate the effectiveness, many current operating systems are applying VR (Virtual Reality) and AR (Augmented Reality) technologies aggressively. In this background, we conducted the research about the design for the collaborative visualization environment for the warfare simulation through commercial game engine. We define the requirements by analyzing advantages and disadvantages of existing tools or engines like SIMDIS or Vega, and propose the methods how to utilize the functionalities of commercial game engine to satisfy the requirements. The implemented prototype offers collaborative visualization environment inside the CAVE environment, which is the facility for immersive virtual environment, by cooperating with handheld devices.
Keywords: 3D Visualization; Game Engine; Warfare Simulation; Collaborative Visualization Environment
VELOS: Crowd Modeling for Enhanced Ship Evacuation Analysis BIBAFull-Text 402-413
  Konstantinos V. Kostas; Alexandros-Alvertos Ginnis; Constantinos G. Politis; Panagiotis D. Kaklis
Virtual Environment for Life On Ships (VELOS) is a multi-user Virtual Reality (VR) system that supports designers to assess (early in the design process) passenger and crew activities on a ship for both normal and hectic conditions of operations and to improve the ship design accordingly [1]. Realistic simulations of behavioral aspects of crowd in emergency conditions require modeling of panic aspects and social conventions of inter-relations. The present paper provides a description of the enhanced crowd modeling approach employed in VELOS for the performance of ship evacuation assessment and analysis based on the guidelines provided by IMO's Circular MSC 1238/2007 [2].
Applying Augmented Reality to the Concept Development Stage of the Total Design Methodology BIBAKFull-Text 414-425
  Gordon M. Mair; Andrew Robinson; John Storr
This paper suggests an approach to assist the identification of suitable areas of application of AR within the product design process. The approach utilizes an established methodology for product design development that allows each stage in the design process to be identified and considered in a logical and structured manner. By doing this we can consider the suitability for AR at each stage as opposed to the use of hand drawings, basic computer aided design, virtual reality, or rapid prototyping techniques and suchlike to produce physical models. As an example of this we consider the concept design stage of the product design process and conduct some preliminary experiments in the use of AR to facilitate the activity.
Keywords: Augmented reality; product design; total design; concept design; industrial design
Authoring of Automatic Data Preparation and Scene Enrichment for Maritime Virtual Reality Applications BIBAFull-Text 426-434
  Benjamin Mesing; Uwe von Lukas
When realizing virtual reality scenarios for the maritime sector a key challenge is dealing with the huge amount of data.
   Adding interactive behaviour for providing a rich interactive experience manually requires a lot of time and effort. Additionally, even though shipyards today often use PDM or PLM systems to manage and aggregate the data, the export to a visualisation format is not without problems and often needs some post procession to take place. We present a framework, that combines the capabilities of processing large amounts of data for preparing virtual reality scenarios and enriching it with dynamic aspects like interactive door opening capabilities. An authoring interface allows orchestrating the data preparation chain by non-expert users to realise individual scenarios easily.
AR-Based Vehicular Safety Information System for Forward Collision Warning BIBAKFull-Text 435-442
  Hye Sun Park; Kyong-Ho Kim
This paper proposes an AR (augmented reality) based vehicular safety information system that provides warning information allowing drivers to easily avoid obstacles without being visually distracted. The proposed system consists of four stages: fusion data based object tracking, collision threat assessment, AR-registration, and a warning display strategy. It is shown experimentally that the proposed system can predict the threat of a collision from a tracked forward obstacle even during the nighttime and under bad weather conditions. The system can provide safety information for avoiding collisions by projecting information directly into the driver's field of view. The proposed system is expected to help drivers by conveniently providing safety information and allowing them to safely avoid forward obstacles.
Keywords: AR (augmented reality); vehicular safety information; forward collision; warning system; data fusion; object tracking; threat assessment; warning strategy
An Augmented Reality Framework for Supporting and Monitoring Operators during Maintenance Tasks BIBAKFull-Text 443-454
  Guido Maria Re; Monica Bordegoni
The paper proposes a framework for supporting maintenance services in industrial environments through the use of a mobile device and Augmented Reality (AR) technologies. 3D visual instructions about the task to carry out are represented in the real world by means of AR and they are visible through the mobile device. In addition to the solutions proposed so far, the framework introduces the possibility to monitor the operator's work from a remote location. The mobile device stores information for each maintenance step that has been completed and it makes them available on a remote database. Supervisors can consequently check the maintenance activity from a remote PC at any time. The paper presents also a prototype system, developed according to the framework, and an initial case study in the field of food industry.
Keywords: Augmented Reality; Framework; Maintenance tasks; Remote Supervision
Using VR for Complex Product Design BIBAKFull-Text 455-464
  Loukas Rentzos; Charalampos Vourtsis; Dimitris Mavrikios; George Chryssolouris
Virtual reality is a key technology for the designing of products through complex human-product interactions. This paper deals with the development of a product design method for complex human-product interactions, using the virtual reality (VR) technology. This VR method uses the graph theory in order for the complexity of the designed product to be measured on the basis of human task analysis. The latter is for the purpose of recording and analyzing the human-product interactions within an immersive simulation session. The proposed method undergoes tests in a realistic aerospace case.
Keywords: Product Design; Product Complexity; Immersive Environment; Virtual Prototyping
Maritime Applications of Augmented Reality -- Experiences and Challenges BIBAKFull-Text 465-475
  Uwe von Lukas; Matthias Vahl; Benjamin Mesing
The paper summarizes experiences from applied research in visual computing for the maritime sector. It starts with initial remarks on Augmented Reality in general and the specific boundary conditions of the maritime industry. The focus is on a presentation of various concrete AR applications that have been implemented for use cases in maritime engineering, production, operation and retrofitting. The paper closes with remarks on future research in this area.
Keywords: Augmented Reality; Mixed Reality; Applied Research; Maritime Industry; Mobile Systems