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VAMR Tables of Contents: 13-113-214-114-215

VAMR 2013: 5th International Conference on Virtual, Augmented and Mixed Reality, Part II: Systems and Applications

Fullname:VAMR 2013: 5th International Conference on Virtual, Augmented and Mixed Reality, Part II: Systems and Applications
Note:Volume 19 of HCI International 2013
Editors:Randall Shumaker
Location:Las Vegas, Nevada
Dates:2013-Jul-21 to 2013-Jul-26
Volume:2
Publisher:Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Series:Lecture Notes in Computer Science 8022
Standard No:DOI: 10.1007/978-3-642-39420-1 hcibib: VAMR13-2; ISBN: 978-3-642-39419-5 (print), 978-3-642-39420-1 (online)
Papers:46
Pages:445
Links:Online Proceedings | Conference Webpage
  1. VAMR 2013-07-21 Volume 2
    1. Healthcare and Medical Applications
    2. Virtual and Augmented Environments for Learning and Education
    3. Business, Industrial and Military Applications
    4. Culture and Entertainment Applications

VAMR 2013-07-21 Volume 2

Healthcare and Medical Applications

Gait Analysis Management and Diagnosis in a Prototype Virtual Reality Environment BIBAFull-Text 3-11
  Salsabeel F. M. Alfalah; David K. Harrison; Vassilis Charissis
Current medical data derived from gait analysis and diagnosis of various musculoskeletal pathologies offer a plethora of text based and imaging data. The large volume and complexity of the particular data present a number of issues during the collection, storage, searching and visualisation process for gait analysis management and diagnosis. Adhering to above it is evident that a simplified, holistic and user-friendly system is required in order to improve the acquisition and comparison of medical data in a timely manner. Further consultation with health professionals suggested that the proposed prototype should entail an automated system that can extract, save and visualise the data from different sources, in order to enhance medical data visualisation, increase efficiency and thus improve quality of service and management. This work presents the development stages of a new prototype system for managing medical data for gait analysis, which additionally offer simulation capacity in a Virtual Reality environment in order to assist the medical practitioners towards a faster an better informed evaluation of each condition. In particular this paper investigates various methods of displaying medical data in a single application with a view to managing and sharing multimedia data and to employing a VR to enhance user interaction with medical data. Findings of a promising preliminary evaluation through user trials are also presented. Concluding, the paper presents future plans to incorporate a bespoke 3D human-computer interface with a view to provide the health professionals with customisable information and enhancing the interface functionalities. Finally, as the system is web-based there is scope for expansion of the application to other areas of medical assessments involving complicated datasets.
Theory-Guided Virtual Reality Psychotherapies: Going beyond CBT-Based Approaches BIBAKFull-Text 12-21
  Sheryl Brahnam
Most VR applications in mental health care have focused on cognitive behavioral therapy. This paper is a call to expand research into other theory-guided psychotherapy practices. Evidence is presented that supports the so-called dodo bird effect that contends that all bona fide psychotherapies are equally effective. Two avenues for expanding research are suggested that focus on VR strengths: creating VR playspaces (virtual environments where therapist and client can engage playfully) and VR drama therapy.
Keywords: virtual reality; drama therapy; creative expression therapy; playspace; psychotherapy; dodo bird effect
Development of the Home Arm Movement Stroke Training Environment for Rehabilitation (HAMSTER) and Evaluation by Clinicians BIBAFull-Text 22-31
  Elizabeth B. Brokaw; Bambi R. Brewer
Stroke commonly results in severe impairment of upper extremity function, which limits independence in activities of daily living. Continued and frequent use of the affected limb can result in increased function. However, long term access to therapy is frequently limited, and home exercise compliance is low. The following paper presents the design and clinician evaluation of a Kinect based home therapy system called Home Arm Movement Stroke Training Environment (HAMSTER). The development, which focused on reducing commonly observed impairments after stroke, is discussed. Additionally the system was evaluated by twelve clinicians (occupational and physical therapists) with an average of 18 years of clinical experience with individuals with chronic stroke. The clinicians were asked about commonly prescribed home exercises, and for feedback about the HAMSTER system. Although only two of the clinicians had used the Kinect previously, the clinicians reported good usability and general satisfaction with the system. All of the clinicians felt that HAMSTER would be beneficial for individuals with chronic stroke.
A Low Cost Virtual Reality System for Rehabilitation of Upper Limb BIBAKFull-Text 32-39
  Pawel Budziszewski
The paper describes an on-going research aimed at creating the low cost virtual reality based system for physical rehabilitation of upper limb. The system is designed to assist in rehabilitation involving various kinds of limb movement, including precise hand movements and movement of the whole extremity. It can be used at patient's home as a telerehabilitation device. It was decided to use the system with a motion tracking (Razer Hydra) and two alternative display devices: head mounted displays (Sony HMZ-T1) and a LCD display with stereovision glasses (nVidia 3DVision). The custom software was developed to create the virtual reality environment and perform rehabilitation exercises. Three sample rehabilitation games were created to perform assessment of the rehabilitation system. In the preliminary research the usability of the system was assessed by one patient. He was able to use the system for rehabilitation exercises, however some problems with Sony HMZ-T1 usability were spotted. During the next stages of the research extended assessment of the system's usability and assessment of system's efficiency are planned.
Keywords: physical rehabilitation; virtual reality; serious games; home based rehabilitation; HMD; Razer Hydra; Sony HMZ-T1
Super Pop VR™: An Adaptable Virtual Reality Game for Upper-Body Rehabilitation BIBAKFull-Text 40-49
  Sergio García-Vergara; Yu-Ping Chen; Ayanna M. Howard
Therapists and researchers have studied the importance of virtual reality (VR) environments in physical therapy interventions for people with different conditions such as stroke, Parkinson's disease, and cerebral palsy. Most of these VR systems do not integrate clinical assessment of outcome measures as an automated objective of the system. Moreover, these systems do not allow real-time adjustment of the system characteristics that is necessary to individualize the intervention. We discuss a new VR game designed to improve upper-arm motor function through repetitive arm exercises. An automated method is used to extract outcome measures of upper extremity movements using the Fugl-Meyer assessment methodology. The accuracy of the system was validated based on trials with eighteen adult subjects. With a corresponding average assessment error of less than 5%, the developed system shows to be a promising tool for therapists to use in individualizing the intervention for individuals with upper-body motor impairments.
Keywords: Cerebral Palsy; virtual reality gaming environment; Fugl-Meyer assessment; physical therapy and rehabilitation
Asynchronous Telemedicine Diagnosis of Musculoskeletal Injuries through a Prototype Interface in Virtual Reality Environment BIBAKFull-Text 50-59
  Soheeb Khan; Vassilis Charissis; David Harrison; Sophia Sakellariou; Warren Chan
Telehealth provides a much needed option for remote diagnosis and monitoring of various pathologies and patients. Remote provision of health care can offer a two fold support for the medical system and the patients. Primarily it could serve isolated locations and secondly it could monitor a large number of outpatient cases directly on their homes instead of the hospital premises. However in specific cases direct communication and visual data acquisition can be a major obstacle. To this end we have developed a prototype system that could enable the medical practitioners to have real-time diagnosis through 3D captured visual and motion data. This data are recreated in a Virtual Reality environment in the hospital facilities offering a unique system for remote diagnosis. This paper presents the design considerations and development process of the system and discusses the preliminary results from the system evaluation. The paper concludes with a tentative plan of future work which aims to offer the medical practitioners and the patient with a complete interface which can acquire gait data and thus analyse a large variety of musculoskeletal pathologies.
Keywords: Virtual Reality; HCI; 3D Visualization; Asynchronous Diagnosis; Telemedicine; Motion Capture
Developing a Theory-Informed Interactive Animation to Increase Physical Activity among Young People with Asthma BIBAKFull-Text 60-65
  Jennifer Murray; Brian Williams; Gaylor Hoskins; John McGhee; Dylan Gauld; Gordon Brown
The current paper describes the development of a theory-informed interactive animation and which aims to increase levels of physical activity in young people with asthma. The project adopts a multi-disciplinary theoretical perspective, applying knowledge from applied health research, human centred design and psychology in order to best approach and develop a meaningful and effective health intervention.
Keywords: Asthma; interactive animation; multidisciplinary; theory-informed
The Design Considerations of a Virtual Reality Application for Heart Anatomy and Pathology Education BIBAKFull-Text 66-73
  Victor Nyamse; Vassilis Charissis; J. David Moore; Caroline Parker; Soheeb Khan; Warren Chan
Anatomy and pathology of the human body are complex subjects that cannot be elucidated easily to the medical students through traditional description and illustration methods. The proposed interactive system aims to present clear information on demand. For enhancing further the three-dimensional understanding of the anatomical information, a virtual reality environment was developed in order to accommodate different 3D models of the human body. In this case we opted for the heart model as it presents a unique section of the body that can produce motion and sound. The produced model was further simplified for use by patients who wish to understand better the generic anatomy and typical pathologies of the heart. Additionally the paper presents the data results of the system evaluation performed by ten users. The derived results although promising, highlighted some benefits and drawbacks of the proposed system that we aim, to improve in the near future. Finally the paper concludes with a plan of future work which will entail further interactivity through audio incorporation and gesture recognition.
Keywords: Virtual Reality; HCI; 3D Visualization; Heart Disease; Anatomy; Pathology
Human-Computer Confluence for Rehabilitation Purposes after Stroke BIBAKFull-Text 74-82
  Rupert Ortner; David Ram; Alexander Kollreider; Harald Pitsch; Joanna Wojtowicz; Günter Edlinger
In this publication, we present a Motor Imagery (MI) based Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) for neurologic rehabilitation. The BCI is able to control two different feedback devices. The first one is a rehabilitation robot, moving the fingers of the affected hand according to the detected MI. The second one presents feedback via virtual reality (VR) to the subject. The latter one visualizes two hands that the user sees in a first perspective view, which open and close according to the detected MI. Four healthy users participated in tests with the rehabilitation robot, and eleven post stroke patients and eleven healthy users participated to tests with the VR system. We present all subjects' control accuracy, including a comparison between healthy users and people who suffered stroke. Five of the stroke patients also agreed to participate in further sessions, and we explored possible improvements in accuracy due to training effects.
Keywords: Medical and healthcare; Applications: Rehabilitation
Projected AR-Based Interactive CPR Simulator BIBAKFull-Text 83-89
  Nohyoung Park; Yeram Kwon; Sungwon Lee; Woontack Woo; Jihoon Jeong
In this paper, we propose a new approach of a cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) simulation system that exploits both AR-based visualization and embedded hardware sensing techniques. The proposed system provides real-time interactive visual feedback to the CPR trainee with the projected AR indicator plane that visualizes results of an interlocking signal of the trainee's actions using embedded sensors. This system also provides proper guidelines about the CPR trainee's posture by detecting a user's articular pose from a RGB-D camera in real-time. As implementation results, our system provides interactive feedback, that enabling more accurate and effective training experience to the trainee and more cost-effective rather than traditional CPR education training systems.
Keywords: CPR simulation; AR-based CPR simulator; augmented reality training system; augmented reality simulation; projected augmented reality
Affecting Our Perception of Satiety by Changing the Size of Virtual Dishes Displayed with a Tabletop Display BIBAKFull-Text 90-99
  Sho Sakurai; Takuji Narumi; Yuki Ban; Tomohiro Tanikawa; Michitaka Hirose
In this paper, we propose a tabletop system for affecting our perception of satiety and controlling energy intakes by controlling a size of a projected image around the food. We hypothesized that ambiguous perception of satiety can be applied to control our food intake. Given that estimating portion size is often a relative judgment, apparent food volume is assessed according to the size of neighboring objects such as many cutleries. Especially, the effect of the size of dish on food intake has been debated. Based on the knowledge, we constructed a tabletop system which projects virtual dishes around the food on it, in order to change the assessed apparent food volume interactively. Our results suggest that the size of virtual dish change the perception of satiety and the amount of food consumption.
Keywords: Augmented Satiety; Human Food Interaction; Cross-modal Interaction; Augmented reality; Food Consumption

Virtual and Augmented Environments for Learning and Education

An Experience on Natural Sciences Augmented Reality Contents for Preschoolers BIBAKFull-Text 103-112
  Antonia Cascales; Isabel Laguna; David Pérez-López; Pascual Perona; Manuel Contero
Early education is a key element for the future success of students in the education system. This work analyzes the feasibility of using augmented reality contents with preschool students (four and five years old) as a tool for improving their learning process. A quasi experimental design based on a nonequivalent groups posttest-only design was used. A didactic unit has been developed around the topic "animals" by the participant teachers. The control group followed all the didactic activities defined in the developed didactic materials, while the experimental group was provided in addition with some augmented reality contents. Results show improved learning outcomes in the experimental group with respect to the control group.
Keywords: augmented reality; preschool; teaching/learning process
Teaching 3D Arts Using Game Engines for Engineering and Architecture BIBAKFull-Text 113-121
  Jaume Duran; Sergi Villagrasa
The main objective of this paper is to evaluate the application of 3D virtual worlds for teaching different subjects mainly oriented to architectural visualization and creating 3D models for multimedia. The use of 3D technologies, multi-user virtual environments and avatars are new methodologies for the student to have a much richer experience and therefore more motivating for a deeper understanding of the assessment and help understand more collaborative the projects. In this paper we work on the concept e-learning and blended learning technologies related to interactive 3D spaces such as OpenSim, Activeworlds, Secondlife, Unity and others. The students' participation in these virtual 3D environments will help to understand the concept of an architectural project and 3D creation, improving collaboration between students and teacher, and dramatically increase in a greater understanding of the project and a high degree of their involvement with design develop. The paper describes the method of teaching 3D arts using Game Engines like Unity.
Keywords: Virtual reality; Game engines; Visual learning
The Characterisation of a Virtual Reality System to Improve the Quality and to Reduce the Gap between Information Technology and Medical Education BIBAKFull-Text 122-131
  Jannat Falah; David K. Harrison; Vassilis Charissis; Bruce M. Wood
Contemporary medical training is hindered by an excessive amount of information provided to students through mainly traditional teaching methods yet the younger generations are accustomed to digital data and information on-demand. As such they have developed a fully customised manner of learning, which in turn requires a new, innovative and equally customised teaching method. This inherited customisation and accelerated manner of learning stems from contemporary lifestyle trends. As such, a reduced learning curve requires innovative and efficient teaching methods, which comply with existing curriculums, yet facilitate the contemporary learning mantra. In particular medical education requires a plethora of information related to the understanding of spatial relations and the three-dimensionality of the human body. Previous studies successfully employed Virtual Reality (VR) and high fidelity patient simulation in order to improve and enhance the medical education and clinical training. The benefits of this technological adoption in the teaching field offered safer experimentation environments, reduced time and cost. Furthermore the Virtual Reality facilities and systems can be extensively customised with relatively low cost and be re-used for various applications. The purpose of this paper is to identify the differences between current education methods and the proposed technology. This research will exploit current teaching trends and attempt to provide recommendations based on a University of Jordan case study. Overall the paper describes the design process of the survey questionnaire that was used for this evaluation and provides valuable insights to both academics and practitioners regarding the potential benefits and drawbacks of adopting such a system.
Keywords: Applications: Education; Virtual Reality; system characterisation; medical education; Middle East
A Mobile Personal Learning Environment Approach BIBAKFull-Text 132-141
  Francisco José García-Peñalvo; Miguel Ángel Conde; Alberto Del Pozo
Learning and teaching processes are not restricted to an institution or a period of time. A person can learn from experience, from the interaction with peers, because he/she has a personal interest on something, etc. Lot of such learning activities are today mediated by the Information and Communication Technologies. Such technologies allow the users decide what tools and contexts use to learn. But, in order the learning activities can be taken into account they should be visible for the institutions. In this paper a service-based framework to facilitate this is presented. It is specially focus on the communication of the mobiles devices used as a learning tool with the traditional institutional learning platforms. The framework is implemented as an Android solution and tested by students. From these tests, it can be seen that a mobile Personal Learning Environment is possible and its use motivates students' participation in learning activities.
Keywords: Mobile Learning; Mobile Devices; Personal Learning Environments; Android; Web Services; Interoperability
Perceived Presence's Role on Learning Outcomes in a Mixed Reality Classroom of Simulated Students BIBAKFull-Text 142-151
  Aleshia T. Hayes; Stacey E. Hardin; Charles E. Hughes
This research is part of an ongoing effort on the efficacy and user experience of TLE TeachLivE™, a 3D mixed reality classroom with simulated students used to facilitate virtual rehearsal of pedagogical skills by teachers. This research investigated a potential relationship between efficacy, in terms of knowledge acquisition and transfer, and user experience in regard to presence, suspension of disbelief, and immersion. The initial case studies examining user experience of presence, suspension of disbelief, and immersion were used to develop a presence questionnaire revised from the work of Witmer and Singer (1998) to address the TLE TeachLivE™ mixed reality environment. The findings suggest that targeted practice, authentic scenarios, and suspension of disbelief in virtual learning environments may impact learning.
Keywords: Mixed Reality Classroom; Simulation; Presence; Suspension of Disbelief; Immersion; Engagement; Knowledge Acquisition; Virtual Learning
The Building as the Interface: Architectural Design for Education in Virtual Worlds BIBAKFull-Text 152-161
  Luis Antonio Hernández Ibáñez; Viviana Barneche Naya
This paper focuses on architectural spatial design for virtual tridimensional learning environments through the lens of a case study. The work describes the design methodology of a flexible and interactive set of virtual constructions where the architecture itself acts as a dynamic interface whose spaces adapt to the activities that avatars carry out in their interior, sometimes interacting with them. This approach considers the multiple innovative parameters that have to be taken into account in the process of cyberarchitectural design.
Keywords: Metaverses; Virtual Worlds; Cyberarchitecture; V-Learning
Mixed Reality Space Travel for Physics Learning BIBAKFull-Text 162-169
  Darin E. Hughes; Shabnam Sabbagh; Robb Lindgren; J. Michael Moshell; Charles E. Hughes
In this paper we describe research being conducted on a mixed reality simulation called MEteor that is designed for informal physics learning in science centers. MEteor is a 30 x 10 foot floor area where participants use their bodies to interact with projected astronomical imagery. Participants walk and run across the floor to simulate how objects move in space, and to enact basic physics principles. Key to the success of this learning environment is an interface scheme that supports the central metaphor of "child as asteroid." Using video data collected in our studies we examine the extent to which feedback mechanisms and interface conventions strengthened the metaphorical connection, and we describe ways the interaction design can be improved for future iterations.
Keywords: STEM; mixed reality; whole-body learning; informal education; physics simulation
Picking Up STEAM: Educational Implications for Teaching with an Augmented Reality Guitar Learning System BIBAKFull-Text 170-178
  Joseph R. Keebler; Travis J. Wiltshire; Dustin C. Smith; Stephen M. Fiore
Incorporation of the arts into the current model of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEAM) may have a profound impact on the future of education. In light of this, we examined a novel technology at the intersection of these disciplines. Specifically, an experiment was conducted using augmented reality to learn a musical instrument, namely the guitar. The Fretlight® guitar system uses LED lights embedded in the fretboard to give direct information to the guitarist as to where to place their fingers. This was compared to a standard scale diagram. Results indicate that the Fretlight® system led to initial significant gains in performance over a control condition using diagrams, but these effects disappeared over the course of 30 trials. Potential benefits of the augmented reality technology are discussed, and future work is outlined to better understand how embodied cognition and augmented reality can increase learning outcomes for playing musical instruments.
Keywords: STEAM; augmented reality; embodied learning; music education; Fretlight® guitar
Virtual Reality Data Visualization for Team-Based STEAM Education: Tools, Methods, and Lessons Learned BIBAKFull-Text 179-187
  Daniel F. Keefe; David H. Laidlaw
We present a discussion of tools, methods, and lessons learned from nearly ten years of work using virtual reality data visualization as a driving problem area for collaborative practice-based STEAM education. This work has spanned multiple universities and design colleges. It has resulted in courses taught to both students majoring in computer science and students majoring in art or design. Within the classroom, an important aspect of our approach is including art and design students directly in real scientific research, often extended beyond the computer science aspects of data visualization to also include the research of collaborators in biology, medicine, and engineering who provide cutting-edge data visualization challenges. The interdisciplinary team-based education efforts have also extended beyond the classroom as art and design students have participated in our labs as research assistants and made major contributions to published scientific research. In some cases, these experiences have impacted career paths for students.
Keywords: STEAM; art; science; computer science; education; virtual reality; visualization
Architectural Geo-E-Learning BIBAKFull-Text 188-197
  Ernest Redondo; Albert Sánchez Riera; David Fonseca; Alberto Peredo
This work addresses the implementation of a mobile Augmented Reality (AR) browser on educational environments. We seek to analyze new educational tools and methodologies, non-traditional, to improve students' academic performance, commitment and motivation. The basis of our claim lies in the skills improvement that students can achieve thanks to their innate affinity to digital media features of new Smartphones. We worked under the Layar platform for mobile devices to create virtual information channels through a database associated to 3D virtual models and any other type of media content. The teaching experience was carried out with Master Architecture students, and developed in two subjects focused on the use of ICT and Urban Design. We call it Geo-elearning because of the use of new eLearning strategies and methodologies that incorporate geolocation, allowing receiving, sharing, and evaluate own-generated student's proposals, on site.
Keywords: Augmented reality; E-Learning; Geo-Elearning; Urban Planning; Educational research

Business, Industrial and Military Applications

Mixed Reality Environment for Mission Critical Systems Servicing and Repair BIBAKFull-Text 201-210
  Andrea F. Abate; Fabio Narducci; Stefano Ricciardi
Mixed Reality (MR) technologies may play an important role in assisting on-site operators during maintenance and repair activities. Nevertheless, industrial equipment augmentation requires a high level of precision when co-registering virtual objects to the corresponding real counterparts. In this paper we describe a comprehensive proposal for a mixed reality environment aimed to improve the effectiveness of servicing and repair procedures in mission critical systems, while reducing the time required for the intervention. The tracking of the user's point of view exploits a multi-marker based solution for robust and precise augmentation of the operating field. The architecture also features a diminishing visualization strategy allowing the user to see only the fraction of real equipment that is relevant for the maintenance task. A finger color-based tracking provides powerful interaction capabilities by means of a not-instrumented interface exploiting colored fingertips caps. An evaluation study of the proposed MR environment, performed by technicians with no previous experience of MR systems, highlights the potential of the approach.
Keywords: Mixed reality; diminished reality; finger based interaction; AR based maintenance
Establishing Workload Manipulations Utilizing a Simulated Environment BIBAKFull-Text 211-220
  Julian, IV Abich; Lauren Reinerman-Jones; Grant Taylor
Research seeking to improve the measurement of workload requires the use of established task load manipulations to impose varying levels of demand on human operators. The present study sought to establish task load manipulations for research utilizing realistically complex task environments that elicit distinct levels of workload (i.e. low, medium, and high). A repeated measures design was used to test the effects of various demand manipulations on performance and subjective workload ratings using the NASA-Task Load Index (TLX) and Instantaneous Self-Assessment technique (ISA). This experiment successfully identified task demand manipulations that can be used to investigate operator workload within realistically complex environments. Results revealed that the event rate manipulations had the most consistent impact on performance and subjective workload ratings in both tasks, with each eliciting distinct levels of workload.
Keywords: Workload; simulated environments; complex systems; signal detection; change blindness
Interactive Virtual Reality Shopping and the Impact in Luxury Brands BIBAKFull-Text 221-230
  Samar Altarteer; Vassilis Charissis; David Harrison; Warren Chan
This paper investigates the impact of human-computer interaction in virtual reality online shopping interface on the consumer experience. In particular, it measures the effectiveness of visualising a three dimensional photorealistic item, the real-time interactivity with the product and the real-time, fully interactive product customization service. The proposed VR system employs a sophisticated approach of interaction with primary objective to simplify and improve the user experience during online shopping. The proposed interface was evaluated through a preliminary questionnaire designed to simulate the typical decision making process prior to a luxury object purchase. The paper presents the outcomes of this usability trial on a group of ten luxury brands customers, the challenges involved in the HCI design are discussed, the visual components of the interface are presented in addition to an analysis of the system evaluation. Adhering to the derived feedback, our future plan of work entails additional development of the interactive tools with a view to further enhance the system usability and user experience. Furthermore we aim to introduce more object choices and customisation covering a larger group of luxury brands.
Keywords: Virtual Reality; HCI; 3D Visualization; Luxury Marketing; Luxury Brands
Multiple Remotely Piloted Aircraft Control: Visualization and Control of Future Path BIBAKFull-Text 231-240
  Gloria Calhoun; Heath Ruff; Chad Breeden; Joshua Hamell; Mark Draper; Christopher Miller
Advances in automation technology are leading to development of operational concepts in which a single pilot is responsible for multiple remotely piloted aircraft (RPAs). This requires design and evaluation of pilot-RPA interfaces that support these new supervisory control requirements. This paper focuses on a method by which an RPA's near-term future flight path can be visualized and commanded using the stick and throttle. The design decisions driving its symbology and implementation are described as well as preliminary quantitative data and pilot feedback to date.
Keywords: remotely piloted aircraft; unmanned air systems; flight path; display symbology; RPA; UAS; flexible automation
The Virtual Dressing Room: A Perspective on Recent Developments BIBAKFull-Text 241-250
  Michael B. Holte
This paper presents a review of recent developments and future perspectives, addressing the problem of creating a virtual dressing room. First, we review the current state-of-the-art of exiting solutions and discuss their applicability and limitations. We categorize the exiting solutions into three kinds: (1) virtual real-time 2D image/video techniques, where the consumer gets to superimpose the clothes on their real-time video to visualize themselves wearing the clothes. (2) 2D and 3D mannequins, where a web-application uses the body measurements provided by the customer, to superimpose the standard sizes to fit a customized 2D or 3D mannequin before buying. (3) 3D camera and laser technologies which acquire 3D information of the costumer, enabling estimation of the body shape and measurements. Additionally, we conduct user studies to investigate the user behavior when buying clothes and their demands to a virtual dressing room.
Keywords: Human-computer interaction; virtual reality; augmented reality; user interface design; computer graphics; interaction design; review; survey; clothing industry; 3D imaging; 3D scanning
Making Sense of Large Datasets in the Context of Complex Situation Understanding BIBAFull-Text 251-260
  Marielle Mokhtari; Eric Boivin; Denis Laurendeau
This paper presents exploration prototype tools (combining visualization and human-computer interaction aspects) developed for immersive displays in the context of the Image project. Image supports collaboration of users (i.e. experts, specialists, decision-makers...) for common understanding of complex situations by using a human guided feedback loop involving cutting-edge techniques for knowledge representation, scenario scripting, simulation and exploration of large datasets.
Evaluating Distraction and Disengagement of Attention from the Road BIBAKFull-Text 261-270
  Valentine Nwakacha; Andy Crabtree; Gary Burnett
Drivers use sat nav for navigation assistance but research links sat nav with risk of distraction [10]. Visual and cognitive workload can be increased as drivers divert their attention from the road [1, 8]. Mitigating such risks is vital and head-up displays (HUDs) can be beneficial [9]. HUDs present images on the windshield to reduce diversion of drivers' attention from the road. This paper presents a driving simulator experiment which examined how 30 participants behaved with three navigation interfaces; novel virtual car HUD, arrow HUD and sat nav to outline potential benefits of the virtual car HUD over the arrow HUD and sat nav. Distraction-related data (speed, headway, lane position and peripheral detection) were gathered. The findings showed participants were better at navigation performance and peripheral detection with the virtual car HUD. Subjective data showed participants rated the virtual car HUD easiest to use, least distracting and most preferred interface.
Keywords: Driver distraction; head-up display; user interface design
DCS 3D Operators in Industrial Environments: New HCI Paradigm for the Industry BIBAKFull-Text 271-280
  Manuel Pérez Cota; Miguel Ramón González Castro
The Distributed Control Systems (DCS) are electronic control devices used in continuous process industry, in which the operator becomes an essential part, and he/she should take decisions of operation that can lead to dangerous situations and/or with heavy losses. This paper shows the work done in the design, implementation and tests of a DCS console operator, which used 2.5D or 3D systems to facilitate the intuitive understanding of the state that it was in the industrial process. Also explains how different input devices were used to facilitate navigation and selection of components in the graphic display, and how different graphical concepts (geometries, colors, animations) were integrated in order to do the industrial process more understandable.
Keywords: DCS; HCI; 3D; 2.5D; Java; OPC; Jinput; RMI
Natural Feature Tracking Augmented Reality for On-Site Assembly Assistance Systems BIBAKFull-Text 281-290
  Rafael Radkowski; James Oliver
We introduce a natural feature tracking approach that facilitates the tracking of rigid objects for an on-site assembly assistance system. The tracking system must track multiple circuit boards without added fiducial markers, and they are manipulated by the user. We use a common SIFT feature matching detector enhanced with a probability search. This search estimates how likely a set of query descriptors belongs to a particular object. The method was realized and tested. The results show that the probability search enhanced the identification of different circuit boards.
Keywords: Augmented Reality; Natural Feature Tracking; Assembly Assistance
Augmented Reality Interactive System to Support Space Planning Activities BIBAKFull-Text 291-300
  Guido Maria Re; Giandomenico Caruso; Monica Bordegoni
The Space Planning (SP) is a process that allows making an environment more ergonomic, functional and aesthetically pleasing. The introduction of Computer Aided tools for this kind of practice led to an increase of the quality of the final result thanks to some versatile support used for the generation of different options to consider for the evaluation. In particular, those based on Augmented Reality (AR) technologies allow evaluating several options directly in a real room. In this paper, an AR system, developed with the aim of supporting Space Planning activities, is proposed. The system has been developed in order to overcome some problems related to the tracking in wide environments and to be usable in different typologies of Space Planning environments. The paper also presents a qualitative evaluation of the AR system in three different scenarios. The positive results obtained through these evaluation tests show the effectiveness and the suitability of the system in different Space Planning contexts.
Keywords: Augmented Reality; Space Planning design; HCI
Empirical Investigation of Transferring Cockpit Interactions from Virtual to Real-Life Environments BIBAKFull-Text 301-309
  Diana Reich; Elisabeth Dittrich
Human-cockpit interaction is an innovative and promising field of automotive research. Indeed, automakers need to ensure safety and user satisfaction for their cockpit development concepts, if driving and interacting occurs simultaneously. One suggested approach is to evaluate simple cockpit prototypes within virtual test environments. Hybrid prototyping allows a more realistic experience with the prototype in early stages of development. With our research study we focused on important basic parameters within hybrid test environments (e.g. shutter glasses and virtual projected car model) and evaluated their potential of influence. There are no hints to assume that shutter glasses influence user behaviour. Interestingly, we found significant faster task completion times within a virtual projected car model, which indicate that immersive environments increase user performances. In summary, we can suggest hybrid prototyping within immersive test environments for evaluating human-cockpit interactions.
Keywords: human-cockpit interaction; virtual environment; hybrid prototyping
Mixed and Augmented Reality for Marine Corps Training BIBAKFull-Text 310-319
  Richard Schaffer; Sean Cullen; Phe Meas; Kevin Dill
The United States Marine Corps faces numerous challenges in preparing Marines for current operations; among them are the cost of specialized training environments and the difficulty of realistically representing the deployed environment. This paper reports on two Office of Naval Research efforts to address these challenges. The first employs Mixed Reality, which combines real-world and virtual elements to create a Hollywood-set-like representation of an Afghan village where Marines can train prior to deployment. The second explores the use of Augmented Reality to train USMC observers. Observers are responsible for directing artillery and mortar fires and aircraft attacks in the proximity of friendly forces. While the live environment has numerous advantages, the costs of supporting troops, ammunition, and equipment are considerable. Augmented Reality can replace live supporting forces, resulting in lower cost use of training areas during down time and enabling almost any area to become an augmented training area.
Keywords: Mixed Reality; Augmented Reality
Proactive Supervisory Decision Support from Trend-Based Monitoring of Autonomous and Automated Systems: A Tale of Two Domains BIBAKFull-Text 320-329
  Harvey S. Smallman; Maia B. Cook
The digital technology revolution continues to roil work domains. An influx of automation and autonomous systems is transforming the role of humans from operators into supervisors. For some domains, such as process control, supervisory control is already the norm. For other domains, such as military command and control, the transformation to autonomous supervision is just beginning. In both domains, legacy operation-centric, real-time data displays and tools provide inadequate task support, leading to unproductive user work-arounds. They give rise to a reactive monitoring stance, and will not scale to meet the new, different task needs. We review advanced display design projects in each domain that, in contrast, provide proactive supervisory decision support. We identified key perceptual and cognitive challenges in supervision, and applied cognitive science concepts to the design of novel trend-based interfaces. We drew lessons from process control to combat the challenges likely to arise in military command and control.
Keywords: Visualization; automation; supervisory control; decision support; proactive monitoring; cognitive science; human factors; user-centered design
The ART of CSI: An Augmented Reality Tool (ART) to Annotate Crime Scenes in Forensic Investigation BIBAKFull-Text 330-339
  Jan Willem Streefkerk; Mark Houben; Pjotr van Amerongen; Frank ter Haar; Judith Dijk
Forensic professionals have to collect evidence at crime scenes quickly and without contamination. A handheld Augmented Reality (AR) annotation tool allows these users to virtually tag evidence traces at crime scenes and to review, share and export evidence lists. In an user walkthrough with this tool, eight end-users annotated a virtual crime scene while thinking aloud. Qualitative results show that annotation could improve orientation on the crime scene, speed up the collection process and diminish administrative pressure. While the current prototype suffered from technical limitations due to slow feature tracking, AR annotation was found to be a promising, usable and valuable tool in crime scene investigation.
Keywords: Augmented Reality; Indoor Positioning; User Walkthrough; Forensics
The Virtual Reality Applied in Construction Machinery Industry BIBAKFull-Text 340-349
  Yun-feng Wu; Ying Zhang; Jun-wu Shen; Tao Peng
Nowadays, the competition in the construction machinery industry is increasingly fierce. So how to realize the fastest speed to market, best quality, lowest cost, and best service are key factors for enterprises to win the market and users. Advanced technology can do help. It is in this context that VR (Virtual Reality) steps in, applied by manufacturers as a sharp weapon. Sany Heavy Industry is China's largest and the world's sixth construction machinery manufacturer. As a full-scale enterprise, Sany always emphasizes digitization and information technology for the construction of a modern enterprise. VR has been integrated into the enterprise's workflow. In R&D department, VR is commonly used in digital prototyping. But this paper mainly introduces Sany's own virtual reality roaming platform: VR Flier, developed to make significant applications in simulation of plant layout and process planning. And service and marketing departments have also received a significant effect via VR&AR applications.
Keywords: construction machinery industry; Virtual Reality application; digital manufacturing; marketing and services

Culture and Entertainment Applications

On the Use of Augmented Reality Technology for Creating Interactive Computer Games BIBAKFull-Text 353-362
  Chin-Shyurng Fahn; Meng-Luen Wu; Wei-Tyng Liu
In this paper, we design interactive games systems that adopt augmented reality (AR) technology. By virtue of a conventional webcam for capturing source images, we develop real-time visual tracking techniques based on edge detection and make 3D virtual objects display on our defined markers that are within the source images in the field of view (FOV) of the webcam. Two kinds of gaming interfaces are created for example: one is an AR based Monopoly game, and the other is an AR based fighting game. There are five classic human computer interface design methods considered to create the above AR based game systems. In the example of Monopoly games, we demonstrate how a traditional table game can be turned into an interactive computer game using the AR technology. We also list the advantages of a marker based approach and state why it is suitable for the interactive computer game. Further, the existing popular game consoles with different gaming interfaces are compared to the two AR based game systems. The comparison results reveal that our proposed AR based game systems are lower in cost and better in extensibility.
Keywords: Augmented reality; human computer interface; AR based game system; interactive computer game; marker recognition
A 3-D Serious Game to Simulate a Living of a Beehive BIBAKFull-Text 363-371
  José Eduardo M. de Figueiredo; Vera Maria B. Werneck; Rosa Maria E. Moreira da Costa
Computational tools are increasingly supporting the learning process in several areas. They open new opportunities for teachers to teach contents and interact with their students. This group of tools includes simulations based on multi-agent systems. This work aims to present a simulation game to study the population growth of a beehive. System variables can be changed in order to analyze different results. Aspects such as duration and time of flowering can be manipulated by the student. The multi-agent approach in Distributed Artificial Intelligence has been chosen to automatically control the activities of the application. Virtual Reality is used to illustrate the behavior of the bees that in general, are not able to be seen in the real world or through mathematical simulation.
Keywords: Simulation; Virtual Reality; Multi-Agents Systems; Serious Games
Presentation of Odor in Multi-Sensory Theater BIBAKFull-Text 372-379
  Koichi Hirota; Yoko Ito; Tomohiro Amemiya; Yasushi Ikei
This paper discusses an approach to implement and evaluate odor display, with the goal of using it in multi-sensory theaters. A display system that mixes odors with an arbitrary ratio was developed, and a sensor system that is capable of measuring the concentration in a relatively short time period using a sample and hold function was devised. Experiments clarified the time delay and attenuation of the concentration in the transmission of an odor from the display to a user, and the feasibility of utilizing a quantitative mixture of odors was confirmed.
Keywords: Underlying & supporting technologies: Multimodal interfaces; Olfactory Display; Multi-sensory Theater
Using Motion Sensing for Learning: A Serious Nutrition Game BIBAKFull-Text 380-389
  Mina C. Johnson-Glenberg
A mixed reality game was created to teach middle and high school students about nutrition and the USDA My Plate icon. This mixed reality game included both digital components (projected graphics on the floor) and tangible, physical components (motion tracking wands that were handheld). The game goal was to feed the alien the healthiest food item from a pair of items. Students learned about the amount of nutrients and optimizers in the digital food items and practiced making rapid food decisions. In the final level of the game players interacted with My Plate and each food item filled the appropriate quadrant in real time. Nineteen 4th graders played through the game in one 1.5 hour session. Significant learning gains were seen on a pretest and posttest that assessed nutrition knowledge, paired t(18) = 4.13, p < .001. We support the need for call for more embodied games that challenge children to practice making quick food choice decisions and we explore how motion capture games can affect engagement, health behaviors, and knowledge outcomes.
Keywords: Applications: Education; Mixed Reality; Nutrition and Exer-Games
AR'istophanes: Mixed Reality Live Stage Entertainment with Spectator Interaction BIBAKFull-Text 390-399
  Thiemo Kastel; Marion Kesmaecker; Krzysztof Mikolajczyk; Bruno Filipe Duarte-Gonçalves
Mixed Reality and Augmented Reality for live stage productions have been used ever more frequently by artists over the past few years. AR'istophanes is an experimental stage production aimed at bringing the new technical possibilities of Mixed and Augmented Reality to the stages of this world. This document describes the first phase of pre-production from 2011 to 2012 and demonstrates the possibilities of integrating motion capturing and 3D animation. This also includes the use of Smartphone Apps and real-time rendering. Audience interaction is a key focus in this production -- which means technical approaches are demonstrated and opinions were collected from potential viewers.
Keywords: Mixed Reality; Augmented Reality; Interaction; Theatre; Live Entertainment; Optical See-Through Glasses
System Development of Immersive Technology Theatre in Museum BIBAKFull-Text 400-408
  Yi-Chia Nina Lee; Li-Ting Shan; Chien-Hsu Chen
Varieties of museum theatres include historical characters, puppetry, movement, music, etc. Visitors can experience the storyline of knowledge about history, science and technology in the theatre which creates immersive environment and engages experiences, such as those in performance, games and simulation. With this kind of experience, knowledge learning in museums becomes more effective and interesting. In addition, it requires multiple disciplines to accomplish the multi-sensory experience provided in the theatre environment. This article focuses on the design process and the system development of the Immersive Theatre in a systematical method. There are three phases in the process: Design, Configuration Negotiation, and Implementation.
Keywords: immersive technology; museum theatre; Configuration negotiation
An Immersive Environment for a Virtual Cultural Festival BIBAFull-Text 409-415
  Liang Li; Woong Choi; Kozaburo Hachimura
This paper describes the development of a virtual reality (VR) system and the use of an immersive environment for a traditional Japanese virtual cultural festival. With the development of computer graphics (CG) and VR technologies, extensive researches have been carried out on digital archiving of cultural assets. The goals of our Virtual Yamahoko Parade project are to record and preserve digitally the Yamahoko Parade of the Gion Festival, an intangible traditional grand scale cultural event, as well as to open the product to the public. Therefore, not only the quality of the VR contents but also the display and demonstration are important to reproduce the atmosphere of the festival. The proposed system combines vision, sound, immersive display, and real time interaction, which enables the users to feel as if they are actually participating in the parade.
Mission: LEAP BIBAKFull-Text 416-425
  Christopher Stapleton; Atsusi Hirumi; Dana S. Mott
Mixed Reality (MR) melts more than boundaries between realities. MR also melts boundaries between disciplines to stimulate innovation. In a project originally sponsored by NASA, the authors of this paper discuss the case study Mission:LEAP, a Mixed Reality Experiential Learning Landscape. In achieving the core objective of building innovation competencies in youth, we had to expand Space STEM education to include the Arts, Media, Design and Humanities to teach innovation competencies. By play-testing a full-scale mock-up, the process also revealed the value of MR in experiential learning landscapes and defined new aspirations and requirements for innovative ways of how we interface with MR environments in free-choice learning venues.
Keywords: Innovation; Mixed Reality; Informal Education; Interplay; Phydgital InterSpace
ChronoLeap: The Great World's Fair Adventure BIBAKFull-Text 426-435
  Lori C. Walters; Darin E. Hughes; Manuel Gértrudix Barrio; Charles E. Hughes
ChronoLeap: The Great World's Fair Adventure utilizes the educational potential of immersive 3D virtual venues for children and early adolescents between 9 and 13. Virtual reality environments transport the mind beyond the 2D bounds of text or photographs; they engage the imagination and can be a powerful tool for conveying educational content [1]. ChronoLeap leverages these innate qualities and weaves together the individual threads of single disciplines into a multi-disciplinary tapestry of web-based exploration through the 1964/65 New York World's Fair. Through their myriad of pavilions and exhibits, World Fairs offer links to science, technology, engineering, mathematics, art and humanities topics. ChronoLeap provides an immersive 3D environment with highly accurate and detailed models, and merges it with games and themes designed to provide users an educational STEAM environment. The project is a collaborative effort between the University of Central Florida, Queens Museum of Art and New York Hall of Science.
Keywords: STEAM; STEM; Immersive Education; virtual environments; virtual heritage; interdisciplinary; 1964/65 New York World's Fair
The Electric Bow Interface BIBAKFull-Text 436-442
  Masasuke Yasumoto; Takashi Ohta
The research intends the establishment of the cognitive space where the force feedback, the sense of immersion and existence are implemented in interactive space functioned as the input of physical movements. The Electronic Bow Interface system has been developed based on a Japanese archery with consideration to apply the application of games such as FPS (First Person Shooting) into it; furthermore, contents are also developed with the Electronic Bow Interface system. This research also attempts the actualization of the realistic forced feedback and the interface where physical movement can be reflected.
Keywords: interface; game; interactive art