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Proceedings of the 1st ERCIM Workshop on 'User Interfaces for All'

Fullname:Proceedings of the 1st ERCIM Workshop on 'User Interfaces for All'
Editors:Constantine Stephanidis
Location:Heraklion, Crete, Greece
Dates:1995-Oct-30 to 1995-Oct-31
Publisher:ERCIM
Standard No:hcibib: UI4ALL95
Papers:19
Links:Call for Papers and Participation | Proceedings
Editorial BIBPDF 4
  Constantine Stephanidis
A Framework for Global Software BIBAPDF 12
  Aarno Lehtola; Timo Honkela
This presentation outlines a Framework for Global Software (FGS). That is a service architecture with international application programming interfaces (IAPIs) that assist software development for global markets. In the FGS, application functionalities have been clustered into six groups of interrelated services. The groups are: basic data structures and algorithms, operating system, windowing system, databases, communication support systems, other applications. An important new concept introduced is LocaleContext, which is associated to internationalised data structures. LocaleContext is also used in various locale specific service calls. As an example, one can consider hyphenation, spelling, and grammar checking of multilingual documents with varying script systems. In the end of the paper there is a case study on applying the principles of the FGS in designing a multi-lingual version of a multi-platform form program, OsiCon Form.
Design Representations and Development Support for User Interface Adaptation BIBAPDF 23
  Constantine Stephanidis; Demosthenes Akoumianakis; Anthony Savidis
With the advent of Graphical User Interfaces (GUIs) and the advances of input/output technologies, there has been a shift of perspective, from user interface programming tools to environments for designing interaction. This is partly attributed to technological maturity and partly due to the increasing requirement to support a need-driven and user-centered protocol for design, development and implementation of interactive systems. This paper investigates the architectural shortcomings of existing user interface development systems and environments with respect to supporting adaptation of a user interface and discusses methods, techniques and tools that are needed to empower user interface designers. In particular, the paper describes a high level architecture comprising user interface software components that can provide the required design, development and implementation support that is needed to facilitate user interfaces for different user groups with diverse requirements abilities and preferences.
Supporting Information Consumers by Search Agents in the WWW BIBAKPDF 13
  Christoph G. Thomas; Reinhard Oppermann
Due to emerging technologies a wide area of network services has grown up around the Internet: tools like World-Wide Web provide a massive amount of information. Being lost in space and overloaded with information are two problems information consumers confront: there is more information out there than a single consumer can manage. In consequence, finding information can be frustrating and time-consuming: users need active support to determine if potentially useful information exists, where the information is located, how to retrieve the information when it is located, and how to use the information when it is retrieved.
   To address and overcome problems of the WWW, we have designed and implemented a framework to integrate agents into the use of the WWW. The agents filter information, initiate communication, monitor events, and perform tasks. The agents rely on usage profiles to adapt their assistance to specific users.
Keywords: User modeling, Intelligent user interfaces, Guided interaction and intelligent agents, architectures and frameworks, Adaptable and adaptive interaction
Navigating Information Space BIBAPDF 16
  David Benyon
The issue of how users can navigate their way through large information spaces is one that is crucial to the ever expanding and interlinking of computer systems. There are many ways of dealing with the issue of navigation one of which is to provide different dialogue styles to suit individual capabilities. The performance of users was compared on a menu style interface to a database system, which minimised navigation and constrained the dialogue, and a command style interface, which allowed an open and flexible dialogue. The results showed that some users did perform better on the interface which minimised navigational issues, and some better on the more open interface; and that users' performance related to their levels of spatial ability and experience with using command style interfaces. The menu interface proved suitable for users with both a low spatial ability and low experience of using command style interfaces. The command interface proved suitable for all users with a high spatial ability, whatever their previous experience, and for users with a low spatial ability but high experience of using command style interfaces. The results of this small scale experiment have potentially important ramifications for designers of interfaces to large information spaces.
Building Adaptive Applications on Widely-Used Platforms with BGP-MS BIBAPDF 16
  Wolfgang Pohl; Jorg Hoehle; Josef Fink; Do-Wan Kim
Today, standard software on widely-used platforms is employed by a large number of people. This user population is often quite heterogeneous, because people tend to have different preferences, knowledge, goals, etc. In order to satisfy individual needs, software systems can employ user modeling techniques to adapt their behaviour to each user. User modeling shell systems provide these techniques for application developers, but are rarely available on widely-used platforms. In this paper, we present BGP-MS-Jr., a limited version of the user modeling shell BGP-MS, which runs under MS-Windows. BGP-MS-Jr. is being used as the basis for a user modeling system that serves as an intelligent component of WING-MIT, a tutorial help system. We describe how WING-MIT employs this user modeling system to realize adaptive behaviour. However, in order to bring full BGP-MS functionality to all platforms and to satisfy the demands of distributed applications, a new system architecture is needed. We suggest a generic and flexible architecture that will make BGP-MS platform-independent, applicable in distributed contexts, and configurable according to the needs of a wide range of applications.
Investigating On-Line Message Generation in Software Applications: The GLOSSASOFT Results BIBAPDF 14
  Constantine D. Spyropoulos; Evangelos A. Karkaletsis; George A. Vouros; Timo Honkela; Krista Lagus; Aarno Lehtola
This paper presents the results of the GLOSSASOFT project in the area of on line message generation in software applications. First, it presents the existing approaches for generating messages and discusses their drawbacks. Then two new approaches aiming to tackle these drawbacks are investigated. The first concerns with the use of extended message templates and the second one with the use of a language independent knowledge base that contains knowledge about the structure and functions of a software application. The two approaches are presented using case studies examples and their costs and benefits are analysed.
Algebraic Specification of User Interfaces BIBAPDF 7
  M. Cabrera; M. Gea; F. Gutierrez; J. C. Torres
Formal methods have been successfully used to specify graphic [1,2] and interactive system [3,4]. This paper discuss the use of algebraic specification to User Interface. We use a language, GRALPLA [5], for the specification and a translator for developing a running prototype. We propose two level of description for the specification and validation of a User Interface system: formally using algebraic specification to describe properties and interactively using the prototype for checking its flexibility. The paper contains an example of a Simple User Interface, to explain the design process.
Learning and Problem Solving as an Iterative Process: Learner's Living Repository: LEAR BIBAPDF 13
  Reinhard Oppermann; Christoph G. Thomas
Current learning challenges for competently employing information technology in the working environment is not sufficiently supported by training courses during the introduction phase of new systems, improved on-line help, and user support by local or central consultants. Each of these approaches has deficiencies and even taken as an integrated concept they are insufficient because they do not consider learning as a process.
   With the system LEAR (Learners' Living Repository), we propose a solution to support users in exploiting learning and consultation episodes in later situations: Users can identify portions of an animated interaction sequence describing problems they encountered or solutions they found when using the tool, comment on them, and store them as episodes. Users can send episodes that describe questions, problems with the tool, or breakdowns when using the tool as a request for off-line help to a consultant. Episodes that describe learned tool knowledge can be stored in a database called "demotheque" for later use. Representative demos can be made available to a group of users in a "purse for demos".
   This paper deals with today's shortcomings of learning in the working environment, discusses the state of the art in the literature, and introduces our ideas of supporting the learning on demand process by creating and using learning episodes and exchanging them within a group of domain workers. We are currently developing a conceptual framework for LEAR; later on, we will evaluate a prototype of LEAR in a realistic work setting.
Multimodality from the User and System Perspectives BIBAKPDF 17
  Joelle Coutaz; Laurence Nigay; Daniel Salber
This article is concerned with the usability and implementation of multimodal user interfaces. We show how the usability of such systems can be characterized in terms of the relations they are able to maintain between the modalities they support. Equivalence, assignment, redundancy, and complementarity of modalities form an interesting set of relations relevant to usability assessment and software design. We use the notion of compatibility between user preferences and system properties to show how the CARE properties interact with user modelling to predict usability during the design of a system. In addition we demonstrate how experimental evaluations can be based on the CARE properties. We then depart from the HCI perspective to consider the implications of such properties on software design and techniques: we present PAC-Amodeus, a software architecture model, in conjunction with a generic fusion mechanism.
Keywords: Multimodal user interfaces, Properties, Usability, Software architecture, Software design, CARE properties, PAC-Amodeus
The Info-Agent: An Interface for Supporting Users in Intelligent Retrieval BIBAPDF 14
  Daniela D'Aloisi; Vittorio Giannini
In this paper we present a system that supports users in retrieving data in distributed and heterogeneous archives and repositories. The architecture is based on the metaphor of the software agents and incorporates innovative hints from other fields: distributed architectures, relevance feedback and active interfaces. The system has a cooperative and supportive role: it understands the user's needs and learns from his behavior. Its aim is to disengage the user from learning complex tools and from performing tedious and repetitive actions.
Integration of User Interface and Conceptual Modeling BIBAPDF 15
  Babak Amin Farshchian; John Krogstie; Arne Solvberg
We present an approach to integrate the modeling of user interfaces and application systems. The focus will on the user interface description language. The language has been defined through several case-studies, and are currently integrated with the PPP approach for conceptual modeling. Further ideas for integration of the conceptual modeling languages and those for user interface description include user modeling facilities.
Supporting Adaptivity in Intelligent User Interfaces: The Case of Media and Modalities Allocation BIBAKPDF 15
  Charalampos Karagiannidis; Adamantios Koumpis; Constantine Stephanidis
Adaptivity is widely recognised as a major characteristic of Intelligent User Interfaces for improving the usability of interactive systems, in order to meet the requirements of heterogeneous user categories. The process through which adaptivity takes place is characterised by several attributes. In this paper, we are concerned with adaptivity constituents, determinants, goals and rules, and identify the requirements that the adaptivity process has to meet, with respect to these attributes. We propose a methodology which addresses the adaptivity at the media and modalities level, and complies with these requirements. We also present the implications of the methodology for users and user interface developers. It is argued that the provision of methodologies and tools that comply with the identified requirements may significantly assist the design and development of intelligent user interfaces, and substantially promote the 'design for all' principle.
Keywords: Intelligent multimedia user interfaces
Syndetic Models and Gestural Interaction BIBAPDF 17
  Giorgio P. Faconti; Angelo Fornari
This paper reports on a work aiming to investigate the potential of a new approach to model human-computer interaction, called syndetic modeling. The approach aims to solve one of the crucial problems of interactive systems by explicitly introducing the concept of usability in system design and development. Syndetic modeling combines a formal expression of system behaviour with an approximate representation of human cognitive resources in a unifying framework that allows reasoning about the flow and utilization of information in the combined system. The potential of the model has been tested against an abstraction of a mouse based gesture recognition system that is presented here as an example.
Active Interfaces through Software Agents BIBAPDF 6
  Amedeo Cesta; Daniela D'Aloisi
This paper concerns the development of an interface environment to help users in repetitive tasks in office work. The main ideas in the project concern: the development of active interfaces that autonomously perform tasks minimizing the interaction with the user; the use of the agent-oriented paradigm to provide both distributedness and incrementality of the software environment. The paper quickly illustrates the main issues addressed in the project and shows how they are exploited in the development of an active interface for filtering e-mail messages. The architecture of the filtering agent follows a multi-agent implementation.
'Calling the Blind' is 'Watched by the Deaf': Directions for Multimodal CSCW-Adaptations to Receptive Disabilities BIBAPDF 2
  Michael Pieper
Regarding access to Information Technology in general a lot of disability related enhancements of Human Computer Interfaces (HCI) have already contributed to diminish or at best overcome restrictions resulting from certain impairments. However, most of these HCI-enhancements do not refer to the online telecommunications capabilities of computer systems, which should be designed to improve the social interaction of people with different communication disabilities. Thus, what is true for Information technology in general is wrong for special applications of Telematics systems. Access to Telematics systems for people with expressive and receptive disabilities is still restricted.
What does 'User Interface for All' Mean? Some Preliminary Considerations BIBAPDF 17
  Paola Venerosi
This topic entails a discussion on some general and open issues. We outline some of these and focus on those most related to our experience.
An Approach to Facilitate the TO of a Vehicle in the Space 3D BIBAKPDF 2
  David Bonyuet
Teleoperation (TO) is an important step in the new technologies that able robots to operate with human control and supervision. TO provides a highly safe robot operation in certain activities. Actually, the main problem is the skill required to operate these systems: The user requires both, a high knowledge about the teleoperated system "TS" (commands, controls, interpretation of multiple information source, and so on) and a high level of experience in the specific task (nuclear maintenance, underwater searches, space exploration, etc). The aim of this work is the development of a friendly user interface (UI) to a teleoperated vehicle (TOV) in the space 3D. The base requirement is that this interface may enable the system to any user with a certain level of skill in the specific task with a low level of knowledge of TS. Finally, an UI for an Underwater Robot (UR) is presented.
Keywords: Ergonomic interface, TS, Visualization of information, Dialogue design methodologies and approaches
Modality Abstraction: Capturing Logical Interaction Design as Abstraction from "User Interfaces for All" BIBAPDF 12
  Hans-W. Gellersen
Modality abstraction is a concept for capturing those parts of a user interface that describe logical interaction in abstraction from appearance. Thus, modality abstraction provides a common ground for user interfaces that may differ in used representational media, input modalities and dialogue styles. Building modality abstraction into interactive software contributes to portability, modifiability and integration of different modalities. To facilitate modality abstraction, we have developed the MAUI toolkit with building blocks for Modality Abstracting User Interfaces and the MEMFIS method for building modality abstraction into interactive software.