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UBICOMP Tables of Contents: 01020304050607080910111213-113-214-114-215

Adjunct Proceedings of the 2013 International Joint Conference on Pervasive and Ubiquitous Computing

Fullname:Adjunct Proceedings of the 2013 ACM Conference on Pervasive and Ubiquitous Computing
Editors:Friedemann Mattern; Silvia Santini; John F. Canny; Marc Langheinrich; Jun Rekimoto
Location:Zurich, Switzerland
Dates:2013-Sep-08 to 2013-Sep-12
Volume:2
Publisher:ACM
Standard No:ISBN: 978-1-4503-2215-7; ACM DL: Table of Contents; hcibib: UBICOMP13-2
Papers:253
Pages:1574
Links:Conference Website
  1. UBICOMP 2013-09-08 Volume 2
    1. Poster, demo, & video presentations
    2. Doctoral school
    3. Adaptive security and privacy management for the internet of things
    4. Workshop: atelier of smart garments and accessories
    5. Workshop: 2nd workshop on recent advances in behavior prediction and pro-active pervasive computing
    6. Workshop: CoSDEO 2013: device-free radio-based recognition
    7. Workshop: green food technology: Ubicomp opportunities for reducing the environmental impacts of food
    8. Workshop: international workshop on human activity sensing corpus and its application (HASCA2013)
    9. Workshop: human interfaces for civic and urban engagement
    10. Workshop: HomeSys 2013: workshop on design, technology, systems and applications for the home
    11. Workshop: 2nd ACM international workshop on mobile systems for computational social science
    12. Workshop: workshop on personal and pervasive fabrication (PerFab 2013)
    13. Workshop: PeTRE -- workshop on pervasive technologies in retail environment
    14. Workshop: PUCAA: 1st international workshop on pervasive urban crowdsensing architecture and applications
    15. Workshop: PURBA 2013: workshop on pervasive urban applications
    16. Workshop: 1st workshop on human factors and activity recognition in healthcare, wellness and assisted living
    17. Workshop: uncovering the hidden pulse of a city
    18. Workshop: SOFTec 2013: second workshop on computer mediated social offline interactions
    19. Workshop: ubiquitous mobile instrumentation
    20. Workshop: wearable systems for industrial augmented reality applications
    21. Workshop: WoT 2013: fourth international workshop on the web of things

UBICOMP 2013-09-08 Volume 2

Poster, demo, & video presentations

AcrySense: interactive carved acrylic board BIBAFull-Text 1-4
  Marina Mikubo; Koji Tsukada; Itiro Siio
The carved acrylic boards have become popular along with the diffusion of carving machines (e.g., laser cutters). When a carved acrylic board is illuminated from its side, the carved patterns emerged beautifully. We propose an interactive technique, "AcrySense", which can add input functions to a carved acrylic board in a simple and inexpensive configuration. The AcrySense mainly consists of LEDs, Photo Transistors and a microcomputer attached under a carved acrylic board. This paper describes the concept and implementation of the system.
Supporting interaction in public space with electrical muscle stimulation BIBAFull-Text 5-8
  Max Pfeiffer; Stefan Schneegaß; Florian Alt
As displays in public space are augmented with sensors, such as the Kinect, they enable passersby to interact with the content on the screen. As of today, feedback on the user action in such environments is usually limited to the visual channel. However, we believe that more immediate and intense forms, in particular haptic feedback, do not only increase the user experience, but may also have a strong impact on user attention and memorization of the content encountered during the interaction. Haptic feedback can today be achieved through vibration on the mobile phone, which is strongly dependent on the location of the device. We envision that fabrics, such as underwear, can in the future be equipped with electrical muscle stimulation, thus providing a more natural and direct way of haptic feedback. In this demo we aim to showcase the potential of applying electrical muscle stimulation as direct haptic feedback during interaction in public spaces in the context of a Kinect-based game for public displays.
SVD-based hierarchical data gathering for environmental monitoring BIBAFull-Text 9-12
  Yasue Kishino; Yasushi Sakurai; Yutaka Yanagisawa; Takayuki Suyama; Futoshi Naya
We introduce a new data compression method for efficient data gathering in hierarchical sensor networks. Our proposed method compresses sensor data sequences by decomposing them into local patterns and weight variables using Singular Value Decomposition (SVD). Our proposed method can achieve efficient data gathering for environmental monitoring.
Browsing reality: dynamic contextualization in human scale smart spaces BIBAFull-Text 13-16
  Zulqarnain Rashid; Kamruddin Nur; Anna Carreras; Rafael Pous
Augmented Reality (AR) systems can provide a method for browsing information that is situated in the real-world. We have developed a system that enable the user to browse the objects in the real-world with the help of AR. Our system is an AR application that incorporates information obtained by a Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) system. Our application runs on a smartphone or a tablet and its target space is a shelf. By aiming a mobile phone or tablet camera at a collection of items present on a shelf, a user can browse and interact with the items through the smartphone or tablet. The shelf is termed as smart shelf and it is equipped with the RFID system that makes it a smart space. All the items present on a shelf are RFID-tagged, so they can be inventoried and their locations are calculated with the help of the RFID system. The project is focused on enhancing and enriching the user experience in browsing physical reality.
OpenLight: a concept of urban lighting to make urbanites aware of each other BIBAFull-Text 17-20
  Noriyuki Fujimura; Masa Inakage; Hideki Sunahara; Satoru Tokuhisa; Atsuro Ueki; Masato Yamanouchi
hough there are many examples of attempts to create interactive lighting installations in urban public space, its meaning for urbanites has not been fully explored and defined. What could interactive lighting contribute to urban public space? Using the concept of Third Place, this research focuses on the social potential of urban public space using the concepts of, especially the role of space in connecting people and fostering social capital. Our hypothesis is that interactive urban lighting can assist this role of urban public space. Openlight is a concept of networked interactive lighting that provides urbanites with open access to penetrate psychological barriers between individuals and groups in urban public space. Hence the interaction would provide more possibilities for urbanites becoming more aware of and getting to know each other. For this first attempt, we have created a scaled prototype for a Café/Restaurant setting.
Efficient in-pocket detection with mobile phones BIBAFull-Text 31-34
  Jun Yang; Emmanuel Munguia-Tapia; Simon Gibbs
In this demonstration paper, we show a novel approach to detect the common placements of a mobile phone, such as "in pocket", "in bag" or "out of pocket or bag", from embedded proximity (IR) and light sensors. We use sensor data fusion and pattern recognition to extract distinct features from sensor signals and classify the boundaries among these three phone placement contexts. The detection results are demonstrated on a Samsung Tizen mobile phone.
Lab of things: a platform for conducting studies with connected devices in multiple homes BIBAFull-Text 35-38
  A. J. Bernheim Brush; Evgeni Filippov; Danny Huang; Jaeyeon Jung; Ratul Mahajan; Frank Martinez; Khurshed Mazhar; Amar Phanishayee; Arjmand Samuel; James Scott; Rayman Preet Singh
Researchers who develop new home technologies using connected devices often want to conduct large-scale field studies in homes to evaluate their technology, but conducting such studies today is extremely challenging. Inspired by the success of PlanetLab, which enabled development and evaluation of global network services, we are developing a shared infrastructure for home environments, called Lab of Things. Our goal is to substantially lower the barrier to developing and evaluating new technologies for the home environment.
Portable CAVE using a mobile projector BIBAFull-Text 39-42
  Olli Koskenranta; Ashley Colley; Jonna Häkkilä
Virtual environments have traditionally been accessed either with conventional 2D displays, or with complex equipment such as wearable displays or CAVEs. In this demo, we show how a projector phone can be utilized to create an ad-hoc, low-fidelity immersive environment. The user holding a projector phone stands in the middle of a virtual sphere, or cube, that is revealed by the projection which can be pointed in any direction.
Demo abstract: saving energy in smart commercial buildings through social gaming BIBAFull-Text 43-46
  Shijia Pan; Yulai Shen; Zheng Sun; Priya Mahajan; Lin Zhang; Pei Zhang
Energy consumption in commercial buildings is tremendous, resulting in significant monetary cost and waste of natural resources. Designing a low-cost system that serves the goal of saving energy while not forcing people to compromise their personal comfort is important for future smart commercial buildings. Proactive energy saving actions from users in the buildings are the key to achieving this goal. In this paper, we present Mahalo, an energy saving system, which leverages users through social gaming. By incentivizing energy saving actions from end users with a sensing-based feedback control system, the system reduces installation needs and improves understanding of the users preferences.
Bridging the last gap: LedTX -- optical data transmission of sensor data for web-services BIBAFull-Text 47-50
  Philipp M. Scholl; Nagihan Kücükyildiz; Kristof Van Laerhoven
Data transmission from small-scale data loggers such as human activity recognition sensors is an inherent system's design challenge. Interfaces based on USB or Bluetooth still require platform-dependent code on the retrieval computer system, and therefore require a large maintenance effort. In this paper, we present LedTX, a system that is able to transmit wirelessly through LEDs and the camera included in most user's hardware. This system runs completely in modern browsers and presents a uni-directional, platform-independent communication channel. We illustrate this system on the UbiLighter, an instrumented lighter that tracks ones smoking behaviour.
Control and scheduling interface for public displays BIBAFull-Text 51-54
  Ivan Elhart; Nemanja Memarovic; Marc Langheinrich; Elisa Rubegni
Social media platforms such as Flicker, Twitter, Instagram, and Facebook have opened up new possibilities for providing content on large public displays. Integrating interactive elements in a public display, such as (virtual) Keyboards and Webcams, can additionally stimulate in-situ content production. Both social media content and such in-situ content are cheap to produce, always fresh, and potentially community sourced, thus increasing relevance for passersby. However, not all social media applications and content entries may be appropriate in a particular display setting and showing user contributed content on public displays requires new forms of content control and scheduling. In this demo we show: 1) a control interface for display owners to manage the overall behavior of their displays, and 2) post-moderation mechanisms for controlling and removing potentially inappropriate user contributed content from public displays. The control interface and moderation mechanisms are designed for a university environment and were inspired by two short pilot test deployments and a focus group with the university officials.
Social networked displays: integrating networked public displays with social media BIBAFull-Text 55-58
  Nemanja Memarovic; Ivan Elhart; Andrea Michelotti; Elisa Rubegni; Marc Langheinrich
With significant price drops of large LCD panels public displays are "painting" the urban landscape. Connected over the Internet they constitute a novel communication medium -- a network of open pubic displays. One of the challenges with such a novel communication medium is integrating it with existing user communicative ecology -- current information and communication technologies that are already well established and highly used by the general population, e.g., Facebook and Instagram. As one of the most popular activities on these networks is photo sharing a possible solution for integrating networked public displays could be in allowing users to use it as both input and output device for images, i.e., allowing them to a) post situated snapshots onto Facebook through an on-display camera and b) show images on the screens taken through Instagram. In order to replicate what is happening with the images online comments and likes posted about images are also shown on the screen. In this demo we show two applications: 1) Moment Machine -- a public display application that allows taking situated snapshots through on-display camera and posting them to Facebook; and 2) Moments Gallery -- a public display application that shows images, comments, and likes for photos submitted through Instagram and Facebook.
Resonant magnetic coupling indoor localization system BIBAFull-Text 59-62
  Gerald Pirkl; Paul Lukowicz
Building on previous work that introduced a novel indoor positioning concept based on magnetic resonant coupling we describe an improved system to be shown during the UBICOMP 2013 demo session. We improved the magnetic field model, implemented a particle filter for position estimation and a software suite for configuration and calibration of the system.
Some like it hot: automating an electric kettle using PalCom BIBAFull-Text 63-66
  Boris Magnusson; Björn A. Johnsson
In this demo we will show how devices from different vendors, using different protocols, can be combined and made to work together without detailed low-level programming by the user. The small example we have chosen uses a radio-controlled power socket from one vendor and a temperature sensor from another vendor. We use these to create a remotely controlled electric kettle, which keeps the water at the point of boiling, ready to make tea at any time. We also show how we very easy can use a mobile phone for remote control and monitoring of the kettle. It is all built with a simple-to-use graphical user interface offered by the PalCom middleware, and will be modified as part of the demo.
MoodRhythm: tracking and supporting daily rhythms BIBAFull-Text 67-70
  Stephen Voida; Mark Matthews; Saeed Abdullah; Mengxi (Chrissie) Xi; Matthew Green; Won Jun Jang; Donald Hu; John Weinrich; Prashama Patil; Mashfiqui Rabbi; Tauhidur Rahman; Geri Gay; Ellen Frank; Tanzeem Choudhury
Rhythms guide our lives. Our biological clocks tell us when we need to sleep, eat and wake. But our use of technology can interrupt and obstruct these rhythms, making it difficult for our bodies to get what they need to stay healthy and balanced. Our MoodRhythm app helps individuals to live a more naturally rhythmic day. The key goals of MoodRhythm are to use patients' smartphones to actively and passively track daily rhythms and to provide affective feedback that can help patients to maintain a regular daily rhythm, while feeding this clinically valuable information back to their physicians.
Sensing fork and persuasive game for improving eating behavior BIBAFull-Text 71-74
  Azusa Kadomura; Cheng-Yuan Li; Yen-Chang Chen; Hao-Hua Chu; Koji Tsukada; Itiro Siio
We present a fork-type sensing device called the Sensing Fork that detects the eating behavior of children (food choice and eating actions), and a smartphone game to address children's eating problems based on their eating behavior. This paper describes the design and implementation of the Sensing Fork prototype and a play-based eating game called Hungry Panda 2, which works with the Sensing Fork. This game focuses on motivating children to eat all kinds of food on their table.
P.I.A.N.O.: enhancing instrument learning via interactive projected augmentation BIBAFull-Text 75-78
  Matthias Weing; Amrei Röhlig; Katja Rogers; Jan Gugenheimer; Florian Schaub; Bastian Könings; Enrico Rukzio; Michael Weber
P.I.A.N.O. aims to support learning to play piano with a steep learning curve. In order to achieve this, traditional, hard-to-learn music notation is substituted for an alternative representation of a composition, which is projected directly onto the piano. Furthermore, we propose three different learning modes which support the natural learning process, incorporate live feedback and performance evaluation, as well as the augmentation of the system with aspects of gamification to achieve early experiences of success and prolonged motivation.
Local area artworks: collaborative art interpretation on-site BIBAFull-Text 79-82
  Anna Maria Polli; Matthias Korn; Clemens Nylandsted Klokmose
In this paper we present Local Area Artworks, a system enabling collaborative art interpretation on-site deployed during an exhibition in a local art gallery. Through the system, we explore ways to re-connect people to the local place by making use of their personal mobile devices as interfaces to the shared physical space. We do this by re-emphasizing the local characteristics of wireless networks over the global connectivity to the Internet. With a collaborative writing system in a semi-public place, we encourage local art discussions and provide a platform for the public to actively participate in interpretations of individual artworks. Our preliminary findings suggest that people were (to our surprise) not questioning the inner workings of our system. Through engaging with the system, individuals felt being part of the exhibition. However, no coherent piece of text emerged during the runtime of the exhibition.
Prifi beacons: piggybacking privacy implications on wifi beacons BIBAFull-Text 83-86
  Bastian Könings; Florian Schaub; Michael Weber
Making users aware of privacy implications in ubiquitous computing is a critical challenge to support user acceptance and trust. However, the invisible and embedded nature of UbiComp systems prevents users from naturally perceiving active sensors or even the presence of systems. Furthermore, autonomous interventions of systems in the user's environments or undesired interactions with the user may be disturbing and could violate a user's privacy expectations. We propose PriFi beacons to support users in perceiving ongoing observations and potential disturbances from systems in the user's current environment. Privacy awareness information is piggybacked on WiFi beacons by leveraging their information elements. The information is extracted by an Android-based privacy client and presented to the user in a privacy awareness interface.
ConteXinger: a context-aware song generator BIBAFull-Text 87-90
  Ayano Nishimura; Itiro Siio
Daily work such as household chores are generally boring and monotonous and tend to be thought of as routine work. Work songs have been written and sung by workers to reduce their labor load. In addition, text-to-song synthesizer software such as Yamaha's VOCALOID is commonly used by a wide variety of computer music creators. We developed a real-time music synthesizer called -- conteXinger -- that sings lyrics based on the listener's context, including the use of home appliances (such as a vacuum cleaner, refrigerator, microwave oven, or dish washer), and Internet information (such as SNS messages, Web news, and weather reports). By presenting the synthesized music to a user through a home audio system or headphones, our system entertains users who may be bored from their everyday work routine.
Giving context to sounds through mediation of physical objects BIBAFull-Text 91-94
  Shin-ya Sato; Masami Takahashi; Masato Matsuo
We describe the concept of and approach for combining conceptual information produced by humans and data that convey situations of the real world without any modification or interpretation, which can be thought of as a method for bridging the Web and the real world. We conducted an experiment to validate our concept by making associations between everyday topics or situations and their characteristic sounds. We discuss the preliminary results obtained in the experiment.
Smartphone bluetooth based social sensing BIBAFull-Text 95-98
  Zhixian Yan; Jun Yang; Emmanuel Munguia Tapia
The increasing mobile technology raises a new paradigm of people-centric sensing using today's smartphones. Towards this paradigm, we present "CoSoBlue", a novel framework for Bluetooth based social sensing. In CoSoBlue, we propose novel Bluetooth semantic and statistical features, in addition to count and similarity features, and apply these discriminative features to infer context and compute sociability. We evaluate CoSoBlue on two Bluetooth datasets: (1) the longitudinal MIT friend-and-family dataset with 9+ millions records, and (2) a new 2-month dataset with ground-truth labels collected using our own developed Android app. Our preliminary experiments show CoSoBlue's efficacy on Bluetooth based social and context sensing.
TaskShadow-W: NFC-triggered migration of web browsing across personal devices BIBAFull-Text 99-102
  Yuqiong Xu; Zhiqiang Ye; Longbiao Chen; Shijian Li; Gang Pan
The era of "multiple devices per user" brings a new requirement of cross-device task migration. Web browsing is one of the most frequent activities in daily life, however it still lacks an effective mechanism to support user-friendly migration of web browsing across multiple devices. In this paper, we develop the TaskShadow-W, an NFC-triggered web session migration system, to address this issue. TaskShadow-W provides the functionality of session management to guarantee the continuous experience of web browsing. It supports an NFC-based interaction to activate the migration in a user-friendly way. The system is compatible with most of the existing websites, and does not require dedicated proxy servers or modifying the existing web servers. In addition, it is also easy to learn & use.
Smartphone-based monitoring system for activities of daily living for elderly people and their relatives etc BIBAFull-Text 103-106
  Kazushige Ouchi; Miwako Doi
We developed a smartphone-based monitoring system to allay the anxiety of elderly people and that of their relatives, friends and caregivers by unobtrusively monitoring an elderly person's activities of daily living. A smartphone of the elderly person continuously recognizes indoor-outdoor activities by using only built-in sensors and uploads the activity log to a web server. By accessing the server, relatives etc. at remote locations can browse the log to make sure the elderly person is safe and sound. We conducted an evaluation experiment and confirmed that the proposed system had practical recognition accuracy and satisfied the users' needs.
Scaling up ubiquitous robotic systems from home to town (and beyond) BIBAFull-Text 107-110
  Subhash Sathyakeerthy; Maurizio Di Rocco; Federico Pecora; Alessandro Saffiotti
Ubiquitous robotics is an emerging paradigm in which smart environments are augmented with robots to provide physical and information added-value services to the citizen. We discuss the challenges and opportunities in extending this paradigm from a single environment (home, factory floor) to the scale of a community of homes, a town, or even a network of towns. To this aim, we introduce the concept of multiple robotic ecologies. This poster is a first step in defining a scalable architecture for a hierarchy of robotic smart-home ecologies, and a framework to provide autonomous services in it.
Context-aware frame rate adaption for video chat on smartphones BIBAFull-Text 111-114
  Xin Qi; Qing Yang; David T. Nguyen; Gang Zhou
As mobile video traffic is becoming dominant, balancing the mobile video quality and bandwidth usage is a relevant but hard problem. Particularly, in this project, we attempt to reduce the bandwidth usage of video chats through frame rate adaption. The key idea of this project is to save bandwidth through reducing frame rate at the sender and interpolate the 'missing' frames at the receiver for a video chat. Additionally, the sender dynamically adapts the frame rate with respect to inertial sensor readings in order to keep the scene change between consecutive frames small and prevent strong artifacts from the frame interpolation.
Working-relationship detection from fitbit sensor data BIBAFull-Text 115-118
  Kota Tsubouchi; Ryoma Kawajiri; Masamichi Shimosaka
This paper proposes an innovative way to detect working relationships by using only the step tracking data acquired from pedometers like Fitbit. The idea makes the cost of working-relationship detection much lower than that of previous approaches. We can find out if people have a working relationship and spend their daily lives together by making them wear a pedometer. Results of an experiment in Japan showed that this approach is very effective and practical. An organization's profile can be written automatically by analyzing the data.
Digital interventions for sustainable urban mobility: a pilot study BIBAFull-Text 119-122
  Silvia Gabrielli; Rosa Maimone
This paper presents results from a pilot study aimed to explore the design of behavior change interventions for sustainable urban mobility. Eight participants were provided with a mobile app deploying a novel combination of goal-setting, self-monitoring, rewards and sharing features in order to observe, over a month period, relevant changes in their transport choices and habits. The digital intervention produced an increase of sustainable transport choices of 14% and contributed to raise participants' environmental awareness, particularly regarding the consequences of their daily transportation choices.
Inferring social ties in pervasive networks: an on-campus comparative study BIBAFull-Text 123-126
  Igor Bilogrevic; Kévin Huguenin; Murtuza Jadliwala; Florent Lopez; Jean-Pierre Hubaux; Philip Ginzboorg; Valtteri Niemi
WiFi base stations are increasingly deployed in both public spaces and private companies, and the increase in their density poses a significant threat to the privacy of users. Prior studies have shown that it is possible to infer the social ties between users from their (co-)location traces but they lack one important component: the comparison of the inference accuracy between an internal attacker (e.g., a curious application running on the device) and a realistic external eavesdropper (e.g., a network of sniffing stations) in the same field trial. We experimentally show that such an eavesdropper can infer the type of social ties between mobile users better than an internal attacker.
Systematic evaluation of social behaviour modelling with a single accelerometer BIBAFull-Text 127-130
  Hayley Hung; Gwenn Englebienne
We describe our ongoing research on systematically analysing what types of socially related attributes and behaviours can be estimated automatically in highly social and crowded situations. This is a challenging task because obtaining the true labels for social behaviours or attributes in practice is non-trivial. Here, individuals hang a sensing device around their neck that records their acceleration during a social event. We then devise models to estimate their social behaviour or attributes based on these measurements and systematically evaluate the feasibility of such a set-up. Since we only use a single triaxial accelerometer per person, our results are surprisingly accurate and suggest that further socially relevant information could also be extracted. Our systematic evaluations provide a deeper understanding of how to better model socially relevant information in the future.
Visualization of dimension measurement using a consumer grade tablet camera-audio sensor BIBAFull-Text 131-134
  Yasuyuki Hayashi; Soh Masuko
We present a dimension measurement visualization technique using a consumer tablet device. A user is able to control the position and size of a virtual dimension image and confirm the specified dimension on the camera view. The system utilizes speaker and microphone sensor as distance detector to extract information needed for correct sizing of the visualized measurement. Our technique does not require the use of a physical marker or a view of the ground. We implemented a module that could cope with a noisy environment. We also implemented a guide mark module that enables use of the system when multiple objects are presented in the camera view.
Vasque: a privacy preserving casual communication system based on a circular mirror metaphor BIBAFull-Text 135-138
  Hitomi Tsujita; Kensaku Kawauchi; Jun Rekimoto
An always-on video communication system can increase the opportunity for casual communication between remotely connected users, but privacy concerns prohibit the wide usage of such a system. To address this problem, we propose a new system for remote communication, which has wide-angle lens that faces the ceiling, and which allows an always-on connection while protecting the privacy of unintended users and keeping the background scenery naturally out of the line of sight. Furthermore, a circular mirror metaphor allows both local and remote users to participate in the conversation as if they were at the same roundtable.
Using wearable sensor badges to improve scholastic performance BIBAFull-Text 139-142
  Jun-ichiro Watanabe; Saki Matsuda; Kazuo Yano
An experiment using wearable sensor badges showed that there was a strong correlation between students' physical behaviors and their scholastic performance. For example, students whose bodily movements were in harmony with those of their classmates during class and students with more face-to-face interaction during break times had better scholastic performance. These results indicate that it may be possible to improve scholastic performance by changing student behaviors, as measured using wearable sensor badges.
BlueView: a perception assistant system for the visually impaired BIBAFull-Text 143-146
  Ling Chen; Ibrar Hussain; Ri Chen; WeiKai Huang; Gencai Chen
In this paper we present a perception assistant system named BlueView. Aim of the system is to assist visually impaired people in improving their perception of points of interest (POIs) in the nearby surrounding. The system allows users to perceive POIs, and accurately locate them with an audio prompting approach. BlueView contains two components: Viewer device and Beacon point. Viewer device is a Bluetooth-enabled mobile phone. Beacon point is a Bluetooth tag with a speaker. Using a within-subject design, six participants (i.e. blind people) were involved in the experiment with the system. Preliminary results suggest that BlueView effectively assist users in perceiving and locating POIs in both single and multi user scenarios.
Compressed signal representation for inertial sensor signals BIBAFull-Text 147-150
  Christoph Amma; Hannes Volk; Tanja Schultz
We present and evaluate a method to generate a compressed representation of multi-dimensional inertial sensor signals using a piecewise linear approximation. The representation can be computed on small sensor nodes and thus allows for a reduction of the amount of data that needs to be transmitted to the main processing node. On an existing gesture database, we present the compression rate that is reached and evaluate the quality of the representation in terms of the accuracy reached for gesture classification. We compare the results to our baseline system using a simpler approach for data reduction.
Towards context-oriented programming in wireless sensor networks BIBAFull-Text 151-154
  Mikhail Afanasov; Luca Mottola; Carlo Ghezzi
We present our ongoing work towards applying the context-oriented programming (COP) paradigm to wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Context -- as a representation of the environment where the system operates -- plays a key role in WSN applications, which must often adapt their operation depending on environmental conditions. We argue that promoting a notion of context as a first-class citizen in WSN programming facilitates the design and implementation of context-dependent functionality. To this end, we conceive a context-oriented programming model expressly tailored to WSNs, coupled with dedicated language constructs. Unlike the existing literature on COP, we embed the latter within low-level C-like languages that do not rely on resource-intensive features such as dynamic memory management. To make our design concrete, we describe a context-oriented extension of nesC -- a widely used WSN programming language -- and report on a preliminary assessment of our design.
Activity recognition and nutrition monitoring in every day situations with a textile capacitive neckband BIBAFull-Text 155-158
  Jingyuan Cheng; Bo Zhou; Kai Kunze; Carl Christian Rheinländer; Sebastian Wille; Norbert Wehn; Jens Weppner; Paul Lukowicz
We build on previous work [5] that demonstrated, in simple isolated experiments, how head and neck related events (e.g. swallowing, head motion) can be detected using an unobtrusive, textile capacitive sensor integrated in a collar like neckband. We have now developed a 2nd generation that allows long term recording in real life environments in conjunction with a low power Bluetooth enabled smart phone. It allows the system to move from the detection of individual swallows which is too unreliable for practical applications to an analysis of the statistical distribution of swallow frequency. Such an analysis allows the detection of "nutrition events" such as having lunch or breakfast. It also allows us to see the general level of activity and distinguish between just being absolutely quiet (no motion) and sleeping. The neckband can be useful in a variety of applications such as cognitive disease monitoring and elderly care.
Virtual uniforms: using sound frequencies for grouping individuals BIBAFull-Text 159-162
  Aleksandar Matic; Alban Maxhuni; Venet Osmani; Oscar Mayora
In this paper, we present the concept of grouping individuals and detecting their proximity by emitting/receiving inaudible tones using their mobile phones. The inspiration stems from uniforms metaphor (of different colors) that groups subjects based on the roles, occupations or teams. The goal is to get an insight into the social context and social interaction patterns.
FaceLog: capturing user's everyday face using mobile devices BIBAFull-Text 163-166
  Chungkuk Yoo; Jaemyung Shin; Inseok Hwang; Junehwa Song
Lifelogging services are emerging as promising mobile applications, pursuing to build a user's autobiographical memories. To date, initial attempts of lifelogging services have been proposed, capturing what I see, hear, meet, and visit. These empirical and environmental contexts, surrounding contexts, may help a user reminisce about the past. On the other hand, we focus on an important key feature of lifelogging which has been unexplored so far, i.e., appearance context. The appearance context is about one's facial expression, body image, gaze, posture, gesture, etc. Appearance monitoring in a fine-grained and momentary manner enables total recall of a user, i.e., not only what the user perceives but also how the user is perceived by others. In this poster, we propose FaceLog, a face logging service which automatically and opportunistically captures user's everyday face.
Prophet: what app you wish to use next BIBAFull-Text 167-170
  Xun Zou; Wangsheng Zhang; Shijian Li; Gang Pan
A variety of applications (app) installed on smart phones do greatly enrich our lives, but make it more difficult to organize our screens and folders. Predicting apps that will be in use next can benefit users a lot. In this poster, we propose some light-weighted Bayesian methods to predict the next app based on the app usage history. The evaluation on Mobile Data Challenge (MDC) dataset gives very encouraging results. In addition, we suggest a natural way to integrate the app prediction features to the user interface. Users would find it convenient to access the predicted apps with simple touches.
MPower: gain back your android battery life! BIBAFull-Text 171-174
  Matteo Ferroni; Andrea Cazzola; Domenico Matteo; Alessandro Antonio Nacci; Donatella Sciuto; Marco Domenico Santambrogio
Nowadays, mobile devices are becoming more flexible and rich in functionalities. As already presented in [6] those devices are highly influenced by constraints, mainly regarding power management. In fact, mobile batteries are limited in time and there are no efficient methods able to manage power consumption. Even knowing the device Time To Live (TTL) is currently left to the user experience. In this paper, we presented MPower, a system able to predict the mobile device TTL, providing also the user with suggestions on the optimal device configuration w.r.t. the desired TTL. This allows the user to manage the available power resources, according to his/her needs, avoiding power wasting.
Gesture interaction for wall-sized touchscreen display BIBAFull-Text 175-178
  Yan Zhai; Guoying Zhao; Toni Alatalo; Janne Heikkilä; Timo Ojala; Xinyuan Huang
In order to improve the user experience in a large touchscreen, this research introduces gesture interaction into wall-sized touchscreen. According to the distance between user and display, we create two interaction modes for touch and body gesture respectively. Challenges encountered and prospects for further improvement are also investigated.
Antonius: a mobile search engine for the physical world BIBAFull-Text 179-182
  Markus Funk; Albrecht Schmidt; Lars Erik Holmquist
We introduce Antonius, a wearable system that is able to detect real-world objects based on their visual appearance. Users can search for objects and be directed to their current location on a 3D map. Our formative evaluation indicates that 3D representation is preferred to 2D maps to show an object's location, and that both stationary and mobile systems would be beneficial depending on the scenario.
Inch-scale interactive displays for social object annotation BIBAFull-Text 183-186
  Marcus Winter
This paper offers an HCI perspective on ubiquitous annotation with a focus on social object annotation. It suggests that user experience issues with static-display visual markers and radio frequency tags are due to a lack of up-to-date information about the related object or service. To provide that information it proposes small situated displays that can encourage engagement and support interaction with dynamic user-generated content services. The paper describes a platform for research into small pervasive displays in the context of social object annotation and briefly discusses the relevance of the research for the wider field.
Numerical modeling of image discriminability for home storage and organization system on a smart device BIBAFull-Text 187-190
  Rui Fukui; Keisuke Maeda; Masahiko Watanabe; Masamichi Shimosaka; Tomomasa Sato
In Home storage and organization system on a smart device, thumbnail pictures (Tag Image) of daily-use objects are often used. Discriminability of Tag Image is important to realize superior usability. In this paper, we have tried to construct a numerical model of Tag Image's discriminability. The proposed model is based on simple linear regression from popular image features and their statistics. In addition, web-based data input system has also been developed to collect training data efficiently. Consequently, the input system has acquired a substantial number of data and a numerical model has been constructed. The constructed model has substantially good but not perfect performance.
Designing generation Y interaction by eliciting interaction qualities BIBAFull-Text 191-194
  Wei Liu; Pieter Jan Stappers; Gert Pasman; Jenneke Taal-Fokker
With more and more products becoming digital, mobile and networked, paying attention to the qualities of interactions with these products should have is also getting more relevant. While interaction qualities have been addressed in a number of scientific studies, little attention is being paid to their implementation into a real life, everyday context. This paper describes the development of a novel office phone, YPhone, which demonstrates the application of a specific set of interaction qualities into the context of office work.
Constructing trip routes with user preference from location check-in data BIBAFull-Text 195-198
  Hsun-Ping Hsieh; Cheng-Te Li
This paper presents a novel trip route construction using location check-in data. Given a set of preference lists of locations from users, we aim to coordinate their preferred locations to visit and construct a route which not only satisfying user preferences as many as possible, but also being popular and reasonable. We formulate such preferred route construction as an optimization problem. We solve it efficiently and effectively by devising some greedy methods. Experiments on Gowalla large-scale check-in data show the promising effectiveness and efficiency of our methods.
An exploration with online complex activity recognition using cellphone accelerometer BIBAFull-Text 199-202
  Zhixian Yan; Dipanjan Chakraborty; Sumit Mittal; Archan Misra; Karl Aberer
We investigate the problem of online detection of complex activities (such as cooking, lunch, work at desk), i.e., recognizing them while the activities are being performed using parts of the sensor data. In contrast to prior work, where complex activity recognition is performed offline with the observation of the activity available for its entire duration and utilizing deeply-instrumented environments, we focus on online activity detection using only accelerometer data from a single body-worn smartphone device. We present window based algorithms for online detection that effectively perform different tradeoffs between classification accuracy and detection latency. We present results of our exploration using a longitudinally-extensive and clearly-annotated cellphone accelerometer data trace that captures the true-life complex activity behavior of five subjects.
SpiroVest: an e-textile-based wearable spirometer with posture change adaptability BIBAFull-Text 203-206
  Yu Enokibori; Yoshu Ito; Akihisa Suzuki; Hirotaka Mizuno; Yuuki Shimakami; Tsutomu Kawabe; Kenji Mase
Daily continuous spirometry is expected to detect lung disease initial symptoms that occur in daily contexts. Current medical spirometers are insufficient for such usage because they force uncomfortable conditions for users, such as pinching their noses with a clip and holding a mouthpiece in their mouths. To solve this issue, we propose an e-textile-based wearable spirometer called SpiroVest that estimates lung behavior from torso-girth movements. It does not require any uncomfortable conditions that interfere with daily activity. In addition, our wearable spirometer is able to estimate accurate respiratory volume against variety of postures by a simple and posture-independent error reduction mechanism.
E-textile pressure sensor based on conductive fiber and its structure BIBAFull-Text 207-210
  Yu Enokibori; Akihisa Suzuki; Hirotaka Mizuno; Yuuki Shimakami; Kenji Mase
This paper proposes a novel e-textile-based pressure sensor. Textile is a common material in our life, used in such items as sheets, seats, and clothing. If these items are equipped with sensor functions, they can invisibly assist humans without significant lifestyle changes. Our sensor is suitable for mass production and durable in daily hard use cases. The sensor is woven with common weaving machines with a special manner and its material is a common low-cost conductive fiber that does not use special and costly materials, such as optical fiber. The sensor mechanism is supported by the textile structure; thus our sensor has durability for frictional force and scratch occurring sometime in daily context. In this paper, we also introduce two example usages of our textile sensor: a bed-size body pressure sensor for anti-pressure-ulcer treatment and a wearable foot-pressure sensor for walk and skill analyses.
Optical bow position, speed and contact point detection BIBAFull-Text 211-214
  Tobias Grosshauser; Gerhard Troester
Sensor technologies for musical instruments enable musicians to capture playing parameters while playing and augment their instruments for enhanced musical expression. A further step into this direction is the following optical, contact free bowing sensing technique for string instruments. In string instrument playing, the combination of bowing speed, position, bow pressure and bow to string contact point and angle are the basic factors of the right hand sound production. To measure these parameters, we developed an optical, contactless sensor system to complete existing pressure measurement systems. It consists of emitters, infrared (IR) or colored light emitting diodes (LEDs) on the bow and IR or color receivers on the violin. The precision of the measurement data obtained with this setup is sufficient to investigate the main parameters of bowing and sound production.
Towards a micro-blog platform for sensing and easing adolescent psychological pressures BIBAFull-Text 215-218
  Yuanyuan Xue; Qi Li; Ling Feng; Gari D. Clifford; David A. Clifton
Adolescent mental health cannot be ignored, and psychological pressure is one of the prominent problems of current teenagers. Micro-blog, as the most important information exchange and broadcast tool in the current society, is becoming an important channel for teenagers' information acquisition, inter-interaction, self-expression, emotion release due to its unique equality, freedom, fragmentation, individuality characteristics. This poster envisions a micro-blog platform, aiming to (1) sense psychological pressures through teenagers' tweets, and (2) assist teenagers to release their stress through micro-blog. A method for timely detecting psychological pressures from teenagers' tweets is particularly described. Our preliminary experimental results on real data demonstrate the validity of the approach. We also discuss ways to assist teenagers to release their pressures through micro-blog at the end of the poster.
Applying mobile and internet of things technologies in managing parking spaces for people with disabilities BIBAFull-Text 219-222
  Lambros Lambrinos; Aristotelis Dosis
Parking in public areas is one of the major problems faced in modern urban environments. This is more so the case for citizens with disabilities who have a limited number of spaces allocated for their exclusive use which are often not enough to meet demand and are sometimes illegitimately occupied. A smart city system that combines mobile and machine-to-machine communications has been designed aiming to alleviate the above issue. The system uses sensors to acquire disabled parking spot availability information which is disseminated to registered users in real time. Utilising such information, users can drive directly towards spots currently available or even reserve one of them. Upon arrival, legitimate users are able to verify themselves through a simple text message, a special device or a smart phone application. User verification enables more efficient monitoring of these precious parking spots.
PriCal: dynamic privacy adaptation of collaborative calendar displays BIBAFull-Text 223-226
  Florian Schaub; Peter Lang; Bastian Könings; Michael Weber
Office wall calendars often contain only entries considered public, which reduces their utility for scheduling meetings or gaining an overview of one's schedule. PriCal is a collaborative calendar display that dynamically adapts to present persons and their privacy preferences. We outline our current prototype, consisting of a calendar agent for display adaptation, a mobile app for managing individual calendars and privacy settings, and a system for detecting present persons and identifying registered users.
MatkaHupi: a persuasive mobile application for sustainable mobility BIBAFull-Text 227-230
  Antti Jylhä; Petteri Nurmi; Miika Sirén; Samuli Hemminki; Giulio Jacucci
With the advances in smartphone technologies, sustainable mobility has become an active research topic in the field of ubiquitous computing. We present a persuasive mobile application that automatically tracks the transportation modes and CO2 emissions of the trips of the user and utilizes this information to present a set of actionable mobility challenges to the user. A longitudinal pilot experiment with the system showed that subjects perceived the concept of challenges as positive, with constructive findings to inform further development of the application especially related to personalized challenges.
Annotate me: supporting active reading using real-time document image retrieval on mobile devices BIBAFull-Text 231-234
  Kai Kunze; Katsuma Tanaka; Masakazu Iwamura; Koichi Kise
We present a novel system to support active reading. Utilizing a mobile device the user can add digital annotations to physical documents like papers and posters. We present first prototype implementations of the mobile phone interface with and without server support. Server support let's you share annotations with your friends. We discuss findings from an initial user evaluation and present an improved prototype. We believe annotating paper using document image retrieval is a promising technology for active reading support.
A task-management system using future prediction based on personal lifelogs and plans BIBAFull-Text 235-238
  Toshiki Takeuchi; Kyohei Suwa; Hiroto Tamura; Takuji Narumi; Tomohiro Tanikawa; Michitaka Hirose
People who are busy generally have to manage a great variety of tasks. But sometimes, they fall behind in minor tasks and gradually, even without them noticing, a huge backlog piles up, far beyond the person's capacity to complete them well and on time. We proposed a task-management system that predicts a user's future state on the basis of the user's lifelog and plans, using a simple linear regression model. We implemented the system using a smartphone and estimated its usefulness with a user test. As a result, the users of our system saw their future diaries and tried to alter their current daily activities.
Device recognition for intuitive interaction with the web of things BIBAFull-Text 239-242
  Simon Mayer; Markus Schalch; Marian George; Gábor Sörös
Supporting human users when interacting with smart devices is important to drive the successful adoption of the Internet of Things in people's homes and at their workplaces. In this poster contribution, we present a system that helps users control Web-enabled smart things in their environment. Our approach involves a handheld interaction device that recognizes smart things in its view using state-of-the-art visual object recognition techniques. It then augments the camera feed with appropriate interaction primitives such as knobs or buttons for control, and can also display measured values, for instance, when recognizing a sensor. The interaction primitives are generated from user interface descriptions that are embedded in the Web representations of the smart things. Our prototype implementation achieves frame rates that allow for interactive use of the system by human users, and indeed proved to facilitate the interaction with smart things in a demonstration testbed in our research group.
Embedded semantic metadata to support device interaction in smart environments BIBAFull-Text 243-246
  Simon Mayer; Gianin Basler
Facilitating the interaction of human users and machines with smart devices is important to drive the successful adoption of the Internet of Things in people's homes and at their workplaces. In this poster contribution, we present an approach to support users controlling smart devices in their environment. To do this, we propose to embed semantic metadata in the representations of smart things. By means of this metadata and a semantic reasoning service, our system enables users to specify a desirable state of their smart environment and produces a machine-readable description that details which steps are necessary to reach this state, where each step corresponds to a Web request to a smart device. A client application that could, for instance, run on the user's smartphone, can distill the necessary steps required to reach the user's goal state from this description and execute them to modify the smart environment on behalf of the user.
Consumer experience modeling and enrichment using RFID BIBAFull-Text 247-250
  Zeinab Liaghat; Joan Melia-Segui; Rafael Pous; Ramir De Porrata-Doria
Nowadays, brick and mortar retailers face a strong competition with online commerce. Instant feedback, product comparison or recommendations are relevant advantages of online commerce over traditional physical retailers. Ubiquitous Computing technologies such as Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) can help to bring the benefits of online commerce to brick and mortar stores. We have been using RFID EPC Gen2 to identify and track garments in fitting rooms and point-of-sales in a real store in Barcelona, Spain. In this work we present the initial results of a real-customer model analysis using RFID data. We demonstrate how by analyzing basket and fitting room information we can extract differentiated patterns in the customers behavior. This model is intended to be used as part of an in-store recommender system and stock information. Future work includes improvement of data collection and customer identification.
Ubiquitous support for midwives to leverage daily activities BIBAFull-Text 251-254
  Abdullah Al Mahmud; David V. Keyson
In this paper we present preliminary outcomes concerning the design of a support system for midwives in the Netherlands to carry out daily activities. The purpose of our design is to make the workflow of mid-wives more efficient. Our user studies confirm that the current workflows of midwives to support pregnant women lack efficiency. The most obvious barrier is the lack of an integrated IT system to provide daily care to pregnant women. Based on the findings we propose some solutions that may help midwives to perform their daily tasks more efficiently.
Supporting blind navigation using depth sensing and sonification BIBAFull-Text 255-258
  Michael Brock; Per Ola Kristensson
We present a system designed to help blind people navigate around obstacles. Our system perceives the environment in front of the user using a depth camera (a Microsoft Kinect). The system identifies nearby structures from the depth map and uses sonification to convey obstacle information to the user. The system has undergone a formative evaluation involving eight blind-folded participants and one blind participant. We found that our system can be learned within minutes and that participants can successfully navigate through an obstacle course with few collisions.
Ti-Photograph: a tele-immersive photograph system for distributed parents and children BIBAFull-Text 259-262
  Meiyu Huang; Yiqiang Chen; Linglin Yin; Wen Ji
With the social development, the demand of a natural remote communication platform for distributed families has greatly emerged. This work presents a Tele-Immersive Photograph system (TI-Photograph), which allows children and their remote parents to take pictures together in a virtual space with interactive behaviors. First, we propose a robust video object cutout method to segment the video of the child and the remote parent from their background surroundings. Second, we introduce a user behavioral intention driven video composition method to adaptively merge the segmented videos of the users into a same shared background customized by natural gesture interaction. Then we create an illusion that the child and the parent are immersed in the same environment. Experimental results demonstrate that the visual appearance in a shared interactive environment provides closer and efficient communication between remote family members.
PDR-based adaptation for user-progress in interactive navigation system BIBAFull-Text 263-266
  Shun Yoshimi; Takuya Azumi; Nobuhiko Nishio
Recently, indoor pedestrian navigation systems have attracted attentions of people. We have been developing an interactive pedestrian navigation system and found that the navigation system could not provide enough sense of reassurance for a user according to our preliminary experiment. In this study, we propose a method to improve the user's sense of reassurance by notifying user's level of achievement sensed by their smart phone sensors and conduct the experiment in the Osaka underground city. According to the questionnaire survey that we conducted after the experiment, people who chose affirmative opinions on a sense of reassurance increased by 45% due to the proposed method.
Inferring social contextual behavior from bluetooth traces BIBAFull-Text 267-270
  Zhenyu Chen; Yiqiang Chen; Shuangquan Wang; Junfa Liu; Xingyu Gao; Andrew T. Campbell
Context-aware computing is increasingly paid much attention, especially makes the people's social contextual behavior very crucial for user-centric dynamic behavior inference. At present, extensive work has focused on detecting specific places inferred by static radio signals like GPS, GSM and WiFi, and recognizing mobility modes inferred by embedded sensor components like accelerometer. This paper proposes a distinct feature based classification approach and context restraint based majority vote rule to infer social contextual behavior in dynamic surroundings. Experimental results indicate that our proposed method can achieve high accuracy for inferring social contextual behavior through the real-life Bluetooth traces.
Visualizing web mash-ups for in-situ vision-based mobile AR applications BIBAFull-Text 271-274
  Yu You; Ville-Veikko Mattila
Augmented reality applications are gaining popularity due to increased capabilities of modern mobile devices. Creating AR content however is tedious and traditionally done on desktop environments by professionals, with extensive knowledge and/or even programming skills required. In this demo, we demonstrate a complete mobile approach for creating vision-based AR in both indoor and outdoor environment. Using hyperlinks, Web mashups are built to dynamically augment the physical world by normal users without programing skills.
Wearable audio-feedback system for gait rehabilitation in subjects with Parkinson's disease BIBAFull-Text 275-278
  Filippo Casamassima; Alberto Ferrari; Bojan Milosevic; Laura Rocchi; Elisabetta Farella
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a degenerative neurological disorder, associated with movement impairments. Recent studies have shown that auxiliary cueing in the form of video, audio, or haptic feedback can improve the gait performance in PD patients. We have developed a new platform to support gait rehabilitation in PD patients based on a wearable system able to produce real-time feedback to the user in a comfortable and effective way. Using a set of custom wearable inertial sensors, with advanced on-board processing capabilities, our application employs a smartphone to analyze in real time the patient's gait and to return an appropriate real time audio bio-feedback (ABF) message to the user to correct and improve gait performance. The main advantages of the system are mobility and unobtrusiveness: it can be comfortably worn and carried by the patient with no range restrictions, giving the possibility to monitor and rehabilitate the patient in real-life scenarios, both indoors and outdoors.
Study of a monopulse system with RFID antennas for applications oriented to retail industry BIBAFull-Text 279-282
  Raúl Parada; Anna Carreras; Joan Melià-Seguí; Rafael Pous
Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) allows the identification and location of items using passive electronic labels. However, current RFID techniques do not locate objects precisely. The monopulse system allows to locate objects with higher accuracy using a combination of Radio Frequency (RF) beams. In this work, we present a two-antenna monopulse system implementation using RFID technologies. By combining RF beams we obtained a focused beam. We also investigated the multipath effect in this work. Our results show a monopulse system using RFID technologies with an accuracy of 84%. It can be applied in the retail industry for applications such as fitting rooms, inventory, customers' location and others.
My reading life: towards utilizing eyetracking on unmodified tablets and phones BIBAFull-Text 283-286
  Kai Kunze; Shoya Ishimaru; Yuzuko Utsumi; Koichi Kise
As reading is an integral part of our knowledge lives, we should know more about our reading activities. This paper introduces a reading application for smart phone and tablets that aims at giving user more quantified information about their reading habits. We present our work towards building an open library for eye tracking on unmodified tablets and smart phones to support some of the applications advanced functionality. We implemented already several eye tracking algorithms from previous work, unfortunately all seem not to be robust enough for our application case. We give an overview about our challenges and potential solutions.
Dungeons & swimmers: designing an interactive exergame for swimming BIBAFull-Text 287-290
  Haechan Lee; Miri Moon; Taiwoo Park; Inseok Hwang; Uichin Lee; Junehwa Song
We propose Dungeons & Swimmers, an interactive audio- and motion-based exergame for swimming. As the first of its kind, we explore its design considerations and opportunities stemming from swimming. We gamify the four different stroke types with an auditory feedback. For minimal interference, we develop a single sensor-based wearable prototype detecting the strokes and stroke types in real time. We conduct a pilot deployment to study initial user experiences.
iFridge: an intelligent fridge for food management based on RFID technology BIBAFull-Text 291-294
  Lei Xie; Yafeng Yin; Xiang Lu; Bo Sheng; Sanglu Lu
It is a tedious task to search and locate a specific food from a massive number of foods arbitrarily placed in a fridge. In this paper, we develop iFridge, an intelligent system which allows the user to effectively manage and accurately locate the foods stored inside the fridge. By leveraging the RFID technology, iFridge is able to automatically collect the food information, perceive the user's activities and locate the specified foods. We develop a smart application "cooking recipe recommendation" by sensing the user's daily eating habits. Moreover, by specifying those foods with roughly known locations as anchor nodes, we are able to locate the specified food by using cluster analysis.
homeBLOX: making home automation usable BIBAFull-Text 295-298
  Marcel Walch; Michael Rietzler; Julia Greim; Florian Schaub; Björn Wiedersheim; Michael Weber
Home automation aims to increase convenience of residential living. The homeBLOX system uses a process-driven execution model to enable complex automation tasks with heterogeneous devices, while providing a user interface that abstracts from lower-level complexity. Complex automation tasks are created as sequences consisting of events and actions linked to physical and virtual devices, which are translated into BPEL code for execution. We outline the key concepts, architecture, and prototype of our system.
EverCopter: continuous and adaptive over-the-air sensing with detachable wired flying objects BIBAFull-Text 299-302
  Yutaro Kyono; Takuro Yonezawa; Hiroki Nozaki; Masaki Ogawa; Tomotaka Ito; Jin Nakazawa; Kazunori Takashio; Hideyuki Tokuda
The paper proposes EverCopter, which provides continuous and adaptive over-the-air sensing with detachable wired flying objects. While a major advantage of sensing systems with battery-operated MAVs is a wide sensing coverage, sensing time is limited due to its limited amount of energy. We propose dynamically rechargeable flying objects, called EverCopter. EverCopter achieves both long sensing time and wide sensing coverage by the following two characteristics. First, multiple EverCopters can be tied in a row by power supply cables. Since the root EverCopter in a row is connected to DC power supply on the ground, each EverCopter can fly without battery. This makes their sensing time forever, unless the power supply on the ground fails. Second, the leaf EverCopter can detach itself from the row in order to enjoy wider sensing coverage. An EverCopter, while it is detached, runs with its own battery-supplied energy. When the remaining energy becomes low, it flies back to the row to recharge the battery.
Point & control -- interaction in smart environments: you only click twice BIBAFull-Text 303-306
  Matthias Budde; Matthias Berning; Christopher Baumgärtner; Florian Kinn; Timo Kopf; Sven Ochs; Frederik Reiche; Till Riedel; Michael Beigl
This work presents a system that makes use of the Microsoft Kinect to enable Point&Click interaction for the control of appliances in smart environments. A backend server determines through collision detection which device the user is pointing at and sends the respective control interface to the user's smartphone. Any commands the user issues are then sent back to the server which in turn controls the appliance. New devices can either be registered manually or using markers such as QR codes to identify them and get their position at the same time. The video demonstrates the interaction concept and our technical implementation.
Reality editor: programming smarter objects BIBAFull-Text 307-310
  Valentin Heun; James Hobin; Pattie Maes
The Reality Editor is a system that supports editing the behavior and interfaces of socalled "smarter objects", i.e. objects or devices that have an embedded processor and communication capability. Using augmented reality techniques, the Reality Editor maps graphical elements directly on top of the tangible interfaces found on physical objects, such as push buttons or knobs. The Reality Editor allows flexible reprogramming of the interfaces and behavior of the objects as well as defining relationships between smarter objects in order to easily create new functionalities. This paper describes the different functionalities of the Reality Editor and presents several examples.
FRAGWRAP: fragrance-encapsulated and projected soap bubble for scent mapping BIBAFull-Text 311-314
  Yutaro Kyono; Takuro Yonezawa; Hiroki Nozaki; Jin Nakazawa; Hideyuki Tokuda
This paper proposes FRAGWRAP which maps scent to real objects in real-time. To achieve this purpose, we leverage fragrance-encapsulated soap bubble with projection mapping technique. Since human olfaction is known as combined utilization of his/her eyes and nose, we encapsulate fragrance into bubble soap to stimulate the nose and also project 3D image of the fragrance to the bubble soap in real-time. In this video, we present our first prototype which automatically inserts fragrance into a soap bubble and also projects images to the moving bubble. All system is activated by speech recognition.

Doctoral school

The UbiComp 2013 doctoral school BIBFull-Text 315-318
  Elaine M. Huang; Timo Ojala
Evaluating impact of storage on smartphone energy efficiency BIBAFull-Text 319-324
  David T. Nguyen
We present an experimental study of how storage techniques impact energy consumption in smartphones. We design and implement a system that tracks I/O activities of smartphones in real-time and dynamically changes storage configuration by matching I/O patterns in order to reduce energy consumption. Our system is evaluated on the 20 most popular applications from Android Market, and our results show that the optimal configurations save from 21% to 52% of battery life. We believe that they highlight a new and interesting direction in which the topic of smartphone energy consumption can be further evaluated and expanded upon.
Digital naturalism: interspecies performative tool making for embodied science BIBAFull-Text 325-330
  Andrew Quitmeyer
Digital Naturalism investigates the role that digital media can play in field Ethology. While digital technology plays an increasingly larger role in the Ethologist's process, its use tends to be limited to the experimentation and analysis stages. My goal is to work with scientists to develop context-dependent, behavioral tools promoting novel interactions between animal, man, and environment. The aim is to empower the early exploratory phases of their research as well as the later representation of their work. I will test a methodology combining analytical tool making and interaction studies with modern ethology.
Measuring joint movement through garment-integrated wearable sensing BIBAFull-Text 331-336
  Guido Gioberto
Garment-Integrated body sensing is an alternative approach to sense body movements in wearable sensing. Textile-integrated sensors have the potential to equip everyday clothes with smart capabilities, making the detection of body movements accessible during normal life activities. The practicality of this solution preserves variables directly related to the wearer's needs such as Comfort, Perceptibility, and Awareness that must be prioritized equally with Accuracy and Precision of the sensor data. The central contribution of this approach is to improve the quality of the measured data while preserving user comfort.
Towards food waste interventions: an exploratory approach BIBAFull-Text 337-342
  Eva Ganglbauer
Sustainability is a significant topic in HCI and often framed in terms of energy consumption or sustainable food consumption. However, the sustainable issue of wasted food by consumers is a design arena yet to receive more attention. To understand how the passage from food into waste occurs in everyday life, and if, how and where technology can intervene, fieldwork in 17 households has been carried out. The fieldwork and its implications afford inspirations and reveal stimuli where and how technology could potentially intervene. Selected stimuli are explored with two technology probes and a community platform to inform design.
Understanding and augmenting a paper arrangement-based method BIBAFull-Text 343-348
  Gunnar Harboe
I investigate the practices of affinity diagramming, a method for qualitative data analysis and idea generation, and the factors that lead HCI researchers and practitioners to usually perform it on paper rather than on digital devices. Based on my findings, I propose that Ubicomp technology can be used to create an implicit interaction system that allows users to preserve their preferred practices, while offering the benefits of a digital system. Initial prototypes have been built; a more complete prototype system and evaluation of the solution remain to be completed.
Pervasive monitoring to support reflective learning BIBAFull-Text 349-354
  Lars Müller
Reflection on daily work practices can support informal learning and continuous improvement of work practices. This dissertation aims at supporting reflection by employing sensors and corresponding data visualizations to make employees ask the right questions about their work. Two tools have been developed and initial studies have been conducted to evaluate the impact of psychophysiological sensors and proximity sensing for employees in the healthcare domain. The main contribution of this work is the connection of reflective learning and wearable sensors with the goal to persuade employees to reflect. The resulting tools will be evaluated in real work settings.
Practical food journaling BIBAFull-Text 355-360
  Edison Thomaz
Logging dietary intake has been shown to be of benefit to individuals and health researchers, but a practical and objective system for food logging remains elusive despite decades of research. My thesis is that emerging wearable devices such as life-logging cameras, the ubiquity of sensors in mobile devices, and new computational techniques such as human computation, provide the foundation for a new class of food journaling systems that are lightweight and practical in everyday settings. In this proposal I describe my research in understanding how to leverage this new landscape of mainstream ubiquitous computing towards automatic and semi-automatic food journaling.
Supporting self-experimentation of behavior change strategies BIBAFull-Text 361-366
  Jisoo Lee
Empowering individuals with tools and support that enables them to explore, test, and invent behavior change strategies and actualizing solutions to their uniquely personal needs, throughout their everyday lives, is likely to lead to more robust, personalized, and effective solutions. This research aims to understand how tools that foster self-experimentation of behavior change strategies for the creation of user-driven solutions can support fulfillment and increased self-control. I am equipping end-users with the capacity to construct sensor-augmented responsive environments by developing, deploying, and evaluating a toolkit that provides integrated hardware and software coupled with motivational support pertaining to self-efficacy.
Device-free people counting and localization BIBAFull-Text 367-372
  Chenren Xu
Device-free passive (DfP) localization has been proposed as an emerging technique for localizing people, without requiring them to carry any devices. Potential applications include elder-care, security enforcement, building occupancy statistics, etc.
   We first present PC-DfP, an accurate and efficient RF-based device-free localization solution. PC-DfP adopts a stochastic fingerprinting approach to mitigate the error caused by the multipath and meanwhile minimize the system calibration overhead. Second, we present SCPL, a RF-based device-free people counting and localization technique. SCPL takes the calibration data collected with one person and the map information to accurately count people sequentially and localize them in parallel. Finally we present Crowd++, an unsupervised speaker counting technique through audio inference with smartphones to estimate the number of people in social hotspot places.

Adaptive security and privacy management for the internet of things

Adaptive security and privacy management for the internet of things (ASPI 2013) BIBAFull-Text 373-378
  Stefan Poslad; Mohamed Hamdi; Habtamu Abie
The Internet of Things (IoT) was initially proposed to connect specific things via the Internet using devices, such as RFID readers, to realise intelligent identification and management. This vision has since expanded to include a more diverse range of devices, services and networks to become an Internet of anything, anywhere, connected, anyhow. Security and privacy management for the IoT remains a core challenge.
   Many IoT devices maybe may have zero or minimal security by design because they are low resource, low power devices, designed to work as closed vertical services. Security threats and risks may be higher because devices are unattended, use local wireless communication that have no or weak encryption making them more susceptible to eavesdropping and because users find security too unusable to setup and operate and hence leave devices relatively unsecure. It may also be less problematic to reproduce and fake data sources, access nodes and data sinks that interact with IoT devices in order to attack devices or the services they access. Devices can be moved between or removed from private, communal, public and hostile physical spaces. There is a higher risk of a loss of privacy for human users and organisations because of an increased ability to eavesdrop, because of wireless networks with soft boundaries, and because embedded environment devices can sense smaller amounts of physical trails with a greater degree of sensitivity and accuracy. A specific focus is on the need for IoT security to adapt. The adaptation has multiple dimensions. We can adapt existing conventional security models to more effectively secure an IoT. We can adapt security pre-planned and unplanned context changes such as different moving around in different physical spaces. IoT systems can be designed to self-adapt. IoT systems need to adapt to the active (re) configuration and maintenance of IoT devices and systems of devices by users and by artificial agents.
   The proposed workshop intends to bring together researchers and practitioners from relevant fields to present and disseminate the latest on-going research focussing on adapting security, privacy & management for the Internet of Things. It aims to facilitate knowledge transfer and synergy, bridge gaps between different research communities and groups, to lay down foundation for common purposes, and to help identify opportunities and challenges for interested researchers and technology and system developers.

Workshop: atelier of smart garments and accessories

Atelier of smart garments and accessories BIBAFull-Text 379-384
  Maurizio Caon; Yong Yue; Giuseppe Andreoni; Elena Mugellini
Wearable computing represented an important paradigm shift in engineering and computer science. At the present time, wearable computing is undergoing a new paradigm shift: the wearable systems that used to be transportable devices are actually weaving itself into "the fabric of everyday life" (as predicted by Weiser). Indeed, the current trend of wearable computing is integrating the technology directly in the garments without introducing new body-worn systems. Clothes, shoes, eye-glasses, bracelets and watches are becoming smarter, seamlessly embedding more and more powerful computational resources and communication possibilities. The change has already begun and this workshop aims to bring together researchers from the academia and the industry in order to establish a multidisciplinary community interested in discovering and exploring the challenges and opportunities coming from this natural evolution of wearable computing.
Smart garments -- the issue of usability and aesthetics BIBAFull-Text 385-392
  Andreas Sonderegger
In this position paper, important issues to consider for the development of smart garments are addressed. A special emphasis is placed on usability and its evaluation in a user-centered design approach. Different factors influencing the outcomes of usability tests are discussed. The effect of design aesthetics as a very important influencing factor in usability tests is addressed in detail and its potential influence on the outcomes of usability evaluations of smart garments is discussed. The paper concludes with recommendations for the development of usable and enjoyable smart garments.
Illumee: aesthetic light bracelet as a wearable information display for everyday life BIBAFull-Text 393-396
  Jutta Fortmann; Heiko Müller; Susanne Boll; Wilko Heuten
We present our vision of a wearable light display integrated into a piece of jewellery -- an aesthetic bracelet. As a piece of jewellery, the display is discreetly integrated into some accessoire that is worn anyway and therefore integrates excellently into everyday life. The bracelet can be used for various daily reminder tasks like intake of medication. It can also be used to present feedback on a person's health behaviour, e.g. their daily physical activity. We briefly describe our concept and present a number of research questions that need to be investigated.
State of the art and perspectives on the fabrication of functional contact lenses BIBAFull-Text 397-404
  Sajina Tinku; Andrea Adami; Leandro Lorenzelli
Functional multi-purpose contact lenses have recently attracted attention as suitable means to exploit the characteristics of eyes to diagnose diseases and for drug delivery. In this paper, we provide insights into the design and fabrication of specific prototype contact lenses suitable for wearers with dry eye conditions. The main objective is to integrate a combined system, which constitutes a biosensor for hydration monitoring and a saline solution delivery system, embedded on flexible polymer based substrates. We discuss the state of art and current research progress in smart contact lenses and provide initial hints of the proposed solution and identify specific challenges.
WagTag: a dog collar accessory for monitoring canine activity levels BIBAFull-Text 405-414
  Gary M. Weiss; Ashwin Nathan; J. B. Kropp; Jeffrey W. Lockhart
Technological advancements are leading to the emergence of wearable computing devices as a major consumer category. Several companies have developed, or are developing, wearable accessories to monitor human activity. But the health and wellness applications associated with these accessories can also benefit non-humans, and wearable computing accessories with such apps are now emerging for the pet market. In this paper we describe WagTag, an accessory that can be attached to a dog collar to track a dog's activities and the intensity of these activities. The activity information is visually displayed on the device, while more detailed information can be uploaded to a computer via a Bluetooth connection. We describe key design issues and goals associated with the development of this device, especially with respect to aesthetics, durability, and functionality, and also describe WagTag's prototype activity recognition models.
Wearable accessories for cycling: tracking memories in urban spaces BIBAFull-Text 415-424
  Assunta Matassa; Amon Rapp; Rossana Simeoni
The paper presents a wearable system, distributed in the garments and on the bicycle, that enables the user to manage "memories" in order to change the human-environment affective interaction. The goal is to exploit wearable technologies in order to create a new form of interaction with urban spaces.
Designing a desirable smart bracelet for older adults BIBAFull-Text 425-434
  Leonardo Angelini; Maurizio Caon; Stefano Carrino; Luc Bergeron; Nathalie Nyffeler; Mélanie Jean-Mairet; Elena Mugellini
In this paper, we present the design process of a smart bracelet that aims at enhancing the life of elderly people. The bracelet acts as a personal assistant during the user's everyday life, monitoring the health status and alerting him or her about abnormal conditions, reminding medications and facilitating the everyday life in many outdoor and indoor activities.

Workshop: 2nd workshop on recent advances in behavior prediction and pro-active pervasive computing

2nd workshop on recent advances in behavior prediction and pro-active pervasive computing BIBAFull-Text 435-440
  Klaus David; Bernd Niklas Klein; Sian Lun Lau; Stephan Sigg; Brian Ziebart
The 2nd Workshop on recent advances in behavior prediction and pro-active pervasive computing focuses on contributions that target recent challenges of context prediction and on applications of context prediction. The main challenges are a lack of benchmarks and common data sets, as well as a lack of development frameworks and that the main focus of context prediction still remains location prediction. Since context prediction is a key requirement to enable proactive applications, the workshop aims to intensify the discussion about the state and direction of context prediction research and to facilitate collaboration among research groups focusing on context prediction.
Collective suffix tree-based models for location prediction BIBAFull-Text 441-450
  Muawya Habib Sarnoub Eldaw; Mark Levene; George Roussos
Models developed for the prediction of location, where a specific individual will be present at a future time, are typically implemented using a one-model-per-user approach which cannot be employed for inferring collective or social behaviours involving other individuals. In this paper, we propose an alternative that allows for inference though a collaborative mechanism which does not require the profiling of individual users. This alternative utilises a suffix tree as its core underlying data structure, where predictions are computed over an aggregate record of behaviours of all users. We evaluate the performance of our model on the Nokia Mobile Data Collection Campaign data set and find that the collective approach performs well compared to individual user models. We also find that the commonly used Hit and Miss score on its own does not provide sufficient indication of prediction accuracy, and that employing additional metrics using the mean error may be preferable.
Learning and user adaptation in location forecasting BIBAFull-Text 461-470
  Jorge Alvarez-Lozano; J. Antonio García-Macías; Edgar Chávez
User location forecasting is central to establish context in proactive mobile applications. Knowing where the user will be at a given time enables standby action triggers ahead of time. User location exhibits periodic patterns grouped by time of day, day of the week, month of the year, etc. This characteristic has been exploited to model user location as a Markov process with great accuracy. Using yearly data from public sources it was possible to predict user location in a time frame of 8 hours with accuracy of up to 69%.
   One assumption of the above modeling is that user location is stationary in time. However, it is more natural to assume user location patterns may vary over time. For example one user may change job, or the relationship status, and avoid certain places frecuented in the past.
   In this paper we propose a learning mechanism adapting user location forecasting to behavior changes over time. Our model is able to predict for up to 94 weeks with 43% of accuracy.
On the stability of context prediction BIBAFull-Text 471-480
  Immanuel König; Bernd Niklas Klein; Klaus David
Context prediction is a key technique for proactive environments adapting to user's needs. To prevent wrong predictions is one key factor to achieve a high user acceptance. A wrong prediction could be caused by faulty or disturbed sensor data. With the triumph of the Smartphone, a wide range of context sources has become ubiquitous. Often, context prediction approaches today do not utilize these multiple context sources to cope with faulty or disturbed sensor data. We propose and evaluate an approach that uses multiple context sources and exploits the correlations between context sources of one user to get a more fault tolerant prediction.
Wait time prediction: how to avoid waiting in lines? BIBAFull-Text 481-490
  Ye Zhang; Le T. Nguyen; Joy Zhang
One of the challenges of organizations providing services to the public is the effective resource allocation. Many service providers such as hospitals, city halls or department of motor vehicles suffer from a service demand, which is unevenly distributed over the day. In this work, we evaluate techniques for predicting the service demand. We use the wait time dataset collected from the websites of California Department of Motor Vehicles (DMV). We extract patterns of the service demand in form of wait time during each hour of a day and each day of a week. This information is used to train multiple machine learning models in order to predict the future wait time at DMV offices.
Synthesizing daily life logs through gaming and simulation BIBAFull-Text 451-460
  Mario Caruso; Çagri Ilban; Francesco Leotta; Massimo Mecella; Stavros Vassos
In the recent years there has been a growing interest in the design and implementation of smart homes, and smart buildings in general. The evaluation of approaches in this area typically requires massive datasets of measurements from deployed sensors in real prototypes. While a few datasets obtained by real smart homes are freely available, they are not sufficient for comparing different approaches and techniques in a variety of configurations. In this work, we propose a smart home dataset generation strategy based on a simulated environment populated with virtual autonomous agents, sensors and devices which allow to customize and reproduce a smart space using a series of useful parameters. The simulation is based on declarative process models for modeling habits performed by agents, an action theory for realizing low-level atomic actions, and a 3D virtual execution environment. We show how different configurations generate a variety of sensory logs that can be used as input to a state-of-the-art activity recognition technique in order to evaluate its performance under parametrized scenarios, as well as provide guidelines for actually building real smart homes.

Workshop: CoSDEO 2013: device-free radio-based recognition

CoSDEO 2013: device-free radio-based recognition BIBAFull-Text 491-498
  Markus Scholz; Stephan Sigg; Moustafa Youssef
The 4th workshop on Context Systems Design, Evaluation and Optimization (CoSDEO2013) was organised in conjunction with Ubicomp 2013 in Zurich. This year, the theme of the workshop was on 'Device-Free Radio-Based Recognition'. We discuss recent advances in this field, introduce the workshop and summarise the contributions of the accepted submissions.
   From the submissions, we observe that the field is evolving from the recognition of locations of subjects to the recognition of activities from subjects. At the same time, the systems presented have grown more complex compared to recent years. Authors consider multiple subjects simultaneously, multiple frequencies and multiple antennas or receive devices.
Adaptive clustering for device free user positioning utilizing passive RFID BIBAFull-Text 499-508
  Benjamin Wagner; Dirk Timmermann
Context sensing is an important part of building ubiquitous smart and assistive environments. It is the major data source for intention recognition and strategy generation systems. Device-free localization systems (DFL) join the efforts of non-instrumentation of users maintaining their privacy.
   In recent publications we propose an innovative approach utilizing a cluster of passive Radio Frequency Identification Transponders (pRFID) for device-free radio-based positioning. Due to the point that the RFID technology is typically not designed for that purpose we have to deal with certain drawbacks. A high number of transponders typically conclude in lower measurement frame rates while generating substantially more information for accurate positioning.
   To fix this tradeoff this work presents a transponder clustering approach based on inherent EPC protocol based bit masking, which allows us to calculate fast coarse grained localization results and increase the precision by time, so that the user is able to adjust between localization speed and accuracy.
   We made simulations and conducted experiments in an indoor room DFL scenario for validation.
Ambient intelligence sensing using array sensor: device-free radio based approach BIBAFull-Text 509-520
  Jihoon Hong; Tomoaki Ohtsuki
In this paper we introduce a novel device-free radio based activity recognition with localization method with various applications, such as e-Healthcare and security. Our method uses the properties of the signal subspace, which are estimated using signal eigenvectors of the covariance matrix obtained from an antenna array (array sensor) at the receiver side. To classify human activities (e.g., standing and moving) and/or positions, we apply a machine learning method with support vector machines (SVM). We compare the classification accuracy of the proposed method with signal subspace features and received signal strength (RSS). We analyze the impact of antenna deployment on classification accuracy in non-line-of-sight (NLOS) environments to prove the effectiveness of the proposed method. In addition, we compare our classification method with k-Nearest Neighbor (KNN). The experimental results show that the proposed method with signal subspace features provides accuracy improvements over the RSS-based method.
Joint localization and activity recognition from ambient FM broadcast signals BIBAFull-Text 521-530
  Shuyu Shi; Stephan Sigg; Yusheng Ji
Due to spatial diversity, RF signals derived from a FM broadcast station differ when they arrive at the receivers placed in various locations. Also, the FM signals will be altered by the change of ambient environment. Previous works focused either the FM-based localization or activity recognition. In this study, we propose to simultaneously classify and localize activities conducted in proximity of an FM receiver. We conducted experiments and demonstrated that the location and activities of an individual can be distinguishable with a reasonable overall accuracy in a typical indoor environment from FM broadcast signals.
RF-Based device-free recognition of simultaneously conducted activities BIBAFull-Text 531-540
  Stephan Sigg; Shuyu Shi; Yusheng Ji
We investigate the use of received RF-signals for activity recognition in scenarios with multiple receive nodes and multiple simultaneously active individuals. Our system features a short 0.5 second window over which features are calculated and we report on experiences in the choice of the neighbourhood size of the k-nearest neighbour (k-NN) classifier utilised. In a case study with software defined radio nodes utilised in an active, device-free activity recognition (DFAR) system, we observe a good recognition accuracy for the recognition of multiple simultaneously conducted activities with two and more receive devices. This is the first study to distinguish this particular set of activities from users conducting them simultaneously. For a single individual, we repeat the experiment and report the recognition accuracy in scenarios where the recognition area per receive node is larger than 8m².
New insights into wifi-based device-free localization BIBAFull-Text 541-548
  Heba Aly; Moustafa Youssef
WiFi-based device-free localization is a main indoor localization technique that has attracted much attention recently. Typically, due to the complex wireless propagation in indoor environments, WiFi-based device-free localization requires a construction of a fingerprint map that captures the signal strength characteristics when the human is standing at certain locations in the area of interest. This fingerprint requires significant overhead in construction, and thus has been one of the major drawbacks of WiFi-based device-free localization. In this paper, we leverage an automated tool for fingerprint constructions to study novel scenarios for WiFi-based device-free localization training and testing that are difficult to evaluate in a real environment. In particular, we examine the effect of changing the access points (AP) mounting location, AP technology upgrade, and outsider effect; on the accuracy of the localization system. Our analysis provides recommendations for better localization and provides insights for both researchers and practitioners.
Device-free indoor localization using ambient radio signals BIBAFull-Text 549-552
  Andrei Popleteev
This paper investigates feasibility of device-free indoor localization using single passive receiver. Instead of local wireless nodes sharing one frequency channel, this work leverages multiple ambient FM radio stations. Experimental results demonstrate feasibility of the proposed approach and highlight the role of frequency diversity for passive localization.

Workshop: green food technology: Ubicomp opportunities for reducing the environmental impacts of food

Green food technology: UbiComp opportunities for reducing the environmental impacts of food BIBAFull-Text 553-558
  Adrian K. Clear; Rob Comber; Adrian Friday; Eva Ganglbauer; Mike Hazas; Yvonne Rogers
Everyday food and drink consumption makes up a significant proportion of global greenhouse gas emissions (16% of the total footprint for an average UK person [3]). Digital technology offers much scope for helping to reduce this -- promoting reflection, increasing transparency of product and supply chain impacts, and so on -- but the greatest impacts are predicated on a deep understanding of the configuration of everyday practices. This presents an interesting challenge for Ubicomp, stemming from the deep social and cultural influences on what people purchase, eat and throw away. This workshop brings together participants from a diverse range of disciplines to develop an understanding of existing food consumption practices, and reflect on how this domain can profit from novel Ubicomp technology and interaction designs.
EatChaFood: challenging technology design to slice food waste production BIBAFull-Text 559-562
  Geremy Farr-Wharton; Marcus Foth; Jaz Hee-jeong Choi
This paper presents work in progress of EatChaFood -- a prototype app designed to increase user knowledge of the currently available domestic supply and location of food, with a view to reducing expired household food waste. In order to reap the benefits that EatChaFood can provide we explore ways to overcome manual data entry as a barrier to use. Our user study has to recognise the limitations of the prototype app, and conduct an evaluation of the interaction design built into the app to promote behaviour change. Innovations in the near future such as the automatic scanning of barcodes on food items or photo-recognition will close the gap between perceived prototype usability and usefulness.
Collective spaces and collected action: towards reconnecting food, consumers and nature BIBAFull-Text 563-570
  Elizabeth Edwards; Louise Mullagh; Graham Dean; Gordon Blair
Disconnection between food production, its consumers and in turn between consumers and nature is increasingly seen as problematic for both producers and society at large. Consumers now know very little about where their food has come from, leading potentially to less sustainable practices and less engagement with what they eat and drink.
   We present the concept of reconnecting food (in this particular example, coffee) and consumers through design interventions in the High Street, employing digital innovations based on concepts from the Internet of Things and pervasive public displays. Two interventions carried out within the setting of J. Atkinson & Co. coffee and tea merchants in Lancaster City are discussed. We document the research processes, interaction design and their implementation in relation to notions of reconnecting products and consumers. Future interventions within the setting are also presented in order to demonstrate the on-going dialogue between researchers and retailers. We show that through exploring reconnection through storytelling within a retail environment there is potential to tackle the issues raised in the paper and engage with retailers and consumers.
Understanding underutilisation: methods for studying fruit and vegetable buying behaviours BIBAFull-Text 571-574
  Victoria Shipp; Martin Flintham; Richard Mortier; Brigitte A. Graf; Mehdi Maqbool; Behrang Parhizkar
This paper outlines research focused on understanding why people do or do not buy underutilised fruit and vegetables. This will inform the design of future interventions to promote more sustainable food related behaviour. A background to underutilised crops and food sustainability is provided. This is followed by an overview of the proposed method for capturing the entire purchasing and consumption experience using wearable cameras.
Wild food practices: understanding the wider implications for design and HCI BIBAFull-Text 575-584
  Alan Chamberlain; Chloe Griffiths
Ethnographic studies in their many forms have played a major role in informing the design and development of a multitude of systems, from pervasive games to ubiquitous systems that support market traders. This paper presents an alternative response to the understanding of the practices of procurement and usage of wild food, and the way that one might technologically intervene within these group practices in order to support an environmentally aware approach to such activities. The initial findings of this study not only suggest that there are multiple points where technological intervention is possible, but also demonstrate both the complexity and range of technological possibilities in regard to the act of foraging, the culture of wild food and biodiversity.
Designing a smart phone app for sustainable cooking BIBAFull-Text 585-588
  Luis Carlos Rubino de Oliveira; Val A. Mitchell; Andrew J. May
This research is focusing upon the human-computer interaction (HCI), evaluating the relationship between users and cooking appliances mediated by information-communication technologies (ICTs) applications designed specifically to motivate energy saving. User observation, energy monitoring and semi-structured interviews helped to understand user behaviours and its respective determinants. Group discussions and large scale surveys were used to evaluate the acceptance of energy saving techniques and intervention methods. This knowledge informed the development of a persuasive electronic energy saving intervention in the form of a mobile phone application, which is being tested.
UbiComp for grassroots urban food-growing communities BIBAFull-Text 589-594
  Sara Heitlinger; Nick Bryan-Kinns; Janis Jefferies
In this paper we argue that research into ubiquitous computing for sustainability must move its focus beyond designing for individual consumer behaviours. Urban grassroots food-growing communities offer opportunities to learn about the role of participation, community, citizenship and collective action, where sustainability encompasses environmental, social and economic factors. We report on fieldwork at an urban community farm in east London, and initial trial of the Talking Plants Sale prototype, to support the values of the farm.
Green food through green food: a human centered design approach to green food technology BIBAFull-Text 595-598
 
"Real sustainability will only be possible by consuming less." A ubiquitous computing path to consume less while improving health is to help us consume less processed food (60-70% of US/UK diet) in favor of whole food. The paper shows both the rationales for this focus and identifies key design challenges: interaction cycle, expertise and politics.

Workshop: international workshop on human activity sensing corpus and its application (HASCA2013)

Chairs' summary/proposal for international workshop on human activity sensing corpus and its application (HASCA2013) BIBAFull-Text 599-604
  Nobuo Kawaguchi; Nobuhiko Nishio; Daniel Roggen; Kaori Fujinami; Susanna Pirttikangas
Recent advancement of technology enables installations of small sized accelerometers or gyroscopes on various kinds of wearable/portable information devices. By using such wearable sensors, these devices can estimate its posture or status. However, most of current devices only utilize these sensors for simple orientation and gesture recognition. More deep understandings and recognition of human activity through these sensors will enable the next-generation human-oriented computing. To enable the real-world application by these kinds of wearable sensors, a large scale human activity sensing corpus might play an important role. Additionally, we have now a lot of high-performance mobile devices in real-world such as smart-phones. It is a great challenge to utilize such an enormous number of wearable sensors to collect a large-scale activity corpus. In recent years, there are several ongoing projects which are collecting human activities. In this workshop, we are planning to share these experiences of current research on the human activity corpus and its applications among the researchers and the practitioners and to have a deep discussion for future of activity sensing.
HASC-IPSC: indoor pedestrian sensing corpus with a balance of gender and age for indoor positioning and floor-plan generation researches BIBAFull-Text 605-610
  Katsuhiko Kaji; Hodaka Watanabe; Ryoji Ban; Nobuo Kawaguchi
Up till now, the majority of researches related to location estimation and floor plan creation have used different kinds of data and there has simply been no technique to compare the relative advantages and disadvantages. We collected indoor pedestrian sensing data of 100 people with a balance of gender and age. The data is part of the HASC corpus, free to use for research purposes.
Labeling method for acceleration data using an execution sequence of activities BIBAFull-Text 611-622
  Kazuya Murao; Tsutomu Terada
In the area of activity recognition, many systems using accelerometers have been proposed. Common method for activity recognition requires raw data labeled with ground truth to learn the model. To obtain ground truth, a wearer records his/her activities during data logging through video camera or handwritten memo. However, referring a video takes long time and taking a memo interrupts natural activity. We propose a labeling method for activity recognition using an execution sequence of activities. The execution sequence includes activities in performed order, does not include time stamps, and is made based on his/her memory. Our proposed method partitions and classifies unlabeled data into segments and clusters, and assigns a cluster to each segment, then assign labels according to the best-matching assignment of clusters with the user-recorded activities. The proposed method gave a precision of 0.812 for data including seven kinds of activities. We also confirmed that recognition accuracy with training data labeled with our proposal gave a recall of 0.871, which is equivalent to that with ground truth.
Evaluation function of sensor position for activity recognition considering wearability BIBAFull-Text 623-632
  Kazuya Murao; Haruka Mogari; Tsutomu Terada; Masahiko Tsukamoto
In the wearable computing environment, a computer provides many kinds of services by using the values from wearable sensors to recognize the user's movements or situations. In the research on activity recognition, accelerometers are attached on the user's body such as wrists, waist and, feet. Though researches on best sensor placement for context aware systems has been released thus far, they do not use enough number of sensors to really decide the best sensor placement. When using these context aware systems in our daily life, we also need to consider the discomfort that the user gets from attaching the sensors. The sensor might get in the user's way or feel uncomfortable for the user, however, as far as we know, the sensor's wearability is not taken into consideration in these researches. This paper proposes an evaluation function that scores sensor placement considering both recognition accuracy and sensor wearability, with twenty sensors on the user's body and thirty kinds of exercises including aerobic exercise, weight training, and yoga. Then we experimentally evaluated sensor placement, resulted in high degree of accuracy achieved without feeling stressful.
Improving fault tolerance of wearable sensor-based activity recognition techniques BIBAFull-Text 633-644
  Ryoma Uchida; Hiroto Horino; Ren Ohmura
Existing wearable sensor-based activity recognition techniques lack fault tolerance in the case of sensors data loss, such as communication disconnection and sensor failure. Compensating for missing data is one method to improve robustness and can be done by three levels in activity recognition: raw data level, feature value level, and classifier level. Our study proposes a method to compensate for the missing sensor data using an ARAR algorithm and compares this method with a previous method for compensating for the feature value using kernel regression in the feature value level. The ARAR algorithm method predicts future data from existing sequence data. We conducted some experiments to verify the usefulness of the proposed methods. Specifically, the prediction performance was evaluated by applying the ARAR algorithm to compensate for one to five successive windows. As a result of our test data, the F-measure rate was 73.4% in the case of sensor data loss. The ARAR algorithm compensation for one and two successive windows increased the F-measure to 76.8%. Overall, the ARAR algorithm method effectively compensates for instantaneous communication disconnection. On the other hand, the kernel regression method is especially compensates for burst communication disconnection. Therefore, we need to change the compensation method depending on sensor error patterns. Thus, we improved robustness of the activity recognition system by compensating for sensor data loss.
Pointing gesture recognition using compressed sensing for training data reduction BIBAFull-Text 645-652
  Masahiro Iwasaki; Kaori Fujinami
In this paper, we investigate training data reduction for the pointing gesture recognition with compressed sensing. The pointing gesture is one of activities during pointing and calling that is carried out by workers to keep occupational safety and correctness. Compressed sensing is used for gesture recognition and considered the impacts of the gesture duration difference among user. However, the different force among users may affect to the recognition. As a result of the experiment, F-measure is improved 0.18 compared with the DTW even only the data obtained from others is used. Moreover, we found that the user-dependency varies for each subject. Therefore, we tested to recognize the pointing gestures of all subjects by using the training data of only specific users. The test showed that the recognition model with training data from 4 specific subjects provided the same accuracy as the one from 11 subjects. This result suggested the feasibility of reduction for subjects who need to acquire the training data.
Parameter exploration for response time reduction in accelerometer-based activity recognition BIBAFull-Text 653-664
  Minoru Yoshizawa; Wataru Takasaki; Ren Ohmura
In activity recognition techniques, existing wearable sensors have a problem performing the recognition process. Because existing wearable sensors perform recognition process by dividing sensor data into partial sequences, there is lag between the changes in action and the output of the recognition result. Therefore, we focused on the point activities change and have proposed a method to reduce the response time of the activity recognition technique. However, parameters such as window size immediately after the activity changing point and the activity changing point detection in the proposed method have not been studied well. Thus, in this paper, we conducted experiments using the HASC Corpus, which contains large-scale data of human activity. We report results of examining various parameters in the proposed method and features of the proposed method revealed by comparison with a conventional method. To give a concrete example, for IIR band-pass filter bank to be used for activity changing point detection, we clarified the frequency and the appropriate number of filters. In addition, we clarified the relationship between identification accuracy and the size of a special window that is set after activity changing point detection. The proposed method reduced the response time to the 2035ms on average from 2773ms, the of average of the conventional method. In addition, the proposed method can reduce the amount of calculation, achieve both high recognition accuracy and short response time, and output the recognition results in consistent times to reduce the jitter of response time.
Detecting wi-fi base station behavior inappropriate for positioning method in participatory sensing logs BIBAFull-Text 665-672
  Nobuhiko Nishio; Yuuki Fukuzaki; Takuya Azumi
Recently mobile base stations are getting increased, which is considered harmful for the Wi-Fi positioning methods. In this paper, three approaches for detecting Wi-Fi base station behaviors inappropriate for Wi-Fi signature sampling are introduced and their performance evaluations are presented. First approach is for outdoor environment using GPS or Wi-Fi, second for indoor environment using Wi-Fi and accelerometers and last for the first contact stations using the Bayesian estimation method. Bayesian estimation is fine for stationary stations but much severe for mobile stations.
Automatic correction of annotation boundaries in activity datasets by class separation maximization BIBAFull-Text 673-678
  Reuben Kirkham; Aftab Khan; Sourav Bhattacharya; Nils Hammerla; Sebastian Mellor; Daniel Roggen; Thomas Ploetz
t is challenging to precisely identify the boundary of activities in order to annotate the activity datasets required to train activity recognition systems. This is the case for experts, as well as non-experts who may be recruited for crowd-sourcing paradigms to reduce the annotation effort or speed up the process by distributing the task over multiple annotators. We present a method to automatically adjust annotation boundaries, presuming a correct annotation label, but imprecise boundaries, otherwise known as "label jitter". The approach maximizes the Fukunaga Class-Separability, applied to time series. Evaluations on a standard benchmark dataset showed statistically significant improvements from the initial jittery annotations.
Monitor and understand pilgrims: data collection using smartphones and wearable devices BIBAFull-Text 679-688
  Amir Muaremi; Julia Seiter; Gerhard Tröster; Agon Bexheti
Each year, millions of people visit the sacred sites in Makkah and Madinah. Even though the Hajj pilgrimage is one of the biggest annual events in the world, with many of the pilgrims reporting it as a life-changing experience, quite a little is done to objectively monitor the pilgrims and to understand from the crowd and from the individual point of view what makes this event so special. We present a data collection phase of 8 days of pilgrimage in April 2013 with 41 pilgrims carrying Android smartphones and 10 pilgrims wearing two physiological sensors, namely chest belts and wrist-worn devices. We describe the data recording itself, and emphasize the problems raised and the challenges faced during the study. We provide the best practices for performing solid and efficient user studies in such a difficult environment, and give first insights towards measuring important aspects of the Hajj pilgrimage such as recognition of activities and stages, analysis of group behavior, detection of stressful situations and health monitoring of pilgrims in general.
Parallel, distributed, and differential processing system for human activity sensing flows BIBAFull-Text 689-700
  Takamichi Toda; Sozo Inoue; Lin Li
In this paper, we propose a parallel distributed processing system for data-analytic project including human activity sensing flows, which manages dependency among data and analytic programs, and re-execute updated programs and dependent programs for updated data/programs. In the system, a data analyzer can specify the dependency and parts for requiring distributed parallel processing using Hadoop Streaming, and they can be processed only for updated and the dependent part, with flexibly selecting parallel or sequential execution on the fly. The specification can also specify repeated execution of a single program with different data, while their dependencies are checked separately at execution. We describe the mathematical model, the system design, the usage, and the experimental result applying to the essential process in human activity sensing.
Sharing training data among different activity classes BIBAFull-Text 701-712
  Quan Kong; Takuya Maekawa
We propose a new activity recognition system for the daily activity by using a generative/discriminative hybrid model that can learn an activity classification model with small quantities of training data by sharing training data among different activity classes. Many existing activity recognition studies employ a supervised machine learning approach and thus require an end user's labeled training data, this approach places a large burden on the user. In this study, we assume that a user wears sensors (accelerometers) on several parts of the body such as the wrist, waist, and thigh, and by sharing sensor data obtained from only selected accelerometers (e.g., only waist and thigh sensors) among two different activity classes based on a sensor data similarity measure, the quantities of training data can be increased. For further reduction of the burden on the user, we also adopt semi-supervised approach to train the classifier in our study.

Workshop: human interfaces for civic and urban engagement

Human interfaces for civic and urban engagement: HiCUE '13 BIBAFull-Text 713-720
  Simo Hosio; Jorge Goncalves; Vassilis Kostakos; Keith Cheverst; Yvonne Rogers
How should citizens and communities interact with and in their city? Leveraging urban resources for civic purposes, such as citizen participation and community engagement, has been gaining interest in HCI. Essentially, citizens can be empowered to be heard and engage the city better through the use of modern technology. Examples of these technologies are mobile phones, public displays, sensor networks, digital art installations, or any other type of urban technology. This workshop seeks to investigate the progress in creating public human interfaces for interactive urban engagement. We wish to discuss issues such as citizen participation in public life and decision-making, informing citizens, and civic engagement in all its various forms.
Engaging in island life: big data, micro data, domestic analytics and smart islands BIBAFull-Text 721-724
  Alan Chamberlain; Alessio Malizia; Alan J. Dix
This paper reports upon an engagement-based study that was carried out on the Isle of Tiree (the Inner Hebrides, Scotland). The purpose of the study was to examine the use of a tabletop projection system as a mechanism to allow some of the islands inhabitants to initially discuss their understanding of data, data needs and to further explicate the ways in which communities or researchers might use such systems to engage with communities in a participatory-civic manner.
Digital soapboxes: towards an interaction design agenda for situated civic innovation BIBAFull-Text 725-728
  Marcus Foth; Leonardo Parra Agudelo; Robin Palleis
We argue that there are at least two significant issues for interaction designers to consider when creating the next generation of human interfaces for civic and urban engagement: (1) The disconnect between citizens participating in either digital or physical realms has resulted in a neglect of the hybrid role that public place and situated technology can play in contributing to civic innovation. (2) Under the veneer of many social media tools, hardly any meaningful strategies or approaches are found that go beyond awareness raising and allow citizens to do more than clicking a "Like" button. We call for an agenda to design the next generation of "digital soapboxes" that contributes towards a new form of polity helping citizens not only to have a voice but also to appropriate their city in order to take action for change.
A mobile brain sensing system for recommending third places BIBAFull-Text 729-732
  Lulwah Al-Barrak; Eiman Kanjo
Newly available EEG headsets allow us to sense mental states which could be useful in understanding how our brains are affected by the surrounding environments. In this paper, we present a novel recommendation approach that is based on mental states analysis. Mobile EEG headsets are used to detect mental states at different places to understand how they stimulate our brain signals. By analyzing EEG data, we could classify places according to the mental state signature, then we could build a map to guide and recommend therapeutical third places to people that lessen brain fatigue and mental rejuvenation.
Mobile observatory: an exploratory study of mobile air quality monitoring application BIBAFull-Text 733-736
  Yongsung Kim; Julien Eberle; Riikka Hanninen; Erol Can Un; Karl Aberer
We present Mobile Observatory, a mobile air quality monitoring application that provides evaluation of air quality of the city of Zurich, Switzerland. As Mobile Observatory utilizes air quality data gathered by sensors mounted on around 10 trams in Zurich, it is able to provide neighborhood-level air quality information within the city. In this paper, we introduce a mobile air quality monitoring application Mobile Observatory. Also, we describe a user study with 10 participants and show our preliminary results in hopes of yielding insights toward improving civic and urban engagement on air quality.
Reinforcing co-located communication practices through interactive public displays BIBAFull-Text 737-740
  Masaki Ogawa; Marko Jurmu; Tomotaka Ito; Takuro Yonezawa; Jin Nakazawa; Kazunori Takashio; Hideyuki Tokuda
In recent years, the steady emergence of digital communication, especially social media, has increased the "placelessness" of inter-person communication practices, i.e., lessening the need to reside co-located in order to communicate. When these communication practices carry over to co-located settings, they introduce redundancy and potentially even harm the co-located context, since use of personal technologies tends to isolate users from their surroundings. In this position paper, we want to raise awareness on how interactive public displays could alleviate this redundancy and potential isolation. We present a model of reinforcing co-located communications, and illustrate it through example use cases.
Geovisual interfaces to find suitable urban regions for citizens: a user-centered requirement study BIBAFull-Text 741-744
  Chandan Kumar; Benjamin Poppinga; Daniel Haeuser; Wilko Heuten; Susanne Boll
Geographic retrieval and visualization systems are essential to satisfy user's spatial information needs. However, the end users spatial information need is much more diverse and demanding in complex decision making scenarios such as: Persons moving to a new area need information about which place meets their individual demands. To analyze such requirements, we conducted a study with 18 users of different age group, knowledge, and expertise. In this paper we report the study methods, results, analysis and insights to build an end user-friendly geospatial decision support system.
A mobile phone-based exploratory citizen sensing environment BIBAFull-Text 745-748
  Shin'ichi Konomi; Tomoyo Sasao; Masatoshi Arikawa; Hideyuki Fujita
Coping with ill-structured problems in a city involves continuous, opportunistic, and multi-perspective processes, which existing pervasive technologies for citizen participation cannot easily support. Based on two preliminary case studies, we propose Scene Memo, a mobile phone-based exploratory citizen-sensing environment that uses dynamically shared tags to provide social cues and scaffold participants.
Zone based indoor mobile air pollution monitoring BIBAFull-Text 749-752
  Noura Alhakbani; Eiman Kanjo
Pollution is one of the main problems that humans are suffering from. Moreover air pollution is one of the hardest to escape. Although human spend most of their time indoor, most of the previous pollution monitoring studies focused on outdoor air monitoring. In this paper we present a new framework for zone based indoor mobile pollution sensing. Users carry portable pollution sensors along with NFC enabled phones to detect zone (i.e. tag) proximity in a building. NFC here assists in aggregating sensor data for further processing. Our system has been deployed and evaluated through a preliminary user study.
Accessibility for people who are blind in public transportation systems BIBAFull-Text 753-756
  Jaime Sánchez; Marcia de Borba Campos; Matías Espinoza; Lotfi B. Merabet
In order to support access for people who are blind to modes of transportation in the city, it is necessary to design technological tools that allow them to carry out activities safely, autonomously, and functionally. In this context, three mobile orientation and mobility support systems were designed for people who are blind to aid in their effective navigation using various modes of transportation in the city of Santiago, Chile. This work presents the most significant implications of the use of these systems.
Designing for smart cities: connecting and binding citizens to urban spaces through a new wearable interactive system BIBAFull-Text 757-760
  Assunta Matassa; Amon Rapp; Rossana Simeoni
In this paper we present a wearable interactive system that has the aim to strengthen the bond between individuals and urban spaces, leveraging the personal memories of the citizens.
Tending a virtual garden: exploring connectivity between cities BIBAFull-Text 761-764
  Minna Pakanen; Anna Maria Polli; Stella Lee; Joseph Lindley; Jorge Goncalves
This paper introduces a new experience-driven design concept to public spaces, such as bus stops, to strengthen connections between cities and their citizens. With the prototype described here we are provoking inquiry into whether the "technology" that is a bus stop, with high tech augmentations can engender civic engagement and more interconnected cities. Our preliminary user studies showed that people, while waiting for the bus, do not interact with each other, and as such are "alone together". Our concept is to connect people in the city, and also between two different cities by utilizing their waiting time. "Virtual Garden" creates the experience of "being connected" by providing users with the possibility to "grow" a collaborative garden using a smartphone and natural gestures as the control interaction. Lo-fi prototypes were used to gather user feedback which informed the design of the 'Virtual Garden'.

Workshop: HomeSys 2013: workshop on design, technology, systems and applications for the home

HomeSys 2013: workshop on design, technology, systems and applications for the home BIBAFull-Text 765-768
  A. J. Bernheim Brush; James Scott; Sarah Mennicken
HomeSys 2013 will be an inspiring, interactive, cross-disciplinary workshop for anyone conducting research into technology in homes. This includes anyone building novel systems, applications, or devices for the home, or studying existing or novel technology use in domestic settings, or anyone else with an interest in the intersection between technology and the home. Attendance at the workshop will not be limited, anyone may register and attend. To ensure any interactive and enjoyable exchange of ideas during the workshop, we have 4 contribution types: Visionary Presentations, Reflective Presentations, Videos and Posters. To encourage interactivity and discussion, the workshop will have plenary sessions for visionary and reflective presentations, in addition to posters and videos, a keynote, discussant-led panels and a breakout session.
On managed services lanes and their use in home networks BIBAFull-Text 769-776
  Frank den Hartog; Pieter Nooren; Archi Delphinanto; Erik Fledderus
Home networks show an increasing level of heterogeneity regarding the devices connected, network technologies used, and services supported. Heterogeneity inhibits quality assurance for new services, such as online gaming, energy management, and health care. This paper focuses on the role that the concept of Managed Services Lanes (MSLs) plays in Dutch smart-city initiatives to solve these issues. MSLs provide third-party service providers quality guarantees without infringing network neutrality. Our preliminary experiments with extending MSLs into the home network indicate that end users indeed have a better quality of experience for the supported Neighborhood TV service than without MSLs. We also show that extension of MSLs into the home network requires advanced home networking monitoring technologies including dynamic home network traffic models. Our research provides evidence that such models will be very different from the standard Internet models.
The digital bookshelf: decorating with collections of digital books BIBAFull-Text 777-784
  Ilhan Aslan; Martin Murer; Florian Primessnig; Christiane Moser; Manfred Tscheligi
We describe the Digital Bookshelf (a projector and camera based system) that similar to a physical bookshelf is designed to present a set of books for decorating and self-expression purposes. Digital books in the bookshelf are presented based on meta information (e.g. by price, rating and cover color) to highlight adjacencies and to create a meaningful and aesthetic view. The system makes use of research in serendipity and multivariate statistics to allow the user to browse along flexible paths of adjacent books in a large collection of books. It allows the user to experience how subsets of books create different visual expressions and atmospheres when placed in the bookshelf.
The smart home controller on your wrist BIBAFull-Text 785-792
  Luigi De Russis; Dario Bonino; Fulvio Corno
This paper addresses human-home interaction mediated by everyday objects, with a particular focus on wrist watches. Everyday wrist-worn devices are turned into flexible home access points by exploiting a modular architecture independent from the underlying home automation system, and from the specific watch device, provided that the necessary capabilities are available. A first working prototype based on a cost-effective consumer watch is presented, and experimental results confirm the viability of the approach.
Taking smart space users into the development loop: an architecture for community based software development for smart spaces BIBAFull-Text 793-800
  Marc-Oliver Pahl; Georg Carle
Smart spaces need driver services to connect accessed hardware and orchestration services to realize scenarios. There is a problem of scale in software development for smart spaces because it is done by few. It is also problematic that those few decide about what is supported and developed. We propose to provide users with tools for community based development of driver and orchestration services. We analyze the requirements for a middleware framework to allow distributed development. We present necessary extensions that promote community based development: (1) a repository for interface definitions, (2) App Store and App Manager, and (3) multi-dimensional ratings. Finally we present how smart space software development can be facilitated using our Distributed Smart Space Orchestration System (DS2OS).
homeBLOX: introducing process-driven home automation BIBAFull-Text 801-808
  Michael Rietzler; Julia Greim; Marcel Walch; Florian Schaub; Björn Wiedersheim; Michael Weber
Home automation promises more convenience for residential living. We propose process-driven home automation as an approach to reduce the difficulty of specifying automation tasks without restricting users in terms of customizability and complexity of supported scenarios. Our graph-based user interface abstracts from the complexity of process specification, while created sequences are automatically translated into BPEL code for execution. Our homeBLOX architecture extends a process engine with the capabilities to communicate with heterogeneous smart devices, integrate virtual devices, and support different home automation protocols. We report on initial user tests with our automation interface and demonstrate the customizability and expressiveness of our system based on realized example use cases.
Exploring the hidden impacts of HomeSys: energy and emissions of home sensing and automation BIBAFull-Text 809-814
  Oliver Bates; Mike Hazas
Home sensing and automation systems are rarely discussed with reference to their direct energy demand, much less other environmental impacts such as greenhouse gas (GhG) emissions arising from their manufacture and transport. It is imperative that designers of such systems understand the impacts of the technologies they introduce, particularly where intended to save energy and promote sustainability. Using four case studies drawn from recent Ubicomp and HCI literature, this reflective paper quantifies the direct energy and estimates the embodied emissions arising from specific installations of home sensing. We contextualise this by comparing with typical impacts arising from existing ICT devices commonly found in the home, and highlight a number of ways in which designers can reduce the impacts of the systems they introduce into the home.
HomeFlow: inferring device usage with network traces BIBAFull-Text 815-820
  Oliver Bates; Matthew Broadbent
Previous studies in home energy have taken a service oriented approach to disaggregating direct energy consumption. With a particular focus on media and ICT services in the home, our proposed platform builds upon this work by providing activity oriented data, collected through home network monitoring. This information will be used to build a profile of communication between devices. This includes inter-device communication within the confines of a home environment, and also the use of external resources outside of the home. This provides knowledge of device behaviour and enables profiling of device relationships. Furthermore, monitoring communication to locations outside of the home will enable us to estimate associated indirect energy costs. These are incurred when a user consumes an externally provided service, such as Video-on-Demand.
Human localization at home using Kinect BIBAFull-Text 821-828
  Tanushyam Chattopadhyay; Sangheeta Roy
In this paper authors have presented a method to localize and detect human being from Kinect captured sequence of images. The proposed method takes a sequence of gray (G) scale image and the corresponding depth (D) image as input. The gray scale image and the depth information are captured using two different sensors within the same device, Kinect and the processing are executed in the processor attached with Kinect. The proposed method localizes the human by using their motion along x, y direction and then considers all pixels connected with those pixels and over a 3D plane to accomplish the segmentation with an accuracy of 77%. Experimental results demonstrate that our method is robust against existing method for human localization.
Communities in the clouds: support for high-rise living BIBAFull-Text 829-836
  Tom Lodge; Tom Rodden; Richard Mortier
Research into domestic infrastructures has focused upon a user's understanding and control of in-home networking technologies. It has exposed a range of needs that have either lead to the creation of new tools and services, or have triggered a fundamental re-evaluation of the status quo. We consider a class of domestic environment that has largely been neglected: large scale communal living. Urban high-rises, composed of hundreds of apartments and hundreds or thousands of occupants, expose their residents to a set of problems which impose complex requirements upon supporting technologies. We examine the requirements of high-rise communities, through a set of illustrative scenarios, inspired by forums, social media and literature. We consider how commonly appropriated social media tools fail to address these requirements and we discuss the nature of the services required to better support high-rise communities.
Always beta: cooperative design in the smart home BIBAFull-Text 837-844
  Timo Jakobi; Gunnar Stevens
In Software development, the always beta principle is used to successfully develop innovation based on early and continuous user feedback. In this paper we discuss how this principle could be adapted to the special needs of designing for the Smart Home, where we do not just take care of the software, but also release hardware components. In particular, because of the 'materiality' of the Smart Home one could not just make a beta version available on the web, but an essential part of the development process is also to visit the 'beta' users in their home, to build trust, to face the real world issues and provide assistance to make the Smart Home work for them. After presenting our case study, we will then discuss the challenges we faced and how we dealt with them.
The furniture of ubiquitous computing BIBAFull-Text 845-852
  Sho Hashimoto; Toshiyuki Masui
Although various ubicomp technologies have been proposed for home environments, few people are enjoying such technologies in their daily life, due to the lack of powerful software framework for building flexible applications for home. We are developing simple and powerful ubicomp frameworks which can be used for building furniture-embedded networked devices which fit to home environments. Using our frameworks, many devices can communicate with each other by exchanging data shared on the Web server using standard HTTP. In this paper, we describe the concepts and implementations of the frameworks, and show how sparsely-connected devices can cooperatively be used for various tasks needed in home environments.
Living++: a platform for assisted living applications BIBAFull-Text 853-860
  Muhammad Umer Iqbal; Ngewi Fet; Stephan Wagner; Marcus Handte; Pedro José Marrón
Assisted living systems aim at increasing the independence of persons facing challenges in performing their daily tasks either due to cognitive diseases or aging. In addition, many systems try to help their caregivers in providing effective care to them. However, in order to be useful assisted living systems must be easy to use for the affected persons as well as for their caregivers. Furthermore, to be cost-effective the systems must be inexpensive. In this paper, we discuss our experiences from our assisted living system WebDA and based on the lessons learned we present the Living++ platform which strives to fulfill the mentioned goals. The Living++ platform is built on top of low cost and widely available devices, it provides a familiar TV-based user interface to its users and enables remote monitoring and management through freely available on-line services.
Towards user identification in the home from appliance usage patterns BIBAFull-Text 861-868
  Daniel Garnier-Moiroux; Fernando Silveira; Anmol Sheth
We explore the feasibility of identifying users from the unique patterns they exhibit when interacting with an individual electrical appliance in the home. We evaluate the effectiveness of a supervised learning based approach for user identification from a dataset of appliance usage collected across five users and three kitchen appliances over a period of eight weeks. Our results show that using appliance usage information alone provides a moderate average accuracy of 32% for group sizes of up to five users in the home. However augmenting usage information with hints about user presence can improve accuracy by 15-20%.

Workshop: 2nd ACM international workshop on mobile systems for computational social science

2nd ACM international workshop on mobile systems for computational social science BIBFull-Text 875-882
  Nicholas D. Lane; Mirco Musolesi
An evaluation of method for encouraging participation BIBAFull-Text 883-890
  Hitoshi Kawasaki; Atsushi Yamamoto; Hisashi Kurasawa; Hiroshi Sato; Motonori Nakamura; Ryuma Kakinuma
Much attention is being focused on participatory sensing, in which real-world data are collected using personal mobile devices as sensor nodes to sense various conditions of the world we live in. In participatory sensing, there is a problem in that the supply of data is insufficient if users are not motivated to participate in sensing services. We previously proposed Top of Worlds, a method for encouraging user participation by presenting rankings in multidimensional hierarchical sets. In this paper, we describe the development of a ranking system and a real-world evaluation to confirm that Top of Worlds can encourage user participation.
The price is right?: economic value of location sharing BIBAFull-Text 891-900
  Omer Barak; Gabriella Cohen; Alla Gazit; Eran Toch
The popularity of location-based services such as Foursquare has made location sharing a common practice. Commercial companies can use the shared location for marketing purposes and often motivate users to share using discounts or special offers. We examine the reward users demand in such a scenario to try and estimate the value they ascribe to their own location information. Our user study is conducted using a mobile phone application that randomly offers users hypothetical money coupons in exchange for publishing their location. Responses by 25 participants to 481 such offers show that the willingness to share increases with coupon value, yet varies greatly with the location being shared. We use logistic regression to estimate the value above which most users will share their location and find it to be €8/€5.4 ($10.4/$7) for a user's home and work respectively. This work contributes to the growing body of knowledge about the economic aspects of location-based services.
Understanding customer malling behavior in an urban shopping mall using smartphones BIBAFull-Text 901-910
  SangJeong Lee; Chulhong Min; Chungkuk Yoo; Junehwa Song
This paper presents a novel customer malling behavior modeling framework for an urban shopping mall. As an automated computing framework using smartphones, it is designed to provide comprehensive understanding of customer behavior. We prototype the framework in a real-world urban shopping mall. Development consists of three steps; customer data collection, customer trace extraction, and behavior model analysis. We extract customer traces from a collection of 701-hour sensor data from 195 in-situ customers who installed our logging application at Android Market. The practical behavior model is created from the real traces. It has a multi-level structure to provide the holistic understanding of customer behavior from physical movement to service semantics. As far as we know, it is the first work to understand complex customer malling behavior in offline shopping malls.
Open source smartphone libraries for computational social science BIBAFull-Text 911-920
  Neal Lathia; Kiran Rachuri; Cecilia Mascolo; George Roussos
The ubiquity of sensor-rich and computationally powerful smartphones makes them an ideal platform for conducting social and behavioural research. However, building sensor data collection tools remains arduous and challenging: it requires an understanding of the varying sensor programming interfaces as well as the research issues related to building sensor-sampling systems. To alleviate this problem and facilitate the development of social sensing and data collection applications, we are developing a set of open-source smartphone libraries to collect, store and transfer, and query sensor data. Furthermore, we have also developed a library that can trigger notifications based on time or sensor events to assist experience sampling methods. This paper presents these libraries' architecture, initial feedback from developers using it, and a sensing application that we built using them to study daily affect.
Speech stress assessment using physiological and psychological measures BIBAFull-Text 921-930
  Ana C. Aguiar; Mariana Kaiseler; Hugo Meinedo; Traian E. Abrudan; Pedro R. Almeida
Emotional stress is commonly experienced while speaking in public, producing changes to the various speech productions subsystems, affecting the speech signal in predictable ways and being easily conveyed to listeners. Speech stress indicators, however, are typically studied under laboratory settings, allowing little generalization to real life settings. To bridge this gap, we propose an interdisciplinary approach to assess speech stress during public speaking events, based on a platform that records speech simultaneously annotated with physiological and psychological measures. This approach enables the collection of a large corpus of annotated speech in ecological settings, i.e. in objectively stressing situations. We also propose and implement a methodology to assess listeners evaluation of stress including psychologists, and overall public.
   The platform has been in use for the past 5 months, and we have collected 13 complete samples after the initial iterative development procedure. Preliminary results indicate that the proposed user-friendly platform is an accurate and robust method to collect annotated speech under ecological settings that can be processed to obtain speech stress indicators. The findings will be used primarily in the design of computer and mobile assisted voice coaching applications, but the outreach extends to mobile emotion sensing for individuals and crowds.
Robust voice activity detection for social sensing BIBAFull-Text 931-938
  Sebastian Feese; Gerhard Tröster
The speech modality is a rich source of personal information. As such, speech detection is a fundamental function of many social sensing applications. Simply the amount of speech present in our surroundings can give indications about our socialbility and communication patterns. In this work, we present and evaluate a speech detection approach utilizing dictionary learning and sparse signal representation. Transforming the noisy audio data to the sparse representation with a dictionary learned from clean speech data, we show that speech and non speech can be discriminated even in low signal-to-noise conditions with up to 92% accuracy. In addition to an evaluation with simulated data, we evaluate the algorithm on a real-world data set recorded during firefighting missions. We show, that speech activity of firefighters can be detected with 85% accuracy when using a smartphone that was placed in the firefighting jacket.

Workshop: workshop on personal and pervasive fabrication (PerFab 2013)

Workshop on personal and pervasive fabrication (PerFab 2013) BIBAFull-Text 939-944
  Manfred Lau; Christian Weichel; Nicolas Villar
Recently, technologies for fabricating real-world objects and products that can be designed and built directly by the end-user have decreased in costs and are increasingly common. These technologies are expected to have a great impact on society and the personal fabrication concept has been described as the "new or third industrial revolution". However, there is a great need to explore many novel research challenges and issues before the idea of personal fabrication becomes truly pervasive and applicable to the wider public.
   PerFab is a workshop for providing a forum to bring together researchers from various disciplines working in this area. We intend to identify, explore and contribute to the research challenges that will allow personal fabrication to be pervasive. We will invite paper submissions to our workshop, review the submissions with a peer review process, and include the accepted papers in the ACM Digital Library. The long-term goal is to gather a community of researchers and establish this workshop as a leading forum for research dissemination in the area.
Wordpress of objects: addressing layman participation in a post-industrial society BIBAFull-Text 945-950
  Guido Hermans
In this paper a perspective on layman participation in the design of everyday products is presented. The development of digital fabrication technologies such as 3D printing enables an increasing involvement of the layman in appropriating the performance of objects to their own needs and desires. The question is how professional designers as well as laymen deal with openness in product design. An analogy is made with the content management system Wordpress to discuss how could be dealt with openness in a toolkit that addresses multiple skill levels of its users.
From sketches to CAM models: perceiving pockets and steps in single-view wireframe sketches of polyhedral shapes BIBAFull-Text 951-958
  Raquel Plumed; Pedro Company; Peter A. C. Varley; Ralph R. Martin
We propose the direct production of 3D CSG models from sketches as a way of relieving the user from having to input detailed 3D CAD models. This shortens the CAD/CAM process and simplifies it, allowing non-expert end-users to produce their own designs. Early detection of features in the 2D sketch is a critical step. This paper discusses a general strategy for solving this problem, and then describes our approach for detecting steps and pockets in a 2D line-drawing obtained after vectorising the sketch captured by an input device.
3D effects box for bridging 3D scan and 3D print BIBFull-Text 959-962
  Hiroya Tanaka; Yusuke Tominaka; Atsushi Masumori; Taisuke Oshima; Keita Sekijima; Youka Watanabe

Workshop: PeTRE -- workshop on pervasive technologies in retail environment

PeTRE: workshop on pervasive technologies in retail environments BIBAFull-Text 963-968
  Markus Löchtefeld; Petteri Nurmi; Florian Michahelles; Carsten Magerkurth; Patrik Floréen; Antonio Krüger
The main goal of this workshop is to explore how pervasive technologies can be integrated into today's brick and mortar retail environments to enhance the overall retail experience. Therefore we want to bring together researchers and industry partners to explore not only customer orientated technologies and services but also how those technologies can be used to increase the effectiveness and productivity and with that enhance the retailers profits.
Wi-Fi fingerprinting through active learning using smartphones BIBAFull-Text 969-976
  Le T. Nguyen; Joy Zhang
Indoor positioning is one of the key components enabling retail-related services such as location-based product recommendations or in-store navigation. In the recent years, active research has shown that indoor positioning systems based on Wi-Fi fingerprints can achieve a high positioning accuracy. However, the main barrier of broad adoption is the labor-intensive process of collecting labeled fingerprints. In this work, we propose an approach for reducing the amount of labeled data instances required for training a Wi-Fi fingerprint model. The reduction of the labeling effort is achieved by leveraging dead reckoning and an active learning-based approach for selecting data instances for labeling. We demonstrate through experiments that we can construct a Wi-Fi fingerprint database with significantly less labels while achieving a high positioning accuracy.
ProFi: design and evaluation of a product finder in a supermarket scenario BIBAFull-Text 977-984
  Ming Li; Katrin Arning; Luisa Bremen; Oliver Sack; Martina Ziefle; Leif Kobbelt
This paper presents the design and evaluation of ProFi, a PROduct FInding assistant in a supermarket scenario. We explore the idea of micro-navigation in supermarkets and aim at enhancing visual search processes in front of a shelf. In order to assess the concept, a prototype is built combining visual recognition techniques with an Augmented Reality interface. Two AR patterns (circle and spotlight) are designed to highlight target products. The prototype is formally evaluated in a controlled environment. Quantitative and qualitative data is collected to evaluate the usability and user preference. The results show that ProFi significantly improves the users' product finding performance, especially when using the circle pattern, and that ProFi is well accepted by users.
TrackLab: an innovative system for location sensing, customer flow analysis and persuasive information presentation BIBAFull-Text 985-990
  Andrew Spink; Ben Locke; Nico Van der Aa; Lucas Noldus
TrackLab is a new tool for measurement, recognition and analysis of spatial behavior. Although a number of software packages have been developed which can, for instance, acquire tracking data or analyze that data, there is currently no one system which supports the entire workflow. TrackLab supports import from a wide variety of input formats, both real-time and offline. Furthermore a plug-in module is being developed which gives tracking data from a group of up to ten people on the basis of video images (that is, with no need for tags or similar). Once the location data is in the TrackLab software it can be visualized in a variety of ways and a statistical analysis report is generated. The analysis variables are based on established parameters for quantification of behavior based on location. The analysis helps you to gain insight into the spatial behavior of customers. For real-time applications of the system, the analysis variables can be used to control external software, for example presentation of information on a display when a person has followed a particular path through the shop.
Enriching shopping experiences with pervasive displays and smart things BIBAFull-Text 991-998
  Salvatore Longo; Ernö Kovacs; Jörn Franke; Miquel Martin
Brick and Mortar stores have been facing unrelenting competition from online retailers. An enhanced shopping experience is often perceived as a decisive factor in regaining market share, aiming at novel multi-channel online and offline sales strategies. Technologies aimed at this goal, promote interaction, personalization and reaction measurement based on Internet of Things and networked display technologies. There exist, however, a plethora of standards and application platforms which constitute a considerable barrier for integrators both in terms of time and man power. This paper proposes an integrated approach for cost-effective development of innovative in-shop-experience applications leveraging the Internet of Things, HTML5 and Pervasive Display Networks.
Towards the counter free store: requirements for mobile sales assistants BIBAFull-Text 999-1006
  Thomas Meneweger; David Wilfinger; Ilhan Aslan; Doris Zachhuber; Manfred Tscheligi
Ubiquitous assistants in retail environments can be useful not only for customers but also for salespersons by supporting their work. Providing product and customer information anywhere in the store, is the first step on realizing the vision of the counter free store. To ensure both, usefulness and acceptance of ubiquitous sales assistants, this paper describes in a first step user requirements towards mobile assistants generated in two focus groups with customers and salespersons. We present the identified requirements (e.g., aspects of sales processes, spatial situations, tool mediated cooperation, and information transparency) and discuss how ubiquitous technology should support the high situatedness of the sales situation.
A plugin framework to control electronic shelf labels BIBAFull-Text 1007-1014
  Gerrit Kahl
Nowadays, more and more electronic displays are integrated into modern supermarkets in order to display advertisement or to act as price tags referred to as electronic shelf labels (ESL). Due to the low power consumption, wireless accessibility and appropriate resolution, these displays represent an alternative to state-of-the-art paper printed price labels. Nevertheless, there are several types of displays regarding size, resolution and communication channel. In this paper, we present a framework to automatically generate display content for different display types. Besides the connection to the displays, the framework also includes the possibility to generate the content to be displayed based on application plugins. The plugin approach facilitates both the integration of new display types and the creation of new applications. We explain the prototypical implementation of several plugins as well as the application at an instrumented shopping environment.
Augmented reality-based advertising strategies for paper leaflets BIBAFull-Text 1015-1022
  Markus Löchtefeld; Matthias Böhmer; Florian Daiber; Sven Gehring
While shopping websites provide rich customer support through their adaptiveness, static paper-based leaflets are still one of the most important advertising mechanisms for retailers even in todays digital world. With their physical qualities, they create a higher emotional connection and with that more positive memories for brands and retailers. In this paper, we investigate two concepts for Augmented Reality advertising for such leaflets to bridge the digital divide. One of them is following a Guerrilla marketing approach, which allows users to easily compare products of different retailers. The second concept investigates different strategies for visualizing cross-selling recommendations inside the leaflets. We report on initial user feedback and discuss ideas for future work in the field of Augmented Reality advertising.
Cricking: customer-product interaction in retail using pervasive technologies BIBAFull-Text 1023-1028
  Rafael Pous; Joan Melià-Seguí; Anna Carreras; Marc Morenza-Cinos; Zulqarnain Rashid
The popularization of eCommerce has led to effective customer shopping experiences. Pervasive computing could bring the benefits of eCommerce to brick and mortar stores, merging both online and physical worlds into a unique system. We define crick as the extension of the (c)lick and b(rick) concept, by means of pervasive technologies. In this paper, we summarize our work-in-progress research on using pervasive Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) to sense human-product interaction. These cricks can be performed through diverse interfaces in the retail domain, and automatically receive feedback in different manners. We believe that integrating RFID and other pervasive technologies in retail stores is the next step to obtain comprehensive customer's user models and preferences. Retail management improvement, or personal and collaborative recommendations, are envisioned to be successful applications of cricking.
Enhancing the shopping experience through RFID in an actual retail store BIBAFull-Text 1029-1036
  Joan Melià-Seguí; Rafael Pous; Anna Carreras; Marc Morenza-Cinos; Raúl Parada; Zeinab Liaghat; Ramir De Porrata-Doria
Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) offers an extraordinary opportunity to enhance the shopping experience of customers in a retail store. There are two types of possible enhancements: increasing the efficiency of traditional processes, or offering new use cases at the store. RFID offers a great opportunity in both cases. RFID can be used to improve the availability of products, reducing stock outs, to streamline the check-out process, reducing the lines, or to substitute the typical Electronic Article Surveillance (EAS) "horse gates" by hidden antennas, freeing the entrance to the store from intimidating barriers. Besides these operational improvements, RFID can also be used to offer shoppers new and enticing functionalities, such as a "magic mirror" to virtually try garments on, or an interactive screen in the fitting room that displays information and offers functionalities related to the particular garments brought in by the customer. This paper describes an actual installation in an apparel retail store in Barcelona, and presents some of the initial conclusions after several months of operation with real customers.
STORE VIEW: pervasive RFID & indoor navigation based retail inventory management BIBAFull-Text 1037-1042
  Anna Carreras; Marc Morenza-Cinos; Rafael Pous; Joan Melià-Seguí; Kamruddin Nur; Joan Oliver; Ramir De Porrata-Doria
Today's retail consumers' general behavior consists of doing the research for products preferably online while purchasing them offline. Users would like to access stores' inventories before going to the shop. This paper first identifies the challenges that need to be addressed to navigate within a store and its inventory anytime and anywhere without being physically there. Then, it analyzes the existing approaches for inventory management based on Radio Frequency Identification (RFID). And finally, it proposes a solution based on robots. We believe that this proposal is an important contribution to fill the gap between online and offline worlds in the context of retail.
A supermarket stress map BIBAFull-Text 1043-1046
  Nour El Mawass; Eiman Kanjo
People choose their favorite supermarket based on many factors including how the place is designed and organized. Customers generally perceive their shopping experience in an aggregated way, which leaves little room for supermarkets managers to understand what triggers negative feelings. Moreover, adapting the supermarket design to clients' needs is crucial to retain current customers. Accommodating facilities make shoppers feel pleased. In this paper we show the design and initial deployment of a pervasive system that registers location-stamped stress levels of supermarket customers during their shopping. The system aims to discover stress hot spots in a supermarket, which will help managers locate and solve design and store management deficiencies.
Healthy shopping: a longitudinal study of a mobile app to encourage a balanced diet BIBAFull-Text 1047-1054
  Jon Bird; Daniel Fozzati; Daniel Harrison; Paul Marshall
An imbalanced diet is the primary cause of the majority of non-communicable diseases. In particular, obesity rates are increasing in both the developed and developing world and this disease has been described as a pandemic by the World Health Organization. Many governments provide dietary guidelines, for example, recommended weekly amounts of different food types, but the increasing incidence of obesity shows that these campaigns have not been successful. We developed a mobile app that shows supermarket shoppers the nutritional balance of their shopping trolley. A two-month study demonstrated that the app led to significant changes in participants' shopping habits and an improvement in the nutritional balance of their diets.

Workshop: PUCAA: 1st international workshop on pervasive urban crowdsensing architecture and applications

PUCAA: 1st international workshop on pervasive urban crowdsensing architecture and applications BIBAFull-Text 1055-1062
  Zhixian Yan; Nilanjan Banerjee; Dipanjan Chakraborty; Archan Misra; Mani Srivastava; Sumit Mittal
Recently, as the community and businesses have begun to realize the power of jointly harnessing nomadic mobile sensing and selective infrastructure-based ambient sensing, we are beginning to see the emergence of a class of "urban crowdsensing" platforms that perform pervasive sensing in a more coordinated fashion. Such combined sensing opens up the possibilities for new exciting applications in a variety of urban spaces.
   Driven by these trends, PUCAA is an annual workshop that seeks to bring together researchers and practitioners working in the areas of urban and crowd-driven sensing. The workshop provides a forum for the researchers to discuss large/innovative crowdsensing architectures, systems and platforms and their experiences on developing crowdsensing applications impacting urban lifestyles in a variety of areas such as personal & public healthcare, retail & commerce, transportation, public safety, crowd management, and utility services.
Decentralised approach for a reusable crowdsourcing platform utilising standard web servers BIBAFull-Text 1063-1074
  Tenshi Hara; Thomas Springer; Gerd Bombach; Alexander Schill
Crowdsourcing has gained increasing interest during the last years as means for solving complex tasks with the help of a flexible group of contributors. The crowd can contribute with collecting data in the field, completing map information or votes for ideas or products. Even though the participation of large numbers of users with heterogeneous devices in crowdsourcing is a highly recurrent task, generic infrastructures for crowdsourcing can be hardly found. Especially the management of users, mobile devices and contributed data has to be repetitively implemented in new projects. To ease the development of crowdsourcing applications, in this paper we propose a generic platform for crowdsourcing supporting diverse crowdsourcing scenarios, the ability to handle large numbers of users and the involvement of heterogeneous mobile devices. The evaluation is based on scalability and performance experiments in order to demonstrate the feasibility of our approach.
effSense: energy-efficient and cost-effective data uploading in mobile crowdsensing BIBAFull-Text 1075-1086
  Leye Wang; Daqing Zhang; Haoyi Xiong
Energy consumption and mobile data cost are two key factors affecting users' willingness to participate in crowdsensing tasks. While data-plan users are mostly concerned about the energy consumption, non-data-plan users are more sensitive to data transmission cost incurred. Traditional ways of data collection in mobile crowdsensing often go to two extremes: either uploading the sensed data online in real-time or fully offline after the whole sensing task is finished. In this paper, we propose effSense -- a novel energy-efficient and cost-effective data uploading framework leveraging the delay-tolerant mechanisms. Specifically, effSense reduces the data cost of non-data-plan users by maximally offloading the data to Bluetooth/WiFi gateways or data-plan users encountered to relay the data to the server; it reduces energy consumption of data-plan users by uploading data in parallel with a call or using less-energy demand networks (e.g. Bluetooth). By leveraging the prediction of critical events such as user's future calls or encounters, effSense selects the optimal uploading scheme for both types of users. Our evaluation with MIT Reality Mining and Nodobo datasets show that effSense can save 55%~65% energy and 45%~50% data cost for the two types of users, respectively, compared with the traditional uploading schemes.
On heterogeneity in mobile sensing applications aiming at representative data collection BIBAFull-Text 1087-1098
  Henrik Blunck; Niels Olof Bouvin; Tobias Franke; Kaj Grønbæk; Mikkel B. Kjaergaard; Paul Lukowicz; Markus Wüstenberg
Gathering representative data using mobile sensing to answer research questions is becoming increasingly popular, driven by growing ubiquity and sensing capabilities of mobile devices. However, there are pitfalls along this path, which introduce heterogeneity in the gathered data, and which are rooted in the diversity of the involved device platforms, hardware, software versions and participants. Thus, we, as a research community, need to establish good practices and methodologies for addressing this issue in order to help ensure that, e.g., scientific results and policy changes based on collective, mobile sensed data are valid. In this paper, we aim to inform researchers and developers about mobile sensing data heterogeneity and ways to combat it. We do so via distilling a vocabulary of underlying causes, and via describing their effects on mobile sensing -- building on experiences from three projects within citizen science, crowd awareness and trajectory tracking.
Publish/subscribe middleware for energy-efficient mobile crowdsensing BIBAFull-Text 1099-1110
  Ivana Podnar Zarko; Aleksandar Antonic; Krešimir Pripuzic
In this paper we focus on mobile crowdsensing applications for community sensing where sensors and mobile devices jointly collect and share data of interest to observe and measure phenomena over a larger geographic area. Such applications, e.g., environmental monitoring or crowdsourced traffic monitoring, involve numerous individuals that on the one hand continuously contribute sensed data to application servers, and on the other hand consume the information of interest to observe a phenomenon typically in their close vicinity. Energy-efficient and context-aware orchestration of the sensing process with data transmission from sensors through mobile devices into the cloud, as well as from the cloud to mobile devices such that information of interest is served to users in real-time, is essential for such applications, primarily due to battery limitations of both mobile devices and wearable sensors. In addition, the latency of data propagation represents their key quality measure from the user's perspective. Publish/subscribe middleware offers the mechanisms to deal with those challenges: It enables selective real-time acquisition and filtering of sensor data on mobile devices, efficient continuous processing of large data volumes within the cloud, and near real-time delivery of notifications to mobile devices. This paper presents our implementation of a publish/subscribe middleware system which is tailored to the requirements of mobile and resource-constrained environments with a goal to reduce the overall energy consumption in such environments, and proposes a general architecture for mobile crowdsensing applications. We demonstrate the usability of both the architecture and middleware through our application for air quality monitoring, and discuss the energy footprint of the proposed solution.
CrowdMeter: an emulation platform for performance evaluation of crowd-sensing applications BIBAFull-Text 1111-1122
  Manoj R. Rege; Vlado Handziski; Adam Wolisz
In this paper we introduce CrowdMeter, an emulation platform for predicting performance of large-scale crowd-sensing applications. CrowdMeter architecture follows natural decomposition of the application under evaluation and provides features for emulation of mobile devices and access network links. It leverages virtualization and cloud-based infrastructure-as-service resources to offer necessary scaling. We instantiate CrowdMeter architecture using off-the-shelf components and public-cloud resources, and perform a preliminary evaluation of its emulation fidelity focused on the communication services. The results confirm that CrowdMeter can successfully capture important aspects of real-world performance of different wireless access links. They also illustrate the ease-of-use and the scalability of the platform in terms of number of emulated mobile devices.
Locating emergencies in a campus using wi-fi access point association data BIBAFull-Text 1123-1134
  Asma Ahmad Farhan; Athanasios Bamis; Bing Wang
Despite much progress in emergency management, effective techniques for real-time tracking of emergency events are still lacking. We envision a promising direction to achieve real-time emergency tracking is through widely adopted smartphones. In this paper, we explore the first step in achieving this goal, namely, locating emergency in real time using smartphones. Our main contribution is a novel approach that locates emergencies by analyzing AP (access point) association events collected from a campus Wi-Fi network. It is motivated by the observation that human behavior and mobility pattern are significantly altered in the face of emergency, which is reflected in how their smartphones associate with the APs in the network. More specifically, our approach locates emergency by discovering APs with abnormal association patterns using Extreme Value Theory (EVT). Preliminary evaluation using real data collected from a university campus network demonstrates the effectiveness of our approach.
BlueEye: a system for proximity detection using bluetooth on mobile phones BIBAFull-Text 1135-1142
  Avik Ghose; Chirabrata Bhaumik; Tapas Chakravarty
Interesting applications of crowdsensing include measurement of crowdedness at public places and evaluating the extent of social interactions between people, at large gatherings. These require enabling the accurate estimation of proximity between two or more people. Since mobile phones have emerged as the most ubiquitous sensing and computing platform, carried by almost all people close to their body, it is logical to use the same for proximity detection. Further, in order to motivate people to use such application, it is necessary to estimate distances accurately, using only short blocks of sampled signal strengths. In this paper the authors present a mobile based proximity detection system, codenamed BlueEye which is based on Bluetooth. To achieve better distance estimates, BlueEye proposes a new form of path loss model which takes into account the relative orientation of mobile phones. The results show enhanced distance estimates when the separation between devices is less than 8 feet.
A model-based back-end for air quality data management BIBAFull-Text 1143-1150
  Erol Can Un; Julien Eberle; Yongsung Kim; Karl Aberer
In this paper we present a hybrid model for real-time query processing over data stream collected by mobile air quality sensors. First, we introduce a novel indexing scheme for representing air quality and use it for generating and evaluating a static model over a yearly dataset. Then, this model is combined with a dynamic nearest-neighbor approach for real-time updates, and implemented into the Global Sensor Network (GSN) middleware, with added support for model queries.
Combining smart phone and infrastructure sensors to improve security in enterprise settings BIBAFull-Text 1151-1158
  Palanivel Kodeswaran; Dipanjan Chakraborty; Parikshit Sharma; Sougata Mukherjea; Anupam Joshi
There is an increasing trend among employees to bring in their own personal device to work, thereby making the enterprise more vulnerable to security attacks such as data leakage from phones. Additionally, users are increasingly running phone apps in a mixed-mode i.e. both for enterprise and personal commitments. For example, phone cameras and microphones are used to record business meetings, often resulting in the case that both employers and employees become unaware of the existence of business data on the phone at a later point in time. The lack of employer control over personal devices raises enterprise data leakage threats, when an employee's phone is lost or stolen. In this paper we describe a system that leverages sensors available on the phone as well as on the enterprise infrastructure to identify business data resident on the phone for further secure handling. Office spaces have traditionally been instrumented with badge swipe readers, cameras, wifi access points etc. that can be used to provide passive sensory data about employees. For example, badge swipes can be used provide approximate location information of an employee where as calendar entries provide information about their schedule and activities. We propose a distributed architecture that leverages the context of the user for speculatively identifying enterprise data from personal data. The basic idea is to understand whether a user is engaged in enterprise or personal work by inferring her context from a combination of phone and infrastructure sensors. The contextual attributes in our system, such as location, can be sourced from a plurality of sensors on the phone as well as on the infrastructure. We exploit this diversity and propose a cost optimized distributed rule execution framework that chooses the optimal set of predicates to sense on the phone as well as on the infrastructure to reduce sensing cost. Furthermore, the framework also chooses the appropriate site for rule evaluation, either on the infrastructure or phone, to optimize for network transfer cost incurred due to shipping of sensed predicates between the two sites. Combined together, the above two optimizations reduce the battery drain caused due to context inferencing on the phone.
FLEAD: online frequency likelihood estimation anomaly detection for mobile sensing BIBAFull-Text 1159-1166
  Viet Duc Le; Hans Scholten; Paul Havinga
With the rise of smartphone platforms, adaptive sensing becomes an predominant key to overcome intricate constraints such as smartphone's capabilities and dynamic data. One way to do this is estimating the event probability based on anomaly detection to invoke heavy processes, such as switching on more sensors or retrieving information. However, most conventional anomaly detection methods are power hungry and computation consuming. This paper proposes a new online anomaly detection algorithm by capturing the likelihood of frequency histogram given features extracted from a stream of measurements from sensors of multiple smartphones. The algorithm then estimates the mixed density probability of anomalies. By doing so, the algorithm is lightweight and energy efficient, which underpins large scale mobile sensing applications. Experimental results run on Android phones are consistent with our theoretical analysis.
ConferenceSense: monitoring of public events using phone sensors BIBAFull-Text 1167-1174
  Vigneshwaran Subbaraju; Amit Kumar; Vikrant Nandakumar; Sonali Batra; Salil Kanhere; Pradipta De; Vinayak Naik; Dipanjan Chakraborty; Archan Misra
We explore the use of a participatory sensing paradigm, where data generated from individual smartphones is used to extract and understand collective properties of temporary public gatherings and events (e.g., concerts & conferences). We focus on the use of this paradigm at a technical conference, and describe the design, implementation and deployment of ConferenceSense, an application that uses multiple sensor and human-generated inputs from attendees' smartphones to infer context, such as the start time of a session or the degree of interaction during a tea break. Based on data collected from multiple attendees at a 3-day conference, we explore how ConferenceSense can be used for monitoring and collecting event statistics, and describe challenges and open questions.
A generic platform for ubiquitous and subjective data BIBAFull-Text 1175-1182
  Martin Becker; Juergen Mueller; Andreas Hotho; Gerd Stumme
In the context of the Internet of Things, an increasing number of platforms like Xively or ThingSpeak are available to manage ubiquitous sensor data. Strict data formats allow interoperability and informative visualizations, supporting the development of custom user applications. Yet, these strict data formats as well as the common device-centric approach limit the flexibility of these platforms: there are no means to incorporate people and their subjective impressions about the collected data. In order to build the Internet of Things and People and ultimately the Internet of Everything, we aim at providing an extendable concept of data which allows to enrich existing data points with any kind of additional information. This enables us to gain semantic and user specific context by attaching subjective data to objective values. For this end we support data ranging from text-based formats like JSON to images and video footage. This paper provides an overview of our architecture including concept, implementation details and present applications. We distinguish our approach from several other systems and describe two sensing applications namely AirProbe and WideNoise that were implemented for our platform.

Workshop: PURBA 2013: workshop on pervasive urban applications

PURBA 2013: workshop on pervasive urban applications BIBAFull-Text 1183-1188
  Francesco Calabrese; Giusy Di Lorenzo; Dominik Dahlem; Santi Phithakkitnukoon; Neal Lathia
This is the proposal for the Third Workshop on Pervasive Urban Applications (PURBA 2013). The workshop aims to build on the success of the previous workshops organized in conjunction with the Pervasive 2011 and 2012, to continue to disseminate the results of the latest research outcomes and developments of ubiquitous computing technologies in urban areas. An IBM-Best student award will be given at the workshop.
Gaussian process-based predictive modeling for bus ridership BIBAFull-Text 1189-1198
  Sourav Bhattacharya; Santi Phithakkitnukoon; Petteri Nurmi; Arto Klami; Marco Veloso; Carlos Bento
The dynamics of a city are characterized, among others, by the traveling patterns of its dwellers. Accurate knowledge of human mobility patterns would have applications, e.g., in urban design, in the optimization of public transportation operating costs, and in the improvement of public transportation services. The present paper combines a large scale bus transportation dataset with publicly available data sources to predict bus usage. We propose a Gaussian process-based approach for modeling and predicting bus ridership. To validate our approach we perform experiments on data collected from Lisbon, Portugal. The results demonstrate significant improvements in prediction accuracy compared to a probabilistic baseline predictor.
Characterizing social response to urban earthquakes using cell-phone network data: the 2012 oaxaca earthquake BIBAFull-Text 1199-1208
  Benyounes Moumni; Vanessa Frias-Martinez; Enrique Frias-Martinez
The data generated by pervasive infrastructures, and specially cell-phone networks, has been used in the past to improve responses to emergency events such as natural disasters or disease outbreaks. However, very little work has focused on analyzing the social response to an urban earthquake as it takes place. In this paper we present a preliminary study of the social response using the information collected from a cell-phone network during the 2012 Oaxaca earthquake in Mexico. We focus our analysis on four urban environments located between 100-200km away from the epicenter of the earthquake. The social response is analyzed using four different variables: call volume, call duration, social activity and mobility. Initial results indicate a social response characterized by an increase in the number of calls, a decrease in call durations, a moderate increase in the number of people contacted by highly connected citizens and a moderate increase in the mobility.
Revisiting the generality of the rank-based human mobility model BIBAFull-Text 1209-1218
  Darshan Santani; Daniel Gatica-Perez
Location-based social networks, in addition to revealing users' online social network, also informs users' actual movements in the offline physical world. Due to this, they have recently been used in large-scale mobility and urban studies. In this paper, using a rigorous statistical methodology, we have found that a rank-distance distribution, which in recent research has been suggested to be a universal mobility law across cultural, demographic and national boundaries, does not follow a power-law distribution as originally claimed. Using a large-scale dataset obtained from Foursquare in Switzerland and New York City, we have shown that place transitions can be better explained using a log-normal and power-law with exponential cutoff model. Our study suggests that urban mobility patterns are more nuanced than previously reported and that goodness-of-fit tests need to be done in view of the generality of human mobility models.
Anomalous event detection on large-scale GPS data from mobile phones using hidden Markov model and cloud platform BIBAFull-Text 1219-1228
  Apichon Witayangkurn; Teerayut Horanont; Yoshihide Sekimoto; Ryosuke Shibasaki
Anomaly detection is an important issue in various research fields. An uncommon trajectory or gathering of people in a specific area might correspond to a special event such as a festival, traffic accident or natural disaster. In this paper, we aim to develop a system for detecting such anomalous events in grid-based areas. A framework based on a hidden Markov model is proposed to construct a pattern of spatio-temporal movement of people in each grid during each time period. The numbers of GPS points and unique users in each grid were used as features and evaluated. We also introduced the use of local score to improve the accuracy of the event detection. In addition, we utilized Hadoop, a cloud-computing platform, to accelerate the processing speed and allow the handling of large-scale data. We evaluated the system using a dataset of GPS trajectories of 1.5 million individual mobile phone users accumulated over a one-year period, which constitutes approximately 9.2 billion records.
Exploring relationship between taxi volume and flue gases' concentrations BIBAFull-Text 1229-1238
  Marco Veloso; Santi Phithakkitnukoon; Carlos Bento
With the rapid increase in size and population of urban areas, it becomes important to understand urban environmental influencers so that better informed decisions can be made for more sustainable urban environments. Taxis represent one of the urban dynamics from which city planners can gain a better understanding of urban mobility as well as its relationship with other environmental elements. In this work, an analysis of the relationship between flue gases? concentrations (represented by nitrogen dioxide) and taxi volume in Lisbon, Portugal was carried out from which a strong correlation between the two was observed. Based on four months of data, we found that the flue gases' concentrations varied with taxi volume and in particular, taxi volume can be used to estimate the change in flue gases' concentrations of the next hour.
Mining temporal patterns of transport behaviour for predicting future transport usage BIBAFull-Text 1239-1248
  Stefan Foell; Gerd Kortuem; Reza Rawassizadeh; Santi Phithakkitnukoon; Marco Veloso; Carlos Bento
information systems which are centred on the individual transport user. Especially, in dense urban cities where it is hard to oversee complex transport networks that are subject to frequent changes, maintenance and construction works, travellers want to be proactively notified about disruptions and traffic incidents relevant to their future behaviour. In this paper, we show how to mine characteristic patterns of the transport routines of urban bus riders for the design of novel travel information system that have the ability to understand forthcoming travel needs of individual users. We leverage on travel histories collected from automated fare collection system (AFC) to extract features of personal transport usage and study their predictive power to forecast whether people access public transport services on a future day or not.

Workshop: 1st workshop on human factors and activity recognition in healthcare, wellness and assisted living

1st workshop on human factors and activity recognition in healthcare, wellness and assisted living: recognise2interact BIBAFull-Text 1249-1254
  Pierluigi Casale; Steven Houben; Oliver Amft
Context-aware systems have the potential to revolutionize the way humans interact with information technology. The first workshop on Human Factors and Activity Recognition in Healthcare, Wellness and Assisted Living (Recognise2Interact) aims to enable researchers and practitioners from both, Activity Recognition and Human Computer Interaction to interact and bridge the gap between these two fields. The workshop will provide a comprehensive overview on current technological solutions that benefit from the synergy of activity recognition and human computer interaction with particular focus to Healthcare, Wellness and Assisted living applications. The workshop is supported by the iCareNet network.
UbiHeld: ubiquitous healthcare monitoring system for elderly and chronic patients BIBAFull-Text 1255-1264
  Avik Ghose; Priyanka Sinha; Chirabrata Bhaumik; Aniruddha Sinha; Amit Agrawal; Anirban Dutta Choudhury
Once the person's identity is established, the most important aspects of ubiquitous healthcare monitoring of elderly and chronic patients are location, activity, physiological and psychological parameters. Since smartphones have become the most pervasive computing platform today, it is only a logical extension to use the same in healthcare domain for bringing ubiquity. Besides smartphone, skeleton based activity detection and localization using depth sensor like Kinect make ubiquitous monitoring effective without compromising privacy to a large extent. Finally sensing mental condition is made possible by analysis of the subject's social network feed. This paper presents an end-to-end healthcare monitoring system code named UbiHeld (Ubiquitous Healthcare for Elderly) using the techniques mentioned above and an IoT (Internet of Things) based back-end platform.
Touch-less interaction with medical images using hand & foot gestures BIBAFull-Text 1265-1274
  Shahram Jalaliniya; Jeremiah Smith; Miguel Sousa; Lars Büthe; Thomas Pederson
Sterility restrictions in surgical settings make touch-less interaction an interesting solution for surgeons to interact directly with digital images. The HCI community has already explored several methods for touch-less interaction including those based on camera-based gesture tracking and voice control. In this paper, we present a system for gesture-based interaction with medical images based on a single wristband sensor and capacitive floor sensors, allowing for hand and foot gesture input. The first limited evaluation of the system showed an acceptable level of accuracy for 12 different hand & foot gestures; also users found that our combined hand and foot based gestures are intuitive for providing input.
MyConverse: recognising and visualising personal conversations using smartphones BIBAFull-Text 1275-1284
  Mirco Rossi; Oliver Amft; Sebastian Feese; Christian Käslin; Gerhard Tröster
MyConverse is a personal conversation recogniser and visualiser for smartphones. MyConverse uses the smartphone's microphone to continuously recognise the user's conversations during daily life. While it recognises pre-trained speakers, unknown speakers are detected and subsequently trained for future identification. Based on the recognition, MyConverse visualises user's social interactions on the smartphone. An extensive system parameter evaluation has been done based on a freely available dataset. Additionally, MyConverse was tested in different real-life environments and in a full-day evaluation study. The speaker recognition system reached an identification accuracy of 75% for 24 speakers in meeting room conditions. In other daily life situations MyConverse reached accuracies from 60% to 84%.
How lonely is your grandma?: detecting the visits to assisted living elderly from wireless sensor network data BIBAFull-Text 1285-1294
  Ahmed Nait Aicha; Gwenn Englebienne; Ben Kröse
Existing research on the recognition of Activities of Daily Living (ADL) from simple sensor networks assumes that only a single person is present in the home. In reality, the resident receives visits from family members or professional health care givers. In such cases activity recognition must take into account the presence of multiple persons. Here we investigate the problem of detecting multiple persons in a home environment equipped with a sensor network consisting of 13 binary sensors. We collected data during more than one year in our living labs and used Hidden Markov Model (HMM) for a visitor detection. A cross validation method was used to determine the best set of features from the binary data. Using this set of features the detection rate is approximately 85%.
When do you light a fire?: capturing tobacco use with situated, wearable sensors BIBAFull-Text 1295-1304
  Philipp M. Scholl; Nagihan Kücükyildiz; Kristof Van Laerhoven
An important step towards assessing smoking behavior is to detect and log smoking episodes in an unobtrusive way. Detailed information on an individual's consumption can then be used to highlight potential health risks and behavioral statistics to increase the smoker's awareness, and might be applied in smoking cessation programs. In this paper, we present an evaluation of two different monitoring prototypes which detect a user's smoking behavior, based on augmenting a lighter. Both prototypes capture and record instances when the user smokes, and are sufficiently robust and power efficient to allow deployments of several weeks. A real-world feasibility study with 11 frequently-smoking participants investigates the deployment and adoption of the system, hinting that smokers are generally unaware of their daily smoking patterns, and tend to overestimate their consumption.
Demo: touch-less interaction with medical images using hand & foot gestures BIBFull-Text 1305-1306
  Shahram Jalaliniya; Jeremiah Smith; Miguel Sousa; Lars Büthe; Thomas Pederson
MyConverse in action: monitoring conversations using smartphones BIBAFull-Text 1307-1308
  Mirco Rossi; Oliver Amft; Sebastian Feese; Christian Käslin; Gerhard Tröster
This demo presents MyConverse, a personal conversation recogniser and visualiser for Android smartphones. It uses the smartphone's microphone to continuously recognise the user's conversations during his daily life autonomously on the smartphones. MyConverse identifies known speakers in conversations. Unknown speakers are detected and trained for further identification.
When do you light a fire?: capturing tobacco use with situated wearable sensors BIBAFull-Text 1309-1310
  Philipp M. Scholl; Nagihan Kücükyildiz; Kristof Van Laerhoven
The World Health Organization calls tobacco use the single most preventable cause of premature death, presenting both a personal health risk and an increased load on public healthcare systems. However, smoking cessation is often hindered by the low perceivability of health risks and unawareness of habits in day-to-day life, and effective smoking cessation systems, besides personal counseling, are still to be improved.
   This demo presents the design and implementation of two instrumented lighters that can be used to track a smokers' personal consumption habits. A Gas lighter and a USB lighter which have been outfitted with a micro-controller, storage unit and real-time clock. Both lighters store the day-of-time whenever they are used to light up a cigarette. This information can later be retrieved by the user for personal consumption statistics like most common time-of-day of consumption, total number of smoked cigarettes, daily consumed cigarettes etc. The presented prototypes allow the continuous tracking of smoking behaviour over the course of several days.

Workshop: uncovering the hidden pulse of a city

SenCity: uncovering the hidden pulse of a city (workshop) BIBAFull-Text 1311-1316
  Sarah Gallacher; Vaiva Kalnikaite; Julie McCann; David Prendergast; Jon Bird; Hans-Christian Jetter
Cities act as hubs designed to accommodate and support millions of inhabitants, nomads and tourists that rely on the city's infrastructure to move around, communicate and flourish as individuals and as a community. This shapes the culture, habits and pulse of a city creating an organic urban landscape often invisible to the naked eye, but traceable digitally. With the proliferation of sensing and pervasive technologies, we should be able to tell the levels of crowdedness of the city, its mood, or how clean it is by sensing and visualising these aspects. However, this poses interesting research and design questions; how would one design a device for tracking and visualising crowdedness on buses, for example. This workshop aims to explore the use of sensing technologies for visually resurfacing some of the hidden dynamics of the city by providing a collaborative and facilitated environment for applied research and creative exploration. This complements other workshops in the "urban" or "cities" theme, such as PURBA (Pervasive Urban Applications), that investigate urban environments from a theoretical perspective. After initial discussions on a joint workshop, the SenCity and PURBA organisers concluded that these workshops were complementary yet different enough to give participants the benefit of taking part in both; gaining the theory from PURBA and collaboratively applying practical research and creative flair at the SenCity workshop to sense, visualise and share the hidden pulse of Zürich.
Towards healthier urban mobility BIBAFull-Text 1317-1320
  Dominik Allemann; Martin Raubal
As a consequence of the increased dissemination of wireless and location-aware mobile devices, self-monitoring and crowd-sensing has become increasingly popular in recent years. In parallel, discussions about sustainability, air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions have also been intensified.
   We propose combining ideas of self-monitoring, crowd-sensing and persuasion towards a real-time city atlas which induces urban dwellers to integrate higher levels of physical activities into their daily mobility needs and to guide their mobility behavior towards a higher degree of sustainability as well as a lower exposure to polluted air.
Sense of space: mapping physiological emotion response in urban space BIBAFull-Text 1321-1324
  Luluah Al-Husain; Eiman Kanjo; Alan Chamberlain
Urban spaces have a great impact on how people feel and behave. There are number of factors that impact our emotional responses to a space. In this paper, we propose an objective way to measure people's emotional reactions in places by monitoring their physiological signals that are related to emotion. By integrating wearable biosensors with mobile phones, we can obtain geo-annotated data relating to emotional states in relation to our spatial surroundings. We are the able to visualize the emotional response data by creating an emotional layer over a geographical map. This can then help us to understand how individuals emotionally perceive urban spaces and help us to illustrate the interdependency between emotions and environmental surroundings.
The advantages of passive mobile positioning as a type of community sensing for analyzing space-time behaviour of a citizen BIBFull-Text 1325-1328
  Kaisa Vent
Creating smart information services for tourists by means of dynamic open data BIBAFull-Text 1329-1330
  Maarten Groen; Wouter Meys; Mettina Veenstra
This paper explores the creation of smart information services for tourists using dynamic open data. Research is described, which uses physical sensors at the Van Gogh Museum in Amsterdam to retrieve data about queueing time at that location. This data is added to an open data framework called CitySDK and combined with other open data in the framework.
Ubicomp'13 sencity workshop: sensing festivals as cities BIBAFull-Text 1331-1334
  Matthew D. Jarvis; Toby Harris; Laurissa Tokarchuk
In order to sense the mood of a city, we propose first looking at festivals. In festivals such as Glastonbury or Burning Man we see temporary cities where the inhabitants are engaged afresh with their environment and each other. Our position is that not only are there direct equivalences between larger festivals and cities, but in festivals the phenomena are often exaggerated, and the driving impulses often exploratory. These characteristics well suit research into sensing and intervening in the urban experience. To this end, we have built a corpus of sensor and social media data around a 18,000 attendee music festival and are developing ways of analysing and communicating it.
Rapid prototyping of semantic applications in smart spaces with a visual rule language BIBAFull-Text 1335-1338
  Natalia D. Díaz Rodríguez; Johan Lilius; Manuel Pegalajar Cuéllar; Miguel Delgado Calvo-Flores
One of the major limitations of Ambient Intelligent systems today is the lack of semantic models in human behavior and the environment, so that the system can recognize the specific activity being performed by the users and act accordingly. In this context, we address the general problem of knowledge representation in Smart Spaces. In order to monitor and act over human behavior in intelligent environments, we design a sufficiently simple and flexible visual language to be managed by non-expert users, thus facilitating the programming of the environment. The prototype of the visual language serves to represent rules about human behavior to provide the Smart Space with more usability. These rules can be mapped into SPARQL queries and rule subscriptions. In addition, we add support to represent imprecise and fuzzy knowledge. The proposed general-domain language can help managing resource allocation, assisting people with special needs, in remote monitoring and other domains.
From crowding detection to community fieldwork: supporting sensing work in context BIBAFull-Text 1339-1342
  Shin'ichi Konomi; Tomoyo Sasao; Wataru Ohno; Kenta Shoji; Masatoshi Arikawa; Hideyuki Fujita
We describe our experiences with the prototype crowd sensing environments for supporting crowding detection and community fieldwork, and discuss the need to support sensing work in context. Sensing work is inseparable from the shifting observation modes in the overall inquiry process.
Informing the design of future transport information services with travel behaviour data BIBAFull-Text 1343-1346
  Stefan Foell; Reza Rawassizadeh; Gerd Kortuem
In order to increase the attractiveness of public transport systems, information technology has great potential to add value to their usage. In particular, the availability of digital sources of behavioural transport data opens up new directions for the development of transport information services which are focused on the passengers' engagement in public transport. This will enable novel perceptions of transport services, encompassing aspects of personal transport behaviour -- information related to the transport routines of individual travellers, social transport behaviour -- information which creates an understanding of the collective transport usage of social groups -- and dimensions of quality-of-transport information which include novel measures of travel experiences such as overcrowding. In this paper, we introduce and discuss a design space of how behavioural transport data can shape more user-centric transport information services in order to inform future research activities in this area.
On the use of participatory sensing to better understand city dynamics BIBAFull-Text 1347-1350
  Thiago H. Silva; Pedro O. S. Vaz de Melo; Jussara M. Almeida; Antonio A. F. Loureiro
In this position paper we argue that certain types of social media systems, such as Instagram and Foursquare, can act as valuable source of sensing, providing access to important characteristics of urban locations and urban social behavior. We discuss some of our previous studies and present our thoughts about the future of this field based insights obtained from them.
Geographical perspective in city sensing BIBAFull-Text 1351-1354
  Veronika Mooses
In city sensing there are many methods for capturing people's movements and city crowdedness. Each method has advantages and disadvantages. This paper argues that geographical phenomenon like spatial segregation can have a major influence on the results in fixed sensing therefore a structured location choice is needed. Mobile positioning as a new technology data collection method opens up great possibilities in city sensing.
Congestrian: monitoring pedestrian traffic and congestion BIBAFull-Text 1355-1358
  Nicholas K. Taylor; Eliza Papadopoulou; Mei Yii Lim; Patrick Skillen; Fraser R. Blackmun; Howard Williams
We propose the development and deployment in the wild of a sensor network that will monitor pedestrian traffic rates and congestion. Three types of sensor are envisaged; fixed video cameras, wearable pedometers and GPS devices. The data captured data will facilitate applications such as route planning avoiding congested areas and warning the elderly and infirm of particularly congested areas. Processing of rates of travel and destinations will enable different types of pedestrian to be identified and plotted dynamically such as tourists, shoppers and individuals simply trying to get from A to B quickly. Looking beyond the immediate empirical scope of this workshop, we indicate how such a system could be deployed to take advantage of the benefits afforded by the Personal Smart Space of the EU FP7 PERSIST project and the Community Smart Space of the EU FP7 SOCIETIES project.
A middleware framework for urban data management BIBAFull-Text 1359-1362
  Larissa Romualdo-Suzuki; Anthony Finkelstein; David Gann
The domain of inquiry of this research is the collection, organization, integration, distribution and consumption of knowledge derived from urban open data, and how it can be best offered to application cities' stakeholders through a software middleware. We argue that the extensive investigation proposed in this research will contribute to a growing body of knowledge about data integration and application in smart cities, and offer opportunities to re-think an integrated urban infrastructure.
emoTicSpace: when the built environments get emotional... BIBAFull-Text 1363-1366
  Flora Dilys Salim; Chin Koi Khoo
What happens if the buildings and urban environments around us can respond to the dynamic changes of the environment and the occupancy patterns? How can a building express its excitement when it gets crowded with people? What happens if the built environment can express its "sick building syndrome", which is caused by poor air quality? If the urban space can feel the changes in the wind conditions, can the space respond and adapt to the passing occupants? How to design responsive and adaptive environments that are expressive, informative, and performative? This research aims to hypothetically visualize how buildings and urban environments can respond to crowd-sensed data, such as movement, air quality, temperature, light, and wind, through a kinetic organic interface embedded in the building or urban fabric.
Using technology to reveal the politics of the built environment BIBAFull-Text 1367-1368
  Rose Johnson
In the UK the majority of people do not vote in local elections. However electoral participation is vital to a democratic society. This paper suggests that technology could be used to embed political information into the built environment so that people can easily see how resources are being used in their area and bring political discussion into cities, towns and villages.
Living light lab: exploring instant feedback in mediated urban space BIBAFull-Text 1369-1372
  Moritz Behrens
In recent years locative media as an artistic approach towards exploring mediated urban spaces has been rising [1]. At the same time gathering of environmental data through sensor networks grows rapidly. Living Light Lab aims to facilitate on artistic and scientific approaches to feed invisible data back into the built environment with the aim to explore how we may visualize and display data in an abstract way. The project currently is in its concept and prototyping stage, therefore we will highlight the challenges we are facing. Further we will report on an initial pilot study which took place at the UCL Building Projection Party in June 2013.

Workshop: SOFTec 2013: second workshop on computer mediated social offline interactions

SOFTec 2013: second workshop on computer mediated social offline interactions BIBAFull-Text 1373-1380
  Nemanja Memarovic; Vassilis Kostakos; Geraldine Fitzpatrick; Albrecht Schmidt
In the age of online social networks, instant messaging, and email, social offline interactions seem destined to become an anachronism: as our use of electronic media increases, the number of hours per day that we interact directly with others "in the flesh" declines. Yet for all the power of synchronous and asynchronous remote communication, virtual interactions are hardly an adequate substitute. Recent studies show, e.g., that users of online social networking sites feel lonelier than non-users, and that people who have regular social offline interactions on a weekly basis enjoy a significantly reduction in mortality. Is there a way to have our cake and eat it, too? Can we design technology in such a way that its use comes not at the expense of social offline interaction, but supports it? The goal of this workshop is to examine how we can build technologies that promote offline interactions.
A pervasive game to promote social offline interaction BIBAFull-Text 1381-1384
  Maurizio Caon; Elena Mugellini; Omar Abou Khaled
Human relationships are migrating from the physical world to the virtual world. Pervasive games can be a valuable and enjoyable method to bring people back to the physical world. In this position paper, we present a concept for a pervasive game, which integrates some specific mechanisms aiming at promoting social offline interaction.
TrainRoulette: promoting situated in-train social interaction between passengers BIBAFull-Text 1385-1388
  Tiago Camacho; Marcus Foth; Andry Rakotonirainy
Travelling by public transport is usually regarded as boring and uninteresting. Refraining from talking to the stranger next to you may be due to limitations that are self-imposed and further corroborated by social expectations and cultural norms that govern behaviour in public space. Our design research into passenger interactions on board of urban commuter trains has informed the development of the TrainRoulette prototype -- a mobile app for situated, real-time chats between train passengers. We study the impact of our design intervention on shaping perceptions of the train journey experience. Moreover, we are interested in the implications of such ICT-mediated interactions within train journeys for stimulating social offline interactions and new forms of passenger engagement.
Linking mobile learning and offline interaction: a case study BIBAFull-Text 1389-1392
  Inga Saatz
The use of computer mediated learning has changed the way of learning. To support the collaboration within small ad hoc learning communities, a mobile learning application was enhanced to provide possibilities to share user-generated content. To link the mobile application with the social offline interaction between the learners, the pedagogical scenario of a mobile application was enhanced to offer more possibilities for verbal communication between the learners. Results of a pilot study indicate interferences between computer mediated and face-to-face communication, which leads to a preference of one of the communication channels by the users.
Utilizing emerging technologies to promote more efficient face-to-face patient-clinician communication BIBAFull-Text 1393-1396
  Jelena Mirkovic
In literature there are different projects showing how new information and communications technology (ICT) systems can be used for enhancing communication between and among patients and clinicians over Internet. Besides advantages these systems offer to both patients and clinicians there is also great concern that utilizing new technologies can limit and negatively influence patient-clinician face-to-face communication. This paper underlines these concerns and describes two projects in our research center that promote more effective offline patient-clinician communication.
A new urban technoscape component: the Smart²Poster BIBAFull-Text 1397-1400
  Antonella Frisiello; Antonio Lotito; Giovanni Luca Spoto; Vito Macchia; Thomas Bolognesi; Francesco Ruà
This paper presents the Smart²Poster concept, based on a traditional visual communication tool enhanced by the integration of a proximity technology such as the Near Field Communication (NFC). The concept has been designed and prototyped to study a situated interaction modality, bridging digital information and the surrounding physical world, by means of familiar objects (a poster, a smartphone and/or a TV screen). Two different usage scenarios have driven the design and the implementation of one prototype born to enable offline mediated interactions among public administrations and citizens.
Exploring design opportunities for social intimacy through everyday objects and practices BIBAFull-Text 1401-1404
  Hansen Wei; Elisa Giaccardi; Marieke Sonneveld
This paper describes a design-driven exploration of how social media services can be made tangible through everyday objects and practices. The exploration was focused on the gaps and opportunities of how people experience intimacy in the social media context. We refer to it as social intimacy.
Sharing bubbles: reflections on offline multi-surface scenarios BIBAFull-Text 1405-1408
  Stefan Kreitmayer; Robin Laney; Stephen Peake; Yvonne Rogers
The iPad is typically perceived as a personal device, evoking the image of its owner tapping away -- silently submerged in their private digital bubble. Here we portray iPads in a different light: Face-to-face play in groups, using connected and shared surfaces. Applying the bubble metaphor to multi-user cases, we ask the following questions: (a) How many people can be in one bubble together before it bursts? (b) Can multiple bubbles be connected, nested, etc. and what configurations are beneficial? (c) What design qualities are helpful in keeping beneficial bubble configurations intact and together, rather than bursting or floating away? By contrasting user observations from two multi-iPad scenarios, we illustrate the usefulness of 'bubble dynamics' as a lens for evaluating large offline social applications. We hope to inspire discussion of future use cases, evaluation methods and design recommendations.

Workshop: ubiquitous mobile instrumentation

Ubiquitous mobile instrumentation BIBAFull-Text 1409-1412
  Denzil Ferreira; Christian Koehler; Evangelos Karapanos; Vassilis Kostakos
Mobile phones allow us to reach people anywhere, at anytime. In addition to the benefits for end users, researchers and developers can also benefit from the powerful devices that participants carry on a daily basis. Collectively, mobile phones form a ubiquitous computer. Ubiquitous Mobile Instrumentation (UbiMI) workshop focuses on using mobile devices as instruments to collect data and conduct mobile user studies, to understand human behavior, routines and gathering users' context.
Smartphone sensing for distributed swim stroke coaching and research BIBAFull-Text 1413-1416
  Joe Marshall
Current methods of swim stroke learning rely on a combination of external observation by coaches and repetitive drills performed by swimmers. At elite levels, these may be augmented using complex and expensive augmented pool environments and video analysis, but these are not available to most non-professionals.
   In this paper, I argue that with the wide range of sensors and outputs on a current smartphone, and existing sports-targeted waterproofing, commodity mobile hardware may allow even un-coached amateur swimmers to access timely feedback on their stroke and to improve their swimming. An early prototype of a swim-sensing system demonstrates the potential of mobiles to sense aspects of the swimming stroke. By using commodity hardware it is open to many potential learners, who may in turn provide high quality data to feed back into the development of swim coaching techniques by sports researchers and practitioners.
Combination and abstraction of sensors for mobile context-awareness BIBAFull-Text 1417-1422
  Borja Gamecho; Luis Gardeazabal; Julio Abascal
In this paper, we describe a context server application for mobile computing. Its main objective is to assist developers to exploit context-aware features in their applications. This approach uses the extraction of new context information using a combination of sensors and proposes a sensing abstraction layer to avoid having to deal with specific hardware.
What's in the apps for context?: extending a sensor for studying app usage to informing context-awareness BIBAFull-Text 1423-1426
  Matthias Böhmer; Christian Lander; Antonio Krüger
Mobile phones became multi-purpose devices supporting their users with large variety of applications for various tasks. Not only the number of available applications is increasing, also the number of applications people are using on their devices is growing, as well as the amount of time people spent on their smartphones daily is getting bigger. In this workshop paper, we briefly describe our past work on understanding mobile application usage. We explain our research tool for measuring mobile application usage, called AppSensor, and discuss possibilities to exploit the information of mobile application usage to inform the reasoning about users' contexts. We contribute our source code to the workshop for a discussion and prototyping of use cases leveraging the information of which application a user is currently using.
User, device and orientation independent human activity recognition on mobile phones: challenges and a proposal BIBAFull-Text 1427-1436
  Yunus Emre Ustev; Ozlem Durmaz Incel; Cem Ersoy
Smart phones equipped with a rich set of sensors are explored as alternative platforms for human activity recognition in the ubiquitous computing domain. However, there exist challenges that should be tackled before the successful acceptance of such systems by the masses. In this paper, we particularly focus on the challenges arising from the differences in user behavior and in the hardware. To investigate the impact of these factors on the recognition accuracy, we performed tests with 20 different users focusing on the recognition of basic locomotion activities using the accelerometer, gyroscope and magnetic field sensors. We investigated the effect of feature types, to represent the raw data, and the use of linear acceleration for user, device and orientation-independent activity recognition.
CrowdHelp: application for improved emergency response through crowdsourced information BIBAFull-Text 1437-1446
  Liliya I. Besaleva; Alfred C. Weaver
Emergency resources are often insufficient to satisfy fully the demands for professional help and supplies after a public disaster. Furthermore, in a mass casualty situation, the emphasis shifts from ensuring the best possible outcome for each individual patient to ensuring the best possible outcome for the greatest number of patients. In the past several years, an ongoing movement among crisis management organizations is the incorporation of ubiquitous Web 2.0 tools into their practices for the improvement of their critical situations response. In unison with this trend and the latest discoveries in crowdsourcing, we have developed a system, called CrowdHelp, for real time patient assessment which uses mobile electronic triaging accomplished via crowdsourced and sensor-detected information. With the use of our system, emergency management professionals receive most of the information they need for preparing themselves to perform a timely and accurate treatment of their patients even before dispatching a response team to the event.
Evaluation of challenges in human subject studies "in-the-wild" using subjects' personal smartphones BIBAFull-Text 1447-1456
  Mattia Gustarini; Selim Ickin; Katarzyna Wac
The experimental setting of Human Mobile Computer Interaction (HCI) studies is moving from the controlled laboratory to the user's daily-life environments, while employing the users' own smartphones. These studies are challenging for both new and expert researchers in human subject studies in the HCI field. Within the last three years, we conducted three different smartphone-based user studies. From these studies, we have derived key challenges that we successfully overcame during their execution. In this paper, we present the outcomes and explain the adopted solutions for the challenges identified in the design, development and execution, and data analysis phases during the user studies. Our goal is to give newcomers and junior researchers a practical view on our conducted studies, and help practitioners to reflect on their own studies and possibly apply the proposed solutions.
How AdkintunMobile measured the world BIBAFull-Text 1457-1462
  Javier Bustos-Jiménez; Gabriel Del Canto; Sebastián Pereira; Felipe Lalanne; José Piquer; Gabriel Hourton; Alfredo Cádiz; Victor Ramiro
On this article we present the Adkintun Mobile Project: using passive monitors to measure the Quality of Service of Chilean Mobile Internet Providers, based on the metrics of antenna coverage and Internet connectivity. We present the main ideas, design decisions, development issues and setbacks of the project. Our contribution is to present to the readers the whole process of a project like this, which is based in volunteering and political decisions.

Workshop: wearable systems for industrial augmented reality applications

Wearable systems for industrial augmented reality applications BIBAFull-Text 1463-1466
  Christian Buergy; Holger Kenn
Augmented Reality (AR) is a successful application area of Wearable Computing, especially for professional, industrial settings, in which mobility is an important factor. With the proliferation of mobile technology in the workplace, wearable computing research can offer a valuable contribution to the usability of mobile solutions, such as the use of context information to inform devices and services of the current task and user situation, relieve professionals of tedious and repetitive information entry tasks and increase worker safety in complex and hazardous environments. Wearable AR systems in general are widely utilized in various domains, including architecture, military, tourism, navigation, and entertainment. Such diverse usages impose several challenges on researchers from both areas of Augmented Reality and Wearable Computing, such as interaction, activity and context recognition, wearability, design, and modeling. For the second Workshop on Wearable Systems for Industrial Augmented Reality Applications, we have chosen the motto "How to industrialize wearable AR?" We have invited researchers from the relevant disciplines to present novel works and discuss the applications of state-of-the-art Wearable Computing research to Augmented Reality systems. The workshop will provide an opportunity for directed discussion sessions to identify current issues, research topics, and solution approaches, which lead to the proposal of future research directions.
Towards a component-based platform for industrial AR BIBAFull-Text 1467-1470
  Tim Verbelen; Pieter Simoens; Bart Dhoedt
The roll-out of AR solutions in industrial environments goes beyond technical requirements and involves challenges regarding software deployment, management and maintenance. In this paper we present a lightweight runtime environment for AR applications, using a component-based management platform providing easy deployment, updates and reuse of software components.
pARnorama: 360 degree interactive video for augmented reality prototyping BIBAFull-Text 1471-1474
  Matthias Berning; Takuro Yonezawa; Till Riedel; Jin Nakazawa; Michael Beigl; Hide Tokuda
Designing novel and meaningful interactions in the domain of Augmented Reality (AR) requires an efficient and appropriate methodology. A user centered design process requires the construction and evaluation of several prototypes with increasing technical fidelity. Although the main content of the application can already be conveyed with prerendered video, one of the main interactions in AR -- the user-selected viewpoint -- is only available in a very late stage. We propose the use of panoramic 360° video for scenario based user evaluation, where the user can select his point of view during playback. Initial users report a high degree of immersion in the constructed scenario, even for handheld AR.
Evaluating customer expectance of mixed reality applications in order picking BIBAFull-Text 1475-1478
  Markus Ehmann
The paper evaluates the triggering criteria for a successful implementation of Mixed Reality in order picking from the decision makers point of view. Relevant criteria are derived with the use of semi-structured interviews and analysed inductively and deductively. The final set of parameters is then presented.
Diffractive and holographic optics as optical combiners in head mounted displays BIBAFull-Text 1479-1482
  Bernard Kress; Meimei Shin
We review in this paper the various architectures that have been developed in industry to implement see-through head-mounted display (HMD) optics, especially for the consumer electronics market. We will focus our investigations on holographic and diffractive optics.
The bumpy road of bringing wearable augmented reality systems to market BIBAFull-Text 1483-1486
  Christian Buergy; Joerg Seitz
Wearable Augmented Reality systems are still expensive niche products and not yet widespread. Three main components need to be available for a successful market entry: affordable and user-friendly hardware; reliably and easy to use software and SDKs; and the necessary data structure for exact and informative augmentation. This paper lists some lessons-learned along the road to a wearable AR market.

Workshop: WoT 2013: fourth international workshop on the web of things

WoT 2013: fourth international workshop on the web of things BIBAFull-Text 1487-1494
  Simon Mayer; Vlad Trifa; Dave Raggett; Dominique Guinard
We propose a workshop on the topic of the Web of Things, which is about extending the Internet of Things concept beyond the connection of things and considering issues like heterogeneity, scalability, and usability with respect to pervasive computing. The goal of this initiative is to reuse the architectural principles that made the Web successful and apply them to smart devices, thereby making real-world objects first-class citizens of the Web. The approach taken by the Web of Things initiative is to look at the problems and research issues that emerge when considering the interaction of heterogeneous devices within composite applications. Continuing the successful Web of Things workshop series, this workshop aims at further exploring the use of technologies and principles at the core of the Web to provide methods for a seamless integration of physical devices. In particular, our goal is to foster discussion on systems towards a real-time Web of Things and the discovery, search, and composition of services provided by Web-enabled devices.
CoAP for the web of things: from tiny resource-constrained devices to the web browser BIBAFull-Text 1495-1504
  Matthias Kovatsch
The Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP) is a new Web protocol standardized by the IETF. It is not a mere compression of HTTP, but a re-design from scratch following the REST architectural style. Thus, its features are tailored for Internet of Things (IoT) applications and machine-to-machine (M2M) scenarios with highly resource-constrained devices. While this makes CoAP very interesting for the Web of Things (WoT) initiative, it is still detached from the Web world of browsers and intuitive user interaction. We present the first attempts to unite these two worlds, so that everyday objects endowed with tiny, low-cost computing devices can become first class citizens of the Web. Our Copper (Cu) project brings CoAP support to the Web browser and has been out in the wild since late 2010. Thus, we were able to conduct a user study among industry and research developers who know both, Web-based CoAP and earlier proprietary protocols for networked embedded systems. The result shows that industry developers and those with longer experience agree even more that Internet protocols and patterns from the Web ease application development for tiny, resource-constrained devices.
Semantic metadata to support device interaction in smart environments BIBAFull-Text 1505-1514
  Simon Mayer; Gianin Basler
Facilitating the interaction of human users and machines with smart devices is important to drive the successful adoption of the Internet of Things in people's homes and at their workplaces. In this paper, we present a system that helps users control their smart environment, by embedding semantic metadata in the representations of smart things. The system enables users to specify a desirable state of their smart environment and produces a machine-readable description that details which steps are necessary to reach this state, where each step corresponds to a Web request to a smart device. A client application that, for instance, runs on the user's smartphone, then implements these steps to reconfigure the user's smart environment. We report on our experiences when integrating semantic technologies with smart devices and on two use cases from the home and office automation domains that we implemented in our office space.
A RESTful and decentralised implementation of open objects BIBAFull-Text 1515-1524
  Paulo Ricca; Kostas Stathis
We show how to instantiate an existing framework for Open Objects to support a case-study for the Internet of Things. The resulting prototype illustrates the feasibility of the framework for a particular class of applications where physical objects with computational capabilities can collaborate in a decentralised manner. The framework described forms an initial step towards End-User Development on such complex distributed environments.
Temporally-relaxed conditions for activation of services in the web of things BIBAFull-Text 1525-1534
  Martin Alexander Neumann; Daniel Hassler; Yong Ding; Till Riedel; Michael Beigl
We present a language of temporal conditions for detecting concurrent events in embedded Web-enabled devices, and for triggering pervasive services on these systems. Based on the assumption that evaluating conditions on distributed devices is relevant for providing robustness and to foster scalability and web real-time, we discuss the feasibility of in-situ evaluation of the proposed conditions and conduct a performance study. In a smart environments use case, it is illustrated how the language can be used to state activation concerns of services on distributed Web resources. Our proposed architecture integrates the language with the Web of Things to foster simplified development of applications that mash up Web-enabled devices.
Reconsidering the social web of things: position paper BIBAFull-Text 1535-1544
  Andrei Ciortea; Olivier Boissier; Antoine Zimmermann; Adina Magda Florea
The notion of a Social Web of Things (SWoT) appears in recent works at the convergence of the Social Web and the Web of Things. In our vision, a third dimension is needed: pro-activeness. We propose to extend and transform social networks by integrating autonomous and proactive things. In this paper, we discuss the evolution of the Web on several dimensions, leading to our vision for the SWoT. We discuss the challenges that need to be addressed, a possible approach for addressing them and we illustrate the applicability of the SWoT through a motivating scenario.
Thing broker: a Twitter for things BIBAFull-Text 1545-1554
  Ricardo Aparecido Perez de Almeida; Michael Blackstock; Rodger Lea; Roberto Calderon; Antonio Francisco do Prado; Helio Crestana Guardia
In the Web of Things, standard web technologies and protocols are used to represent and communicate with physical and virtual things. One challenge toward this vision is integrating things with different characteristics, protocols, interfaces and constraints while maintaining the simplicity and flexibility required for a variety of applications. In this paper we present the Thing Broker, a core platform for Web of Things that provides RESTFul interfaces to things using a Twitter-based set of abstractions and communication model. We present the key abstractions, a reference implementation and explain how a typical WoT application can be created using Thing Broker. We finish with a preliminary evaluation and draw some lessons from our experiences.
Offering web-of-things connectivity to building networks BIBAFull-Text 1555-1564
  Gérôme Bovet; Jean Hennebert
Building management systems (BMS) are nowadays present in new and renovated buildings, relying on dedicated networks. The presence of various building networks leads to problems of heterogeneity, especially for developing BMS. In this paper, we propose to leverage on the Web-of-Things (WoT) framework, using well-known standard technologies of the Web like HTTP and RESTful APIs for standardizing the access to devices seen from an application point of view. We present the implementation of two gateways using the WoT approach for exposing KNX and EnOcean device capabilities as Web services, allowing a fast integration in existing and new management systems.
Toward interoperability in a web of things BIBAFull-Text 1565-1574
  Michael Blackstock; Rodger Lea
In this position paper we explore the challenges and issues around interoperability in the web of things. A key concern is how to increase interoperability while maintaining a high degree of innovation and exploration in the community. To that end we propose a hub-centric approach toward interoperability consisting of four levels or stages. We are working to validate this approach in the context of a large-scale IoT ecosystem project consisting of eight IoT hubs in different domains where a key requirement is hub-to-hub and hub- application interoperability.