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UBICOMP Tables of Contents: 01020304050607080910111213-113-214-114-215

Proceedings of the 2011 International Conference on Ubiquitous Computing

Fullname:Proceedings of the 13th ACM International Conference on Ubiquitous Computing
Editors:James Landay; Yuanchun Shi; Donald J. Patterson; Yvonne Rogers; Xing Xie
Location:Beijing, China
Dates:2011-Sep-17 to 2011-Sep-21
Publisher:ACM
Standard No:ISBN 1-4503-0630-6, 978-1-4503-0630-0; ACM DL: Table of Contents hcibib: UBICOMP11
Papers:126
Pages:640
Links:Conference Home Page
  1. Being human
  2. Novel ubiquitous technologies
  3. On the move
  4. Near and far
  5. How close?
  6. DIY and design
  7. Home and away
  8. Energy and networking
  9. How Healthy?
  10. Measuring and understanding
  11. Demonstration sessions
  12. Doctoral colloquia abstracts
  13. Poster presentations
  14. Video presentation abstracts & videos
  15. Workshop summaries

Being human

Smiling makes us happier: enhancing positive mood and communication with smile-encouraging digital appliances BIBAFull-Text 1-10
  Hitomi Tsujita; Jun Rekimoto
William James, the noted psychologist and philosopher, believed that smiling has a positive effect on our mind. James' view, which was confirmed by several psychological studies, was that we become happier when we laugh. In this paper, we propose a new digital appliance that encourages the act of smiling in our daily lives. This system is designed for people who may not always realize when they are in low spirits and/or have difficulty with smiling. In addition, we believe that this system will foster casual conversation and prompt communications with other people. Our appliance, called the HappinessCounter, combines visual smile recognition, user feedback, and network communication. We conducted two trials of the HappinessCounter system, the first with a single occupant and the second with a couple living together. The system had positive effects on user's mood and prompted communication among family members, thereby increasing their positive mood as well.
How to nudge in Situ: designing lambent devices to deliver salient information in supermarkets BIBAFull-Text 11-20
  Vaiva Kalnikaite; Yvonne Rogers; Jon Bird; Nicolas Villar; Khaled Bachour; Stephen Payne; Peter M. Todd; Johannes Schöning; Antonio Krüger; Stefan Kreitmayer
There are a number of mobile shopping aids and recommender systems available, but none can be easily used for a weekly shop at a local supermarket. We present a minimal, mobile and fully functional lambent display that clips onto any shopping trolley handle, intended to nudge people when choosing what to buy. It provides salient information about the food miles for various scanned food items represented by varying lengths of lit LEDs on the handle and a changing emoticon comparing the average miles of all the products in the trolley against a social norm. When evaluated in situ, the lambent handle display nudged people to choose products with fewer food miles than the items they selected using their ordinary shopping strategies. People also felt guilty when the average mileage of the contents of their entire shopping trolley was above the social norm. The findings are discussed in terms of how to provide different kinds of product information that people care about, using simple lambent displays.
CoDine: an interactive multi-sensory system for remote dining BIBAFull-Text 21-30
  Jun Wei; Xuan Wang; Roshan Lalintha Peiris; Yongsoon Choi; Xavier Roman Martinez; Remi Tache; Jeffery Tzu Kwan Valino Koh; Veronica Halupka; Adrian David Cheok
The pervasiveness of computing has extended into domestic realms, including the dining room. Beyond simply a place to consume food, the dining room is a social hub where family members meet and share experiences. Yet busy lifestyles can make it difficult to spend social time with your family. To provide a new solution for family bonding, this paper presents the CoDine system, a dining table embedded with interactive subsystems that augment and transport the experience of communal family dining to create a sense of coexistence among remote family members. CoDine connects people in different locations through shared dining activities: gesture-based screen interaction, mutual food serving, ambient pictures on an animated tablecloth, and the transportation of edible messages. Rather than focusing on functionality or efficiency, CoDine aims to provide people with an engaging interactive dining experience through enriched multi-sensory communication.
Promoting intergenerational communication through location-based asynchronous video communication BIBAFull-Text 31-40
  Frank R. Bentley; Santosh Basapur; Sujoy Kumar Chowdhury
We describe the design and field evaluation of the Serendipitous Family Stories system, a web and mobile service that allows for videos to be saved in user-specified real-world locations, shared with friends and family, and then serendipitously discovered as those people approach the location of a story. Through a twenty-participant field evaluation, we discovered how this new form of location-based asynchronous communication can be used to strengthen family relationships by encouraging communication across generations and enhancing users' relationships with everyday places in their lives.
Living in a glass house: a survey of private moments in the home BIBAFull-Text 41-44
  Eun Kyoung Choe; Sunny Consolvo; Jaeyeon Jung; Beverly Harrison; Julie A. Kientz
As advances in technology accelerate, sensors and recording devices are increasingly being integrated into homes. Although the added benefit of sensing is often clear (e.g., entertainment, security, encouraging sustainable behaviors, etc.), the home is a private and intimate place, with multiple stakeholders who may have competing priorities and tolerances for what is acceptable and useful. In an effort to develop systems that account for the needs and concerns of householders, we conducted an anonymous survey (N = 475) focusing on the activities and habits that people do at home that they would not want to be recorded. In this paper, we discuss those activities and where in the home they are performed, and offer suggestions for the design of UbiComp systems that rely on sensing and recording.

Novel ubiquitous technologies

Leveraging conductive inkjet technology to build a scalable and versatile surface for ubiquitous sensing BIBAFull-Text 45-54
  Nan-Wei Gong; Steve Hodges; Joseph A. Paradiso
In this paper we describe the design and implementation of a new versatile, scalable and cost-effective sensate surface. The system is based on a new conductive inkjet technology, which allows capacitive sensor electrodes and different types of RF antennas to be cheaply printed onto a roll of flexible substrate that may be many meters long. By deploying this surface on (or under) a floor it is possible to detect the presence and whereabouts of users through both passive and active capacitive coupling schemes. We have also incorporated GSM and NFC electromagnetic radiation sensing and piezoelectric pressure and vibration detection. We report on a number of experiments which evaluate sensing performance based on a 2.5m x 0.3m hardware test-bed. We describe some potential applications for this technology and highlight a number of improvements we have in mind.
HeatProbe: a thermal-based power meter for accounting disaggregated electricity usage BIBAFull-Text 55-64
  Bo-Jhang Ho; Hsin-Liu Cindy Kao; Nan-Chen Chen; Chuang-Wen You; Hao-Hua Chu; Ming-Syan Chen
To promote energy-saving behavior, disaggregating electricity usage is critical for increasing consumer awareness of energy usage behavior. This study proposes HeatProbe, a thermal-based power meter system that uses thermal imaging to track disaggregated appliance usage. We have designed, prototyped, and tested the HeatProbe system. Results show that HeatProbe successfully senses individual appliance operating durations with an average error of 125.03 seconds, achieving 80.2% appliance power accounting accuracy in different appliance usage scenarios.
LightWave: using compact fluorescent lights as sensors BIBAFull-Text 65-74
  Sidhant Gupta; Ke-Yu Chen; Matthew S. Reynolds; Shwetak N. Patel
In this paper, we describe LightWave, a sensing approach that turns ordinary compact fluorescent light (CFL) bulbs into sensors of human proximity. Unmodified CFL bulbs are shown to be sensitive proximity transducers when they are illuminated. This approach utilizes predictable variations in electromagnetic noise resulting from the change in impedance due to the proximity of a human body to the bulb. The electromagnetic noise can be sensed from any point along a home's electrical wiring. This allows users to perform gestures near any CFL lighting fixture, even when multiple lamps are operational. Gestures can be sensed using a single interface device plugged into any electrical outlet. We experimentally show that we can reliably detect hover gestures (waving a hand close to a lamp), touches on lampshades, and touches on the glass part of the bulb itself. Additionally, we show that touches anywhere along the body of a metal lamp can be detected. These basic detectable signals can then be combined to form complex gesture sequences for a variety of applications. We also show that CFLs can function as more general-purpose sensors for distributed human motion detection and ambient temperature sensing.
Interactive 3D modeling of indoor environments with a consumer depth camera BIBAFull-Text 75-84
  Hao Du; Peter Henry; Xiaofeng Ren; Marvin Cheng; Dan B. Goldman; Steven M. Seitz; Dieter Fox
Detailed 3D visual models of indoor spaces, from walls and floors to objects and their configurations, can provide extensive knowledge about the environments as well as rich contextual information of people living therein. Vision-based 3D modeling has only seen limited success in applications, as it faces many technical challenges that only a few experts understand, let alone solve. In this work we utilize (Kinect style) consumer depth cameras to enable non-expert users to scan their personal spaces into 3D models. We build a prototype mobile system for 3D modeling that runs in real-time on a laptop, assisting and interacting with the user on-the-fly. Color and depth are jointly used to achieve robust 3D registration. The system offers online feedback and hints, tolerates human errors and alignment failures, and helps to obtain complete scene coverage. We show that our prototype system can both scan large environments (50 meters across) and at the same time preserve fine details (centimeter accuracy). The capability of detailed 3D modeling leads to many promising applications such as accurate 3D localization, measuring dimensions, and interactive visualization.
Tactile feedback without a big fuss: simple actuators for high-resolution phantom sensations BIBAFull-Text 85-88
  Hendrik Richter; Benedikt Blaha; Alexander Wiethoff; Dominikus Baur; Andreas Butz
Multi-touch screens and surfaces for manipulating digital content play a crucial role in mobile and ubiquitous computing. Augmenting these interactive surfaces with tactile feedback has been found to increase interaction speed, reduce operating errors and minimize visual and cognitive load. Communicating detailed tactile characteristics of virtual elements, however, requires complex electromechanical or electrostatic actuator setups. This increase in complexity makes tactile interfaces intricate, costly or poorly scalable. In order to provide sophisticated tactile sensations with simple actuator technology, we exploit a haptic psychophysical phenomenon called Phantom Sensation. We present a comparison of three standard tactile actuator technologies to see which one can recreate the Phantom Sensation with maximum effect. Our results show the way to a simple and scalable implementation of illusion-based tactile feedback for interactive surfaces. We explore the notion of the Phantom Sensation and its possible applications within a ubicomp scenario.

On the move

Urban computing with taxicabs BIBAFull-Text 89-98
  Yu Zheng; Yanchi Liu; Jing Yuan; Xing Xie
Urban computing for city planning is one of the most significant applications in Ubiquitous computing. In this paper we detect flawed urban planning using the GPS trajectories of taxicabs traveling in urban areas. The detected results consist of 1) pairs of regions with salient traffic problems and 2) the linking structure as well as correlation among them. These results can evaluate the effectiveness of the carried out planning, such as a newly built road and subway lines in a city, and remind city planners of a problem that has not been recognized when they conceive future plans. We conduct our method using the trajectories generated by 30,000 taxis from March to May in 2009 and 2010 in Beijing, and evaluate our results with the real urban planning of Beijing.
iBAT: detecting anomalous taxi trajectories from GPS traces BIBAFull-Text 99-108
  Daqing Zhang; Nan Li; Zhi-Hua Zhou; Chao Chen; Lin Sun; Shijian Li
GPS-equipped taxis can be viewed as pervasive sensors and the large-scale digital traces produced allow us to reveal many hidden "facts" about the city dynamics and human behaviors. In this paper, we aim to discover anomalous driving patterns from taxi's GPS traces, targeting applications like automatically detecting taxi driving frauds or road network change in modern cites. To achieve the objective, firstly we group all the taxi trajectories crossing the same source destination cell-pair and represent each taxi trajectory as a sequence of symbols. Secondly, we propose an Isolation-Based Anomalous Trajectory (iBAT) detection method and verify with large scale taxi data that iBAT achieves remarkable performance (AUC>0.99, over 90% detection rate at false alarm rate of less than 2%). Finally, we demonstrate the potential of iBAT in enabling innovative applications by using it for taxi driving fraud detection and road network change detection.
Where to find my next passenger BIBAFull-Text 109-118
  Jing Yuan; Yu Zheng; Liuhang Zhang; XIng Xie; Guangzhong Sun
We present a recommender for taxi drivers and people expecting to take a taxi, using the knowledge of 1) passengers' mobility patterns and 2) taxi drivers' pick-up behaviors learned from the GPS trajectories of taxicabs. First, this recommender provides taxi drivers with some locations and the routes to these locations, towards which they are more likely to pick up passengers quickly (during the routes or at these locations) and maximize the profit. Second, it recommends people with some locations (within a walking distance) where they can easily find vacant taxis. In our method, we learn the above knowledge (represented by probabilities) from GPS trajectories of taxis. Then, we feed the knowledge into a probabilistic model which estimates the profit of the candidate locations for a particular driver based on where and when the driver requests for the recommendation. We validate our recommender using historical trajectories generated by over 12,000 taxis during 110 days.
Out of the lab and into the woods: kinematic analysis in running using wearable sensors BIBAFull-Text 119-122
  Christina Strohrmann; Holger Harms; Gerhard Tröster; Stefanie Hensler; Roland Müller
Injuries in running are often provoked by fatigue or improper technique, which are both reflected in the runner's kinematics. State of the art research on kinematics in sports is using optical motion capture systems that are inaccessible to most athletes. This paper demonstrates the potential of wearable sensors for runners' kinematics analysis. We present a user study including 21 subjects of different running experience that performed an exhausting run on a conventional outside track wearing ETHOS units. For performance level assessment, training assistance, and fatigue monitoring we extracted the foot contact duration, the foot strike type, and the heel lift as kinematic parameters. A questionnaire revealed that subjects perceived the sensors as comfortable to wear and would use them on a regular basis. We concluded that wearable sensors provide a valuable tool for runners, from beginners to experts, for running technique assessment.
Route classification using cellular handoff patterns BIBAFull-Text 123-132
  Richard A. Becker; Ramon Caceres; Karrie Hanson; Ji Meng Loh; Simon Urbanek; Alexander Varshavsky; Chris Volinsky
Understanding utilization of city roads is important for urban planners. In this paper, we show how to use handoff patterns from cellular phone networks to identify which routes people take through a city. Specifically, this paper makes three contributions. First, we show that cellular handoff patterns on a given route are stable across a range of conditions and propose a way to measure stability within and between routes using a variant of Earth Mover's Distance. Second, we present two accurate classification algorithms for matching cellular handoff patterns to routes: one requires test drives on the routes while the other uses signal strength data collected by high-resolution scanners. Finally, we present an application of our algorithms for measuring relative volumes of traffic on routes leading into and out of a specific city, and validate our methods using statistics published by a state transportation authority.

Near and far

Reflections on the long-term use of an experimental digital signage system BIBAFull-Text 133-142
  Sarah Clinch; Nigel Davies; Adrian Friday; Christos Efstratiou
In this paper we reflect on our long-term experiences of developing, deploying and supporting an experimental digital signage system. Existing public display systems almost always feature a single point of control that is responsible for scheduling content for presentation on the network and provide sophisticated mechanisms for controlling play-out timing and relative ordering. Our experiences suggest that such complex feature-sets are unnecessary in many cases and may be counter productive in signage systems. We describe an alternative, simpler paradigm for encouraging widespread use of signage systems based on shared 'content channels' between content providers and display owners. Our system has been in continuous use for approximately 3 years. We reflect and draw lessons from how our user community has adopted and used the resulting public display network. We believe that these reflections will be of benefit to future developers of ubiquitous display networks.
Haptic reassurance in the pitch black for an immersive theatre experience BIBAFull-Text 143-152
  Janet van der Linden; Yvonne Rogers; Maria Oshodi; Adam Spiers; David McGoran; Rafael Cronin; Paul O'Dowd
An immersive theatre experience was designed to raise awareness and question perceptions of 'blindness', through enabling both sighted and blind members to experience a similar reality. A multimodal experience was created, comprising ambient sounds and narratives -- heard through headphones -- and an assortment of themed tactile objects, intended to be felt. In addition, audience members were each provided with a novel haptic device that was designed to enhance their discovery of a pitch-black space. An in the wild study of the cultural experience showed how blind and sighted audience members had different 'felt' experiences, but that neither was a lesser one. Furthermore, the haptic device was found to encourage enactive exploration and provide reassurance of the environment for both sighted and blind people, rather than acting simply as a navigation guide. We discuss the potential of using haptic feedback to create cultural experiences for both blind and sighted people; rethinking current utilitarian framing of it as assistive technology.
When recommendation meets mobile: contextual and personalized recommendation on the go BIBAFull-Text 153-162
  Jinfeng Zhuang; Tao Mei; Steven C. H. Hoi; Ying-Qing Xu; Shipeng Li
Mobile devices are becoming ubiquitous. People use their phones as a personal concierge discovering and making decisions anywhere and anytime. Understanding user intent on the go therefore becomes important for task completion on the phone. While existing efforts have predominantly focused on understanding the explicit user intent expressed by a textual or voice query, this paper presents an approach to context-aware and personalized entity recommendation which understands the implicit intent without any explicit user input on the phone. The approach, highly motivated from a large-scale mobile click-through analysis, is able to rank both the entity types and the entities within each type (here an entity is a local business, e.g., "I love sushi," while an entity type is a category, e.g., "restaurant"). The recommended entity types and entities are relevant to both user context (past behaviors) and sensor context (time and geo-location). Specifically, it estimates the generation probability of an entity by a given user conditioned on the current context in a probabilistic framework. A random-walk propagation is then employed to refine the estimated probability by mining the temporal patterns among entities. We deploy a recommendation application based on the proposed approach on Window Phone 7 devices. We evaluate recommendation performance on 10 thousand mobile clicks, as well as user experience through subjective user studies. We show that the application is effective to facilitate the exploration and discovery of surroundings for mobile users.
Getting closer: an empirical investigation of the proximity of user to their smart phones BIBAFull-Text 163-172
  Anind K. Dey; Katarzyna Wac; Denzil Ferreira; Kevin Tassini; Jin-Hyuk Hong; Julian Ramos
Much research in ubiquitous computing assumes that a user's phone will be always on and at-hand, for collecting user context and for communicating with a user. Previous work with the previous generation of mobile phones has shown that such an assumption is false. Here, we investigate whether this assumption about users' proximity to their mobile phones holds for a new generation of mobile phones, smart phones. We conduct a data collection field study of 28 smart phone owners over a period of 4 weeks. We show that in fact this assumption is still false, with the within arm's reach proximity being true close to 50% of the time, similar to the earlier work. However, we also show that smart phone proximity within the same room (arm+room) as the user is true almost 90% of the time. We discuss the reasons for these phone proximities and the implications of this on the development of mobile phone applications, particularly those that collect user and environmental context, and delivering notification to users. We also show that we can accurately predict the proximity at the arm level and arm+room level with 75 and 83% accuracy, respectively, with features simple to collect and model on a mobile phone. Further we show that for several individuals who are almost always within the arm+room level, we can predict this level with over 90% accuracy.
The danger of loose objects in the car: challenges and opportunities for ubiquitous computing BIBAFull-Text 173-176
  Daniel Avrahami; Michael Yeganyan; Anthony LaMarca
Every year, loose objects inside cars during crashes cause hundreds of serious injuries and even deaths. In this paper, we describe findings from a study of 25 cars and drivers, examining the objects present in the car cabin, the reasons for them being there, and driver awareness of the potential dangers of these objects. With an average of 4.3 potentially dangerous loose objects in a car's cabin, our findings suggest that despite being generally aware of potential risks, considerations of convenience, easy access, and lack of in-the-moment awareness lead people to continue to place objects in dangerous locations in cars. Our study highlights opportunities for addressing this problem by tracking and reminding people about loose objects in cars.

How close?

Who's your best friend?: targeted privacy attacks in location-sharing social networks BIBAFull-Text 177-186
  Vassilis Kostakos; Jayant Venkatanathan; Bernardo Reynolds; Norman Sadeh; Eran Toch; Siraj A. Shaikh; Simon Jones
This paper presents a study that aims to answer two important questions related to targeted location-sharing privacy attacks: (1) given a group of users and their social graph, is it possible to predict which among them is likely to reveal most about their whereabouts, and (2) given a user, is it possible to predict which among her friends knows most about her whereabouts. To answer these questions we analyse the privacy policies of users of a real-time location sharing application, in which users actively shared their location with their contacts. The results show that users who are central to their network are more likely to reveal most about their whereabouts. Furthermore, we show that the friend most likely to know the whereabouts of a specific individual is the one with most common contacts and/or greatest number of contacts.
On the limitations of query obfuscation techniques for location privacy BIBAFull-Text 187-196
  Sai Teja Peddinti; Nitesh Saxena
A promising approach to location privacy is query obfuscation, which involves reporting k-1 false locations along with the real location. In this paper, we examine the level of privacy protection provided by the current query obfuscation techniques against adversarial location service providers. As a representative and realistic implementation of query obfuscation, we focus on SybilQuery. We present two types of attacks depending upon whether or not a short-term query history is available. When history is available, using machine learning, we were able to identify 93.67% of user trips, with only 2.02% of fake trips misclassified, for the security parameter k = 5. In the absence of history, we used trip correlations to form a smaller set of trips effectively increasing the user query identification probability from 20% to about 40%. Our work demonstrates that the use of aggregate statistical information alone is not sufficient to generate simulated trips. We identify areas for improvement in the existing query obfuscation techniques.
Are you close with me? are you nearby?: investigating social groups, closeness, and willingness to share BIBAFull-Text 197-206
  Jason Wiese; Patrick Gage Kelley; Lorrie Faith Cranor; Laura Dabbish; Jason I. Hong; John Zimmerman
As ubiquitous computing becomes increasingly mobile and social, personal information sharing will likely increase in frequency, the variety of friends to share with, and range of information that can be shared. Past work has identified that whom you share with is important for choosing whether or not to share, but little work has explored which features of interpersonal relationships influence sharing. We present the results of a study of 42 participants, who self-report aspects of their relationships with 70 of their friends, including frequency of collocation and communication, closeness, and social group. Participants rated their willingness to share in 21 different scenarios based on information a UbiComp system could provide. Our findings show that (a) self-reported closeness is the strongest indicator of willingness to share, (b) individuals are more likely to share in scenarios with common information (e.g. we are within one mile of each other) than other kinds of scenarios (e.g. my location wherever I am), and (c) frequency of communication predicts both closeness and willingness to share better than frequency of collocation.
Understanding how visual representations of location feeds affect end-user privacy concerns BIBAFull-Text 207-216
  Karen P. Tang; Jason I. Hong; Daniel P. Siewiorek
While past work has looked extensively at how to design privacy configuration UIs for sharing current location, there has not yet been work done to examine how visual representations of historical locations can influence end-user privacy. We present results for a study examining three visualization types (text-, map-, and time-based) for social sharing of past locations. Our results reveal that there are important design implications for location sharing applications, as certain visual elements led to more privacy concerns and inaccurate perceptions of privacy control.
Employing user feedback for semantic location services BIBAFull-Text 217-226
  Donnie H. Kim; Kyungsik Han; Deborah Estrin
Just as coordinate-oriented location-based applications have exploded recently with mapping services, new semantic location services will be critical for the next wave of killer applications. People are going to want everyday applications to have location-awareness that goes beyond simple numerical latitude and longitude. Loci is a new semantic location service layer that employs user feedback to bridge the gap between machine-learned and human-defined places. Advances in place learning techniques have provided us the tools to detect nearly 95% of the visits we make to places and the distances we travel. The difficulty of recovering the remaining 5% comes from designing parameters that work for every user in every place. Based on a user study with 29 participants over three weeks, we show that the level of user feedback required by the service is acceptable and most of the users are willing to provide help to improve their experiences with the service. Our results suggest that user feedback has the potential to significantly improve semantic location services, but requires well-timed prompting mechanisms to improve the quality of the feedback.

DIY and design

Nurturing natural sensors BIBAFull-Text 227-236
  Stacey Kuznetsov; William Odom; James Pierce; Eric Paulos
Sensing has played a significant role in the evolution of ubiquitous computing systems, enabling many of today's compelling interactive and ubiquitous experiences. In this paper, we argue for expanding the current landscape of sensing to include living organisms such as plants and animals, along with traditional tools and digital devices. We present a field study of ten individuals who routinely work with living organisms such as plants, fish, reptiles and bees, and rely on these organisms as well as analog instruments and digital sensors to infer environmental conditions and inform future actions. Our findings offer a new perspective on everyday biomarkers, and we use the lens of organic and non-digital sensing to reflect on current sensing paradigms in ubiquitous computing. We conclude with three opportunity areas to help frame future work in ubiquitous sensing: (1) incorporating traditional technologies and living systems into ubiquitous sensing applications, (2) developing information technologies that teach new ways of 'seeing', and (3) supporting richer forms of metadata to unite stakeholders through their actions, interests and concerns.
Red balloon, green balloon, sensors in the sky BIBAFull-Text 237-246
  Stacey Kuznetsov; George Noel Davis; Eric Paulos; Mark D. Gross; Jian Chiu Cheung
Spectacle computing is a novel strategy for vibrantly projecting information into the public sphere using expressive and tangible media. We demonstrate an example of this computing meme with large, glowing balloons that change color based on input from attached air quality sensors (exhaust, diesel, or volatile organic compounds). In two public installations (city street and public park) and a deployment with six everyday citizens, we invited stakeholders to playfully explore and actively participate in visualizing surrounding air quality. We also created a do-it-yourself (DIY) kit that includes a printed circuit board, electronic parts and instructions for building the air quality balloons. In a workshop, six non-expert users successfully assembled functional balloons, validating our technology as a DIY tool for public air quality visualization. Our deployments and workshop highlight play and spectacle as essential elements for public participation and activism. We outline design guidelines for future spectacle computing projects that engage stakeholders with environmental data and empower them to transform urban landscapes.
Data broadcasting using mobile FM radio: design, realization and application BIBAFull-Text 247-256
  Hang Yu; Ahmad Rahmati; Ardalan Amiri Sani; Lin Zhong; Jehan Wickramasuriya; Venu Vasudevan
In this work, we offer a novel system, MicroStation (µStation) that allows ubiquitous data broadcasting applications using the FM radio on mobile devices such as smartphones. µStation includes two key modules to enable data broadcasting based on existing mobile FM radio hardware. Channel Selector assigns different FM channels to neighboring µStation broadcasters to avoid collision and guides µStation listeners to find their broadcasting of interest. Data Codec realizes bit-level communication between mobile devices through existing FM radio hardware. We describe an implementation of µStation on the Nokia N900 smartphone, and provide low-level APIs and services to support application development. We also demonstrate two representative applications: Facebook-FM and Sync-Flash. These applications demonstrate the capability of µStation to readily enable a new class of ubiquitous data broadcasting applications on mobile devices.
Myngle: unifying and filtering web content for unplanned access between multiple personal devices BIBAFull-Text 257-266
  Timothy Sohn; Frank Chun Yat Li; Agathe Battestini; Vidya Setlur; Koichi Mori; Hiroshi Horii
Users often engage in tasks that span multiple personal devices. Although many current solutions exist to provide ubiquitous access to one's data, users continue to struggle with cross-device tasks. These solutions often require them to plan ahead for their information needs. In this paper, we present Myngle, a device-agnostic system that lets users quickly find the information they are looking for from previously visited web pages without having to plan ahead. Myngle provides a unified web history from multiple personal devices, and allows users to filter their history based on high-level categories influenced by common mobile information need categories (e.g., address, phone number). We evaluated Myngle with 32 users and found that our category-based method of filtering eases the burden of continuing cross-device tasks.
Mechanical hijacking: how robots can accelerate UbiComp deployments BIBAFull-Text 267-270
  Scott Davidoff; Nicolas Villar; Alex S. Taylor; Shahram Izadi
The complexities and costs of deploying Ubicomp applications seriously compromise our ability to evaluate such systems in the real world. To simplify Ubicomp deployment we introduce the robotic pseudopod (P.Pod), an actuator that acts on mechanical switches originally designed for human control only. P.Pods enable computational control of devices by hijacking their mechanical switches -- a term we refer to as mechanical hijacking. P.Pods offer simple, low-cost, non-destructive computational access to installed hardware, enabling functional, real world Ubicomp deployments. In this paper, we illustrate how three P.Pod primitives, built with the Lego MindStorm NXT toolkit, can implement mechanical hijacking, facilitating real world Ubicomp deployments which otherwise require extensive changes to existing hardware or infrastructure. Lastly, we demonstrate the simplicity of P.Pods by observing two middle school classes build working smart home applications in 4 hours.

Home and away

MAQS: a personalized mobile sensing system for indoor air quality monitoring BIBAFull-Text 271-280
  Yifei Jiang; Kun Li; Lei Tian; Ricardo Piedrahita; Xiang Yun; Omkar Mansata; Qin Lv; Robert P. Dick; Michael Hannigan; Li Shang
Most people spend more than 90% of their time indoors; indoor air quality (IAQ) influences human health, safety, productivity, and comfort. This paper describes MAQS, a personalized mobile sensing system for IAQ monitoring. In contrast with existing stationary or outdoor air quality sensing systems, MAQS users carry portable, indoor location tracking sensors that provide personalized IAQ information. To improve accuracy and energy efficiency, MAQS incorporates three novel techniques: (1) an accurate temporal n-gram augmented Bayesian room localization method that requires few Wi-Fi fingerprints; (2) an air exchange rate based IAQ sensing method, which measures general IAQ using only CO2 sensors; and (3) a zone-based proximity detection method for collaborative sensing, which saves energy and enables data sharing among users. MAQS has been deployed and evaluated via user study. Detailed evaluation results demonstrate that MAQS supports accurate personalized IAQ monitoring and quantitative analysis with high energy efficiency.
PreHeat: controlling home heating using occupancy prediction BIBAFull-Text 281-290
  James Scott; A. J. Bernheim Brush; John Krumm; Brian Meyers; Michael Hazas; Stephen Hodges; Nicolas Villar
Home heating is a major factor in worldwide energy use. Our system, PreHeat, aims to more efficiently heat homes by using occupancy sensing and occupancy prediction to automatically control home heating. We deployed PreHeat in five homes, three in the US and two in the UK. In UK homes, we controlled heating on a per-room basis to enable further energy savings. We compared PreHeat's prediction algorithm with a static program over an average 61 days per house, alternating days between these conditions, and measuring actual gas consumption and occupancy. In UK homes PreHeat both saved gas and reduced MissTime (the time that the house was occupied but not warm). In US homes, PreHeat decreased MissTime by a factor of 6-12, while consuming a similar amount of gas. In summary, PreHeat enables more efficient heating while removing the need for users to program thermostat schedules.
How smart is your smartcard?: measuring travel behaviours, perceptions, and incentives BIBAFull-Text 291-300
  Neal Lathia; Licia Capra
The widespread adoption of automated fare collection (AFC) systems by public transport authorities around the world means that, increasingly, people carry and use passive sensors (embedded inside of public transit tickets) to record their daily movements. Unlike mobile phones, the records held by AFC systems provide a rich and detailed source of data about peoples' transport habits: times of travel, modalities, destinations, trip durations, and fares paid. In this work, we explore the extent that this data offers the possibility to both build and measure future of travel-based ubiquitous computing applications. We focus on two potential end-users: first, how travellers may be aided by feedback mechanisms in order to re-align misperceptions of their travel behaviour and leverage this data to change their habits. In particular, we analyse differences between 85 travellers' surveyed perceptions of their public transport habits and their actual usage of the system. Second, how transport authorities can use this data to measure and implement incentive mechanisms that produce the expected impact. We use anonymised AFC data to measure the extent that financial incentives implemented by London's transport authority (such as peak-hour fares and student discounts) correlate with measurable changes in millions of travellers' behaviours.
Mediated tabletop interaction in the biology lab: exploring the design space of the rabbit BIBAFull-Text 301-310
  Juan David Hincapié-Ramos; Aurélien Tabard; Jakob E. Bardram
Interactive surfaces like diffuse illumination tabletops (DIT) identify and track objects using multiple techniques like shape and color recognition, fiducial markers, electronic components, and RFID tags. However, tracking becomes more complex when dealing with multiple small objects of similar form. We propose to use tangible mediators for integrating such objects to tabletops. This paper reports on our initial explorations of mediated tabletop interaction consisting of a mediator prototype and a design space definition. We built a mediator, the Rabbit, a device that translates the value of an RFID tag into a visual 2D code. The Rabbit rests on the interactive surface, holds the object, reads its passive RFID tag, and converts the read value into a 2D code that can be read by the DIT's built-in camera. When handling multiple objects, the Rabbit iterates through the generated 2D codes. Through a series of participatory activities with end users (molecular biologists), we collected initial feedback from participants and defined a design space for mediated tabletop interaction.
Hand shape classification with a wrist contour sensor: development of a prototype device BIBAFull-Text 311-314
  Rui Fukui; Masahiko Watanabe; Tomoaki Gyota; Masamichi Shimosaka; Tomomasa Sato
In this paper, we describe a novel sensor device which recognizes hand shapes using wrist contours. Although hand shapes can express various meanings with small gestures, utilization of hand shapes as an interface is rare in domestic use. That is because a concise recognition method has not been established. To recognize hand shapes anywhere with no stress on the user, we developed a wearable wrist contour sensor device and a recognition system. In the system, features, such as sum of gaps, were extracted from wrist contours. We conducted a classification test of eight hand shapes, and realized approximately 70% classification rate.

Energy and networking

Deliberation for intuition: a framework for energy-efficient trip detection on cellular phones BIBAFull-Text 315-324
  Yifei Jiang; Du Li; Guang Yang; Qin Lv; Zhigang Liu
Trip detection is a fundamental issue in many context-sensitive information services on mobile devices. It aims to automatically recognize significant places and trips between them. The key challenge is how to minimize energy consumption while maintaining high accuracy. Previous works that use GPS/WiFi sampling are accurate but energy efficiency is low and does not improve over time. Learning from the human decision making process, we propose an energy-efficient trip detection framework that consists of two modes: The deliberation mode learns cell-id patterns using GPS/WiFi based localization methods; the intuition mode only uses cell-ids and learned patterns for trip detection; transition between the two modes is controlled by parameters that are also learned. We evaluated our framework using real-life traces of six people over five months. Our experiments demonstrate that its energy consumption decreases rapidly as users' activities manifest regularity over time.
SiFi: exploiting VoIP silence for WiFi energy savings in smart phones BIBAFull-Text 325-334
  Andrew J. Pyles; Zhen Ren; Gang Zhou; Xue Liu
Since one-third of a smart phone's battery energy is consumed by its WiFi interface, it is critical to switch the WiFi radio from its active or Constantly Awake Mode (CAM), which draws high power (726mW with screen off), to its sleep or Power Save Mode (PSM), which consumes little power (36mW). Applications like VoIP do not perform well under PSM mode however, due to their real-time nature, so the energy footprint is quite high. The challenge is to save energy while not affecting performance. In this paper we present SiFi: Silence prediction based WiFi energy adaptation. SiFi examines audio streams from phone calls and tracks when silence periods start and stop. This data is stored in a prediction model. Using this historical data, we predict the length of future silence periods and place the WiFi radio to sleep during these periods. We implement the design on an Android Smart phone and achieve 40% energy savings while maintaining high voice fidelity.
LEAP: a low energy assisted GPS for trajectory-based services BIBAFull-Text 335-344
  Heitor S. Ramos; Tao Zhang; Jie Liu; Nissanka B. Priyantha; Aman Kansal
Trajectory-based services require continuous user location sensing. GPS is the most common outdoor location sensor on mobile devices. However, the high energy consumption of GPS sensing prohibits it to be used continuously in many applications. In this paper, we propose a Low Energy Assisted Positioning (LEAP) solution that carefully partitions the GPS signal processing pipeline and shifts delay tolerant position calculations to the cloud. The GPS receiver only needs to be on for less than a second to collect the sub-millisecond level propagation delay for each satellites signal. With a reference to a nearby object, such as a cell tower, the LEAP server can infer the rest of the information necessary to perform GPS position calculation. We analyze the accuracy and energy benefit of LEAP and use real user traces to show that LEAP can save up to 80% GPS energy consumption in typical trajectory-based service scenarios.
An empirical approach to smartphone energy level prediction BIBAFull-Text 345-354
  Earl A. Oliver; Srinivasan Keshav
We conduct a large-scale user study to measure the energy consumption characteristics of 20,100 BlackBerry smartphone users. Our dataset is several orders of magnitude larger than any previous work. We use this dataset to build the Energy Emulation Toolkit (EET) that allows developers to evaluate the energy consumption requirements of their applications against real users' energy traces. The EET computes the successful execution rate of energy-intensive applications across all users, specific devices, and specific smartphone user types. We also consider active adaptation to energy constraints. By classifying smartphone users based on their charging characteristics we demonstrate that energy level can be predicted within 72% accuracy a full day in advance, and through an Energy Management Oracle energy intensive applications can adapt their execution to achieve a near optimal successful execution rate.
Enabling large-scale human activity inference on smartphones using community similarity networks (CSN) BIBAFull-Text 355-364
  Nicholas D. Lane; Ye Xu; Hong Lu; Shaohan Hu; Tanzeem Choudhury; Andrew T. Campbell; Feng Zhao
Sensor-enabled smartphones are opening a new frontier in the development of mobile sensing applications. The recognition of human activities and context from sensor-data using classification models underpins these emerging applications. However, conventional approaches to training classifiers struggle to cope with the diverse user populations routinely found in large-scale popular mobile applications. Differences between users (e.g., age, sex, behavioral patterns, lifestyle) confuse classifiers, which assume everyone is the same. To address this, we propose Community Similarity Networks (CSN), which incorporates inter-person similarity measurements into the classifier training process. Under CSN every user has a unique classifier that is tuned to their own characteristics. CSN exploits crowd-sourced sensor-data to personalize classifiers with data contributed from other similar users. This process is guided by similarity networks that measure different dimensions of inter-person similarity. Our experiments show CSN outperforms existing approaches to classifier training under the presence of population diversity.

How Healthy?

Sundroid: solar radiation awareness with smartphones BIBAFull-Text 365-374
  Thomas Fahrni; Michael Kuhn; Philipp Sommer; Roger Wattenhofer; Samuel Welten
While the sun is important for our health, overexposure to sunlight carries significant health risks ranging from sunburn to skin cancer. Although people know about these risks, sunlight related skin damages have increased over the past decades. We have conducted a survey that sheds light on this phenomenon and suggests that the missing natural sense for UV radiation negatively influences people's sun related behavior. To address this issue, we have implemented Sundroid. Sundroid measures the incident UV radiation using a body-worn sensing unit that communicates wirelessly with the user's smartphone. The phone thereby acts as a user interface to present the measured data in an intuitive manner, and to notify the user once a critical amount of sunlight has been reached. Sundroid can also be applied in other contexts, such as behavioral research or medicine. We show that after calibration, errors are within 5% compared to a high-precision reference signal.
Accurate and privacy preserving cough sensing using a low-cost microphone BIBAFull-Text 375-384
  Eric C. Larson; TienJui Lee; Sean Liu; Margaret Rosenfeld; Shwetak N. Patel
Audio-based cough detection has become more pervasive in recent years because of its utility in evaluating treatments and the potential to impact the quality of life for individuals with chronic cough. We critically examine the current state of the art in cough detection, concluding that existing approaches expose private audio recordings of users and bystanders. We present a novel algorithm for detecting coughs from the audio stream of a mobile phone. Our system allows cough sounds to be reconstructed from the feature set, but prevents speech from being reconstructed intelligibly. We evaluate our algorithm on data collected in the wild and report an average true positive rate of 92% and false positive rate of 0.5%. We also present the results of two psychoacoustic experiments which characterize the tradeoff between the fidelity of reconstructed cough sounds and the intelligibility of reconstructed speech.
Passive and In-Situ assessment of mental and physical well-being using mobile sensors BIBAFull-Text 385-394
  Mashfiqui Rabbi; Shahid Ali; Tanzeem Choudhury; Ethan Berke
The idea of continuously monitoring well-being using mobile-sensing systems is gaining popularity. In-situ measurement of human behavior has the potential to overcome the short comings of gold-standard surveys that have been used for decades by the medical community. However, current sensing systems have mainly focused on tracking physical health; some have approximated aspects of mental health based on proximity measurements but have not been compared against medically accepted screening instruments. In this paper, we show the feasibility of a multi-modal mobile sensing system to simultaneously assess mental and physical health. By continuously capturing fine-grained motion and privacy-sensitive audio data, we are able to derive different metrics that reflect the results of commonly used surveys for assessing well-being by the medical community. In addition, we present a case study that highlights how errors in assessment due to the subjective nature of the responses could potentially be avoided by continuous mobile sensing.
The place for ubiquitous computing in schools: lessons learned from a school-based intervention for youth physical activity BIBAFull-Text 395-404
  Erika Shehan Poole; Andrew D. Miller; Yan Xu; Elsa Eiriksdottir; Richard Catrambone; Elizabeth D. Mynatt
With rising concerns about obesity and sedentary lifestyles in youth, there has been an increasing interest in understanding how pervasive and ubiquitous computing technologies can catalyze positive health behaviors in children and teens. School-based interventions seem like a natural choice, and ubiquitous computing technologies hold much promise for these interventions. Yet the literature contains little guidance for how to approach school-based ubicomp deployments. Grounded in our analysis of a large-scale US school-based intervention for promoting youth physical activity, we present an approach to the design and evaluation of school-based ubicomp that treats the school as a social institution. We show how the school regulates students' daily lives, drawing from work in the sociology of schools to create a framing for planning, executing and analyzing school-based ubicomp deployments. These insights will assist other researchers and designers engaging in deployments of ubiquitous computing systems in settings with established institutional structures.
Understanding my data, myself: supporting self-reflection with ubicomp technologies BIBAFull-Text 405-414
  Ian Li; Anind K. Dey; Jodi Forlizzi
We live in a world where many kinds of data about us can be collected and more will be collected as Ubicomp technologies mature. People reflect on this data using different tools for personal informatics. However, current tools do not have sufficient understanding of users' self-reflection needs to appropriately leverage Ubicomp technologies. To design tools that effectively assist self-reflection, we need to comprehensively understand what kinds of questions people have about their data, why they ask these questions, how they answer them with current tools, and what kinds of problems they encounter. To explore this, we conducted interviews with people who use various kinds of tools for personal informatics. We found six kinds of questions that people asked about their data. We also found that certain kinds of questions are more important at certain times, which we call phases. We identified two phases of reflection: Discovery and Maintenance. We discuss the kinds of questions and the phases in detail and identify features that should be supported in personal informatics tools for which Ubicomp technologies can play an important role.

Measuring and understanding

Investigating intelligibility for uncertain context-aware applications BIBAFull-Text 415-424
  Brian Y. Lim; Anind K. Dey
Context-aware applications use sensing and inference to attempt to determine users' contexts, and take appropriate action. However, they are prone to uncertainty, and this may compromise the trust users have in them. Providing intelligibility has been proposed to help explain to users how context-aware applications work in order to improve user impressions of them. However, we hypothesize that intelligibility may actually be harmful for applications that are very uncertain of their actions. We conducted a large controlled study of a location-aware and a sound-aware application, investigating the impact of intelligibility on understanding, and user impression of applications with varying certainty. We found that intelligibility impacts user impressions, depending on the application's certainty and behavior appropriateness. Intelligibility is helpful for applications with high certainty, but it is harmful if applications behave appropriately, yet display low certainty.
PANDAA: physical arrangement detection of networked devices through ambient-sound awareness BIBAFull-Text 425-434
  Zheng Sun; Aveek Purohit; Kaifei Chen; Shijia Pan; Trevor Pering; Pei Zhang
Future ubiquitous home environments can contain 10s or 100s of devices. Ubiquitous services running on these devices (i.e. localizing users, routing, security algorithms) will commonly require an accurate location of each device. In order to obtain these locations, existing techniques require either a manual survey, active sound sources, or estimation using wireless radios. These techniques, however, need additional hardware capabilities and are intrusive to the user. Non-intrusive, automatic localization of ubiquitous computing devices in the home has the potential to greatly facilitate device deployments.
   This paper presents the PANDAA system, a zero-configuration spatial localization system for networked devices based on ambient sound sensing. After initial placement of the devices, ambient sounds, such as human speech, music, footsteps, finger snaps, hand claps, or coughs and sneezes, are used to autonomously resolve the spatial relative arrangement of devices using trigonometric bounds and successive approximation. Using only time difference of arrival measurements as a bound for successive estimations, PANDAA is able to achieve an average of 0.17 meter accuracy for device location in the meeting room deployment.
Exploring micro-incentive strategies for participant compensation in high-burden studies BIBAFull-Text 435-444
  Mohamed Musthag; Andrew Raij; Deepak Ganesan; Santosh Kumar; Saul Shiffman
Micro-incentives represent a new but little-studied trend in participant compensation for user studies. In this paper, we use a combination of statistical analysis and models from labor economics to evaluate three canonical micro-payment schemes in the context of high-burden user studies, where participants wear sensors for extended durations. We look at how these strategies affect compliance, data quality, and retention, and show that when used carefully, micro-payments can be highly beneficial. We find that data quality is different across the micro-incentive schemes we experimented with, and therefore the incentive strategy should be chosen with care. We think that adaptive micro-payment based incentives can be used to successfully incentivize future studies at much lower cost to the study designer, while ensuring high compliance, good data quality, and lower retention issues.
The social fMRI: measuring, understanding, and designing social mechanisms in the real world BIBAFull-Text 445-454
  Nadav Aharony; Wei Pan; Cory Ip; Inas Khayal; Alex Pentland
A key challenge of data-driven social science is the gathering of high quality multi-dimensional datasets. A second challenge relates to design and execution of structured experimental interventions in-situ, in a way comparable to the reliability and intentionality of ex-situ laboratory experiments. In this paper we introduce the Friends and Family study, in which a young-family residential community is transformed into a living laboratory. We employ a ubiquitous computing approach that combines extremely rich data collection in terms of signals, dimensionality, and throughput, together with the ability to conduct targeted experimental interventions with study populations. We present our mobile-phone-based social and behavioral sensing system, which has been deployed for over a year now. Finally, we describe a novel tailored intervention aimed at increasing physical activity in the subject population. Results demonstrate the value of social factors for motivation and adherence, and allow us to quantify the contribution of different incentive mechanisms.
Recognition of visual memory recall processes using eye movement analysis BIBAFull-Text 455-464
  Andreas Bulling; Daniel Roggen
Physical activity, location, as well as a person's psychophysiological and affective state are common dimensions for developing context-aware systems in ubiquitous computing. An important yet missing contextual dimension is the cognitive context that comprises all aspects related to mental information processing, such as perception, memory, knowledge, or learning. In this work we investigate the feasibility of recognising visual memory recall. We use a recognition methodology that combines minimum redundancy maximum relevance feature selection (mRMR) with a support vector machine (SVM) classifier. We validate the methodology in a dual user study with a total of fourteen participants looking at familiar and unfamiliar pictures from four picture categories: abstract, landscapes, faces, and buildings. Using person-independent training, we are able to discriminate between familiar and unfamiliar abstract pictures with a top recognition rate of 84.3% (89.3% recall, 21.0% false positive rate) over all participants. We show that eye movement analysis is a promising approach to infer the cognitive context of a person and discuss the key challenges for the real-world implementation of eye-based cognition-aware systems.

Demonstration sessions

Smart home on smart phone BIBAFull-Text 467-468
  Yu Zhong; Yue Suo; Wenchang Xu; Chun Yu; Xinwei Guo; Yuhang Zhao; Yuanchun Shi
Mobile phone with high accessibility and usability is regarded as the ideal interface for the users to monitor and control the approaching smart home environment. Moreover, networking technologies and protocols have been advanced enough to support a universal monitoring and controlling interface on smart phones. This paper presents HouseGenie, an interactive, direct manipulation application on mobile, which supports a range of basic home monitoring and controlling functionalities as a replacement of individual remotes of smart home appliances. HouseGenie also addresses several common requirements that may be behind the vision, such as scenario, short-delay alarm, area restriction and so on. We demonstrate that HouseGenie not only provides intuitive presentations and interactions for smart home management, but also improves user experience comparing to present solutions.
A stabilization method of projected images for wearable projector applications BIBAFull-Text 469-470
  Satoshi Murata; Kaori Fujinami
Studies on supporting user task with a wearable projector are attracting attention in recent years. However, previous work did not consider the utilization in moving state because an image swing is caused by a body sway. Such instability of projected images does not only affect the viewability, but also makes it difficult to present spatial information. In this paper, we propose a projection stabilization method for wearable projector applications.
Emoti-bots: a line of emotional products for automated future homes BIBAFull-Text 471-472
  Katie Koepfinger; Burcum Turkmen
As computers begin to move away from screen-based interfaces and become cheaper and more pervasive, their systems will inevitably become more intricate and difficult to understand. Our current modes of communication may become insufficient. Human beings utilize emotions to transform intelligence into appropriate action, to consider circumstances and relationships with others. If our computers can develop stronger emotional connections to their users, our interactions with them will become more meaningful and will develop along with the progress of technology.
   Emoti-bots are a line of prototypical products for future homes that simulate and stimulate emotion. They are experiments developed in an effort to transform common everyday objects into potential interfaces for computing. They look to the affordances and current uses of those objects to develop more natural, instinctive and emotional methods of human-computer interaction.
A ring-shaped interactive device for large remote display and mobile device control BIBAFull-Text 473-474
  Boning Zhang; Yiqiang Chen; Yueliang Qian; Xiangdong Wang
In this demonstration, a novel human-computer interaction device is proposed to realize finger touching for large display and mobile device control, without a touchscreen or a touch pad. In this method, interaction commands are input in a same way as traditional touchscreen and touchpad, which is convenient to develop applications for long-distance operation of display and mobile devices. An embedded module is designed to collect bone-conducted friction sound, acceleration and gyroscope sensor data, corresponding to the behavior and direction of interaction commands. For algorithm, modified MFCC and SVM are applied in sound processing and probability calculation.
Connecting people through physical resources in an office environment BIBAFull-Text 475-476
  Alvin Chin; Hao Wang; Lijun Zhu; Bin Xu
With the rising popularity of social networks, people's locations are being used for providing rich mobile social services. We present a mobile social service in our office environment called Find & Connect. We use WiFi to record a user's position and allow users to efficiently find, reserve and manage office resources, like meeting rooms and desks, and easily connect to other colleagues through scheduled interactions like having a meeting and/or unscheduled yet implicit interactions like ephemeral encounters. We then describe how we manage office resources and connect with people, followed by a user study that we conducted in our office.
Sharing availability information with InterruptMe BIBAFull-Text 477-478
  Juan David Hincapié-Ramos; Stephen Voida; Gloria Mark
Workplace collaboration often requires interruptions, which can happen at inopportune times. Sharing availability information can reduce many of these untimely interruptions. However, designing a successful availability-sharing system requires finding the right balance to maximize the benefits and reduce costs for both the interrupter and interruptee. The main challenges for finding such balance lie in the acquisition of availability information from the interruptee and its delivery to the interrupter. In this demonstration, we show how common technical approaches in ubicomp can address some of the problems typically encountered in availability sharing. We present InterruptMe, a novel availability sharing system that uses sensor information to calculate multiple availability measures for each interruptee and that delivers this information in the periphery of the interrupter's attention by using a projected peripheral display and monitoring implicit inputs to the system.
Lupe: information access method based on distance between user and sensor nodes using AR technology BIBAFull-Text 479-480
  Takuya Takimoto; Yutaka Karatsu; Takuro Yonezawa; Jin Nakazawa; Kazunori Takashio; Hideyuki Tokuda
This paper proposes the information access method that is based on the distance between users and objects. In Addition, demonstrate Lupe system, which visualizes WSN status information utilizing our method. The evaluative experiment shows that our method is useful in where a number of sensors are setup. As a result our method and Lupe system enable to easily brows WSN status information for end-user.
Near ultrasonic directional data transfer for modern smartphones BIBAFull-Text 481-482
  Will Archer Arentz; Udana Bandara
The rapid advancements in the smartphone domain has made WiFi, Bluetooth and 3G commonplace in most devices, as well as accelerometers, gyros, fast CPUs and large amounts of memory. During these advancements the IR transmitter was eventually dropped, starting perhaps most importantly with the release of the Apple iPhone. It has since been observed a need for directional transmission functionality. The system described herein propose a way to to achieve short range directional data-communication on a smartphone without adding external hardware. The outcome of this project is intended to be open-sourced, enabling any application developer or phone-manufacturer to include the technology into their products.
Smart makeup system: supporting makeup using lifelog sharing BIBAFull-Text 483-484
  Maki Nakagawa; Koji Tsukada; Itiro Siio
Although many women wear makeup every day, they often have difficulty in varying their makeup. In this paper, we propose "Smart Makeup System" that helps users find new makeup methods for use with their daily cosmetics by sharing makeup logs (makeup pictures and cosmetics usages) on the web.
Tilt & touch: mobile phone for 3D interaction BIBAFull-Text 485-486
  Yuan Du; Haoyi Ren; Gang Pan; Shjian Li
Mobile phones are becoming de facto pervasive devices for people's daily use. This demonstration illustrates a new interaction, Tilt & Touch, to enable a smart phone to be a 3D controller. It exploits capacitive touchscreen and built-in MEMS motion sensors. When people want to navigate in a virtual reality environment on a large display, they can tilt the phone for viewpoint transforming, touch the phone screen for avatar moving, and pinch screen for viewing camera zooming. The virtual objects in the virtual reality environment can be rotated accordingly by tilting the phone.
Transferring information from mobile devices to personal computers by using vibration and accelerometer BIBAFull-Text 487-488
  Takuro Yonezawa; Tomotaka Ito; Hideyuki Tokuda
We propose a simple interaction to transfer information on smart phone to laptop/tablet PCs. We often encounter the situation that we need to send URL, which is preliminary accessed in mobile devices, from mobile devices to personal computers (PCs) to see the web page with wider screen. To support this information transfer, we utilize combination between vibrator in smart phones and accelerometer in laptop/tablet PCs. URL information is encoded to vibration patterns, and the patterns are detected and decoded by accelerometer in PCs. We demonstrate the interaction's efficiency and reasonability with actual products.
CAMPUS: context aware mobile platform for uniformed security BIBAFull-Text 489-490
  Hossein Rahnama; Sina Jamshidi; Stephen Johns; Alan Shepard
The Context Aware Mobile Platform for Uniformed Security (CAMPUS) system was developed with the aim of using ambient intelligence and mobile communications to information sources as an aid to field security and law enforcement personnel. The system is centered on a context aware information distribution framework and a client operating on a head mounted display. The system allows field service personnel to receive information relevant to their current operations, review information from sensors, and communicate with colleagues while remaining vigilant during security and law enforcement operations. Sensor integration and mapping technologies are the key elements in provisioning of appropriate information services.
Self-adaptive middleware for the design of context-aware software applications in public transit systems BIBAFull-Text 491-492
  Hossein Rahnama; Petar Kramaric; Alireza Sadeghian; Alan Shepard
Ubiquitous software applications can be more responsive if they can adapt to their surrounding situation without relying on users' continuous commitment. In dynamic environments such as public transit settings, where information is rapidly changing and passengers' demography are not uniform, an adaptive mobile application to navigate passengers based on their profile and context may be a good example of an emerging self-adaptive and context-aware mobile application. In this paper we demonstrated the use of an open source framework to develop a travel assistant application to help passengers with special needs in public transit environments.
MAQS: a mobile sensing system for indoor air quality BIBAFull-Text 493-494
  Yifei Jiang; Kun Li; Lei Tian; Ricardo Piedrahita; Xiang Yun; Omkar Mansata; Qin Lv; Robert P. Dick; Michael Hannigan; Li Shang
Most people spend more than 90% of their time indoors. Indoor air quality (IAQ) influences human health, safety, productivity, and comfort. This demo introduces MAQS, a personalized mobile sensing system for IAQ monitoring. In contrast with existing stationary or outdoor air quality sensing systems, MAQS users carry portable, indoor location tracking sensors that provide personalized IAQ information. To improve accuracy and energy efficiency, MAQS incorporates three novel techniques: (1) an accurate temporal n-gram augmented Bayesian room localization method; (2) an air exchange rate based IAQ sensing method; and (3) a zone-based proximity detection method for collaborative sensing.
Air finger: enabling multi-scale navigation by finger height above the surface BIBAFull-Text 495-496
  Chun Yu; Xu Tan; Yue Shi; Yuanchun Shi
We present Air Finger, a novel technique that enables controlling CD ratio by finger height above the touch sur-face for multi-scale navigation tasks. Extending previous research on virtual touch, Air Finger divides the space above surface into two layers and associates the high, medium and low CD ratios to the touch surface, the lower air and the higher air respectively. Users can fluidly switch between the three navigation scales by lifting and pressing the finger. Air Finger enables multi-scale navigation control using one hand.
Harmonicare: a novel wind instrument easy to learn and play BIBAFull-Text 497-498
  Pin Tao; Xuan Zhang; Yinqiao Wang; Lin Yang
In this paper, we present a novel design of the wind instrument, Harmonicare, which makes everybody playing the wind instrument easily, having a lot of fun and doing the respiratory training simultaneously. The device contains many valves for all reed chambers of harmonica, they control when and which note should be played according to the music notation. What the player needs to do is exhaling and inhaling rhythmically according to the hints on the device screen. The design combines the technology, musical arts and health care together. A bundle of Volunteers' experiences show that our novel design is easy to master and full of fun.

Doctoral colloquia abstracts

A data-rich approach for investigating social mechanisms in the wild BIBAFull-Text 499-502
  Nadav Aharony
A key challenge of data-driven social science is the gathering of high quality multi-dimensional datasets. A second challenge relates to design and execution of structured experimental interventions in-situ, in a way comparable to the reliability and intentionality of ex-situ laboratory experiments. This work introduces the "Social fMRI" -- a ubiquitous computing approach that enhances existing methodologies by combining extremely rich data collection in terms of signals, dimensionality, and throughput, together with the ability to conduct targeted experimental interventions with study populations. The proposed research aims to demonstrate the value of the Social fMRI approach via its first instantiation: The Friends and Family living laboratory study, in which a young-family residential community was transformed into a living laboratory for over a year. Using the highly fine-grained and unprecedented longitudinal dataset collected in the study, I aim to show how this approach allows us to gain insights on intricate social mechanisms and interpersonal relationships within the community in ways not possible with traditional approaches. In addition, the mobile-phone based sensing and intervention delivery system developed for this study -- a Social fMRI reference implementation -- is field-proven and robust enough to be reused by other researchers and developers as an open and extensible sensing platform.
Communication around home-energy monitoring devices: connecting stakeholders in low-income communities BIBAFull-Text 503-506
  Tawanna R. Dillahunt
Prior research results show that comparison as a feedback technique can encourage additional savings; however, a limited number of home-energy studies explore social communication around feedback devices. We will develop a system that supports comparison and cross-household communication, and provides energy-use information. We will then deploy our system across 50 mixed-income renters. Our expected contributions include an interactive system for supporting comparison and collaboration; a better understanding of the conditions that motivate or discourage energy conservative behaviors for individuals that pay and do not pay for their electricity; and design recommendations for visualizations that allow comparison and collaboration across households.
Design of persuasive technologies for healthy sleep behavior BIBAFull-Text 507-510
  Eun Kyoung Choe
Getting the sufficient amount of quality sleep is a key aspect of good health along with a healthy diet and regular exercise. Despite its importance, sleep has been considerably underexplored in the area of human-computer interaction. In this proposal, I describe my research in understanding the need to help improve people's sleep habits and creating a persuasive sleep application to help them achieve their sleep-related goals. The persuasive sleep application involves self-monitoring and feedback features to help people be aware of their sleep habits. My dissertation research investigates a design of a self-monitoring system focusing on how information is presented as a persuasive means accounting for user emotions in the context of receiving concerning health news.
Facilitating consumption of online social networking services on mobile devices BIBAFull-Text 511-514
  Yanqing Cui
Mobile social network aggregators, such as Motoblur and Windows Phone 7 People Hub, emerge as a common tool to access online social networking services on mobile devices. There are limited user studies, however, about how people use and perceive these aggregators. In this study, I explore this research field by deploying an innovative mobile social network aggregator named Linked Internet UI, or LinkedUI. It deeply integrates social networking services into the mobile device user interface and recommends new content that is likely to be interesting to the user. The main research question is that of how people use and perceive these designs, and what user practices these designs enable. The supporting research emphasis is on exploring how we apply user-centered design in the era of online social networking services.
Research on user activity and context model based mobile context-aware interaction design method BIBAFull-Text 515-518
  Yuanyuan Chen
Context-aware interaction is an important topic in ubiquitous computing field. One of the critical problems is how to match the user expectation and the system feedbacks on context. Context is always dependent on user activity. In order to understand user activity and related context information in a clear and structural way, a comprehensive user activity model and a context model are being built based on activity theory. A design method will be proposed and expected to direct the design process of mobile context-aware interaction. A mobile shopping assistant is going to be designed and evaluated as a case study to improve the design method of mobile context-aware interaction.
Enriching location information: an energy-efficient approach BIBAFull-Text 519-522
  Sourav Bhattacharya
Off-the-shelf modern mobile devices come with a number of inbuilt sensors, e.g., GPS, WiFi, GSM, accelerometer, compass, gyroscope, NFC and Bluetooth. Equipped with all these sensors and internet connectivity, modern mobile phones are enabling continuous sensing and increasingly many emergent mobile applications are using sensed context on the phone to understand users' needs and improve usability. However, limited battery power is a big hindrance to the deployment of continuous sensing on mobile devices and without any intelligent sensor management, the battery lasts only few hours. In this research, we emphasize on location-awareness and address the challenges in developing ubiquitous positioning solutions, cross-device indoor localization, position and trajectory tracking and inferring high-level contexts using machine-learning techniques on sensor data in an energy-efficient way.
Don't let me down: using contextual information to aid diabetics BIBAFull-Text 523-526
  Tom Owen
People who suffer from Diabetes are required to make frequent decisions on their personal treatment based on results from self-care devices. Yet these results form only a part of the decision-making process and surrounding contextual information is a highly important aspect. Those who suffer from diabetes have described the daily challenges of dealing with unexpected results and a feeling of 'failure' at managing the disease. This paper describes ongoing research which focuses on using technology to assist in the capture of the contextual information to both aid the understanding of results and to potentially reduce the emotional impact of perceived 'bad' results.
A framework for user controlled remembering and forgetting in long term user models BIBAFull-Text 527-530
  Debjanee Barua
Ubiquitous computing aims to provide personalised services. To do so, it captures and stores huge set of personal data in the user models. These stores pose challenges for effective user control and privacy. This thesis aims to tackle some of these by creating mechanisms and interfaces for forgetting. The key contributions of this research are to establish the theoretical foundations for the design of mechanisms for forgetting in such models, and to develop and evaluate the framework and its interfaces for users to control these mechanisms.
A user's perspective of design for context-awareness BIBAFull-Text 531-534
  Xiaohui Zhang
Along with the development of microchip and sensing technologies, more and more Context-Aware applications have been introduced to our daily life to engage us in information-rich environments. Unlike many desktop applications, Context-Aware applications have usually been used to support users in dynamic situations by utilizing many resources available through physical environments. This research takes a user's perspective on Context-Aware activities, to focus on user's motivation and perception among dynamic surroundings, and aims to demonstrate the role and importance of user involvement for Context-Aware services.
A dependable middleware for the development of applications for wireless sensor and actor networks BIBAFull-Text 535-538
  Jaime Chen
It is being more than 30 years since first researches in Wireless Sensor and Actor Networks (WSAN) started to appear. However, despite been acknowledged one of the top emerging technologies for the 21st century, WSANs are not still a ubiquitous technology. Factors that have hindered its development are the lack of standards and protocols that support QoS and the complexity of designing and implementing WSAN applications. This thesis focus on overcoming these factors by means of a middleware that provides: 1) QoS support, necessary for applications such as the Protection of Critical Infrastructures (CIP), and 2) a flexible programming abstraction that helps the developer to implement WSAN applications and specify their QoS requirements without having to deal with low level repetitive tasks.

Poster presentations

MixPad: augmenting interactive paper with mice & keyboards for fine-grained cross-media interaction with documents BIBAFull-Text 539-540
  Chunyuan Liao; Qiong Liu
This demo shows an interactive paper system called MixPad, which features using mice and keyboards to enhance the conventional pen-finger-gesture based interaction with paper documents. Similar to many interactive paper systems, MixPad adopts a mobile camera-projector unit to recognize paper documents, detect pen and finger gestures and provide visual feedback. Unlike these systems, MixPad allows using mice and keyboards to help users interact with fine-grained document content on paper (e.g. individual words and user-defined arbitrary regions), and to facilitate cross-media operations. For instance, to copy a document segment from paper to a laptop, one first points a finger of her non-dominant hand to the segment roughly, and then uses a mouse in her dominant hand to refine the selection and drag it to the laptop; she can also type text as a detailed comment on a paper document. This novel interaction paradigm combines the advantages of mice, keyboards, pens and fingers, and therefore enables rich digital functions on paper.
Qooqle: search with speech, gesture, and social media BIBAFull-Text 541-542
  Li Bian; Henry Holtzman
Qooqle is a mobile-based system that frees people from the confines of search boxes by integrating digital information directly into their everyday activities. By allowing casual expressions through speech and gesture with mobile phones, Qooqle's multi-modal user interface enables people to engage with one another while accessing the information world more naturally. Through the analysis of social media data, Qooqle retrieves relevant information to the users based upon the physical world context they are situated in. Combining mobile, cloud computing, and social media, Qooqle draws people closer to computing and makes computers less visible. The Qooqle system uses Speech Recognition and Gesture Recognition to achieve its natural user interface. It uses Natural Language Processing, Machine Learning, and other Data Mining techniques to search through people's speech and gestures in the physical world as well as their online social media data for relevant information retrieval.
ARHCI: use input and output of eyes to interact with things BIBAFull-Text 543-544
  Fanglin Chen; Xiang Fei; Xinmin Chen; Guohua Liu
Augmented Reality (AR) applications have been widely spread on phone terminals. However, many of them are not deployed well in the phones obviously.
   We proposed a novel terminal -- ARHCI, which can supply AR service and allow users to carry on hand-free operations on the information on the glasses. This design is not only an eye-glasses, but also the tracker of movements of head and eyes, as well as the screen presenting the added information. This paper will show the architecture of ARHCI and a related project aiming to help physically challenged people while they go outside.
Considerations of applying surface-based phone gestures to natural context BIBAFull-Text 545-546
  Xu Jia; Kun-Pyo Lee; Hyeon-Jeong Suk
Gesture interaction has enjoyed increasing popularity in human-computer interactions and has applied to different contexts. At the same time, computing has become more mobile and ubiquitous. This study aims to connect the gestures in the 2 contexts by exploring the possibility of applying gestures in mobile context to three-dimensional natural context. To reveal the contextual effects to gesture interactions, the experiment was designed to elicit gestures in the 2 contexts from users. Different analysis methods were applied, foremost of which was the correlation analysis. The results indicate positive correlation exists between phone and free-form gestures, but significantly varies among tasks. The design of gestures can be applied in the different context, after considering the issues of origin, limitation, priority.
Ubira: a mobile platform for an integrated online/offline shopping experience BIBAFull-Text 547-548
  Udana Bandara; James Chen
Recently, mobile applications focusing on barcode scanning and price comparison are gaining popularity among users. The users of these applications are drawn away from participating in the business model of the brick-and-mortar stores. Ubira is a novel mobile platform that allows the brick-and-mortar stores to compete against online stores by turning an application user into a customer while creating better value for the customers compared to typical barcode scanning applications.
A new input device putting together merits of shortcut key and toolbar: fast keypad system BIBAFull-Text 549-550
  Sungwook Baek; Soohyun Jo; Haekwang Lee; Soryoung Kim; Jangseok Kim
Fast keypad system is a new input device that makes functions utilized frequently be used for users by customizing them. We let users approached to selected functions speedily and easily by applications after applying them to the Fast keypad system. Also, continuous works on previous contents become to be available by storing them having been done by Fast keypad into the device even in case of moving them into other computer after considering cases of using N set computers by users. Finally, this prevented troubles by additional input devices besides keyboard and mouse by having mouse control functions built-in.
An effective tracking technique of public transportation toward passenger generated vehicle location system BIBAFull-Text 551-552
  Masaki Ito; Toshihiko Sasama; Takao Kawamura; Kazunori Sugahara
This paper proposes an automatic vehicle locating (AVL) system which gains the geographic location data of a vehicle by passengers' sending the data via their smartphones in order to support public transportation users. While the existing AVL systems with specialized facilities costs a large amount of money and currently only large cities can introduce the system to their public transportation system, such user-generated approach will reduce the costs to collect the location data of a vehicle, and will enable small transportation system to adopt an AVL system. This paper developed a matching technique of location with a timetable, and demonstrated the system in the route buses in Tottori Prefecture with 70 smart phones, and evaluated its performance.
Proposal of collaborative navigation for multi users from different departure points to the same goal BIBAFull-Text 553-554
  Masato Soga; Kazuyoshi Kadomoto
This paper presents a proposal of two new modes of collaborative human navigation. Both are used in a situation in which two users depart from different points simultaneously, but they want to reach common goal. One mode of navigation is used in a situation in which both users want to reach the goal independently. The navigation system calculates each route and arrival time for each user. If the two arrival times differ, then the system suggests another route with a dropping point such as a store or park to the user who will reach the goal earlier. The other navigation is used in a situation in which two users want to join somewhere before reaching a common goal. The navigation system suggests not only a juncture point, but also suggests routes from each departure point to the juncture point, and a route from the juncture point to the goal. We developed a prototype system using the city center of Wakayama as a test area. Using it, we evaluated the proposed navigations.
Toward delegated observation of kindergarten children's exploratory behaviors in field trips BIBAFull-Text 555-556
  Inseok Hwang; Hyukjae Jang; Taiwoo Park; Aram Choi; Chanyou Hwang; Yanggui Choi; Lama Nachman; Junehwa Song
Field trips in kindergarten imply excellent chances to attain a wide spectrum of educational clues for the children. However, in-depth observation on their exploratory behaviors is uniquely challenging. Teachers mostly take all possible precautions against any incidents, sparing little time and attention for observation. We collaborated with kindergarten teachers to develop a system for delegated observation of the children's exploratory behaviors by using smartphones and sensor technologies.
Demonstrating generation Y interactions through interactive prototyping BIBAFull-Text 557-558
  Wei Liu; Pieter Jan Stappers; Gert Pasman; Aadjan van der Helm
With Generation Y entering the workforce, for the first time IT tools at home are richer in interaction than tools at work. This study aims to demonstrate novel Generation Y interactions by mapping three interaction qualities identified in private and work contexts. In an interactive prototyping course three prototypes were built in which these qualities are demonstrated. From these prototypes, guidelines for supporting Generation Y interactions in future office contexts, were subsequently deducted.
A rotation based method for detecting on-body positions of mobile devices BIBAFull-Text 559-560
  Yue Shi; Yuanchun Shi; Jie Liu
We present a novel rotation based method for detecting where a mobile device is worn on a user's body that utilizes the fusion of the data from accelerometer and gyroscope. Detecting the position of a mobile device could improve the performance of on-body sensor based human activity recognition and the adaptability of many mobile applications. In our method, the radius and angular velocity for a position is calculated based on the data read from the sensors integrated in a mobile device. We have evaluated our method with an experiment to detect four commonly used positions: breast pocket, trouser pocket, hip pocket and hand.
Electronic taste stimulation BIBAFull-Text 561-562
  Nimesha Ranasinghe; Adrian David Cheok; Owen Noel Newton Fernando; Hideaki Nii; Gopalakrishnakone Ponnampalam
In this paper, we present a system, which could digitally stimulate the sense of taste (gustation) on human. The system utilizes electrical stimulation on human tongue to produce taste sensations. The initial experiments reveal that the method is viable and deserves further developments. This requires further analyses of the properties of electric pulses (current, frequency, and voltage) on tongue along with the stimulating material. The experimental results suggested that sourness, bitterness, and saltiness are the main sensations that could be evoked at present.
Jamming attack in WSN: a spatial perspective BIBAFull-Text 563-564
  Yanqiang Sun; Xiaodong Wang; Xingming Zhou
We propose a new jamming attack model from spatial perspective: given k jammers, how does the attacker minimize the pair-wise connectivity among the nodes in Wireless Sensor Network (WSN)? We call this problem k-Jammer Deployment Problem (k-JDP). First, we prove that the decision version of k-JDP is NP-complete even in the ideal situation where the attacker has full knowledge of topology information. Second, we propose a mathematical formulation based on Integer Programming (IP) model which yields an optimal solution. Third, we present a heuristic algorithm HAJDP, and compare it with the IP model. Numerical results show that HAJDP is computationally efficient.
Colocation networks: exploring the use of social and geographical patterns in context-aware services BIBAFull-Text 565-566
  Shin'ichi Konomi
As people visit various places in their daily lives, connections are formed between people via places (co-presence), and between places via people (overlapping). This paper introduces a method for modeling social and geographical context based on colocation networks in human mobility datasets. Applying the method to a metropolitan-scale mobility dataset reveals a variety of place groups that can be considered in the design of urban ubicomp applications.
Polite ringer II: a ringtone interaction system using sensor fusion BIBAFull-Text 567-568
  Ming-Chang Tsai; Fu-Chiang Chou; Yih-Feng Kao; Kai-Cheng Yang; Mike Chen
We present a system which automatically reduces the ringtone volume as soon as users start picking up their mobile devices to answer incoming phone calls. Our system uses multiple sensors already in mobile phones (e.g. accelerometer, gyroscope, and proximity sensor) to extract 47 features, and uses supported vector machine (SVM) as the classifier to identify the act of picking up a phone. We have collected data under several typical conditions: including walking vs stationary and picking up the phone from inside a bag vs pockets. Our results show that the system can correctly identify users picking up their mobile phones 95% of the time on average.
You stopped by there? I recommend this: changing customer behaviors with robots BIBAFull-Text 569-570
  Hiroyuki Kidokoro; Koji Kamei; Kazuhiko Shinozawa; Takahiro Miyashita; Norihiro Hagita
This paper proposes a method that estimates customer interests by identifying a set of areas at which a customer has stopped in our experimental shop environment and recommends items through robots located on the shop's shelves. We experimentally verified that our method changed customer behaviors. The results show that the method successfully encouraged customers to visit the shelves of recommended items.
HASC2011corpus: towards the common ground of human activity recognition BIBAFull-Text 571-572
  Nobuo Kawaguchi; Ying Yang; Tianhui Yang; Nobuhiro Ogawa; Yohei Iwasaki; Katsuhiko Kaji; Tsutomu Terada; Kazuya Murao; Sozo Inoue; Yoshihiro Kawahara; Yasuyuki Sumi; Nobuhiko Nishio
Human activity recognition through the wearable sensor will enable a next-generation human-oriented ubiquitous computing. However, most of research on human activity recognition so far is based on small number of subjects, and non-public data. To overcome the situation, we have gathered 4897 accelerometer data with 116 subjects and compose them as HASC2011corpus. In the field of pattern recognition, it is very important to evaluate and to improve the recognition methods by using the same dataset as a common ground. We make the HASC2011corpus into public for the research community to use it as a common ground of the Human Activity Recognition. We also show several facts and results of obtained from the corpus.
Easy picker: picking objects aided by passive RFIDs BIBAFull-Text 573-574
  Weifeng Zhang; Yingliang Lu; Yao Meng; Hao Yu
This paper proposes Easy Picker, a tool to help people find the exact location of densely distributed objects. We hope to use Easy Picker to help people quickly pick the specified objects among those are densely and regularly distributed, such as books on a shelf and garments on a hanger.
NFC+: NFC-assisted media sharing for mobile devices BIBAFull-Text 575-576
  Kuang-Ming Chen; Yu-Cheng Liou; Mike Chen
This paper presents NFC+, a new approach to ubiquitous mobile media sharing. Data can be instantaneously shared in a fast and secure way between users without the presence of Internet. It uses NFC, which has fast setup time but low bandwidth, to exchange both network settings and the media URI, then programmatically configures wireless interfaces to securely connect and transfer the media. Specifically, we propose NFC+Hotspot, which combines NFC with secure Wi-Fi Hotspot mode. It is secure, easy to use, and significantly faster than existing sharing methods. We evaluated various sharing methods, in 2 categories, for both photo and video: 1. Direct Transfer (e.g. Bluetooth, Wi-Fi, Hotspot), and 2. NFC+ Direct Transfer. Experimental results show that our NFC+Hotspot approach has the fastest photo and video sharing performance, with improvement ranging from 1.8x-3.7x for 1MB photo and 0.7x -- 6.9x for 1 minute HD video compared to (non-NFC+) Direct Transfer methods.
User grouping method for ad-hoc conversations based on proximity of users and speaking volumes acquired from portable sensors BIBAFull-Text 577-578
  Yutaka Karatsu; Jin Nakazawa; Hideyuki Tokuda
Analyzing groups of people having a conversation enable to provide context-aware services, such as life log, group-wares, and the virtualization of social networks. We propose a novel method for extract chatting groups by leveraging Bluetooth RSSI and voice data acquired from smart phones. Neighboring people are detected from Bluetooth RSSI, and conversation groups are extract by talking states. The purpose of this paper is to define algorithm that works on efficiently on smart phones that are general and widespread mobile devices.
Detecting water waste activities for water-efficient living BIBAFull-Text 579-580
  Trang Thuy Vu; Akifumi Sokan; Hironori Nakajo; Kaori Fujinami; Jaakko Suutala; Pekka Siirtola; Tuomo Alasalmi; Ari Pitkanen; Juha Roning
Towards persuasive system for efficient use of water resource, we propose a method to detect "water waste" among water-related activities based on water sound analysis. We supposed two types of water-wastes: inter-activity water waste and intra-activity water waste. An evaluation with a variety of experimental conditions presents that the aggregate accuracies to identify the inter-activity water waste and the intra-activity waste are 96.3% and 92.6%, respectively.
CoolMag: a tangible interaction tool to customize instruments for children in music education BIBAFull-Text 581-582
  Cheng Zhang; Li Shen; Danli Wang; Feng Tian; Hongan Wang
In this paper, we describe CoolMag, a tangible interaction tool to enable children to create different instruments collaboratively in music education. With CoolMag, children could learn the basic playing methods of different instruments. It also has the potential to inspire children's creativity, because children could adopt objects in daily life (broom, cup, pen etc.) as the carrier of their novel instruments whose appearance may differ from the traditional one.
Application of dimensionality reduction techniques for mobile social context BIBAFull-Text 583-584
  Andreas Komninos; Athanasios Plessas; Vassilios Stefanis; John Garofalakis
We propose the application of a dimensionality reduction algorithm that could provide a breakthrough in the efforts to retrieve and present mobile personal information to the user in context.
ContextCapture: using context-based awareness cues to create narrative events for status updates BIBAFull-Text 585-586
  Ville Antila; Jussi Polet
In this paper we introduce an experimental application to demonstrate the usage of context-based awareness cues in status updates, especially in SNS's (Social Networking Services). The presented application allows users to add different descriptions of context information to their Twitter messages and Facebook status updates in a narrative format. We have also developed an adapted version of the system including conference-specific context-types such as the timetable of the presentations and indoor-location detection using Bluetooth beacons. One goal for the demonstrator is to explore the practical use of context abstractions in a conference setup and synthesize interesting insight based on the usage patterns during the event.
Towards qualitative assessment of weight lifting exercises using body-worn sensors BIBAFull-Text 587-588
  Eduardo Velloso; Andreas Bulling; Hans Gellersen
Sports exercises are beneficial for general health and fitness. Some exercises such as weight lifting are particularly error-prone and using incorrect techniques can result in serious injuries. The current work aims to develop a weight lifting assistant that relies on motion sensors mounted on the body and integrated into gym equipment that provides qualitative feedback on the user's performance. We believe that by comparing motion data recorded from different parts of the body with a mathematical model of the correct technique, we will be able to qualitatively assess the user's performance, and provide a score and suggestions for improvement.
Response time improvement in accelerometer-based activity recognition by activity change detection BIBAFull-Text 589-590
  Ren Ohmura; Wataru Takasaki
A method has been developed to improve response time of accelerometer based activity recognition. Our method firstly detects a point of change in activity from sensor data and then applies a classifier trained with short window data immediately after the point. Results of experiments show that our method achieves a response time more than one second faster than that of a conventional method.
Activity and device position recognition in mobile devices BIBAFull-Text 591-592
  Leonard H. Grokop; Anthony Sarah; Chris Brunner; Vidya Narayanan; Sanjiv Nanda
Activity recognition along with device position recognition can provide contextual cues suitable to infer user interruptibility and device accessibility. Our system fuses data from accelerometer and multiple light sensors to classify activities and device positions. Previously published results achieve robust activity recognition performance with multiple sensors attached to fixed body positions, a model suitable for use cases such as healthcare and fitness. We achieve comparable activity recognition performance using smartphones placed in unknown on-body positions including pocket, holster and hand. Results obtained from a diverse data set show that motion state and device position are classified with macro-averaged f-scores 92.6% and 66.8% respectively, over six activities and seven device positions. We demonstrate the performance of our classifier with an implementation running on the Android platform, that visitors can try out.
Location-based information fusion for mobile navigation BIBAFull-Text 593-594
  Anna Wu; Xiaolong Zhang
Comprehensive yet personalized information for a location is usually desired by mobile users in situ. Traditional navigation systems provide complete static information, such as address, contact, even photos and reviews for a certain place. However, such information does not reflect the real time situation (e.g. popularity/crowdness). Location-based social networks provide opportunity to build social dynamics between the place and potential visitors. In this work, we propose a design by leveraging public online information with users' social network resources to provide real time exploration in novel environments. A mobile application is implemented using Wikipedia, Panoramio, and Foursquare data to provide complete, updated, and trustworthy information. Design highlights and implementation are reported.
Multi-granular demand forecasting in SmarterWater BIBAFull-Text 595-596
  Jing Dai; Ming Li; Sambit Sahu; Milind Naphade; Feng Chen
In this paper we describe the multi-resolution water consumption prediction based on the SmarterWater system. This prediction service provides household consumption projection and regional demand forecasting for both short-term and med-term. Water consumption prediction, together with the other functions in the SmarterWater service, has been deployed to Dubuque, IA. Consumption behavior change after accessing the service has been observed.
Ubiquitous augmented reality: expanding augmented reality environment with wireless tags and visible light communication projector BIBAFull-Text 597-598
  Atsushi Hiyama; Hiroshi Fujino; Go Kashiwagi; Michitaka Hirose
In this paper, we propose a ubiquitous augmented reality system that expands projected augmentations in wide area by using visible light communication and wireless tag. The system consists of wireless tags and a high-speed projector (DMD Discovery 3000), operating in 8kHz, attached on mobility platform. The projector transmits structured light patterns that contain different information in each pixel. Wireless tags can recognize their own locations in projected area by receiving structured light patterns projected from the projector. Since 3D coordinates of individual tag is stored in the system, projection point is estimated with 3D coordinates and pixel coordinates of each tag in projected area. According to the estimated position and orientation, augmented reality content is superimposed. The set of structured light patterns are projected in sufficient speed that human eye can only perceive the superimposed content. We have also evaluated the accuracy of superimposing augmented reality content on real world from moving projection points.
IteMinder: finding items in a room using passive RFID tags and an autonomous robot (poster) BIBAFull-Text 599-600
  Mizuho Komatsuzaki; Koji Tsukada; Itiro Siio; Pertti Verronen; Mika Luimula; Sakari Pieskä
We propose a novel search technique called IteMinder that helps users find property in a room using passive RFID and an autonomous robot. First, we attach RFID tags to the target items and at typical locations in a room. We also attach an RFID reader and a laser rangefinder to the robot. The robot can move around the entire room automatically while avoiding obstacles using the laser rangefinder. When the robot finds a tagged item, it uploads the tag ID and location information to the database. Users can then browse target items and their locations on a common web browser.
DrawerBrowser: practical picture browser for finding items in drawers BIBAFull-Text 601-602
  Keisuke Kambara; Koji Tsukada
We propose a practical picture browser called DrawerBrowser for finding items in drawers, which is designed through observation of daily activities.
Distributed human activity data processing using HASC tool BIBAFull-Text 603-604
  Nobuo Kawaguchi; Nobuhiro Ogawa; Yohei Iwasaki; Katsuhiko Kaji
To accelerate and simplify human activity recognition research, we have been developing a data processing tool named "HASC Tool." As the activity corpus becomes huge, it is not simple to handle the large number of files because it takes a lot of time to process. In this paper, we propose a distributed data processing mechanism which is implemented in the HASC Tool. By using the system, we can simply scale the local system into distributed processing. We also show the preliminary experimental result.

Video presentation abstracts & videos

Qviz: visualizer of Ramen queues BIBAFull-Text 605-606
  Kazumasa Oshima; Niwat Thepvilojanapong; Yuta Iwasawa; Tatsuya Morita; Yoshito Tobe
Waiting in a long queue is a cause of stress which affects people's life, work, and so on. The purpose of this paper is to avoid queues of restaurant during lunch time. To achieve the purpose, we develop a Qviz system which is able to visualize queues of remote restaurants. Users can ask for queue information of any restaurants by using a Qviz client which is implemented on smartphones. By applying a Markov process on historical movement, Qviz server predicts futuristic movement of users and selects potential reporters for the requested restaurant. We have implemented the Qviz system to validate the feasibility as well as usefulness of the system.
Core functionality and new applications for tabletops and interactive surfaces BIBAFull-Text 607-608
  Anthony Collins; Christopher James Ackad; Trent Apted; Paul Sztajer; Peter Ward; Hanley Weng; Judy Kay
New forms of natural user interfaces, particularly tabletops, are now a possibility due to the staggering advances in sensing and display technology. There is an immediate need for corresponding progress on the foundational software for exploiting the potential of these new hardware products. This requires research into natural and effective gestural interaction, with careful consideration of the core facilities needed for effective and consistent use. At the same time, an exploration of real-world tabletop applications will provide a basis for studying and advancing the core functionality.
   In this video, we illustrate several aspects of our ongoing research on interactive surfaces. This includes studying the core functionality of tabletops, such as gestures and interaction primitives, file access, application switching, transfer of information between devices, and user modeling for personalisation. These core functions have been used as the foundation for a number of real-world deployed applications. The key contributions of this work are the novel primitives for tabletops interaction as well as the applications that have been created by building upon them.
Ready-to-live: wearable computing meets fashion BIBAFull-Text 609-610
  Mirco Rossi; Burcu Cinaz; Gerhard Tröster
This paper describes the Ready-to-Live project carried out at the ETH Zurich, Electronics Laboratory in collaboration with Swiss Textile College (STF) during the 2010 spring semester. The goal of the project was to provide an interdisciplinary collaboration for technical and fashion students, and to present the final result in a real fashion show. In this paper, we show how we integrated wearable sensors into fashionable clothes in order to express different feelings and emotions. We explain first the technical implementation and then we present the design aspects of the final outfits.
A ubiquitous wireless video surveillance system based on pub/sub BIBAFull-Text 611-612
  Jiannong Cao; Xuefeng Liu; Steven Lai; Yang Zou; Jun Zhang; Yang Liu; Chisheng Zhang
In most of the existing video surveillance systems, captured video streams by CCTV or video cameras are aggregated through cables to a central station and monitored by associated human operators. However, the high deployment cost, low scalability and reuseability still remain to be the main roadblock for their wider application. Using human to monitor events can also be unreliable. Accordingly, we designed a ubiquitous wireless video surveillance system. This system uses wireless sensor nodes to detect pre-defined events and utilizes wireless mesh network to transmit high-quality video streams. Without cables, the deployment cost is significantly decreased. Different application users can also define various events and automatically receive notification and corresponding video streams when the events occur. In addition, mobile users, even when roaming, can access this system. In this demo, we introduce the hardware and software of this system and its implementation in our intelligent transportation system testbed.
Lighting choreographer: an LED control system for dance performances BIBAFull-Text 613-614
  Minoru Fujimoto; Fujita Naotaka; Tsutomu Terada; Masahiko Tsukamoto
There have been various approaches to enhance physical performances by adding visuals and/or audio according to the motions of performers. However, these methods were too simple to explain the performers' will of their body expression. Furthermore, they did not consider exceeding the physical limitation of body expression, such as providing the sense of faster movement of arms by changing colors in costumes dynamically. We propose a new LED performance system to expand the expression capability of human body. We can create new generation performances by combining body expression and lighting effects.
FlyingBuddy: augment human mobility and perceptibility BIBAFull-Text 615-616
  Dan He; Haoyi Ren; Weidong Hua; Gang Pan; Shijian Li; Zhaohui Wu
Technologies keep evolving to strengthen and further people's abilities in many aspects. For instance, vehicles expand the range of human moving while mobile phones boost the range of human communication. In this video, we develop a novel mini unmanned aerial vehicle (mini-UAV) named FlyingBuddy to augment human mobility and perceptibility. This prototype is made up of off the shelf components AR. Drone and iPhones with customized software. With help of the built-in magnetometer, GPS, and cameras, as well as Bluetooth, Wi-Fi and 3G connectivity, FlyingBuddy is capable of both manual controlled and self-piloted flying. It provides four typical services: flying to buy, flying to see, flying to report accident, and flying to take pictures.

Workshop summaries

Second international workshop on ubiquitous crowdsourcing: towards a platform for crowd computing BIBAFull-Text 617-618
  Maja Vukovic; Soundar Kumara
With the adoption of mobile, digital and social media networked crowds are reporting and acting upon events in smart environments. Existing platforms for crowdsourcing, support specific activity types, such as micro-tasks on the Amazon's Mechanical Turk; and fall short of facilitating general mechanisms for setting up and maintaining crowd networks easily, flexibly and in a variety of domains. Building upon First International Workshop on Ubiquitous Crowdsourcing, in this edition we challenge researchers and practitioners to identify requirements for a platform for crowd computing, arising from experiences in deployment crowdsourcing applications, which engage crowd members as sensors, controllers and actuators in smart cities and environments. This workshop brings together researchers to produce a vision for the universal crowdsourcing platform, documenting it in a theme publication.
2nd workshop on research in the large. using app stores, wide distribution channels and big data in ubicomp research BIBAFull-Text 619-620
  Henriette Cramer; Mattias Rost; Frank Bentley; David Ayman Shamma
With the proliferation of app stores and the advancement of mobile devices, research that might have only been tested with a dozen participants in the past can now be released to millions. This offers huge opportunities, but also requires adaptations of existing methods in dealing with large deployments and making sense of large data sets. This workshop provides a forum for researchers to exchange experiences and strategies for wide distribution of applications as well as gathering and analyzing large scale data sets.
International workshop on networking and object memories for the internet of things (NOMe-IoT 2011) BIBFull-Text 621-622
  Chi Harold Liu; Alexander Kroener; Chris Speed; Pan Hui; Fahim Kawsar; Wenjie Wang; Dan Wang; Thomas Ploetz; Boris Brandherm; Michael Schneider; Jens Haupert; Peter Stephan
The 5th ACM international workshop on context-awareness for self-managing systems (CASEMANS 2011) BIBAFull-Text 623-624
  Tomoko Yonezawa; Waltenegus Dargie
The Casemans 2011 workshop opens a platform to researchers of context-aware computing and self-managing systems to investigate the usefulness of context-awareness in emerging applications such as rescue applications, disaster avoidance and overcoming mechanisms, social networking, etc. These applications typically require timely context information to localise people and to share information based on shared interest as well as situations. An interesting research question is how to define and capture mutual context and how to share information in an efficient manner. Hence, the workshop focuses on context acquisition, modelling, reasoning, actuating techniques.
The first international symposium on social and community intelligence (SCI'11) BIBAFull-Text 625-626
  Bin Guo; Daqing Zhang; Zhiwen Yu; Francesco Calabrese
Social and Community Intelligence (SCI) represents an emerging area that aims at revealing individual/group behaviors, social interactions as well as community dynamics by mining the digital traces left by people while interacting with cyber-physical spaces. The digital traces are generated mainly from three information sources: Internet and Web applications, static infrastructure, mobile devices and wearable sensors. In this workshop we hope to get people from different disciplines together to share their visions and insights on how to tackle the challenges faced by SCI, such as participatory sensing, heterogeneous data fusion, intelligence extraction, privacy issues, and so on.
PETMEI 2011: the 1st international workshop on pervasive eye tracking and mobile eye-based interaction BIBAFull-Text 627-628
  Andreas Bulling; Andrew T. Duchowski; Päivi Majaranta
Recent developments in mobile eye tracking equipment and automated eye movement analysis point the way toward unobtrusive eye-based human-computer interfaces that are pervasively usable in everyday life. We call this new paradigm pervasive eye tracking -- continuous eye monitoring and analysis 24/7. PETMEI 2011 provides a forum for researcher from human-computer interaction, context-aware computing, and eye tracking to discuss techniques and applications that go beyond classical eye tracking and stationary eye-based interaction. We aim to discuss the implications of pervasive eye tracking for context-aware computing and to identify the key research challenges of mobile eye-based interaction. The long-term goal is to create a strong interdisciplinary research community linking these research fields together and to establish the workshop as the premier forum for research on pervasive eye tracking and mobile eye-based interaction.
The role of design in Ubicomp research and practice BIBAFull-Text 629-630
  Zhiyong Fu; John Zimmerman; Jiayu Wu; Christopher Mustafa Kirwan; Chen Zhao
The UbiComp research community has a long history of interdisciplinary research on technology, engineering, and human behavior. But, one disciplinary voice that often seems to be missing is design. Due to the value of design to integrate knowledge and insights from across disciplines and focus on the future world, it seems that design might play a critical role in helping UbiComp research through its holistic approach. China is the world leader in manufacturing, and it is almost never the place where the innovative, high-tech products and services are designed. With UbiComp in China, now seems the perfect time to discuss bridging east and west and bringing design to UbiComp. This workshop aims to provide a disciplinary forum for researchers and experts from design computer science, psychology and anthropology to exchange ideas on the issue of collaboration. It will build understanding across disciplines and explore the potential opportunity for design in UbiComp research and practice.
Workshop overview for the international workshop on situation, activity and goal awareness BIBAFull-Text 631-632
  Liming Chen; Parisa Rashidi; Ismail Khalil; Zhiwen Yu; Christian Becker; William K. Cheung
This report summarizes the International Workshop on Situation, Activity and Goal Awareness held at the 13th ACM International Conference on Ubiquitous Computing, on September 18 in Beijing, China.
Ubiquitous affective awareness and intelligent interaction 2011 BIBAFull-Text 633-634
  Bin Hu; Li Liu; Jürg Gutknecht
The goal of the workshop is to build a forum for researchers from academy and industry to investigate challenging and innovative research issues in the subject, which combines Affective Interaction within ubiquitous environment and to explore creative concepts, theories, innovative technologies and intelligent solutions. Potential participants may come from communities of ubiquitous computing, intelligent computing, brain computer interaction, affective computing, neuroergonomics, cognitive neuroscience etc. in order to present their state-of-the-art progress and visions on the various overlaps across those disciplines. In this proposal, we describe the detailed purpose, topics, and format of this workshop on "Ubiquitous Affective Awareness and Intelligent Interaction".
TDMA'11 workshop overview BIBFull-Text 635-636
  Feng Lu; Xing Xie; Shih-Lung Shaw
Mobile sensing: challenges, opportunities and future directions BIBAFull-Text 637-638
  Nicholas D. Lane; Tanzeem Choudhury; Feng Zhao
The emerging field of mobile sensing has engaged computer scientists from a variety of existing communities, such as, mobile systems, machine learning and human computer interaction. Each community approaches the challenges of mobile sensing research with its own unique perspective. The purpose of this workshop is to provide a forum to discuss the state of the art in mobile sensing and promote increased cooperation and interaction among the participating research communities.