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UBICOMP Tables of Contents: 01020304050607080910111213-113-214-114-215

Proceedings of the 2010 International Conference on Ubiquitous Computing

Fullname:Proceedings of the 12th ACM International Conference on Ubiquitous Computing
Editors:Jakob E. Bardram; Marc Langheinrich; Khai N. Truong; Paddy Nixon
Location:Copenhagen, Denmark
Dates:2010-Sep-26 to 2010-Sep-29
Publisher:ACM
Standard No:ISBN 1-60558-843-1, 978-1-60558-843-8 (papers) 1-4503-0283-1, 978-1-4503-0283-8 (adjunct papers); ACM DL: Table of Contents 1864431 hcibib: UBICOMP10
Papers:112
Pages:352+185
Links:Conference Home Page
  1. Keynote
  2. Context awareness
  3. Exploring new possibilities
  4. Location sharing II
  5. Location sharing
  6. Location sharing II
  7. Phone based sensing
  8. Location sharing II
  9. Location sharing
  10. Home infrastructure
  11. Novel interactions
  12. Phone based sensing
  13. Localization
  14. Technologies to influence one's health and behaviours
  15. Psycho-physiological sensing
  16. Enhancing the mobile experience
  17. Demo presentations
  18. Posters
  19. Video presentations
  20. Doctoral colloquium
  21. Workshops

Keynote

Making dreams come true: or how to avoid a living nightmare BIBAKFull-Text 1-2
  Morten Kyng
Technological advances in miniaturisation and communication are enabling revolutionary transformations: computation can be embedded in almost any object and the increasing bandwidth and ubiquity of communication networks connects objects and frees them spatially.
   However, the ambitions for ubiquitous computing typically go further. For example 'ambient intelligence' aims to provide users with a constant serviced cocoon that envelopes them in appropriate information, communication and services, protecting, enabling and empowering them wherever they are. We share some of these visions, but argue that profound difficulties stand in their way: Far from simplifying computing, ubiquity risks making it much more complex and confusing, e.g. by obscuring the relation between action and reaction.
   In this keynote we will discuss some of the challenges in realizing the promises of pervasive technologies and present ideas for the design of technology that supports learning, exploration and continued development. To this end people need to be able to grasp, both physically and conceptually, what technologies are doing and could do for them. We have termed this 'palpable computing'.
Keywords: keynote

Context awareness

The calendar as a sensor: analysis and improvement using data fusion with social networks and location BIBAKFull-Text 3-12
  Tom Lovett; Eamonn O'Neill; James Irwin; David Pollington
The shared online calendar is the de facto standard for event organisation and management in the modern office environment. It is also a potentially valuable source of context, provided the calendar event data represent an accurate account of 'real-world' events. However, as we show through a field study, the calendar does not represent reality well as genuine events are hidden by a multitude of reminders and 'placeholders', i.e. events that appear in the calendar but do not occur. We show that the calendar's representation of real events can be significantly improved through data fusion with other sources of context, namely social network and location data. Finally, we discuss some of the issues raised during our field study, their significance and how performance could be farther improved.
Keywords: calendar, contacts, context, context awareness, data fusion, event, location, meeting, social network
Toolkit to support intelligibility in context-aware applications BIBAKFull-Text 13-22
  Brian Y. Lim; Anind K. Dey
Context-aware applications should be intelligible so users can better understand how they work and improve their trust in them. However, providing intelligibility is non-trivial and requires the developer to understand how to generate explanations from application decision models. Furthermore, users need different types of explanations and this complicates the implementation of intelligibility. We have developed the Intelligibility Toolkit that makes it easy for application developers to obtain eight types of explanations from the most popular decision models of context-aware applications. We describe its extensible architecture, and the explanation generation algorithms we developed. We validate the usefulness of the toolkit with three canonical applications that use the toolkit to generate explanations for end-users.
Keywords: context-awareness, explanations, intelligibility, toolkits
Identifying the activities supported by locations with community-authored content BIBAKFull-Text 23-32
  David Dearman; Khai N. Truong
Community-authored content, such as location specific reviews, offers a wealth of information about virtually every imaginable location today. In this work, we process Yelp's community-authored reviews to identify a set of potential activities that are supported by the location reviewed. Using 14 test locations we show that the majority of the 40 most common results per location (determined by verb-noun pair frequency) are actual activities supported by their respective locations, achieving a mean precision of up to 79.3%. Although the number of reviews authored for a location has a strong influence on precision, we are able to achieve a precision up to 29.5% when processing only the first 50 reviews, increasing to 45.7% and 57.3% for the first 100 and 200 reviews, respectively. In addition, we present two context-aware services that leverage location-based activity information on a city scale that is accessible through a Web service we developed supporting multiple cities in North America.
Keywords: activity, community-authored content, location, reviews
Examining micro-payments for participatory sensing data collections BIBAKFull-Text 33-36
  Sasank Reddy; Deborah Estrin; Mark Hansen; Mani Srivastava
The rapid adoption of mobile devices that are able to capture and transmit a wide variety of sensing modalities (media and location) has enabled a new data collection paradigm -- participatory sensing. Participatory sensing initiatives organize individuals to gather sensed information using mobile devices through cooperative data collection. A major factor in the success of these data collection projects is sustained, high quality participation. However, since data capture requires a time and energy commitment from individuals, incentives are often introduced to motivate participants. In this work, we investigate the use of micro-payments as an incentive model. We define a set of metrics that can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of incentives and report on findings from a pilot study using various micro-payment schemes in a university campus sustainability initiative.
Keywords: incentives, mobile sensing systems, participatory sensing

Exploring new possibilities

Remarkable objects: supporting collaboration in a creative environment BIBAKFull-Text 37-40
  Dhaval Vyas; Anton Nijholt; Dirk Heylen; Alexander Kröner; Gerrit van der Veer
In this paper, we report the results of a field trial of a Ubicomp system called CAM that is aimed at supporting and enhancing collaboration in a design studio environment. CAM uses a mobile-tagging application which allows designers to collaboratively store relevant information onto their physical design objects in the form of messages, annotations and external web links. The purpose of our field trial was to explore the role of augmented objects in supporting and enhancing creative work. Our results show that CAM was used not only to support participants' mutual awareness and coordination but also to facilitate designers in appropriating their augmented design objects to be explorative, extendable and playful, supporting creative aspects of design work. In general, our results show how CAM transformed static design objects into 'remarkable' objects that made the creative and playful side of cooperative design visible.
Keywords: cooperative design, design objects, mobile-tagging
VoiceYourView: collecting real-time feedback on the design of public spaces BIBAKFull-Text 41-50
  Jon Whittle; William Simm; Maria-Angela Ferrario; Katerina Frankova; Laurence Garton; Andrée Woodcock; Baseerit Nasa; Jane Binner; Aom Ariyatum
This paper reports on VoiceYourView, a kind of intelligent kiosk, which uses speech recognition and natural language processing to gather the public's creative input on the public space designs. Over a six week period, VoiceYourView was deployed in a public space and 2000 design critiques were collected from 600 people. The paper shows that people are capable of providing creative input on their environment using unstructured speech or text and that a good proportion of these comments are actionable. The paper also investigates the use of public displays to auto-summarize comments left by the public so far. Although there is anecdotal evidence that this encourages participation, an experiment found that filtering comments (e.g., to display only positive responses) had no effect on what people had to say.
Keywords: civic engagement, intelligent kiosk, public reporting
Designing for interaction immediacy to enhance social skills of children with autism BIBAKFull-Text 51-60
  Monica Tentori; Gillian R. Hayes
Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder often require therapeutic interventions to support engagement in effective social interactions. In this paper, we present the results of a study conducted in three public schools that use an educational and behavioral intervention for the instruction of social skills in changing situational contexts. The results of this study led to the concept of interaction immediacy to help children maintain appropriate spatial boundaries, reply to conversation initiators, disengage appropriately at the end of an interaction, and identify potential communication partners. We describe design principles for Ubicomp technologies to support interaction immediacy and present an example design. The contribution of this work is twofold. First, we present an understanding of social skills in mobile and dynamic contexts. Second, we introduce the concept of interaction immediacy and show its effectiveness as a guiding principle for the design of Ubicomp applications.
Keywords: autism, interaction immediacy, social compass, social skills
Investigations of Ubicomp in the oil and gas industry BIBAKFull-Text 61-64
  Clint Heyer
In this paper we describe a use context for ubicomp technology seldom investigated: the industrial setting, and in particular, the oil and gas industry. We suggest that the field offers interesting challenges to the ubicomp field and briefly outline some design opportunities. In particular, we identify the need to ease flowing of activity across boundaries of space, physical/digital and varied systems. We also describe our grounded approach, starting with qualitative field studies and leading through to the design and implementation of novel prototypes. The contribution of this paper is a concrete description of this alternative use context and a sketching of potential ubicomp solutions to meet industrial needs.
Keywords: industrial, oil and gas, ubiquitous computing

Location sharing II

The domestic panopticon: location tracking in families BIBAKFull-Text 65-74
  Julie Boesen; Jennifer A. Rode; Clara Mancini
We present a qualitative study examining Location-Based Service (LBS) usage by families and how it is integrated into everyday life. We establish that LBS, when used for tracking purposes, affords a means of digital nurturing; that said, we discuss how LBS surveillance has the potential to undermine trust and serve as a detriment to nurturing.
Keywords: LBS, LBT, gender, home, location-based services, location-based technologies, privacy, security, tracking family

Location sharing

Modeling people's place naming preferences in location sharing BIBAKFull-Text 75-84
  Jialiu Lin; Guang Xiang; Jason I. Hong; Norman Sadeh
Most location sharing applications display people's locations on a map. However, people use a rich variety of terms to refer to their locations, such as "home," "Starbucks," or "the bus stop near my house." Our long-term goal is to create a system that can automatically generate appropriate place names based on real-time context and user preferences. As a first step, we analyze data from a two-week study involving 26 participants in two different cities, focusing on how people refer to places in location sharing. We derive a taxonomy of different place naming methods, and show that factors such as a person's perceived familiarity with a place and the entropy of that place (i.e. the variety of people who visit it) strongly influence the way people refer to it when interacting with others. We also present a machine learning model for predicting how people name places. Using our data, this model is able to predict the place naming method people choose with an average accuracy higher than 85%.
Keywords: location representation, location sharing, location-based service, place naming
Rethinking location sharing: exploring the implications of social-driven vs. purpose-driven location sharing BIBAKFull-Text 85-94
  Karen P. Tang; Jialiu Lin; Jason I. Hong; Daniel P. Siewiorek; Norman Sadeh
The popularity of micro-blogging has made general-purpose information sharing a pervasive phenomenon. This trend is now impacting location sharing applications (LSAs) such that users are sharing their location data with a much wider and more diverse audience. In this paper, we describe this as social-driven sharing, distinguishing it from past examples of what we refer to as purpose-driven location sharing. We explore the differences between these two types of sharing by conducting a comparative two-week study with nine participants. We found significant differences in terms of users' decisions about what location information to share, their privacy concerns, and how privacy-preserving their disclosures were. Based on these results, we provide design implications for future LSAs.
Keywords: location sharing, place naming, privacy

Location sharing II

Exploring end user preferences for location obfuscation, location-based services, and the value of location BIBAKFull-Text 95-104
  A. J. Bernheim Brush; John Krumm; James Scott
Long-term personal GPS data is useful for many UbiComp services such as traffic monitoring and environmental impact assessment. However, inference attacks on such traces can reveal private information including home addresses and schedules. We asked 32 participants from 12 households to collect 2 months of GPS data, and showed it to them in visualizations. We explored if they understood how their individual privacy concerns mapped onto 5 location obfuscation schemes (which they largely did), which obfuscation schemes they were most comfortable with (Mixing, Deleting data near home, and Randomizing), how they monetarily valued their location data, and if they consented to share their data publicly. 21/32 gave consent to publish their data, though most households' members shared at different levels, which indicates a lack of awareness of privacy interrelationships. Grounded in real decisions about real data, our findings highlight the potential for end-user involvement in obfuscation of their own location data.
Keywords: anonymization, computational location privacy, location, obfuscation, privacy

Phone based sensing

Predicting human behaviour from selected mobile phone data points BIBAKFull-Text 105-108
  Driss Choujaa; Naranker Dulay
The mobile phone offers a unique opportunity to predict a person's behaviour automatically for advanced ubiquitous services. In this note, we analyse cellular data collected as part of the Reality Mining project and use information-theoretic concepts to answer three questions (i) What time points in the day help predict a mobile phone user's activity at another time point? (ii) What time points in history are most useful to predict his future activities? and (iii) How difficult is it to predict his activity at a given time from another user's activity at another time?
Keywords: human behaviour, machine learning, mobile phone
Hapori: context-based local search for mobile phones using community behavioral modeling and similarity BIBAKFull-Text 109-118
  Nicholas D. Lane; Dimitrios Lymberopoulos; Feng Zhao; Andrew T. Campbell
Local search engines are very popular but limited. We present Hapori, a next-generation local search technology for mobile phones that not only takes into account location in the search query but richer context such as the time, weather and the activity of the user. Hapori also builds behavioral models of users and exploits the similarity between users to tailor search results to personal tastes rather than provide static geo-driven points of interest. We discuss the design, implementation and evaluation of the Hapori framework which combines data mining, information preserving embedding and distance metric learning to address the challenge of creating efficient multidimensional models from context-rich local search logs. Our experimental results using 80,000 queries extracted from search logs show that contextual and behavioral similarity information can improve the relevance of local search results by up to ten times when compared to the results currently provided by commercially available search engine technology.
Keywords: context-ware mobile search, local search, mobile phone sensing

Location sharing II

Bridging the gap between physical location and online social networks BIBAKFull-Text 119-128
  Justin Cranshaw; Eran Toch; Jason Hong; Aniket Kittur; Norman Sadeh
This paper examines the location traces of 489 users of a location sharing social network for relationships between the users' mobility patterns and structural properties of their underlying social network. We introduce a novel set of location-based features for analyzing the social context of a geographic region, including location entropy, which measures the diversity of unique visitors of a location. Using these features, we provide a model for predicting friendship between two users by analyzing their location trails. Our model achieves significant gains over simpler models based only on direct properties of the co-location histories, such as the number of co-locations. We also show a positive relationship between the entropy of the locations the user visits and the number of social ties that user has in the network. We discuss how the offline mobility of users can have implications for both researchers and designers of online social networks.
Keywords: location sensing, social computing, social network analysis

Location sharing

Empirical models of privacy in location sharing BIBAKFull-Text 129-138
  Eran Toch; Justin Cranshaw; Paul Hankes Drielsma; Janice Y. Tsai; Patrick Gage Kelley; James Springfield; Lorrie Cranor; Jason Hong; Norman Sadeh
The rapid adoption of location tracking and mobile social networking technologies raises significant privacy challenges. Today our understanding of people's location sharing privacy preferences remains very limited, including how these preferences are impacted by the type of location tracking device or the nature of the locations visited. To address this gap, we deployed Locaccino, a mobile location sharing system, in a four week long field study, where we examined the behavior of study participants (n=28) who shared their location with their acquaintances (n=373.) Our results show that users appear more comfortable sharing their presence at locations visited by a large and diverse set of people. Our study also indicates that people who visit a wider number of places tend to also be the subject of a greater number of requests for their locations. Over time these same people tend to also evolve more sophisticated privacy preferences, reflected by an increase in time- and location-based restrictions. We conclude by discussing the implications our findings.
Keywords: location sharing technology, mobile social technology, privacy

Home infrastructure

ElectriSense: single-point sensing using EMI for electrical event detection and classification in the home BIBAKFull-Text 139-148
  Sidhant Gupta; Matthew S. Reynolds; Shwetak N. Patel
This paper presents ElectriSense, a new solution for automatically detecting and classifying the use of electronic devices in a home from a single point of sensing. ElectriSense relies on the fact that most modern consumer electronics and fluorescent lighting employ switch mode power supplies (SMPS) to achieve high efficiency. These power supplies continuously generate high frequency electromagnetic interference (EMI) during operation that propagates throughout a home's power wiring. We show both analytically and by in-home experimentation that EMI signals are stable and predictable based on the device's switching frequency characteristics. Unlike past transient noise-based solutions, this new approach provides the ability for EMI signatures to be applicable across homes while still being able to differentiate between similar devices in a home. We have evaluated our solution in seven homes, including one six-month deployment. Our results show that ElectriSense can identify and classify the usage of individual devices with a mean accuracy of 93.82%.
Keywords: activity recognition, activity sensing, energy monitoring, infrastructure-mediated sensing
Understanding conflict between landlords and tenants: implications for energy sensing and feedback BIBAKFull-Text 149-158
  Tawanna Dillahunt; Jennifer Mankoff; Eric Paulos
Energy use in the home is a topic of increasing interest and concern, and one on which technology can have a significant impact. However, existing work typically focuses on moderately affluent homeowners who have relative autonomy with respect to their home, or does not address socio-economic status, class, and other related issues. For the 30% of the U.S. population who rent their homes, many key decisions regarding energy use must be negotiated with a landlord. Because energy use impacts the bottom line of both landlords and tenants, this can be a source of conflict in the landlord/tenant relationship. Ubicomp technologies for reducing energy use in rental units must engage with landlord/tenant conflicts to be successful. Unfortunately, little detailed knowledge is available about the impact of landlord/tenant conflicts on energy use. We present an analysis of a series of qualitative studies with landlords and tenants. We argue that a consideration of multiple stakeholders, and the power imbalances among them, will drive important new research questions and lead to more widely applicable solutions. The main contribution of our work is a set of open research questions and design recommendations for technologies that may affect and be affected by the conflict between stakeholders around energy use.
Keywords: domestic computing, energy, inequality, sustainability
SNUPI: sensor nodes utilizing powerline infrastructure BIBAKFull-Text 159-168
  Gabe Cohn; Erich Stuntebeck; Jagdish Pandey; Brian Otis; Gregory D. Abowd; Shwetak N. Patel
A persistent concern of wireless sensors is the power consumption required for communication, which presents a significant adoption hurdle for practical ubiquitous computing applications. This work explores the use of the home powerline as a large distributed antenna capable of receiving signals from ultra-low-power wireless sensor nodes and thus allowing nodes to be detected at ranges that are otherwise impractical with traditional over-the-air reception. We present the design and implementation of small ultra-low-power 27 MHz sensor nodes that transmit their data by coupling over the powerline to a single receiver attached to the powerline in the home. We demonstrate the ability of our general purpose wireless sensor nodes to provide whole-home coverage while consuming less than 1 mW of power when transmitting (65 üW consumed in our custom CMOS transmitter). This is the lowest power transmitter to date compared to those found in traditional whole-home wireless systems.
Keywords: powerline, ultra-low-power radio, wireless sensing
WATTR: a method for self-powered wireless sensing of water activity in the home BIBAKFull-Text 169-172
  Tim Campbell; Eric Larson; Gabe Cohn; Ramses Alcaide; Shwetak N. Patel
We present WATTR, a novel self-powered water activity sensor that utilizes residential water pressure impulses as both a powering and sensing source. Consisting of a power harvesting circuit, piezoelectric sensor, ultra-low-power 16-bit microcontroller, 16-bit analog-to-digital converter (ADC), and a 433 MHz wireless transmitter, WATTR is capable of sampling home water pressure at 33 Hz and transmitting over 3 m when any water fixture in the home is opened or closed. WATTR provides an alternative sensing solution to the power intensive Bluetooth-based sensor used in the HydroSense project by Froehlich et al. [2] for single-point whole-home water usage. We demonstrate WATTR as a viable self-powered sensor capable of monitoring and transmitting water usage data without the use of a battery. Unlike other water-based power harvesters, WATTR does not waste water to power itself. We discuss the design, implementation, and experimental verification of the WATTR device.
Keywords: power harvesting, sensing, water conservation

Novel interactions

Ubicomp to the masses: a large-scale study of two tangible interfaces for download BIBAKFull-Text 173-182
  Enrico Costanza; Matteo Giaccone; Olivier Kueng; Simon Shelley; Jeffrey Huang
Tangible user interfaces have been promoted and discussed in the Ubicomp and HCI communities for 15 years. In TUIs physical objects are used for the control and representation of digital information, similarly to how icons are used in graphical user interfaces for the same purpose. Most reported TUI systems have the nature of research prototypes, available in laboratories or museums. This paper reports an attempt to understand the impact of TUIs in users' everyday environments through 2 low-cost simple set-up tangible interfaces for music that can be freely downloaded from a website. The systems are based on computer vision, printed paper and audio output. A few hundreds of users downloaded them and played with them. We logged users interaction with the interfaces and analysed content posted by them on our own and other web sites to observe and evaluate how they relate to such novel systems, taking measures to protect their privacy. Both the interaction logs and the users' comments indicate that the tangible interfaces were accepted as normal: they were perceived just as interfaces to make music rather than esoteric systems. Its time to bring Ubicomp technology to the masses!
Keywords: TUI, d-touch, drum machine, massive user observation, musical instrument, sequencer, user generated content
What do you bring to the table?: investigations of a collaborative workspace BIBAKFull-Text 183-192
  Trevor Pering; Kent Lyons; Roy Want; Mary Murphy-Hoye; Mark Baloga; Paul Noll; Joe Branc; Nicolas De Benoist
Collaborative spaces supporting personal mobile devices provide for a powerful integration of personalized content with supportive embedded infrastructure. Social, spatial, and informational considerations have a salient impact on such modern collaborative spaces. The design, implementation, and evaluation of a collaborative workspace prototype that directly supports the integrated use of mobile devices not only yields insights into the basic capabilities behind such a space, but also a deeper understanding of the different composition control mechanisms available. Specifically, such environments can effectively work with existing laptop platforms, and show increased promise for supporting future generations of smaller mobile devices.
Keywords: ad-hoc configuration, collaboration, mobile computing, platform composition, shared workspace
Sketching with strangers: in the wild study of ad hoc social communication by drawing BIBAKFull-Text 193-202
  Panu Åkerman; Arto Puikkonen; Pertti Huuskonen; Antti Virolainen; Jonna Häkkilä
We describe an in-the-wild experiment with non-verbal ad-hoc communication between strangers. We connected two night clubs via two interactive tables that allowed people at each end interact via shared drawings, pre-made symbols and actions. We interviewed 50 and observed approximately 200 participants. In local interaction, collaboration was the preferred mode of use, whereas with remote interaction, communication prevailed. This study demonstrated that people have such a strong desire to communicate that they are willing to forgive many imperfections in the channel. It was also evident that people resorted to stereotypical information to ease the rapid flow of conversation, when they had only limited knowledge of the other party (just the place). This paper describes our system design, the user study, and discusses implications on designing for ad hoc communication and context sharing in urban everyday environment.
Keywords: collaborative interaction, interactive surfaces, multitouch interaction, prototyping, user studies
Augmenting on-screen instructions with micro-projected guides: when it works, and when it fails BIBAKFull-Text 203-212
  Stephanie Rosenthal; Shaun K. Kane; Jacob O. Wobbrock; Daniel Avrahami
We present a study that evaluates the effectiveness of augmenting on-screen instructions with micro-projection for manual task guidance unlike prior work, which replaced screen instructions with alternative modalities (e.g., head-mounted displays). In our study, 30 participants completed 10 trials each of 11 manual tasks chosen to represent a set of common task-components (e.g., cutting, folding) found in many everyday activities such as crafts, cooking, and hobby electronics. Fifteen participants received only on-screen instructions, and 15 received both on-screen and micro-projected instructions. In contrast to prior work, which focused only on whole tasks, our study examines the benefit of augmenting common task instructions. The augmented instructions improved participants' performance overall; however, we show that in certain cases when projected guides and physical objects visually interfered, projected elements caused increased errors. Our results demonstrate that examining effectiveness at an instruction level is both useful and necessary, and provide insight into the design of systems that help users perform everyday tasks.
Keywords: augmented reality, computer vision, computer-assisted instruction, everyday tasks, micro-projection, task guidance

Phone based sensing

Tasking networked CCTV cameras and mobile phones to identify and localize multiple people BIBAKFull-Text 213-222
  Thiago Teixeira; Deokwoo Jung; Andreas Savvides
We present a method to identify and localize people by leveraging existing CCTV camera infrastructure along with inertial sensors (accelerometer and magnetometer) within each person's mobile phones. Since a person's motion path, as observed by the camera, must match the local motion measurements from their phone, we are able to uniquely identify people with the phones' IDs by detecting the statistical dependence between the phone and camera measurements. For this, we express the problem as consisting of a two-measurement HMM for each person, with one camera measurement and one phone measurement. Then we use a maximum a posteriori formulation to find the most likely ID assignments. Through sensor fusion, our method largely bypasses the motion correspondence problem from computer vision and is able to track people across large spatial or temporal gaps in sensing. We evaluate the system through simulations and experiments in a real camera network testbed.
Keywords: cameras, inertial sensors, localization, person identification

Localization

Accuracy characterization of cell tower localization BIBAKFull-Text 223-226
  Jie Yang; Alexander Varshavsky; Hongbo Liu; Yingying Chen; Marco Gruteser
Cell tower triangulation is a popular technique for determining the location of a mobile device. However, cell tower triangulation methods require the knowledge of the actual locations of cell towers. Because the locations of cell towers are not publicly available, these methods often need to use estimated tower locations obtained through wardriving. This paper provides the first large scale study of the accuracy of two existing methods for cell tower localization using wardriving data. The results show that naively applying these methods results in very large localization errors. We analyze the causes for these errors and conclude that one can localize a cell accurately only if it falls within the area covered by the wardriving trace. We further propose a bounding technique to select the cells that fall within the area covered by the wardriving trace and identify a cell combining optimization that can further reduce the localization error by half.
Keywords: cell localization, cell tower, received signal strength
A grid-based algorithm for on-device GSM positioning BIBAKFull-Text 227-236
  Petteri Nurmi; Sourav Bhattacharya; Joonas Kukkonen
We propose a grid-based GSM positioning algorithm that can be deployed entirely on mobile devices. The algorithm uses Gaussian distributions to model signal intensity variations within each grid cell. Position estimates are calculated by combining a probabilistic centroid algorithm with particle filtering. In addition to presenting the positioning algorithm, we describe methods that can be used to create, update and maintain radio maps on a mobile device. We have implemented the positioning algorithm on Nokia S60 and Nokia N900 devices and we evaluate the algorithm using a combination of offline and real world tests. The results indicate that the accuracy of our method is comparable to state-of-the-art methods, while at the same time having significantly smaller storage requirements.
Keywords: GSM, energy efficiency, fingerprinting, mobile computing, particle filtering, positioning
Vehicular speed estimation using received signal strength from mobile phones BIBAKFull-Text 237-240
  Gayathri Chandrasekaran; Tam Vu; Alexander Varshavsky; Marco Gruteser; Richard P. Martin; Jie Yang; Yingying Chen
This paper introduces an algorithm that estimates the speed of a mobile phone by matching time-series signal strength data to a known signal strength trace from the same road. Knowing a mobile phone's speed is useful, for example, to estimate traffic congestion or other transportation performance metrics. The proposed algorithm can be implemented in the carrier's infrastructure with Network Measurement Reports obtained by a base station or on a mobile phone with signal strength readings obtained by the handset and depending on implementation choices, promises lower energy consumption than Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers. We evaluate the effectiveness of our algorithm on highway and arterial roads using GSM signal strength traces obtained from several phones over a one month period. The results show that the Correlation algorithm is significantly more accurate than existing techniques based on handoffs or phone localization.
Keywords: correlation, received signal strength (rss)

Technologies to influence one's health and behaviours

Let's play!: mobile health games for adults BIBAKFull-Text 241-250
  Andrea Grimes; Vasudhara Kantroo; Rebecca E. Grinter
Researchers have designed a variety of systems that promote wellness. However, little work has been done to examine how casual mobile games can help adults learn how to live healthfully. To explore this design space, we created OrderUP!, a game in which players learn how to make healthier meal choices. Through our field study, we found that playing OrderUP! helped participants engage in four processes of change identified by a well-established health behavior theory, the Transtheoretical Model: they improved their understanding of how to eat healthfully and engaged in nutrition-related analytical thinking, reevaluated the healthiness of their real life habits, formed helping relationships by discussing nutrition with others and started replacing unhealthy meals with more nutritious foods. Our research shows the promise of using casual mobile games to encourage adults to live healthier lifestyles.
Keywords: behavior change, casual games, food, health, mobile games, nutrition, transtheoretical model
MoviPill: improving medication compliance for elders using a mobile persuasive social game BIBAKFull-Text 251-260
  Rodrigo de Oliveira; Mauro Cherubini; Nuria Oliver
Medication compliance is a critical component in the success of any medical treatment. However, only 50% of patients correctly adhere to their prescription regimens. Mobile and ubiquitous technologies have been proposed to tackle this challenge, mainly in the form of memory aid solutions that remind patients to take their pills. However, most of these methods do not engage patients in shifting their behavior towards better compliance. In this paper, we propose and evaluate a mobile phone-based game called MoviPill that persuades patients to be more adherent to their medication prescription by means of social competition. In a 6-week user study conducted with 18 elders, the use of MoviPill improved both their compliance to take the daily medication and also the accuracy of the drug intake time according to the prescribed time. Moreover, the improvement in the latter increased from 43% to 56% when we considered only participants that had any interest in games, which reveals the importance of applying persuasive techniques in a personalized manner. We conclude with a set of implications for the design of persuasive mobile solutions in this domain.
Keywords: elderly, medication compliance, persuasive mobile interfaces, user study
Ambient influence: can twinkly lights lure and abstract representations trigger behavioral change? BIBAKFull-Text 261-270
  Yvonne Rogers; William R. Hazlewood; Paul Marshall; Nick Dalton; Susanna Hertrich
Can ubiquitous technologies be designed to nudge people to change their behavior? If so, how? We describe an ambient installation that was intended to help people decide -- and to encourage them to reflect -- when confronted with a choice. In this particular case, it was whether to take the stairs or the elevator in their place of work. The rationale was to push people towards a desired behavior at the point of decision-making and to reflect upon theirs and others' aggregate behavior. We describe the ambient displays that were developed and the prototyping studies in which they were evaluated. The findings from an in-the-wild study are then presented. They reveal that even though people said they were not aware of changing their behavior, logged data of their actual behavior showed a significant change. We discuss these mixed findings in relation to whether ambient displays can influence at an unconscious or conscious level.
Keywords: ambient displays, behavioral change, in-the-wild study, persuasive technology
Exploring inter-child behavioral relativity in a shared social environment: a field study in a kindergarten BIBAKFull-Text 271-280
  Inseok Hwang; Hyukjae Jang; Lama Nachman; Junehwa Song
A kindergarten is an interesting community of young children. The children continuously share their interactions and experiences, and grow along similar developmental stages. In this setting, studying relative differences among them can be an interesting approach to investigating how to help their individual and social development. In this study, we present our intuition on inter-child behavioral relativity and apply it to a real kindergarten environment. We conduct a close user study necessitating the monitoring of the children's behavior. Then, utilizing wearable sensor technologies, we perform a field study to explore various interesting aspects of behavioral relativity in an automatic and quantitative fashion. We consulted the kindergarten teachers with our results obtained from our field study in order to validate the practical benefits in the kindergarten environment. We further discuss the potential, limitations, and opportunities of our approach.
Keywords: behavior, children, kindergarten, relativity, sensors, wearable computing

Psycho-physiological sensing

EmotionSense: a mobile phones based adaptive platform for experimental social psychology research BIBAKFull-Text 281-290
  Kiran K. Rachuri; Mirco Musolesi; Cecilia Mascolo; Peter J. Rentfrow; Chris Longworth; Andrius Aucinas
Today's mobile phones represent a rich and powerful computing platform, given their sensing, processing and communication capabilities. Phones are also part of the everyday life of billions of people, and therefore represent an exceptionally suitable tool for conducting social and psychological experiments in an unobtrusive way.
   de the ability of sensing individual emotions as well as activities, verbal and proximity interactions among members of social groups. Moreover, the system is programmable by means of a declarative language that can be used to express adaptive rules to improve power saving. We evaluate a system prototype on Nokia Symbian phones by means of several small-scale experiments aimed at testing performance in terms of accuracy and power consumption. Finally, we present the results of real deployment where we study participants emotions and interactions. We cross-validate our measurements with the results obtained through questionnaires filled by the users, and the results presented in social psychological studies using traditional methods. In particular, we show how speakers and participants' emotions can be automatically detected by means of classifiers running locally on off-the-shelf mobile phones, and how speaking and interactions can be correlated with activity and location measures.
Keywords: emotion recognition, energy efficiency, mobile phones, social psychology, speaker recognition
Social sensing for epidemiological behavior change BIBAKFull-Text 291-300
  Anmol Madan; Manuel Cebrian; David Lazer; Alex Pentland
An important question in behavioral epidemiology and public health is to understand how individual behavior is affected by illness and stress. Although changes in individual behavior are intertwined with contagion, epidemiologists today do not have sensing or modeling tools to quantitatively measure its effects in real-world conditions. In this paper, we propose a novel application of ubiquitous computing. We use mobile phone based co-location and communication sensing to measure characteristic behavior changes in symptomatic individuals, reflected in their total communication, interactions with respect to time of day (e.g., late night, early morning), diversity and entropy of face-to-face interactions and movement. Using these extracted mobile features, it is possible to predict the health status of an individual, without having actual health measurements from the subject. Finally, we estimate the temporal information flux and implied causality between physical symptoms, behavior and mental health.
Keywords: mobile sensing, social computing, spatial epidemiology
Psycho-physiological measures for assessing cognitive load BIBAKFull-Text 301-310
  Eija Haapalainen; SeungJun Kim; Jodi F. Forlizzi; Anind K. Dey
With a focus on presenting information at the right time, the ubicomp community can benefit greatly from learning the most salient human measures of cognitive load. Cognitive load can be used as a metric to determine when or whether to interrupt a user. In this paper, we collected data from multiple sensors and compared their ability to assess cognitive load. Our focus is on visual perception and cognitive speed-focused tasks that leverage cognitive abilities common in ubicomp applications. We found that across all participants, the electrocardiogram median absolute deviation and median heat flux measurements were the most accurate at distinguishing between low and high levels of cognitive load, providing a classification accuracy of over 80% when used together. Our contribution is a real-time, objective, and generalizable method for assessing cognitive load in cognitive tasks commonly found in ubicomp systems and situations of divided attention.
Keywords: cognitive load, divided attention, elementary cognitive task, interruption, psycho-physiological measurement
Using wearable activity type detection to improve physical activity energy expenditure estimation BIBAKFull-Text 311-320
  Fahd Albinali; Stephen Intille; William Haskell; Mary Rosenberger
Accurate, real-time measurement of energy expended during everyday activities would enable development of novel health monitoring and wellness technologies. A technique using three miniature wearable accelerometers is presented that improves upon state-of-the-art energy expenditure (EE) estimation. On a dataset acquired from 24 subjects performing gym and household activities, we demonstrate how knowledge of activity type, which can be automatically inferred from the accelerometer data, can improve EE estimates by more than 15% when compared to the best estimates from other methods.
Keywords: accelerometer, activity recognition, energy expenditure, health, physical activity, wearable, wireless

Enhancing the mobile experience

The Wi-Fi privacy ticker: improving awareness & control of personal information exposure on Wi-Fi BIBAKFull-Text 321-330
  Sunny Consolvo; Jaeyeon Jung; Ben Greenstein; Pauline Powledge; Gabriel Maganis; Daniel Avrahami
Anyone within range of an 802.11 wireless network ("Wi-Fi") can use free software to collect the unencrypted web traffic of others on the network. However, many Wi-Fi users are completely unaware of the risk that this creates. This work aims to improve users' awareness about what they expose to others on Wi-Fi networks and provide them with some control. Our system, the Wi-Fi Privacy Ticker, displays information about the exposure of sensitive terms that are sent to and from a user's computer and prevents the unencrypted transmission of terms from the user's computer that she has identified as highly sensitive. In a three-week field study with 17 participants, we found that the Wi-Fi Privacy Ticker improved participants' awareness of the circumstances in which their personal information is transmitted. We show that this heightened awareness contributed to changes in their behavior while on Wi-Fi.
Keywords: awareness, control, data exposure, data leaks, peripheral displays, privacy, ticker, wi-fi, wireless network
Groupthink: usability of secure group association for wireless devices BIBAKFull-Text 331-340
  Rishab Nithyanand; Nitesh Saxena; Gene Tsudik; Ersin Uzun
A fairly common modern setting entails users, each in possession of a personal wireless device, wanting to communicate securely, via their devices. If these users (and their devices) have no prior association, a new security context must be established. In order to prevent potential attacks, the initial context (association) establishment process must involve only the intended devices and their users.
   A number of methods for initial secure association of two devices have been proposed; their usability factors have been explored and compared extensively. However, a more challenging problem of initial secure association of a group of devices (and users) has not received much attention. Although a few secure group association methods have been proposed, their usability aspects have not been studied, especially, in a comparative manner. This paper discusses desirable features and evaluation criteria for secure group association, identifies suitable methods and presents a comparative usability study. Results show that some simple methods (e.g., peer- or leader-based number comparisons) are quite attractive for small groups, being fast, reasonably secure and well-received by users.
Keywords: device pairing, group association, usability
The design and evaluation of a task-centered battery interface BIBAKFull-Text 341-350
  Khai N. Truong; Julie A. Kientz; Timothy Sohn; Alyssa Rosenzweig; Amanda Fonville; Tim Smith
Battery interfaces provide important feedback about how much time users can continue using their mobile devices. Based on this information, they may develop mental models of the types of activities, tasks, and applications they can use before needing to recharge. Many of today's battery interfaces tend to report energy in coarse granularities or are highly inaccurate. As a result, users may find it difficult to depend on the estimates given. We conducted a survey with 104 participants to understand how users interact with various mobile battery interfaces. Based on the survey results, we designed and prototyped a task-centered battery interface on a mobile device that shows more accurate information about how long individual and combinations of tasks with several applications can be performed. Our pilot study of eight users demonstrated that fine-grained information separated by tasks can help users be more effective with and increase their understanding of their device's battery usage.
Keywords: battery interface, mobile computing, ubiquitous computing

Demo presentations

A middleware for rapid prototyping smart environments: experiences in research and teaching BIBAKFull-Text 355-356
  Sebastian Bader; Gernot Ruscher; Thomas Kirste
While developing distributed systems, like for example a smart environment, a powerful middleware is required -- not only for the communication between different devices, but also to support the developers. In this paper, we discuss our system, which has been developed with a special focus on the needs in research and teaching in ubiquitous computing. It is based on a tuple space as underlying storage and a simple network protocol. The system turns out to be very well suited for both application areas.
Keywords: distributed system, middleware, smart environment, tuple-space
Integrated tool chain for recording and handling large, multimodal context recognition data sets BIBAKFull-Text 357-358
  David Bannach; Kai Kunze; Jens Weppner; Paul Lukowicz
The demo will present a tool chain for recording, monitoring, labeling, and manipulation of complex multimodal data sets for activity recognition. The tool chain is comprehensive (going from logging, through labeling, monitoring to post processing and managing the data), integrated (with all tools being able to cooperate on joint data sets), and build around comfortable graphical user interfaces.
Keywords: activity recognition, context, sensing, toolsets
Serendipitous family stories: using findings from a study on family communication to share family history BIBAKFull-Text 359-360
  Frank R. Bentley; Sujoy Kumar Chowduhry
Storytelling and sharing family histories are important parts of what it means to "be" a family. Based on results from a study on intergenerational communication over a distance, we created the Serendipitous Family Stories system. The service allows family members to create visual and audio stories about places of importance in their lives and for their relatives to discover them serendipitously as they go about their lives. We will describe the motivation for the application and explain its functionality. Results from a field study are forthcoming.
Keywords: communication, family, mobile video, serendipity, storytelling
EnergyLife: pervasive energy awareness for households BIBAKFull-Text 361-362
  Christoffer A. Björkskog; Giulio Jacucci; Luciano Gamberini; Tatu Nieminen; Topi Mikkola; Carin Torstensson; Massimo Bertoncini
We present Energy Life a system utilizing wireless sensors, mobile and ambient interfaces that turn energy consumers into active players. Energy Life participants play through different levels collecting scores in savings and through advice tip reading and quizzes. We describe principles, logic of the game, implementation and user interfaces providing rationale for design choices. Key principles embodied in Energy Life are: situated and combined feedback including knowledge and consumption information, intuitiveness and non-intrusiveness by utilizing an always at hand solution on a touch enabled smart phone and lighting as an ambient interface, sustained interaction and engagement by using a applied game that connects players within and between households.
Keywords: domestic systems, energy awareness, interaction design, mobile interaction, serious games
Open-M3: smart space with COTS devices BIBAKFull-Text 363-364
  Matti Eteläperä; Kari Keinänen; Jussi Kiljander; Pasi Hyttinen; Vesa Pehkonen; Janne Väre; Juha-Pekka Soininen
Support of legacy devices and services is crucial for the adoption of new smart space technologies. We present two technologies which enable the formation of local ad-hoc smart spaces with commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) devices. First of these technologies is NoTA, which is a service oriented architecture enabling networks of devices with different physical transports. Second one is Smart-M3, which is a semantic information sharing architecture for smart spaces. It aims at opening physical world information for the use of services and applications in the information world, thus enabling new types of mash-up applications. In our demonstration -- Open-M3 -- we show how these technologies are used to build a small, yet extendable smart space for sensor monitoring using COTS devices.
Keywords: cots, middleware, smart spaces
Remote virtual devices: middleware for dynamic device composition BIBAKFull-Text 365-366
  Felipe Gil-Castiñeira; Raja Bose
New mobile devices are equipped with a plethora of sensors and peripheral devices such as accelerometers and gyroscopes, which are not available as input mechanisms in traditional desktop and tabletop computing environments. However, the utilization of these novel input devices would provide opportunities for new and more natural user experiences beyond the traditional keyboard-mouse-touch paradigm. For example, it should be possible to use the accelerometer in a mobile phone as the input device for a game running on a PC. In this demonstration, we showcase a virtual device framework which enables the sharing of embedded peripherals between heterogeneous computing devices over any IP-based network in an application agnostic manner. We further show examples of use cases which utilize this framework to provide a richer and more natural user experience for existing desktop applications.
Keywords: device composition, distributed devices, input devices, middleware, output devices, sensors
Demonstrating EnTracked a system for energy-efficient position tracking for mobile devices BIBAKFull-Text 367-368
  Mikkel Baun Kjærgaard; Jakob Langdal; Torben Godsk; Thomas Toftkjær
An important feature of a modern mobile device is that it can position itself. Not only for use on the device but also for remote applications that require tracking of the device. To be useful, such position tracking has to be energy-efficient to avoid having a major impact on the battery life of the mobile device. To address this challenge we have build a system named EnTracked that, based on the estimation and prediction of system conditions and mobility, schedules position updates to both minimize energy consumption and optimize robustness. In this demonstration we would like to show how the system can lower the energy consumption and remain robust as pedestrians targets move around in the city center of Copenhagen.
Keywords: GPS, energy, mobile devices
Deployment planning tool for indoor 3D-WSNs BIBAKFull-Text 369-370
  Marc T. Kouakou; Shinya Yamamoto; Keiichi Yasumoto; Minoru Ito
When deploying an indoor 3D WSN, it is important to be able to determine positions of the sensor nodes that achieve the full-coverage of the target space and the connectivity between the sensor nodes with the minimum deployment cost. The sensor node deployment problem for 3D coverage and connectivity is NP-hard even without obstacles in the target field. Furthermore, no study has systematically examined the optimal 3D WSN deployment considering both obstacles and deployment cost. We have developed a heuristic algorithm for computing a near optimal solution that minimizes the cost for achieving the full coverage and node connectivity in a 3D target space with obstacles. We have implemented the algorithm in the smartspace simulator UbiREAL so that the designers can interactively determine the near-optimal sensor node positions thorough visualization of the achievable coverage and the sensor positions on a 3D virtual space. In this demonstration, we show, for different configurations of the target space and WSN parameters, how the tool computes the sensor positions and visualizes the results such as achievable covered area, sensor positions, and the total cost.
Keywords: 3D wireless sensor network, connectivity, coverage, sensor deployment planning tool
A demonstration of position and orientation sensor for two-dimensional communication networks BIBAKFull-Text 371-372
  Kei Nakatsuma; Yuichi Tanno; Hiroyuki Shinoda
This demonstration presents a networking infrastructure for a wireless, battery-less, and location-aware ubiquitous environment. Our group has developed "Two-Dimensional Communication (2DC)" technology, which enables network nodes placed on a thin sheet to communicate with one another and to receive electricity wirelessly. We have also developed a function for positions and orientation detection of devices placed on the sheet as well as the data and power transmission.
Keywords: device localization, surface networking, two-dimensional communication (2DC)
Prototype implementation of wireless sensor network using TV broadcast RF energy harvesting BIBAKFull-Text 373-374
  Hiroshi Nishimoto; Yoshihiro Kawahara; Tohru Asami
Energy harvesting is a key technique that can be used to overcome the barriers that prevent the real world deployment of wireless sensor networks. We explored the use of airwaves of TV broadcasts as energy sources to power wireless sensor nodes. We measured the output of a rectenna continuously for 7 days. The experimental results showed that the daily and weekly cycles of TV broadcasts affected the harvested energy output. We developed a Radio Frequency (RF) energy harvesting wireless sensor network prototype to show the effectiveness of RF energy harvesting for the usage of a wireless sensor network. We also proposed a duty cycle determination method for our system, and verified this by implementation.
Keywords: RF energy harvesting, rectenna, scheduling, wireless sensor networks
Leveraging the web of things for rapid prototyping of UbiComp applications BIBAKFull-Text 375-376
  Benedikt Ostermaier; Fabian Schlup; Matthias Kovatsch
An increasing number of real-world entities is currently being connected to the Internet and the World Wide Web. We argue that this development is the precursor of a Web of Things (WoT), which in turn provides a promising way to prototype UbiComp applications, by significantly lowering the technical barriers for making things "smart". In this paper, we outline how sensors, actuators and Web services can easily be combined in the WoT in order to enable rapid prototyping of UbiComp applications.
Keywords: physical mash-ups, rapid prototyping, web of things
Gaze-based interaction with public displays using off-the-shelf components BIBAKFull-Text 377-378
  Javier San Agustin; John Paulin Hansen; Martin Tall
Eye gaze can be used to interact with high-density information presented on large displays. We have built a system employing off-the-shelf hardware components and open-source gaze tracking software that enables users to interact with an interface displayed on a 55" screen using their eye movements. The system works at a viewing distance of 1 to 1.5 meters and requires a 30 second calibration procedure for every user. We demonstrate how it can be used to navigate a digital bulletin board display with several notes on top of each other. There are some technical challenges detecting the eyes when people are wearing glasses and when external light sources are present.
Keywords: gaze interaction, low-cost eye tracking, off-the-shelf components, public displays
Grouper: a proof-of-concept wearable wireless group coordinator BIBAKFull-Text 379-380
  Fayette W. Shaw; Eric Klavins
We introduce Grouper, a proof-of-concept wearable wireless group coordinator. Users wear modules each consisting of a microprocessor, a wireless radio, and various electronics to provide sensory cues to users. These sensory cues alert the users to pay attention to the leader of the group, thus augmenting a leader's ability to direct a group. Wearable devices have been used to observe social interactions but few have been used to coordinate a group of users.
Keywords: computational textiles, multi-agent systems, wearable computing
Locaccino: a privacy-centric location sharing application BIBAKFull-Text 381-382
  Eran Toch; Justin Cranshaw; Paul Hankes-Drielsma; Jay Springfield; Patrick Gage Kelley; Lorrie Cranor; Jason Hong; Norman Sadeh
Locaccino is a location sharing application designed to empower users to effectively control their privacy. It has been piloted by close to 2000 users and has been used by researchers as an experimental platform for conducting research on location-based social networks. Featured technologies include expressive privacy rule creation, detailed feedback mechanisms that help users understand their privacy, algorithms for analyzing privacy preferences, and clients for mobile computers and smartphone devices. In addition, variations of Locaccino are also being piloted as part of research on user-controllable policy learning, learning usable privacy personas and reconciling expressiveness and user burden. The purpose of this demo is to introduce participants to the features of Locaccino, so that they can try out the Locaccino smartphone and laptop applications on their own devices, locate their friends and colleagues, and set rich privacy policies for sharing their location.
Keywords: location sharing technology, mobile social technology, privacy
Material computing: computing materials BIBAKFull-Text 383-384
  Anna Vallgårda; Tomas Sokolar
Embedding computers into our environment is perhaps not only a job for computer scientist and engineers. We propose to understand the computer as a material for design as means to invite artists, architect, and designers to participate in envisioning how and where the computational power can be used. We will invite the conference attendees to (once again) think about how to bridge the so-called gap between computational and material properties but this time using a material rather than the traditional information centric perspective. The invitation is extended through hands-on experiences with our two samples of computational composites.
Keywords: computational composites, design, form-giving, materials, ubiquitous computing
CastOven: a microwave oven with just-in-time video clips BIBAKFull-Text 385-386
  Keita Watanabe; Shota Matsuda; Michiaki Yasumura; Masahiko Inami; Takeo Igarashi
In this paper, we propose a novel microwave oven called CastOven. CastOven is a microwave oven with a LCD display that enables people to enjoy videos while they are waiting for the completion of cooking. Current media contents force us to adjust our schedules to enjoy them. Media contents, especially movies, take specific time durations to watch them, but it is not easy to squeeze in time to do so in daily life. The system identifies the idle time in daily life and delivers an appropriate amount of media content to the user to enjoy during their idle time.
Keywords: context-aware, everyday computing, home appliance, interaction design, mash-up, ubiquitous computing
Propinquity: exploring embodied gameplay BIBAKFull-Text 387-388
  Amanda Williams; Lynn Hughes; Bart Simon
Consumer game platforms are realizing Ubicomp's vision of seamless, sensor-based, embodied interaction with computation. Here we present Propinquity, a full-body dancing/fighting game using proximity and touch sensing. Relying primarily on auditory feedback, Propinquity attempts to reconfigure sensor-based gameplay as an activity where players orient towards one another rather than a central screen. By presenting this particular demo, we hope to stimulate discussion of embodiment, expressiveness, play, performance, and social production in both ubicomp interaction and game design.
Keywords: embodied interaction, gaming, play, proximity sensing, wearable
NeuroWander: a BCI game in the form of interactive fairy tale BIBAKFull-Text 389-390
  Myeung-Sook Yoh; Joonho Kwon; Sunghoon Kim
In this paper, we describe the design and implementation of a Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) game, called "Neuro Wander", which is based on the German fairy tale Hansel and Gretel. NeuroWander can not only process the inputs from a keyboard or a mouse, but also transfer the gamers' brainwaves through a certain BCI device such as NeuroSky Mindset. The objective of NeuroWander is to provide a simple example for how to realize the principle desire of gamers in fantasy world: "think and make it happen without any physical touch". It is concluded that neuroadaptive interfaces need to be well combined with proper form of entertainment contents to satisfy the sophisticated taste of game users at the age of "digital fun playing in anytime and at anyplace".
Keywords: brain-computer interface (BCI), brainwaves, concentration power, serious game, ubiquitous games

Posters

User activity understanding from mobile phone sensors BIBAKFull-Text 391-392
  Yuki Arase; Fei Ren; Xing Xie
Context acquisition is an important technology for ubiquitous computing. An ideal approach would be easy to deploy and non-intrusive to people's life. Mobile phones equipped with advanced sensors are preferable platform owing to their user-friendliness and freedom from extra costs to deploy. In this study, we propose to use a mobile phone to detect user contexts. We formally define the concept of context and then describe applications that leverage people's long-term activity, which can be inferred from their contexts.
Keywords: activity understanding, context acquisition, context-awareness, mobile phone, sensor
FOAF: improving detected social network accuracy BIBAKFull-Text 393-394
  Jamie Banford; Alisdair McDiarmid; James Irvine
This paper presents a Bluetooth-triggered friend-of-a-friend (FOAF) presence notification application as a means to improve the accuracy of social graphs detected via mobile networks. By checking for common contacts between co-present users, it both introduces users who are not already acquainted, and improves the accuracy of the detected social graph.
Keywords: bluetooth, mobile social networking, social graph, socially aware applications, user proximity
φ2: exploring physical check-ins for location-based services BIBAKFull-Text 395-396
  Sebastian Büttner; Henriette Cramer; Mattias Rost; Nicolas Belloni; Lars Erik Erik Holmquist
This paper presents the φ2 ('Phi-square') Scanner and φ2 Barcode Generator -- an exploration of physical check-ins for location-based services. The system uses 2D barcodes to retrieve and share semantic location information. Users can scan barcodes at venues that activate a location-based application with the corresponding venue page. This system overcomes problems arising when users have to select their location manually. We expect an enhanced user experience using physical artefacts in location-based services.
Keywords: 2D barcodes, QR-codes, location-based services, mobile, physical check-in
RFID localization for tangible and embodied multi-user interaction with museum exhibits BIBAKFull-Text 397-398
  Francesco Cafaro; Leilah Lyons; Joshua Radinsky; Jessica Roberts
RFID is usually used for identification but with some post-processing it can also be used for localization. These properties expand the typical range of possible interactions with digital displays in museums. Our goal is to encourage the collaborative investigation of a rich information space presented on an Ambient Display in a museum exhibit. We consider two different models of interacting with an exhibit: Tangible Control, wherein passive RFID tags are embedded in some artifacts and multiple users can control the information on the screen by moving those artifacts, and Embodied Control, wherein people directly carry an RFID tag and interact with the information by walking within the simulation space. Each model has different implications for how the visitors might relate (a) to the information being displayed, and (b) to one another. Here we present preliminary results on the suitability of a single-reader and passive tag setup for providing localization input.
Keywords: ambient display, embodied user interface, human-data interaction, informal learning environments, tangible user interface
Ubiquitous geo-referenced social skills therapy BIBAKFull-Text 399-400
  Marco de Sá; Luís Carriço; Joana Neca; Nádia Fernandes; Pedro Feiteira; Ricardo Pereira; Pedro Bernardo; João Faria; Isabel
Outdoor activities are a major component of Social Competency Training, as part of psychotherapy, for children and teenagers. Goals such as talking to someone or visiting a specific place are set by a therapist and patients are required to complete them usually following a certain sequence. Currently, therapists are unable to control this process as the procedures are usually supported by paper artifacts and, most of the times, take place outside the office. This leads to the therapist's inability to promote collaborative efforts and to reinforce positive attitudes, affecting both the therapy process and its results.
   In this paper we present a software system that relies on mobile devices to support geo-referenced collaborative in-situ group therapy. We describe the concept, the system and its features and discuss future work directions.
Keywords: geo-referenced psychotherapy, mobile devices
Beyond context-awareness: context prediction in an industrial application BIBAKFull-Text 401-402
  Yong Ding; Hedda R. Schmidtke; Michael Beigl
In this paper, we discuss the benefits of context prediction for an industrial application in open cast mining. The goal of context prediction is not only to recognize the current context, but also to predict the future context. Context prediction enables a system to become truly proactive. For industrial applications, this can entail concrete monetary value. The paper describes the general concept and how it can be applied in production of raw materials, based on currently used technology.
Keywords: context awareness, context prediction, industrial applications
Social contraptions and embodied interaction BIBAKFull-Text 403-404
  Jared Donovan; Robb Mitchell
In this paper we introduce the idea of "social contraptions", which are interactive physical devices employed as designerly explorations of social relations as mediated by physical space and artefacts. We present two independent but related design explorations that were situated in fine art and industrial research contexts. We argue that these contraptions open up for exploration some interaction issues related to the theme of 'Embodied Facilitation'. This is particularly in relation to awareness and coordination between interactants as mediated by the spatial and material configuration of the contraptions. These methods, as well as the insights gained from them can contribute to the development of the emerging field of embodied interaction.
Keywords: embodied interaction, exploratory design methods, social contraptions
Physiological data gathering in mobile environments BIBAKFull-Text 405-406
  Luís Duarte; Marco de Sá; Luís Carriço
Mobile environments and applications have been the target of extensive research with a focus on usability assessment methods and combating user experience issues. These methods rely mostly on observable data, discarding a significant amount of data which can be captured from the users. Physiological measures capture is a growing research theme in which biological signals are used as means to interact with an application. This type of interaction allows researchers to access data which would otherwise be concealed using traditional assessment techniques. This paper describes the use of such interaction techniques in mobile environments through the use of a comprehensive platform which integrates means to assess users' heartbeat rate.
Keywords: mobile environments, physiological interaction
A novel similarity measure for time series data with applications to gait and activity recognition BIBAKFull-Text 407-408
  Jordan Frank; Shie Mannor; Doina Precup
In this abstract, we propose a novel approach to modeling time-series for the purpose of comparing segments of data in order to classify activities based on accelerometer sensor data. Our approach consists of producing an ensemble of simple classifiers that can be built and can classify new data efficiently. We present empirical results from an implementation of our algorithm running on a mobile phone, demonstrating the efficiency and performance of our technique on real-world data. Our algorithm is able to identify individuals based on their gait, and can be used in a semi-supervised setting to label large data sets using a small number of labeled examples. Our method can also be used in an unsupervised setting to visualize time-series data, for example, to identify the number of different activities that occur in an unlabeled data set.
Keywords: activity recognition, clustering time series, gait recognition, supervised learning, time-delay embedding models, unsupervised learning
EVIDANCE: a mobile application for orchestrating multiple services ecologies BIBAKFull-Text 409-410
  Leonardo Giusti; Massimo Zancanaro
In this paper, we introduce some preliminary considerations on the design of interactive system in a service based-economy. The discussion is supported by an early design exploration of a mobile application aimed to support people in orchestrating multiple services ecologies in their everyday life.
Keywords: mobile, services, user experience
Acoustic source localization of everyday sounds using wireless sensor networks BIBAKFull-Text 411-412
  Yukang Guo; Mike Hazas
Acoustic events are a rich source of information for context-awareness and support various application areas, such as audio surveillance [1], sound sensing [2], intelligent auditory interfaces [3] and speech localization [4]. Acoustic localization solutions are also increasingly becoming important and feasible due to recent advances in personal portable computing devices (e.g. smart phones, PDAs and laptops), where rapidly deployable distributed fine-grain acoustic localization systems can help to locate mobile users and devices for using in location-aware interfaces and applications. However, while a number of acoustic localization systems have been proposed over the last few decades, these generally require the use of expensive dedicated microphone arrays and have been developed only for a single or limited number of acoustic events, tailored to specific scenarios. Many different types of acoustic events exist in our everyday environments, hence, in this work we address the general problem of how to localize multiple classes of acoustic events in a distributed sensor environment. We propose a framework for detecting and locating events (e.g., speech, clicks, footsteps, or the sound of an object put down on a table) according to generic acoustic characteristics and present a preliminary evaluation.
Keywords: acoustic source localization, audio classification
Surprise trips: a system to augment the natural experience of exploration BIBAKFull-Text 413-414
  Matthias Korn; Raghid Kawash; Lisbet Andersen
Little treasures in nature often go unnoticed by visitors when roaming about in a national park. Ubiquitous technology with its less intrusive character may be apt to enhance this natural experience of exploration. In this paper, we report on a system that augments this experience. It builds on the theme of surprises as well as utilizing physical icons both as representation of users' interests and as notification tokens to alert users when they are within proximity of a surprise. We developed mock-up prototypes and a video prototype to do brief evaluations with target users. The evaluation shows that the concept is viable and deserves further development. Additionally, our focus on the users' interests and what they may consider to be of value to them is noteworthy and deserves further attention when designing ubiquitous technology for outdoor experiences.
Keywords: human values, natural exploration, outdoor experience, physical icons, ubiquitous computing
Gathering requirements for a personal health management system BIBAKFull-Text 415-416
  Jim Milewski; Hector Parra
To design an application that supports an individual's self-care activities, we must understand how they are currently using health information. However, little is known about the support people need for using health information. In this work, we conducted semi-structured interviews to find out how people use health information. We found that people use health information to understand their disease, to establish their role in managing the disease, and to achieve their actual management goals. From the results, we extracted a set of functional requirements for a personal health management system. Our system is unique because it provides personalized information, utilizes visualizations to display the effects of uncontrolled diabetes, and engages the patient's social network.
Keywords: diabetes, personal health management
Understanding Hatsukaichi-Shuku post town in the Edo period using old drawing map stored in GPS&PDA BIBAKFull-Text 417-418
  Takaharu Miyoshi; Hideki Ueshima; Hiroshi Moriyasu; Yoshitaka Aoyama
We developed the software for PDA (Personal Digital Assistant) equipped with GPS (Global Positioning System) to understand Haruskaichi-Shuku post town which prospered during the Edo period (1603~1867). There are very few old, traditional houses remaining in the region, so the town at that time could be experienced by walking through using the corrected old drawing map stored in PDA. People interested in the history and culture of the region have found the technique to be very useful.
Keywords: GPS supporting tool, development of pda software, region's history and culture, understanding the old post town
Eyes, grip and gesture as objective indicators of intentions and attention BIBAKFull-Text 419-420
  Ditte Hvas Mortensen
This poster abstract presents the first part of a study concerning the use of information about gaze, grip and gesture to create non-command interaction. The experiment reported here seeks to establish the occurrence of patterns in nonverbal communication, which may be used in an activity aware setup that seeks to adjust to the individual's intentions and attention. Results indicate that basic patterns of facial direction and grip are correlated with intention and/or attention, and an analysis of gesture patterns is currently being performed.
Keywords: activity-aware technology, human-technology interaction, multimodal interaction, ubiquitous computing
ALIS: an interactive ecosystem for sustainable living BIBAKFull-Text 421-422
  Johnny Rodgers; Lyn Bartram
Engaging occupants in conservation efforts is a key part of reducing our ecological footprint. To this end, we have developed the Aware Living Interface System (ALIS), an integrated in-home system that supports residents in awareness of resource use, facilitates efficient control of house systems, and encourages conservation in daily activities. Initial responses from deployments in two high-profile sustainable homes indicate the potential and challenges involved in supporting sustainable living.
Keywords: interactive ecosystem, occupant engagement, resource conservation, sustainability
Geolocation in the mobile web browser BIBAKFull-Text 423-424
  Mattias Rost; Henriette Cramer; Nicolas Belloni; Lars Erik Holmquist
Current mobile browser capabilities make it possible to quickly develop advanced mobile location based services without having to write device specific software, or build custom hardware. We here describe three web applications exploring using location within mobile browsers (TågAlong, NearMe and LocalURL). These explorations show clear potential for using geolocation in the web browser in order to reach a larger user base, with a greater variety of devices, thus allowing for UbiComp researchers to explore the effects of specific services and applications on a larger scale. We discuss the services, as well as the potential and challenges with using the user's location directly in the browser.
Keywords: geolocation, location-based services, mobile services
WEtransport: a context-based ride sharing platform BIBAKFull-Text 425-426
  Alireza Sahami Shirazi; Thomas Kubitza; Florian Alt; Bastian Pfleging; Albrecht Schmidt
In densely populated urban areas high amounts of traffic pose a major problem, which affects the environment, economy, and our lives. From a user's perspective, the main issues include delays due to traffic jams, lack of parking space and high costs due to increasing fuel prices (e.g., if commuting long distances). Collective transportation (CT), e.g., public transport systems, provides a partly solution to these issues. Yet, CT does not support door-to-door transportation hence reducing convenience; it might be limited in off-peak hours, and it is still a cost factor when traveling long distances. A solution to these issues is ride sharing, an evolving form of CT making alternative transportation more affordable. In this paper we present a modular, context-aware ride sharing platform. We aim at enhancing convenience, reliability, and affordability of different forms of ride sharing by means of context data. Addition-ally our approach supports an easy server- and client-side expansion due to the modular platform structure.
Keywords: car pooling, collective transportation, mobile phone, ride sharing, ticket sharing
Highly integratable large-scale displays for public spaces BIBAKFull-Text 427-428
  Munehiko Sato; Yasuhiro Suzuki; Shinya Nishizaka; Yusuke Torigoe; Atsushi Izumihara; Atsushi Hiyama; Kunihiro Nishimura; Tomohiro Tanikawa; Michitaka Hirose
The use of large visual displays in public space has become increasingly popular. However, it is still difficult to install new displays in already existing buildings because of the large and rigid hardware associated with such displays. In this paper, we describe a highly integratable, easily and quickly installable, and lightweight display system for use in existing public buildings. We describe the technical design and implementation of the display system and describe an application of the display for public audiences.
Keywords: digital public art, information visualization, public display, urban display
Behavior-based stigmergic navigation BIBAKFull-Text 429-430
  Shin-ya Sato; Tetsuya Nakamura; Yoshiaki Sato
We propose a new approach for navigating people in a ubiquitous computing environment by using digital pheromone trails, similar to ants being led by pheromones to a food source. Unlike ants, humans can use their intelligence in selecting routes. Our idea is to compile such intelligence by accumulating the history of people's rational behaviors and leaving this history as digital pheromones in the environment for later use. In simulations of navigation services, we found that the original ant colony optimization (ACO), which is a metaheuristic based on the foraging activity of ants, does not completely fit our purpose. Therefore, two modifications were made to the original ACO. Our simulation results show that people can be successfully navigated by simulated services implemented using these modified ACOs.
Keywords: ant colony optimization, destination advertisement, directional pheromone
Paper to parameters: designing tangible simulation input BIBAKFull-Text 431-432
  Tia Shelley; Leilah Lyons; Jingmin Shi; Emily Minor; Moira Zellner
We present a new low-cost paper-based user interface strategy (Paper-to-Parameters) for making interaction with simulations of complex systems pragmatic within an Environmental Science curriculum. Students specify initial simulation conditions by sticking pieces of paper to a wall, and can experiment with the simulation by repositioning the pieces of paper. Computer vision recognizes the paper-based symbols and converts them into parameters used by the simulation. This tangible input approach contrasts with current slider- and programming-based approaches for interacting with simulations. We hypothesize that the affordances of this interaction strategy better supports manipulations of spatial simulation parameters. We report here on the initial prototype of the system, and present plans for future work.
Keywords: K-12 education, agent-based models, complex systems, computer vision, tangible user interfaces
Running gestures: hands-free interaction during physical activity BIBAKFull-Text 433-434
  Boris Smus; Vassilis Kostakos
This paper presents Running Gestures, an interaction technique that relies on foot gestures while running. A prototype and evaluation of one of the proposed gestures, a mid-stride skip, is presented in detail. The developed prototype is used by runners to change the currently playing music track, and the evaluation compares users' performance in relation to other methods of changing tracks while running. The results show that Running Gestures is a highly effective way of interacting with a system when running.
Keywords: foot gestures, interaction technique, music player, running
CU-Later: a communication system considering time difference BIBAKFull-Text 435-436
  Hitomi Tsujita; Svetlana Yarosh; Gregory D. Abowd
Despite the widespread use of technology for social communication across distance, a number of barriers to such contact still exist. One such barrier is the problem of communicating with people in different time zones. To address this problem, we propose the CU-Later system which considers the time difference between two locations. CU-Later is a system which allows synchronizing activities across time zones by displaying recorded video of a remote activity after a time shift. As one example of its use, the system connects two remote dining tables and lets users see and hear each other having dinner despite actually having done so at different times. We discuss the design of this system and a preliminary field test of time-shifted video.
Keywords: home, remote communication awareness, time difference, video
SocialMedicineBox: a communication system for the elderly using medicine box BIBAKFull-Text 437-438
  Hitomi Tsujita; Gregory D. Abowd
With a growing aging population, it has become a very important issue to monitor elderly people who are increasingly living alone and away from their families. Many research projects have explored this issue. However, these are mainly focused on one-way communication. In this paper, we proposed a new communication system for the elderly using a medicine chest. The "Social Medicine Box" is a system which notifies the status of the elderly taking medicines as well as their feeling a picture sent automatically to their family. The elderly can also get feedback and communicate with their family as well as their social network (e.g. Twitter and Facebook). In addition, it allows family members living apart to seamlessly share the information without the annoyance of having to initiate conversation.
Keywords: communication, elderly, health, home, medicine, social network
LetterTwitter: smart mailbox for spam-filtered notification of received letters BIBAKFull-Text 439-440
  Koji Tsukada; Yuka Mizushima; Ai Ogata; Itiro Siio
We propose a smart mailbox called "LetterTwitter" that can automatically capture dropped snail mail (s-mail), classify pictures into several categories (e.g., letters or flyers), and upload categorized pictures to the Web. Users can easily get spam-filtered notification of received letters using PCs or cellular phones equipped with common web browsers.
Keywords: Twitter, mailbox, smart house, snail mail, ubiquitous computing
Convenience probe: a participatory sensing tool to collect large-scale consumer flow behaviors BIBAKFull-Text 441-442
  Chuang-Wen You; Chih-Chiang Wei; Yu-Han Chen; Jya-Cheng Hu; Wei-Fehng Wang; Hao-Hua Chu; Lien-Ti Bei; Ming-Syan Chen
This paper proposes Convenience Probe, a participatory sensing tool to collect large-scale consumer flow behaviors from everyday mobile phones. We hope to use Convenience Probe to collect real consumer flow data that will help convenience store chains in store location assessment.
Keywords: consumer behavior monitoring, consumer flow, participatory sensing

Video presentations

Throw your photos: an intuitive approach for sharing between mobile phones and interactive tables BIBAKFull-Text 443-444
  Fadi Chehimi; Enrico Rukzio
Many approaches have been proposed to connect mobile phones with interactive tables. Most rely on having the phone placed on table all times, which may hinder the overall user experience with applications on phones in general and with photo sharing ones in particular: privacy, intuitiveness of use, and technology limits are on stake. We introduce in this paper an approach which allows users to have the phone in hand when interacting with photo manipulation applications on tables, supported with natural gestures of throwing photos off the phone onto the table and dragging them into it to enhance the connected relationship between the two physical entities even when placed apart.
Keywords: gestures, interactive tables, mobile phones, sharing
Bayesian recognition of motion related activities with inertial sensors BIBAKFull-Text 445-446
  Korbinian Frank; Maria Josefa Vera Nadales; Patrick Robertson; Tom Pfeifer
This work presents the design and evaluation of an activity recognition system for seven important motion related activities. The only sensor used is an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) worn on the belt.
   For classification, we applied Bayesian techniques, based on relevant features of the IMU raw data which are calculated in real time. Based on a complete labelled data set, i.e. supervised by an observing human judge, a K2 learning algorithm by Cooper and Herskovits was used to construct the Bayesian Network (BN) of the features.
   Our comparison of dynamic and static inference algorithms, based on the evaluation of the labelled data sets recorded from 16 male and female subjects show that a Hidden Markov Model (HMM) based on a learnt BN provides the best results.
Keywords: activity recognition, Bayesian networks, context inference, inertial navigation
MyState: using NFC to share social and contextual information in a quick and personalized way BIBAKFull-Text 447-448
  Robert Hardy; Enrico Rukzio; Paul Holleis; Gregor Broll; Matthias Wagner
Sharing social or contextual information on a social networking site is typically a quick and easy process using a laptop or desktop. However, on many occasions, the need to share this information will occur away from a computer. As an alternative, a mobile phone could be used. However, inputting the information via the phone can be time-consuming and even intrude on the user's other tasks. This will increase the likelihood that the information is lost or retrospective. By tagging physical objects using Near-Field Communication (NFC) technology, MyState provides a way for users to make the environment (to which the information is associated) interactive. By simply touching these objects with their NFC phone, they can quickly and conveniently publish this information to the virtual world. A Facebook application was used to exemplify the concept and explore the different ways in which users personalize these tagged interfaces to address their own needs.
Keywords: NFC, context, social, touch
Peek-A-Boo: the design of a mobile family media space BIBAKFull-Text 449-450
  Carman Neustaedter; Tejinder K. Judge
Family members often want to share experiences and events in their lives even when they cannot be in the same location at the same time. In many cases, at least one family member is mobile. Video conferencing systems permit sharing experiences and everyday events; however, it is often not possible to use them while mobile. To explore this design space, we prototyped a mobile media space called Peek-A-Boo that provides two-way live video sharing between a mobile phone and a digital frame in the home. Family members can use the media space to gather availability awareness and also share episodes of everyday life by augmenting voice calls with shared video. These features can help family members feel more connected when separated by distance through sharing experiences in the moment.
Keywords: awareness, families, media spaces, mobile phones, video
MagicPhone: pointing & interacting BIBAKFull-Text 451-452
  Jiahui Wu; Gang Pan; Daqing Zhang; Shijian Li; Zhaohui Wu
Mobile phones are becoming a kind of must-have portable devices for people. This video demonstrates a mobile phone that can sense what you are pointing to and can act as a physical ubiquitous interaction device in real world, called MagicPhone. If you want to interact with an appliance around you, you just simply point the MagicPhone to it and then operate. The MagicPhone uses both the built-in accelerometer and magnetometer to sense the pointing orientation. Using MagicPhone, you only need to point to a device and sliding your finger, to show a picture on a display, to send a document to a laptop, to share slides on a projector, and to print a photo. In addition, MagicPhone can control a selected device with accelerometer-based gestures, e.g. changing TV channels. It also can serve as a mouse to draw a picture or play clicking games.
Keywords: gestural control, magnetometer, mobile phone, pointing interaction

Doctoral colloquium

Supporting self-expression for informal communication BIBAKFull-Text 453-456
  Lisa G. Cowan
Mobile phones are becoming the central tools for communicating and can help us keep in touch with friends and family on-the-go. However, they can also place high demands on attention and constrain interaction. My research concerns how to design communication mechanisms that mitigate these problems to support self-expression for informal communication on mobile phones. I will study how people communicate with camera-phone photos, paper-based sketches, and projected information and how this communication impacts social practices.
Keywords: communication, mobile, self-expression
Routine as resource for the design of learning systems BIBAKFull-Text 457-460
  Scott Davidoff
Even though the coordination of kids' activities is largely successful, the modern dual income family still regularly experiences breakdowns in their practices. Families often rely on routines to help them coordinate when plans prove less effective. Routines, however, are rarely documented, challenging to express in detail, and frequently evolving, making them cumbersome to manually describe and so largely unavailable to computational systems as input. This work proposes that this disconnect can be overcome, and argues that unsupervised models of family routine can be learned using a single, lightweight sensor. This way, the successful but tacit knowledge of the routine might be captured and exploited by learning systems, providing a new kind of information for families and computational systems alike. A method is proposed to develop a Bayesian Network to reason about the state of family coordination. This model relies on learned routines of pickup and drop-off at kids' activities.
Keywords: data mining, family coordination, machine learning, statistical modeling, unsupervised learning
Design dimensions of ambient information systems to assist elderly with their activities of daily living BIBAKFull-Text 461-464
  Juan Pablo Garcia Vazquez; Marcela D. Rodriguez; Angel G. Andrade
To identify the design issues that should be addressed for developing Ambient Information Systems (AIS) that effectively assist elderly with their ADLs (i.e. medicating), a case study was carried out to identify the kind of support that elderly may need for medicating. The proposed AIS provides the elderly with ambient aids to: remind them to medicate (Remind-Me system); guide the medication (GUIDE-Me system), and encourage elders to medicate (CARe-Me system). These AIS will be evaluated to determine their utility and the users' acceptance, which will enable us to conclude whether the identified design dimensions of AIS are appropriate to assist elderly.
Keywords: ubiquitous computing
Infrastructure awareness BIBAKFull-Text 465-468
  Juan David Hincapie-Ramos
Ubiquitous Computing designs infrastructures that weave into the fabric of everyday life, and become invisible by fading in the background. However, this invisibility keeps users from understanding and adopting them. To address this problem we introduce the notion of Infrastructure Awareness (IA). IA is the user's awareness about properties of an infrastructure. Our hypothesis is that IA facilitates the users' understanding of infrastructures, and thereby supports their adoption. This dissertation investigates three dimensions of IA: conceptual, methodological, and technological. The conceptual dimension defines IA in terms of an awareness model and a design space. The methodological dimension reflects on the usage of user-centred design when designing for invisibility, and proposes a new user-centred design activity for IA systems. The technological dimension creates two proof-of-concept applications, GridOrbit and GridNotify, to illustrate the notion of IA systems.
Keywords: adoption, infrastructure awareness, infrastructures
Goal-driven opportunistic sensing BIBAKFull-Text 469-472
  Marc Kurz
Opportunistic activity and context recognition systems do not presume a static sensor infrastructure that is defined at the design time of a system. They also do not have a fixed recognition goal that has to be accomplished. These systems rather make best use of the available sensor systems according to a sensing mission whereas the topology of a sensor network may change at runtime. To being able to configure the available sensor systems and to react on topological changes in the ambient sensor infrastructure goal-oriented sensing approaches capable of handling dynamic sensor setups have to be developed within the authors PhD-thesis.
Keywords: activity and context recognition, goal processing, goal-oriented sensing, wireless sensor networks
Embedded assessment of wellness with smart home sensors BIBAKFull-Text 473-476
  Matthew L. Lee
Embedded home sensors hold the promise of helping older adults age in place. They can help older adults maintain awareness of their functional abilities, a critical step for early detection of decline. In this proposal, I describe my research in understanding how to design and deploy home sensors that monitor how well individuals perform everyday activities. These systems collect an overwhelming amount of data, and thus I will identify the information needs of stakeholders to inform the design of salient summaries of the data for elders, their family caregivers, and their doctors to become more aware of changes functional abilities.
Keywords: aging in place, elder, embedded assessment, salient summary, sensors, smart home
Improving trust in context-aware applications with intelligibility BIBAKFull-Text 477-480
  Brian Y. Lim
Since context-aware applications use implicit sensing and increasingly complex decision making, they may make mistakes or users may misunderstand their actions. This may hinder trust and adoption of context-aware applications. We hypothesize that making these applications intelligible by explaining themselves to users would help counter this lack of trust. The proposed thesis would contribute to context-aware computing by (i) understanding the need to explain these applications to users, (ii) understanding the benefits and trade-offs of providing intelligibility, and (iii) providing toolkit support intelligibility to ultimately improve the trust, adoption of, and sustained use context-aware systems.
Keywords: context-awareness, explanations, intelligibility, toolkits
A holistic multipurpose life-log framework BIBAKFull-Text 481-484
  Reza Rawassizadeh
Life-log systems have a wide range of usages from memory augmentation to health monitoring. Recent advances in pervasive devices and sensor networks enable us to create tools that can continuously sense information from surrounding context of users and perform life logging. In this research we propose a life-log framework which is flexible to configure existing sensors and extend-able to add a new sensor or remove existing sensors. Additionally this framework provides facilities for long-term archiving, annotating and sharing life-log information. These features help users to benefit from this framework for different use cases.
Keywords: life log, personal archive, personal information, sensor network
Improving intelligibility and control in Ubicomp BIBAKFull-Text 485-488
  Jo Vermeulen
Users often become frustrated when they are unable to understand and control a ubicomp environment. Previous work has suggested that ubicomp systems should be intelligible to allow users to understand how the system works and controllable to let users intervene when the system makes a mistake. In my thesis, I focus on novel user interfaces and interaction techniques to support intelligibility and control.
Keywords: control, end-user configuration, explanations, feedback, feedforward, intelligibility, ubicomp
Context as a service BIBAKFull-Text 489-492
  Michael Wagner
Context-aware self-adaptive applications monitor and exploit knowledge about external operating conditions and adapt to changes in the execution context. Modern smartphones are equipped with several sensors, like GPS sensor or accelerometer. Additionally, context reasoners and external context providers exist. Thereby, it's possible that several context providers offer information of the same type (e.g. location) but differ in quality levels (e.g. accuracy), representations (e.g. position represented in coordinates and as an address) and cost (e.g. battery consumption) for providing the information. Therefore comprehensive support is required for selecting and activating ((de-)activation of local providers to save resources) one of the context providers.
Keywords: context-awareness, context-service, self-adaptation, ubiquitous computing

Workshops

Ubiquitous computing for sustainable energy (UCSE2010) BIBAKFull-Text 495-496
  Albrecht Schmidt; Adrian Friday; Hans W. Gellersen; Friedemann Mattern
Providing sustainable energy is one of the fundamental challenges for mankind. With energy usage being a part of everyday activities and with the increasingly diversity of energy creation this is an inherently multi-disciplinary problem. Transportation and travel, heating and cooling, manu-facturing and production are major areas in which energy is used and all these domains become more and more linked to ubiquitous computing. With an increase in decentralized energy provision, ranging from energy harvesting in devices to personal green power plants, a great potential for creating sustainable energy arises, however at the cost of a higher complexity of the distribution network and storage mechanisms. Overall we believe that research in ubiquitous computing can provide important contributions for a world with sustainable energy. In this workshop we hope to get people from different disciplines together to share their visions and insights on how to conserve, efficiently produce, use, and distribute energy.
Keywords: e-energy, energy conservation, energy efficiency, energy harvesting, green ict, smart energy, smart grid
UbiHealth 2010: the 5th international workshop on ubiquitous health and wellness BIBAKFull-Text 497-500
  Bert Arnrich; Venet Osmani; Giuseppe Riva; Jakob Bardram
This workshop continues the series of UbiHealth work-shops organized at the Ubicomp conferences. So far, the majority of work presented in earlier workshops and in the field of ubiquitous healthcare has focused on supporting people affected by somatic diseases. This year we call special attention on emerging research towards ubiquitous technologies for mental health and wellbeing. It is known that mental disorders are common diseases affecting all countries and societies. In recent years there have been various studies on correlating mental disease symptoms to objective physiological and behavioral measures in clinical settings. However, the current standard for diagnosis is still based on subjective clinical rating scales developed in the early 1960s. We see a new opportunity to exploit ubiquitous technology to provide the therapist with objective physiological and behavioral measures from the patient's daily life. The workshop will bring together researchers from ubiquitous computing and mental health professionals to present and discuss the latest work, focusing on how ubiquitous computing technology can be employed to design and support diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders and maintenance of mental wellness.
Keywords: health assistants, mental disorders, mental health, pervasive healthcare, ubiquitous computing
SISSI '10: social interaction in spatially separated environments BIBAKFull-Text 501-502
  Falko Schmid; Tobias Hesselmann; Susanne Boll; Keith Cheverst; Lars Kulik
Social relationships between co-workers, family members and friends play an important role in our everyday lives. They are responsible for our well-being, for a productive working atmosphere and for feeling part of our various communities. Nevertheless, it can be difficult to establish and maintain such relationships if individuals are spatially separated, e. g. working in different branch offices of a corporation, as they usually cannot interact and communicate in a natural, everyday manner. In the past, significant effort has been put into the development of planned, explicit interaction methods such as email, chat or video-conferencing. In contrast to that, much less is known about techniques to enable casual, spontaneous interactions between spatially separated social groups, e.g., occasional meetings on the office floor, by the means of implicit and more subtle methods. SISSI 2010 brings together academia and industry to present new ways of facilitating, establishing and maintaining social relationships by the means of ubiquitous systems, in order to achieve a feeling of togetherness, presence and closeness between members of spatially separated professional or private social groups. The audience of SISSI is interdisciplinary, including researchers from human computer interaction, pervasive communication, spatial cognition and communication sciences.
Keywords: interaction, privacy, social interaction, social spatial behavior, spatial awareness, spatial cognition
The 4th ACM international workshop on context-awareness for self-managing systems (CASEMANS 2010) BIBAKFull-Text 503-506
  Francois Siewe; Noriaki Kuwahara; Waltenegus Dargie
The CASEMANS 2010 workshop aims to bring together researchers of Context-aware Computing and Autonomic Computing. So far, these two research fields have been investigated independently and there is only a feeble link between them, despite the fact that the two are complementary. Subsequently, the workshop solicits papers that contribute to the development of self-adaptive, self-configuring, self-protecting and self-optimising systems. These include new tools and runtime environments for context acquisition, modelling, representation, management, recognition and brokering; context-based actuation; context-aware middleware, networks and robots.
Keywords: autonomic computing, context-awareness, self-adaptive systems, self-managing systems, ubiquitous computing
PaperComp 2010: first international workshop on paper computing BIBAKFull-Text 507-510
  Fredéric Kaplan; Patrick Jermann
Paper is not dead. Despite the progress of e-ink screens, smartphones and tablet interfaces, printed paper stays a convenient, versatile and familiar support for reading and writing. Books, magazines and other printed materials can now be connected to the digital world, enriched with additional content and even transformed into interactive interfaces. Conversely, some of the screen-based interfaces we currently use to interact with digital data could benefit from being paper-based or make use of specially designed material as light and flexible as paper. Far from a paperless world, printed documents could become ubiquitous interfaces in our everyday interaction with digital information. This is the dawn of paper computing.
Keywords: paper computing, paper-based interfaces, paper-like interfaces
Research in the large. using app stores, markets, and other wide distribution channels in Ubicomp research BIBAKFull-Text 511-514
  Henriette Cramer; Mattias Rost; Nicolas Belloni; Frank Bentley; Didier Chincholle
The mobile phones that people use in their daily lives now run advanced applications and come equipped with sensors once only available in custom hardware in UbiComp research. At the same time application distribution has become increasingly simple due to the proliferation of app stores and the like. Evaluation and research methods have to be adapted to this new context to get the best data and feedback from wide audiences. However, an overview of successful strategies to overcome research challenges inherent to wide deployment is not yet available. App store platform characteristics, devices, reaching target users, new types of evaluation data and dynamic, heterogeneous usage contexts have to be dealt with. This workshop provides a forum for researchers and developers to exchange experiences and strategies for wide distribution of applications. We aim at building an understanding of the opportunities of various distribution channels and obstacles involved in a research context.
Keywords: app stores, distribution channels, mass evaluation methods, mobile ecosystem, mobile interaction
Transnational times: locality, globality and mobility in technology design and use BIBAKFull-Text 515-518
  Irina Shklovski; Silvia Lindtner; Janet Vertesi; Paul Dourish
This workshop will bring together an interdisciplinary group of scholars to explore the role of ubiquitous computing, the use of information and communication technologies and the politics of technological design in transnational practices. The ultimate goal of this workshop is to investigate the implications for the design and development of ubiquitous technologies in non-western contexts. We will consider the implications for conducting research and technology design within and across global and networked sites of technology production and use. The aim of the workshop is to gain a deeper understanding of the social, cultural and economic practices within global IT development.
Keywords: design, globalization, ict4d, mobility, transnationalism
Designing for performative interactions in public spaces BIBAKFull-Text 519-522
  Julie Rico; Giulio Jacucci; Stuart Reeves; Lone Koefoed Hansen; Stephen Brewster
Building on the assumption that every human action in public space has a performative aspect, this workshop seeks to explore issues of mobile technology and interactions in public settings. We will examine the design of performative technologies, the evaluation of user experience, the importance of spectator and performer roles, and the social acceptability of performative actions in public spaces. The workshop will aim to bring together researchers and practitioners who are interested in the rapidly growing area of technologies supporting use in a public setting, and through this, explore the themes the workshop offers, plan for publications which synthesize together this disparate work, and finally to facilitate future collaborations between participants.
Keywords: mobility, performative interaction, social acceptability, spectator experience, user experience
Ubiquitous crowdsourcing BIBAKFull-Text 523-526
  Maja Vukovic; Soundar Kumara; Ohad Greenshpan
Web 2.0 provides the technological foundations upon which the crowdsourcing paradigm evolves and operates, enabling networked experts to work on various problem solving and data-intensive tasks. During the past decade crowdsourcing grew from a number of purpose-built initiatives, such as Wikipedia and Mechanical Turk, to a technique that today attracts and engages over 2 million people worldwide. As the computing systems are becoming more intimately embedded in physical and social contexts, promising truly ubiquitous computing, crowdsourcing takes new forms. Increasingly, crowds are engaged through mobile devices, to capture, share and validate sheer amount data (e.g. reporting security threats or capturing social events).
   This workshop challenges researchers and practitioners to think about three key aspects of ubiquitous crowdsourcing. Firstly, to establish technological foundations, what are the interaction models and protocols between the ubiquitous computing systems and the crowd? Secondly, how is crowdsourcing going to face the challenges in quality assurance, while providing valuable incentive frameworks that enable honest contributions? Finally, what are the novel applications of crowdsourcing enabled by ubiquitous computing systems?
Keywords: crowdsourcing, mobile, ubiquitous
Digital object memories in the internet of things workshop: (DOME-IoT 2010) BIBAKFull-Text 527-530
  Michael Schneider; Alexander Kröner; Peter Stephan; Thomas Plötz; Fahim Kawsar; Gerd Kortuem
Everyday objects tagged with sensors and actuators that communicate and cooperate provide the foundation of the Internet of Things. Most applications in the Internet of Things deal with information related to such objects in the one or other way, whilst Digital Object Memories comprise hardware and software components, which together provide an open and universal platform that allows for the continuous capture and conceptual and/or physical association of digital information with physical objects. As such, they support information exchange and reuse across environments and applications, and pave the way for novel kinds of applications and services. The goal of this workshop is to unite these two perspectives on connected objects and object memory in a hybrid workshop format that combines traditional presentations and discussion with a practical experiment.
Keywords: digital object memories, intelligent environments, internet of things, object-centered information management, ubiquitous computing
PerEd 2010: the third workshop on pervasive computing education BIBAKFull-Text 531-534
  Sebastian Bader; Thomas Kirste; William G. Griswold; Alke Martens
Research in ubiquitous and pervasive computing is multidisciplinary by nature. Whereas this is clear in the context of bringing different sciences together to construct and conduct new environments on the hardware, software and engineering level, there are other interesting topics of discussion, which are seldom addressed yet. We will focus in this workshop on: a) how can the ubiquitous technology be used in educational settings (and for example does it require new instructional design?) and b) does the use of ubiquitous technology affect the way people learn? PerEd 2010 will provide a forum to present and discuss topics like the state of the art, work in progress and lessons learned, with respect to education within ubiquitous computing environments and teaching the subject itself.
Keywords: education, instructional design, multi-disciplinary, pedagogy, pervasive computing, tools, ubiquitous computing
UBI challenge workshop 2010: real world urban computing BIBAKFull-Text 535-538
  Timo Ojala; Jukka Riekki
This workshop promotes ubiquitous computing research in authentic urban setting, with real users and with sufficient scale and time span. We first motivate why such research is important and then describe our ongoing deployment of diverse computing resources in a city center to support such research. We are organizing an UBI Challenge, to make our urban computing testbed available to the international research community and to stimulate research collaboration in a very concrete manner. This workshop calls together researchers on real world urban computing to prototype applications and services that could be realized atop such computing resources.
Keywords: ubiquitous computing, urban computing
Mobile context-awareness: capabilities, challenges and applications BIBAKFull-Text 539-540
  Tom Lovett; Eamonn O'Neill
Mobile context-awareness is a popular research trend in the field in ubiquitous computing. Advances in mobile device sensory hardware and the rise of 'virtual' sensors such as web APIs mean that the mobile user is exposed to a vast range of data that can be used for new advanced applications. This workshop allows industrial and academic researchers to present work focusing on novel methods of context acquisition in the mobile environment -- particularly through the use of physical and virtual sensors -- along with research into new applications utilising this context. In addition, the workshop will encourage insights, into the technical and usability challenges in mobile context-awareness, as well as observations on current and future trends in the field.
Keywords: context, context-awareness, human-computer interaction, mobile computing