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UAHCI Tables of Contents: 07-107-207-309-109-209-311-111-211-311-413-113-213-314-114-214-314-415-115-215-315-4

UAHCI 2015: 9th International Conference on Universal Access in Human-Computer Interaction, Part IV: Access to the Human Environment and Culture

Fullname:UAHCI 2015: 9th International Conference on Universal Access in Human-Computer Interaction, Part IV: Access to the Human Environment and Culture
Note:Volume 10 of HCI International 2015
Editors:Margherita Antona; Constantine Stephanidis
Location:Los Angeles, California
Dates:2015-Aug-02 to 2015-Aug-07
Volume:4
Publisher:Springer International Publishing
Series:Lecture Notes in Computer Science 9178
Standard No:DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-20687-5 hcibib: UAHCI15-4; ISBN: 978-3-319-20686-8 (print), 978-3-319-20687-5 (online)
Papers:46
Pages:499
Links:Online Proceedings | Conference Website
  1. UAHCI 2015-08-02 Volume 4
    1. Universal Access to Culture
    2. Orientation, Navigation and Driving
    3. Accessible Security and Voting
    4. Universal Access to the Built Environment
    5. Ergonomics and Universal Access

UAHCI 2015-08-02 Volume 4

Universal Access to Culture

Interactive 3D Digitization, Retrieval, and Analysis of Ancient Sculptures, Using Infrared Depth Sensors for Mobile Devices BIBAKFull-Text 3-11
  Angelos Barmpoutis; Eleni Bozia; Daniele Fortuna
In this paper a novel framework is presented for interactive feature-based retrieval and visualization of human statues, using depth sensors for mobile devices. A skeletal model is fitted to the depth image of a statue or human body in general and is used as a feature vector that captures the pose variations in a given collection of skeleton data. A scale- and twist-invariant distance function is defined in the feature space and is employed in a topology-preserving low-dimensional lattice mapping framework. The user can interact with this self-organizing map by submitting queries in the form of a skeleton from a statue or a human body. The proposed methods are demonstrated in a real dataset of 3D digitized Graeco-Roman statues from Palazzo Altemps.
Keywords: Depth sensors; RGB-D; Kinect; 3d object retrieval; Digital humanities; Statues; Museum studies
Developing the COOLTURA Resources-Driven Governance Model for Building Scalable Cultural Services in the COOLTURA Platform BIBAKFull-Text 12-20
  María Eugenia Beltrán; Yolanda Ursa; Silvia de los Rios; Maria Fernanda Cabrera-Umpierrez; Maria Teresa Arredondo; Maria del Mar Villafranca; Lucia María Perez; Belén Prados; Carlos Lli Torrabadella
Cultural institutions and sites currently debate on how to respond to new trends, such as globalisation, exponential growth of digital cultural content and Apps, and reach technological knowledgeable users. In addition, institutions need to look for new ways of engagement, as the engagement of citizens with their cultural heritage environment remains low. This paper presents the preliminary results of a qualitative research performed to evaluate new opportunities for the COOLTURA Platform (output of TAG CLOUD project); as well as the proposal of developing the COOLTURA resource-driven governance model to support the COOLTURA Platform up-take.
Keywords: Engagement; Cultural heritage; Governance in culture; Cultural platform; Cultural apps
The Expansion of a Scheme About ACCESSIBILITY in Tourism at the Cultural Sector BIBAKFull-Text 21-28
  Eleni Chalkia; Evangelos Bekiaris; Maria Panou; Matina Loukea
Accessibility in the tourism domain is already and will be even more in the following years a "must"! Thus, ACCESSIBILITY PASS is an evaluation and certification scheme which has been developed with the scope of evaluating, clustering, analyzing and certifying the accessibility level of a hotel or a conference center taking into account its infrastructure, its offered services and its personnel's certified skills. This paper will explore the possibility of expanding ACCESSIBILITY PASS in the cultural domain buildings like museums, concert centers, etc. where accessibility is very important and it already implemented, but not widely evaluated or certified.
Keywords: Accessibility; Disabilities; Tourism; Infrastructure; Evaluation; Certification; Culture; Museums
EmoActivity -- An EEG-Based Gamified Emotion HCI for Augmented Artistic Expression: The i-Treasures Paradigm BIBAKFull-Text 29-40
  Vasileios Charisis; Stelios Hadjidimitriou; Leontios Hadjileontiadis; Deniz Ugurca; Erdal Yilmaz
There are important cultural differences in emotions that can be predicted and connected to each other in the light of cultural and artistic expressions. The main differences reflected at the affective space are expressed through initial response tendencies of appraisal and action readiness. Capturing and handling the emotions during artistic activities could be used as a dominant source of information to acquire and augment the cultural expression and maximize the emotional impact to the audience. This paper presents a novel EEG-based game-like application, to learn and handle affective states and transitions towards augmented artistic expression. According to the game scenario, the user has to reach and sustain one or more target affective states based on the level of the game, the difficulty setting and his/her current affective state. The game, although at its first version, has been demonstrated to a small group of potential users and has received positive feedback. Its use by a wider audience is anticipated within the realization of the i-Treasure FP7 EU Programme (2013-2017).
Keywords: Human-computer interaction; Emotion game; Affective state detection; Game-based learning; Contemporary music composition; Valence-arousal space; EEG; Emotiv; Emoactivity; i-Treasures
Living Lab Concept Validation Experiment to Experience COOLTURA in the Cité Des Science et de L'Industrie BIBAKFull-Text 41-52
  Silvia de los Rios; Maria Fernanda Cabrera-Umpierrez; Maria Teresa Arredondo; Miguel Paramo; Charles Tijus; Elhadi Djebbari; Federico Mussano; Roberto Santoro
Culture is everywhere; it is part of all citizens, of our past, our roots, our present and key asset for our future. Technology is a good driver to present and allow access to cultural heritage. Within the European FP7 project eCultValue an open call was launched which allowed the IUL-LUTIN Living Lab to make an experiment using COOLTURA, outcome from the also European FP7 project TAG CLOUD, in the Citédes Sciences et de l'Industrie (CSI) of Paris (France). This paper presents such experiment as well as the interesting results extracted from the participants' feedback.
Keywords: App; Cultural heritage; User experience; Engagement; Augmented reality; Storytelling; Social media; COOLTURA; CSI
Evaluating Intimacy and Ludic Engagement with a Musical Interactive Art Installation that Explores Remote Abstract Communication BIBAKFull-Text 53-64
  Steven Gelineck
The main contribution of the paper is a usability evaluation of an interactive art installation where several different factors for ludic and intimate engagement in this specific context of remote face-to-face non-verbal communication are compared. Experiments are carried out with the following different overall goals: (1) to understand the importance of direct eye contact, (2) to understand the influence of using different musical outputs and (3) to understand whether providing participants with more detailed control supports exploration. Results indicate that direct eye contact enhances the intimate connection, that opera sounds are more effective than synthetic sounds in terms of intimacy, control, musical expressivity and exploration, and that participants engaged in more exploration with limited control.
Keywords: Mediated intimacy; Ludic engagement; Evaluation; Usability; Interactive art installations; Musical exploration; Video conferencing; Emotional communication
Entangled Sensorium: Subtle Apparatuses for Nonlocal Affectiveness BIBAKFull-Text 65-73
  Clarissa Ribeiro
This paper aim in waving reflections around the sovereignty of interaction in communicational processes focusing on Human-Computer Interaction subtleties related to informational processes in a quantum level to present and discuss the author series 'Performing Quantum Entanglement: Subtle Apparatuses for Nonlocal Affectiveness'. The approach involves conceptualizing what the author defines as Complex Affective Systems (CAFFS), referring to multidimensional systems of interactions that lead to manifestations and incorporations of the self and the emergence of consciousness. The works selected to conduct the present conversation have been produced for the author's solo show at the Art|Sci Gallery, CNSI/UCLA, in Los Angeles (2014), and recently for the inaugural solo show she designed for the Roy Ascott Studio Gallery in Shanghai (2015).
Keywords: Information; Quantum physics; Interaction; Complex affective systems; Media art; Art and science
Immersive Interaction Paradigms for Controlling Virtual Worlds by Customer Devices Exemplified in a Virtual Planetarium BIBAKFull-Text 74-86
  Andreas Schaller; Tim Biedenkapp; Jens Keil; Dieter W. Fellner; Arjan Kuijper
This work provides an insight into the basics of 3D applications in conjunction with various customer devices. In this case, the application is a 3D planetarium of our solar system for a museum. The aim is to create a concept for intuitive and immersive navigation through the virtual planetarium using inexpensive Customer Devices. Visitors should be able to move freely and easily in the solar system. Here, the visitor should be able to focus on the simulation and not quickly lose interest in the complex control application. For this similar approaches and previous research are examined and a new approach is described. As low-cost customer devices, the controller of the Nintendo Wii (Wiimote) and current smartphones are considered in this work. A detailed analysis of these devices is an integral part of this work. Based on the selected devices, there are various possibilities for interaction and resulting interaction concepts. For each device, a concept will be developed to meet the identified needs.
Keywords: Visualization; Immersive environments; Virtual worlds; Interaction devices

Orientation, Navigation and Driving

Disorientation Factors that Affect the Situation Awareness of the Visually Impaired Individuals in Unfamiliar Indoor Environments BIBAFull-Text 89-100
  Abdulrhman Alkhanifer; Stephanie Ludi
Developing situational awareness for individuals with visual impairments can be a challenging process, as designers need to understand the environmental aspects as well as the users' needs. In unfamiliar indoor open spaces, individuals with visual impairments need to work around multiple disorientation factors that can affect their orientation and situation awareness levels. In this work, we report our experience and results of longitudinal user studies that were designed to facilitate cues that help raise the situation awareness level of individuals with visual impairments when exploring unfamiliar indoor open spaces. Through our results, we explain in detail users' disorientation factors in such environments.
Informational Geography: Re-writing and Re-reading Maps BIBAKFull-Text 101-107
  Carlos Alberto Barbosa; Luisa Paraguai
The text is concerned with how mapping information visualization differs from traditional cartography once the content flows, superposed on physical space, change the way human perceptions deal with space and time. From this point onwards, the text discusses the articulation between spatiality and modes of moving within the city through data representations. Using the Watch_Dogs WeareData Project as an example of how this is done, users can follow distinct syntactic and semantic narratives arranged over individual and public data information made available in Paris, London and Berlin. Each of the three towns is recreated on a 3D map, allowing the users to discover in real time not only the way data organizes and runs cities, but also constructs spatialities.
Keywords: Informational and physical cartography; Data representations and narratives; Hybrid spatialities
Effect of Road Conditions on Gaze-Control Interface in an Automotive Environment BIBAFull-Text 108-116
  Pradipta Biswas; Varun Dutt
This paper proposes an eye gaze based dashboard control interface for automotive environment so that drivers need not to take their hands off from steering wheel and control the dashboard only by looking at it. With the help of our smoothing and target prediction technology, we found that first time users could operate a dashboard using their eye gaze in approximately 2.5s for each on-screen item selection in different road conditions. As part of the study we also found that average amplitude of saccadic intrusion is a good indicator of drivers' perceived cognitive load.
Usability Evaluation of a Mobile Navigation Application for Blind Users BIBAKFull-Text 117-128
  Márcia de Borba Campos; Jaime Sánchez; Juliana Damasio; Tasmay Inácio
This paper presents a usability evaluation of a mobile gaming application (mAbES) for blind users. mAbES was evaluated with the participation of HCI specialists and experts in video gaming (Group 1) and mAbES end-users who are blind (Group 2). The instruments used by Group 1 were the audio feedback questionnaire and the usability evaluation questionnaire. It also included questions based on video games and game mechanics. For Group 2, both the audio evaluation and the O&M, tactile feedback and ease of use questionnaires were applied. Semi-structured interviews were also carried out. User perceptions and interaction behaviors identified during study and data analysis allowed to refine the methodology used for evaluating the usability of mAbES and proposed suggestions for improvements in the use of this application, as well as to make recommendations for developing video games for blind users for navigation purposes.
Keywords: Users who are blind; Mental map; Orientation and mobility; Navigation; Mobile application; Usability evaluation
Feature Detection Applied to Context-Aware Blind Guidance Support BIBAKFull-Text 129-138
  Hugo Fernandes; André Sousa; Hugo Paredes; Vitor Filipe; João Barroso
Human beings have developed a number of evolutionary mechanisms that allows the distinction between different objects and the triggering of events based on their perception of reality. Visual impairment has a significant impact on individuals' quality of life, including their ability to work and to develop personal relationships as they often feel cut off people and things around them, due to their impairment. The need for assistive technologies has long been a constant in the daily lives of people with visual impairments, and will remain a constant in future years. Cognitive mapping is of extreme importance for individuals in terms of creating a conceptual model of the surrounding space and objects around them, thereby supporting their interaction with the physical environment. This work describes the use of computer vision techniques, namely feature detectors and descriptors, to detect objects in the scene and help contextualize the user within the surrounding space, enhancing their mobility, navigation and cognitive mapping of a new environment.
Keywords: Computer vision; Feature detection; Blind; Navigation; Orientation
Creating Inclusive HMI Concepts for Future Cars Using Visual Scenario Storyboards Through Design Ethnography BIBAKFull-Text 139-149
  Merih Kunur; Patrick Langdon; Michael Bradley; Jo-Anne Bichard; Emilie Glazer; Fionnuala Doran; P. John Clarkson; Jean Jacques Loeillet
His paper illustrates the use of scenario writing and storyboard visualisation methods based on ethnographic study of diverse personas, narratives, and user experience to guide automotive engineers and designers for creating innovative ideas and developing inclusive Human Machine Interface (iHMI) concepts for future cars in 2025 and beyond. This paper documents the importance of continuing visual research process based on anthropological case studies that looked into diverse persona, cultural and geographical attributes. These methods are used to visually analyse situational car use, thereby leading to scenario-based HMI tasks that can be applied to generate innovative user oriented future car designs. Storyboard visualisation of narratives is a method that derives from ethnographic interviews with strategically chosen car users from around the world. This is a powerful tool for analyzing situations, describing feelings, and evaluating the usability of functions within the car. With this visual process, future scenarios can be drawn in order to create new and inclusive HMI ideas and design concepts embedded within the storyboards to help engineers and designers' to understand users' different needs, exploring their expectations, emotions and motivations. The realistic details on the character illustrations of each persona are essential for better understanding of the users' including older people, the visually impaired and wheelchair users, child and parent, technophobic or technophile persons. Each HMI concept can be sketched as required in task sequences, with detail and scaled paper model produced for detailed step-by-step design. The required interactions can be observed, photographed and captured on video for in-depth design thinking workshops. A series of HMI working design concepts for future cars will emerge from this pipeline for prototyping and engineering.
Keywords: Human machine interface; Inclusive design; Visual narrative; Scenario storyboards; Concept visualization; Design thinking; User research; User-Centred design; Design ethnography
Wide-Range Auditory Orientation Training System for Blind O&M BIBAKFull-Text 150-159
  Yoshikazu Seki
Authors started to develop a training method that combined "sound localization" and "obstacle perception" by using acoustic virtual reality technologies for the orientation and mobility training for the blind people in 2003, and we finally developed an auditory orientation training system (AOTS) in 2005. As a modified version of AOTS, the first WR-AOTS was released April 2013 for the blind rehabilitation and/or education facilities. By January 2015, about 70 requests for use of it were received from the blind rehabilitation and/or education facilities. We will keep providing update on the facilities' demands in future.
Keywords: Orientation and mobility (O&M); Visual impairment; Virtual reality; 3-D sound; Head-related transfer function (HRTF)
A Spot Navigation System for the Visually Impaired by Use of SIFT-Based Image Matching BIBAFull-Text 160-167
  Hotaka Takizawa; Kazunori Orita; Mayumi Aoyagi; Nobuo Ezaki; Shinji Mizuno
In this report, we propose a spot navigation system to assist visually impaired individuals in recalling memories related to spots that they often visit. This system registers scene images and voice memos that are recorded in advance by a visually impaired individual or his/her sighted supporter at various spots. When the individual visits one of the spots, the system determines the current spot from the results of image matching between the registered images and a query image taken by the individual at the spot, then plays a voice memo which corresponds to the spot. The system is applied to actual indoor and outdoor scenes, and experimental results are shown.

Accessible Security and Voting

Toward Private and Independent Accessible Write-In Voting: A Multimodal Prediction Approach BIBAKFull-Text 171-181
  Shanee Dawkins; Wanda Eugene; Tamirat Abegaz; Juan E. Gilbert
The overall objective of this research is to design a multimodal system to write-in a candidate's name that addresses the issues of time, privacy, and accessibility. In order to determine if these issues were met, the design is analyzed and compared against alternate methods of writing-in a candidate's name. An experiment was performed to assess two aspects of the multimodal system: speech interaction and switch interaction. The research intends to capture and analyze the efficiency and effectiveness of writing-in a candidate's name anonymously through multimodal interactions. Though the essence of this research embodies universal of design for everyone everywhere, the design and experiments put forth in this paper will focus on the U.S. voting population.
Keywords: Accessibility; Universally usable interfaces; Electronic voting systems; Multimodal interaction; Text prediction
Virtual Fingerprint -- Image-Based Authentication Increases Privacy for Users of Mouse-Replacement Interfaces BIBAKFull-Text 182-191
  Viktoria Grindle; Syed Kamran Haider; John Magee; Marten van Dijk
Current secondary user authentication methods are imperfect. They either rely heavily on a user's ability to remember key preferences and phrases or they involve providing authentication on multiple devices. However, malicious attacks that compromise a user's device or discover personal information about the user are becoming more sophisticated and increasing in number. Users who rely on mouse-replacement interfaces face additional privacy concerns when monitored or assisted by caregivers. Our authentication method proposes a way of quantifying a user's personality traits by observing his selection of images. This method would not be as vulnerable to malicious attacks as current methods are because the method is based on psychological observations that can not be replicated by anyone other than the correct user. As a preliminary evaluation, we created a survey consisting of slides of images and asked participants to click through them. The results indicated our proposed authentication method has clear potential to address these issues.
Keywords: Human-Computer Interaction; Mouse-replacement interfaces; Security; Privacy; Behavioral biometric; Authentication; Camera Mouse; Virtual Fingerprint
Joystick Interaction Strategies of Individuals with Dexterity Impairments: Observations from the Smart Voting Joystick Usability Evaluation BIBAKFull-Text 192-203
  James E. Jackson; Jennifer Ismirle; Sarah J. Swierenga; Stephen R. Blosser; Graham L. Pierce
In order to develop a joystick as a universal access device for accessible voting machines, it is necessary to observe and understand the strategies of users with disabilities when operating joysticks in this context. For this study, researchers analyzed video and audio recordings as well as written notes and user feedback from the usability evaluation of the Smart Voting Joystick to identify, document, and understand the interaction strategies individuals with motor or dexterity related disabilities employ when using a joystick to interact with a mock voting system.
Keywords: Assistive technology; Accessible voting; Joystick; Interaction strategies; Usability
A Universal Ballot to Enable Voting for All BIBAKFull-Text 204-214
  Seunghyun "Tina" Lee; Yilin Elaine Liu; Ljilja Ruzic Kascak; Jon A. Sanford
Voting is a glocalized event across countries, states and municipalities in which individuals of all abilities want to participate. To enable people with disabilities to participate accessible voting is typically implemented by adding assistive technologies to electronic voting machines to accommodate people with physical and visual disabilities. To overcome the complexities and inequities in this practice, two interfaces, EZ Ballot, which uses a linear yes/no input system for all selections, and QUICK Ballot, which provides random access voting through direct selection, were designed with multi-modal inputs and outputs to provide one system for all voters. This paper reports on the results of Phase I usability testing of EZ Ballot with 21 adults with visual, dexterity and cognitive limitations, which indicated the need for the second interface and describes the Phase II efficacy testing of both interfaces that is currently ongoing. Participants performed a standard set of voting tasks including: voting for one and two candidates, using the write-in function, voting on a referendum and changing their vote. Task performance was recorded by video. Post-trial interviews solicited feedback about ease of use and preferences. Overall, the study demonstrated that people with different limitations could perform voting tasks on a single system, although their preferred input and output methods varied, suggesting that providing flexibility through multi-modal inputs is important to ensure participation of all individuals in the voting process.
Keywords: Accessible voting; Ballot design; User interface; Multi-modal; Interactions
Universal Design (UD) Guidelines for Interactive Mobile Voting Interfaces for Older Adults BIBAKFull-Text 215-225
  Ljilja Ruzic Kascak; Seunghyun "Tina" Lee; Elaine Yilin Liu; Jon A. Sanford
Current mobile interfaces have numerous usability problems, especially when used by older adults, population of users diverse in ranges and combinations of dis(abilities). However, user interfaces need to be usable by all users, including older adults and disabled people. Universal design (UD), Design for Aging (DfA), and Universal Usability (UU) consider designing systems and interfaces usable by all people, to the greatest extent possible. Set of more inclusive UD guidelines emerged from this integration of the three approaches with mobile design guidelines in order to address usability of user interfaces by diverse population of older adults. An example of an application of the inclusive UD guidelines was universally designed interactive voting interface, EZ Ballot, designed to improve usability of voting systems for older adults. This paper presents the results of the usability testing of the voting system with young and older adults, and reports equal usability of the ballot for both age groups.
Keywords: Design for ageing; User interface adaptation for universal access; Design guidelines; Older adults; Universal design; Usability
"Biometric Dental Rosette" -- Introduction into New Method of Dental Identification BIBAKFull-Text 226-236
  Michal Rychlik; Agnieszka Przystanska; Dorota Lorkiewicz-Muszynska; Mariusz Glapinski
The hypothesis of the study was that human dentition is unique. This study was performed to analyze whether biometric methods using measurements and proportions are suitable for dental identification. The use of 3D models with specialized systems for computer aided engineering (CAE) and Reverse Engineering (RE) allowed for a number of point surface and volume comparative analyses. "Mapping" was carried out next on the dentition models. This procedure results in a set of curves and points depicting the characteristic features of the teeth and their edges respectively. Based on the "mapping" the so-called "biometric dental rosette" was created for the dentition models. The "biometric dental rosette" was created for maxillary and mandibular dentition models. Every rosette was individual thus unique. The method allowed for positive identification of all the volunteers. The presented studies are of preliminary character, and the continuation is necessary.
Keywords: Bitemarks; Biometrics; Forensic odontology; 3D modeling; Reverse Engineering; CAME -- Computer Aided Medical Engineering
Polling Place Support Tool; User Interface to Plan and Run Polling Places BIBAKFull-Text 237-247
  Ted Selker; Shama Hoque
We describe a scenario and enabling system to provide assistance to election officers in several ways. The new user interface approach supports polling place design, training, operations, problem solving, and auditing. It presents a spatial/graphical user interface for interacting with representations of voting space, furniture, and equipment layout, to assist election officers in better fulfilling polling place administrative activities before, during, and after the election. The application, Polling Place Support Tool, is designed to improve on the current paper-based checklists an election officer uses to remember the different activities he or she has to perform. The RAV Polling Place Support Tool is a simulation that allows poll workers and officials to explore the possibilities for optimizing the design of an accessible and compliant polling place, auditing its use and intervening in to solve problems as they arise.
Keywords: Voting; Process; User interface; Web service
The Impact of Literacy on Usable and Accessible Electronic Voting BIBAKFull-Text 248-257
  Kathryn Summers; Jonathan Langford
Electronic voting interfaces present particular challenges for voters with low literacy. Research has found that individuals with low literacy typically encounter problems in electronic interfaces related to their tendencies to read every word, act on every word, interpret words literally, skip text, become distracted, and stop reading too soon. Based on a growing body of research about the experiences of low-literacy voters in electronic interfaces, this paper presents eleven principles to address these challenges. It also translates those principles into specific best practice recommendations related to language, navigation, visual design, and interaction in electronic voting interfaces.
Keywords: Low literacy; Electronic interfaces; Interaction design; Voting; Ballot design; Plain language; Plain interaction; Usability

Universal Access to the Built Environment

Flexibility as an Instrument of Social Stabilization of Residential Environment BIBAKFull-Text 261-269
  Wojciech Bonenberg
This paper presents the results of research conducted at the Faculty of Architecture PUT, regarding flexibility and human factors in the design of housing environment. It points to the need of flexible approach at the initial design stage of decision-making; public opinion has to be considered and emphatic analysis needs to be undertaken to establish the required scope of flexibility. The paper presents the main features of flexibility in the design of flats/houses as opposed to the design of other facilities, such as offices, industrial and commercial areas. The results of research reveal significant differences in the demands regarding the interior of flats/houses and those regarding the residential area. Flexibility turns out to be a crucial factor in the creation of residential areas that stabilize social relationships and include human factors.
Keywords: Flexibility; Housing environment; Social stabilization
Risk Analysis in the Process a New Workplace BIBAKFull-Text 270-279
  Hanna Golas
In this paper the author presents the use of selected risk analysis tools in the process of authorising a new workstation. The company selected for the study belongs to the automotive industry, where customer requirements are high in terms of quality and performance as well as in terms of safety of work, employees and the process.
Keywords: Workstation; Employee safety; Labour standards; Risk
Ergonomics of the Urban Villa's Form as an Element of Sustainable Architectural and Urban Design BIBAKFull-Text 280-290
  Pawel Horn
Article is a presentation and discussion of the complex of multi-family buildings which were built in Wroclaw in an interesting and challenging historical urban context. Discussion of the complex serves to define characteristic parameters that allow to consider the buildings as example of urban villa and to illustrate the process of reaching the optimum of these parameters in the context of urban environment. Ergonomics of the object's dependency from its surroundings will be analysed and considered as an aspect of sustainable design in a conscious decision-making process in an integrated interdisciplinary and computer-aided design environment. Discussed design process due to its flexibility and value is to show the urban villa's advantages as an answer to the needs of contemporary inhabitants of a big city. At the same time the author intends to highlight the influence of sustainable design on ergonomics of an architectural object nowadays, taking into account the degree to which it is possible to use and create computer tools for ergonomic and sustainable design.
Keywords: Ergonomics in sustainable design of residential architecture; Ergonomics of urban villa; Computer-aided design environment for housing designers
The Effect of Technological Progress on the Quality and Aesthetics of Modern Sanitary Facilities BIBAKFull-Text 291-302
  Anna Jaglarz; Jerzy Charytonowicz
Taking into account the possibilities of modern technology and its application in the area of hygiene and sanitation, we can observe a significant change in the quality of the bathroom resulting from the transformation of individual bathroom systems and devices that do not avoid rapid technological development, adapting them to the requirements of modern times.
   Although the latest technology achievements in the field of bathroom facilities often surprise with their complexity, the amount of features and capabilities of the technique, by which apparently may seem complicated, however, degree of comfort which they offer is convincing about the proper actions of designers and manufacturers. Actions which primary purpose is the convenience, safety and functionality of the use of technologically and aesthetically advanced devices. Also, their hygiene, mobility and ease of use and the ability to easily keep clean are necessary. The solutions used in modern bathrooms are designed to simplify and reduce the cost of their construction. Saving of water and energy is also an important issue.
   The possibility to use any innovations provides much greater freedom in shaping and arranging, the opportunity to implement the original design ideas, and thereby the ability to create individual, unique hygienic-sanitary objects. All these actions result from the requirements of the present times and emerging needs of the modern user and are based on numerous studies and analyzes concerning the possibility of shaping the bathroom.
Keywords: Sanitary facilities; Technological progress; Modern bathroom design trends; Modern technology in the bathroom; Sustainable bathroom; Ergonomics
Development of the Ecological Bathroom Ideas BIBAKFull-Text 303-310
  Anna Jaglarz
Shaping the ecological bathroom includes various activities allowing optimal usable, health and aesthetic conditions to reside and perform specific actions by users with minimum interference in the environment and low use of natural resources. The main objective of these activities is to create a harmonious compounds in the system: user -- bathroom -- the environment. The basic features of ecological bathrooms and its ecological equipment include efficiency and savings of water, energy and materials. Equally important is the friendly treatment of the environment and the maintenance of healthy and hygienic conditions of use of the bathroom.
   Bathroom industry, taking care of the environment, is offering more and more products that prevent waste of natural resources and control their consumption. As a result of work on ever new, sometimes surprising, possibilities of their optimal use, numerous projects appear in response to needs for solutions that are economical in operation and at the same time comfortable to use.
Keywords: Ecological bathroom; Eco friendly bathroom; Sustainable bathroom; Modern bathroom design trends; Hygienic and sanitary facilities; Technological development; Modern technology; Ergonomics
Does a Computer Have Control Over an Architect? Reflections on the Example of Sports Arenas BIBAKFull-Text 311-321
  Nina Juzwa; Adam Gil; Katarzyna Ujma-Wasowicz
Considerations on the subject were carried out by a comparative analysis of modern architecture of large volume sport objects that originated i.a. in Poland at the turn of the 20th and 21st centuries with references to earlier objects and trends in worldwide architecture. Case studies are an effective tool that allows to observe changes and on this basis to draw conclusions for the directions of development. It is a chance to comment on the relationship between computer tools and the form and method of solving selected problems of architectural designing. Analysis of selected examples leads to the conclusion that modern architecture of sports arenas probably not have been built without participation of computer programs.
Keywords: Large-scale objects for sports and entertainment; Architecture of sports arenas and stadiums; Computer programs in architectural design
The Impact of Solar Radiation on the Quality of Buildings: Research Methods BIBAKFull-Text 322-331
  Dariusz Masly; Michal Sitek; Klaudiusz Fross
Daylight analyses presented in this paper are fragments of a wider research project. The daylight simulation study focused on the influence of various facade solutions on lighting environment in office buildings located in the south of Poland. The development of scientific principles lying behind correctly daylit workspaces in offices was the main project's aim. The another, equally crucial purpose was the development of design guidelines for office buildings in the southern Poland. Selected architectural solutions were compared in this study. They included facade solutions (window placements and shapes, glazing-to-wall (GWR) ratios), solar radiation reflectors (light shelves) and deflectors (venetian blinds). Moreover two types of daylight performance metrics were explored, static and dynamic. The objective of this document is to promote the use of the most advanced and sophisticated computer simulation methods, techniques and tools for sustainable building design regarding quality of daylit indoor environment.
Keywords: Daylight analysis; Indoor environment quality; Natural lighting design strategies; Sustainable office buildings
The Human Factor in the Revitalization of the Historic Polish Cities BIBAKFull-Text 332-339
  Robert Masztalski
There are cities in Poland, which suffered as a result of World War 2, and after 66 years is still not rebuilt. This is particularly true of historic towns with historical pedigree. The monument conservators trying to keep full control over the reconstruction of these city centers and are blocking investment processes. Revitalization of these areas needs to be redefined in terms of procedures of conservation of cultural heritage in the context of modern ergonomic requirements. Case study is the city of Strzelin in the south-west Poland.
Keywords: Modern ergonomic requirements; Revitalization; Historic cities in Poland
Designing Kitchens for Small Domestic Spaces BIBAFull-Text 340-351
  Przemyslaw Nowakowski
The role of kitchen area in the house environment has been changing over the course of history. The changes concerned the share of kitchen space in apartment functional structure, as well as the course of everyday chores. Currently, as well as in the past, kitchen areas remain placed either in separate rooms, or they constitute a part of a bigger space (usually the living room). At present, two characteristic domestic kitchen models are preferred: "laboratory" and multifunctional (with a dining room). The space limitations, especially in multi-family housing, favored the "laboratory" kitchen model, or so-called partial kitchens in living rooms. Technical progress enabled creating various types of small kitchen areas, which are adjusted to diverse needs of users, according to their lifestyle.
   Kitchen areas are crucial places for completing various household chores. Among everyday duties performed in the kitchen there are: preparing meals, doing the washing up and cleaning up. Those chores frequently are technologically complicated activities. In order to perform them more efficiently, household members use various devices and home appliances. Conducting of chores, storing the appliances and food products etc., requires a vast share of the apartment structure. Providing sufficiently big maneuver and storage spaces is particularly difficult in small kitchens. Shortages in available space may have a negative influence on, among others, the correct layout of working space or ease of movement in small kitchens.
   The following paper concentrates on the evolution and examples of types of small kitchens, as well as selected rules concerning the improvement of conditions of their arrangements.
Human-Computer Interactions in Contemporary Office Environment BIBAFull-Text 352-359
  Elzbieta Dagny Rynska; Ferdynand óski
The article is a voice in the discussion on ergonomics and efficiency in the operation of ITC devices in the context of the office environment and its ongoing changes. Increased mobility which followed technological advances is redefining office work. With the restraint of having to create designated workstations lifted, the possibilities of work-related interaction became more diverse, creating new chances but at the same time also design challenges.
   Which aspects of the workspace have proven to be effective in creating a good work environment? Proper temperature and humidity, daylighting, aesthetics, greenery and an interesting view outside are the top of the list; but is there really a single answer to that question? Even within one industry, requirements regarding the optimal workspace may differ, depending on the task at hand. This should be a hint that maybe flexibility and diversity of spaces made available to the employee is the best solution to that problem.
   In the first part of the article we explain how the office environment has evolved into what it is today, showing the most important factors influencing that change.
   The second stage of the analysis centers around the tools employed in working mobile, focusing on displaying their current limitation and usability in the work-related context.
Shaping of the Architectural Detail in View of Energy Saving BIBAKFull-Text 360-369
  Andrzej Skowronski; Maciej Skowronski
Global warming observed has provoked the tendencies to reduce the emission of CO2. In January 2014 Poland also introduced much stricter building-law regulations referring to how buildings should be designed in respect of heat insulation and a permissible value of EP coefficient (defining a yearly demand for primary energy). The changes introduced result from the general strategy included in the European EPBD (Energy Performance of Buildings Directive) which imposes (up to 2020) the reduction of greenhouse gases at least by 20%. In December 2014 the European Union took up another obligation -- to reduce greenhouse gases by 30% by the end of 2030.
   The consumption of energy in the building industry is vastly influenced by the thermal insulation of buildings, as well as by such things as: thermal Bridges, air tightness of a building.
   When an architectural detail is not designed carefully enough or some other errors occur in the process of construction, one can observe a large energy loss which escapes through thermal bridges or other leaky places in the building. Energy loss may then reach even dozen or more per cent.
   The European Union has changed legal regulations for the building industry, concerning mostly energy effectiveness. Those refer not only to the insulation capacity (passive protection from the heat loss) but also impose the obligation for new buildings to use renewable energy, which is understood as an active share of alternative energy. While doing their designer's job, architects must now dedicate their time to the calculations how much heat is lost and to computer simulations of the energy balance, including the energy coming from solar panels, heat pumps, wind energy, etc.
   The changes and limits to energy consumption introduced gradually influence the character of architect's profession. The buildings designed as extensively segmented or glazed will become less economical than simple but carefully insulated blocks. Also, the role of an architect is about to be changed giving way to a new profession which could be dubbed as: a specialist in energy saving and the building physics.
Keywords: Architecture; Saving energy; Detail
Changes in Shaping the Banking Environment BIBAKFull-Text 370-377
  Krystyna Strumillo
The goal of this article is to show the changes in shaping the banking environment. The analysis of these changes caused by the technological development aims at illustrating which banking functions have lost their original meaning or vanished, and which functions developed from scratch. The research method is based primarily on the selected examples from existing banks in cities, as well as on the analysis of source materials, i.e. scientific literature. The process of computerization and automation of banking operations becomes an important issue. The rapid development of technologies is mirrored in the bank and client relationship. This development affects not only the way of shaping the interior, but also the operations performed and appearance of banks. New technologies have fundamentally transformed both buildings design and the whole financial services sector. Electronic banking, which definitely has many advantages, is the most popular type of banking. It leads to wider savings and also helps to reduce the need to open traditional branches of banks. Now, the percentage of the financial and banking operations conducted via electronic means is increasing and clients are also supported by ATM machines and retail offices.
Keywords: Banking environment; Banking space; Bank building
Some Paradoxical Aspects of the Use of Computers for Architectural and Structural Design BIBAKFull-Text 378-389
  Romuald Tarczewski
The architectural form determines visual perception of the building and its social acceptance. From it depends also fulfillment of functional and utilitarian assumptions, adopted at the project beginning. The aim of architectural modeling is primarily to create a geometric model of the future facility. It has also influence on the ability of modeling of the structural system which is a carrier of architectural form. All limitations of the structural system translate into limitations of architectural form. As long as only straight lines and planes were readily available, and any curves and non-planar surfaces were extremely difficult to model -- architectural form was characterized by preference of orthogonality. If one looks at the restrictions in both architectural and structural modeling, resulted from the shortcomings of the underlying theory, and the impact that introduction of modeling with use of numerical tools had on change of that situation -- it can lead to surprising conclusions.
Keywords: Building modeling; Numerical models; Shaping of form
Interior Architecture and Humane Design BIBAKFull-Text 390-400
  Elzbieta Trocka-Leszczynska; Joanna Jablonska
There is a distinct correlation between the interior design architecture and ergonomic quality of space in hotel rooms. However, is an increase in standard paired with human comfort and safety? Does a higher standard of a hotel unit type, i.e.: Superior, Comfort or Suite, provide optimal spatial solutions? The article presents a continuation of a study on the following elements: design solutions, internal finishing, furnishing and appliances; investigating their influence on the well-being and safety of people with or without any type of disability. Research based on literature and numerous case studies was focused mainly on the needs of independent travelers, who wish to live in a hotel space without a need to rely on help from a third party. The scope of study includes hotel bedrooms, sitting rooms and bathrooms.
Keywords: Room standard; Appliances; Ergonomics of a hotel residential unit; Ergonomics of a hotel room

Ergonomics and Universal Access

Aiding Self-reliance of the Elderly and the Disabled -- Modular Cupboard with Mobile Internal Units BIBAKFull-Text 403-412
  Agata Bonenberg
Changes in the age structure of societies, development of medical care and, even more importantly, the drive of the elderly and the disabled towards self-reliant and satisfactory lives make the creation of space devoid of any barriers a fundamental goal of the architectural design. The subject of the study presented in this paper is the design of the modular cupboard with mobile internal units. The purpose of such a unique construction of this piece of furniture is to make the users able to optimally use the space available in the upper parts of the room. The paper consists of the three main elements: description of the inventive design, analysis of the customization options for the modular cupboard frame, and the research including the assessment of the modular cupboard frame according to the kansei method.
Keywords: Designing for the disabled and the elderly; Kansei method; Customization
Ergonomic Implications of Technological Innovations in the Development of Computer Workstations BIBAKFull-Text 413-421
  Marcin Butlewski; Aleksandra Dewicka; Edwin Tytyk
Relentless technological progress creates change in the work environment, including that of commonly used computer workstations. Determinants of change in this respect are both the changes in information and communication technologies as well as the more often exhibited concern for the welfare of employees. Technological innovations derive from a multifaceted improvement of a specified element of the technical environment (e.g., contrast, energy consumption for the next generation of computer screens), with the assumption that they will bring a benefit in terms of ergonomic quality of working conditions. Technological innovations can, however, cause a deterioration of identified in advance or often unknown parameters of the working environment, in particular, they can have negative consequences for ergonomic working conditions. The analysis found that technological changes satisfactory from the point of view of ergonomics.
Keywords: Ergonomic design; Heuristic methods; Design; Ergonomics; Devices for the elderly
A Freehand System for the Management of Orders Picking and Loading of Vehicles BIBAKFull-Text 422-431
  Pedro J. S. Cardoso; João M. F. Rodrigues; Luís Carlos Sousa; Andriy Mazayev; Emanuel Ey; Tiago Corrêa; Mário Saleiro
The process of picking goods from a warehouse and loading distribution vehicles is done in a systematic manner which in general corresponds to a certain order. For instance in the delivery of goods, it may be important to load the transportation vehicles in the reverse order of the customers visit, in furtherance of better accessing the products when unloading/delivering. This management can be troublesome if the human-computer interface requires the use of devices, like mouses or keyboards, which are difficult to be used under certain condition (e.g., human with dirty hands or wearing thick gloves/clothes). In this paper it is presented a proof-of-concept in the area of picking goods from a warehouse and the corresponding vehicle loading when using equipments which do not allow easy use of common human-computer interfaces. In this sense, an application using a 3D sensor was programmed to implement the human-computer interaction based on simple swipe gestures to navigate through the options, menu and their (de)selection.
Keywords: 3D sensor; Leap Motion; Orders picking and loading; Vehicle Routing Problem
Application of Infrared Technology in Household Water Tap Design and Evaluation BIBAKFull-Text 432-443
  Ming-Shih Chen; Ming-Lun Li; Yu-Chia Chen
Based on previous research results, this study examined the use of water taps and observes the experiences of different age groups when using new product designs. The results indicated that, although new designs can meet the demands of different generations, first-time users have a relatively low understanding of a product from its appearance; hence, if a new design deviates from common user cognition, even it could solve user problems, it still has low user acceptance.
Keywords: Infrared technology; Universal design; Washing behavior; Water tap; Use evaluation
Human Factor in Sustainable Manufacturing BIBAKFull-Text 444-455
  Malgorzata Jasiulewicz-Kaczmarek; Anna Saniuk
This article describes sustainable manufacturing (a part of a sustainable development concept) and the role of human factor/ergonomics (HFE) in achieving it. This includes consideration of relevant human factor issues in advancing manufacturing operations and processes from the point of view of product life cycle phases.
Keywords: Human factor/ergonomics; Sustainable manufacturing; Product life-cycle
Model of OHS Management Systems in an Excellent Company BIBAKFull-Text 456-467
  Anna Mazur
In the paper the model of the Occupational Health and Safety management system (OHS management system model.) implementable in organizations striving for continuous improvement and excellence is presented. The concepts of excellent organizations and organizational maturity are explained. The model presented by the author is the result of the case study based research conducted in five manufacturing companies in the Wielkopolska region. All the analyzed companies in a very clear way focus their attention on the issue of improving OHS management system and are interested in are assessment of organizational maturity in this area and meet the requirements of any health and safety excellence model. The basic assumption of the model is application of the continuous improvement principle at three management levels: strategic, tactical and operational. As an extension of the model presented, the option of the implementation of Deming's fourteen principles to the area of health and safety management is introduced. Approach to the management of health and safety presented points to the ever increasing interest of enterprises in these issues, in addition it proves the fact that achieving and improving organizational maturity is only possible with regard to issues of health and safety.
Keywords: OHS management model; Excellence model; Organizational maturity
Ergonomic Aspects of the Architectural Designing of the Stairs in the Spaces for the Great Public Gathering BIBAKFull-Text 468-479
  Zdzislaw Pelczarski
Spaces designed for large public gatherings, arranged both inside buildings and outside them, need to take into account a number of specific conditions. Among them the most important are design issues related to stairs. In this case, the main problems arise from the need to ensure a smooth and safe movement of the human masses, while fulfilling the relevant conditions of mental and physical comfort for each of the individuals, which are part of the moving crowd. In this context, the most critical design issues relate to the evacuation, taking into account the specific behaviours during the panic, especially when the crowd moves down the stairs from the upper to the lower floors. The article presents considerations, research results and conclusions of the author, based on his own experience of many years of architectural practice in the design of stadiums.
Keywords: Ergonomic; Stairs; Architecture; Designing; Crowd movement
Typology and Ergonomics of Rooms in Contemporary Hotel BIBAKFull-Text 480-491
  Elzbieta Trocka-Leszczynska; Joanna Jablonska
Depending on the hotel's standard, a variety of room types can be distinguished: Single, Twin, Double, Apartments (Polish "Apartament"), suites: junior, business, senator, etc. What is more, these are often found in a variety of standards, i.e. Standard, Superior, Luxury, Deluxe, Queen, King, Royal or Executive, just to name a few. With such a range of possibilities, and even more diversification based on cultural and architectural customs in a particular country, it seems that a proper typology of hotel services should be based rather on the grounds of ergonomics and room comfort than marketing labels. This article presents a study aiming at properly formulating tools for standardization of contemporary hotel accommodation. Scope of the study includes a range of European examples.
Keywords: Hotel design; Hotel room typology; Hotel room ergonomics; Contemporary hotels