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UAHCI 2015: 9th International Conference on Universal Access in Human-Computer Interaction, Part II: Access to Interaction

Fullname:UAHCI 2015: 9th International Conference on Universal Access in Human-Computer Interaction, Part II: Access to Interaction
Note:Volume 8 of HCI International 2015
Editors:Constantine Stephanidis; Margherita Antona
Location:Los Angeles, California
Dates:2015-Aug-02 to 2015-Aug-07
Volume:2
Publisher:Springer International Publishing
Series:Lecture Notes in Computer Science 8514
Standard No:DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-07440-5 hcibib: UAHCI15-2; ISBN: 978-3-319-07439-9 (print), 978-3-319-07440-5 (online)
Papers:65
Pages:735
Links:Online Proceedings | Conference Website
  1. UAHCI 2015-08-02 Volume 2
    1. Access to Mobile Interaction
    2. Access to Text, Documents and Media
    3. Access to Education and Learning
    4. Access to Games and Ludic Engagement
    5. Access to Culture

UAHCI 2015-08-02 Volume 2

Access to Mobile Interaction

Effects of User Age on Smartphone and Tablet Use, Measured with an Eye-Tracker via Fixation Duration, Scan-Path Duration, and Saccades Proportion BIBAKFull-Text 3-14
  Suleyman Al-Showarah; Naseer AL-Jawad; Harin Sellahewa
The design of user interfaces plays an important role in human computer interaction, especially for smartphones and tablet devices. It is very important to consider the interface design of smartphones for elderly people in order for them to benefit from the variety applications on such devices. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of user age as well as screen size on smartphone/tablet use. We evaluated the usability of smartphone interfaces for three different age groups: elderly age group (60+ years), middle age group (40-59 years) and younger age group (20-39 years). The evaluation is performed using three different screen sizes of smartphone and tablet devices: 3.2", 7", and 10.1" respectively. An eye-tracker device was employed to obtain three metrics: fixation duration, scan-path duration, and saccades amplitude. Two hypothesis were considered. First, elderly users will have both local and global processing difficulties on smartphone/tablet use than other age groups. Second, all user age groups will be influnced by screen sizes; small screen size will have smaller saccades proportion indicating uneasy interface browsing compared to large screen size. All these results have been statistically evaluated using 2-way ANOVA.
Keywords: Smartphone interfaces; elderly people; eye tracking; mobile computing; human computer interaction; interfaces evaluation; usability of smart phone
LifeSpeeder BIBAKFull-Text 15-25
  Pedro J. S. Cardoso; Jânio Monteiro; José dos Santos; Natália Baeza; Sérgio Tarazona
The use of smartphones and tablets as become almost banal in these days. Smartphones, besides serving their main purpose of making and receiving calls, come to be one of the main equipments to obtain information from the Internet, using the commonly installed browsers or through the use of dedicated applications. Furthermore, several other devices are also very frequent to the majority of the modern smartphones and tablets in the market (e.g., GPS -- Global Positioning System). This devices give the current systems a very high potential of usage.
   One example of applicability, comes from the wish to find and navigate to events or activities which are or will soon be occurring near the user. The LifeSpeeder platform is one of the first applications in the mobile equipment market of applications which take into consideration exactly what we have just outlined, i.e., a mobile and desktop application which allows the users to locate events according with their preferences and to get help navigating to them. In this paper we briefly describe the LifeSpeeder's front and back-end.
Keywords: Geographic and Temporal Location of Events; Android; NoSQL Databases
Elders Using Smartphones -- A Set of Research Based Heuristic Guidelines for Designers BIBAKFull-Text 26-37
  Stefan Carmien; Ainara Garzo Manzanares
Smartphones and an increasingly aged population are two highly visible emergent attributes in the last decade. Smartphones are becoming the canonical front end for the cloud, web, and applications from email to social media -- especially so if you include pads in the same category. In Europe, the Americas and Asia the ratio of over those over 65 compared to the total population that is becoming increasingly skewed. This paper is about the intersection of these two socio-technical vectors, or more to the point about the mismatch between them: a mismatch which can lead to an increase in the digital divide rather than the decline that the more affordable smartphones could promise. We present a study of literature and results of a design process in the form of heuristics to support smartphone/tablet designers making useable and useful products for elder end-users.
Keywords: Smartphone; Small touch screens; Older adults; Heuristics; GUI design guidelines
VIC -- An Interactive Video System for Dynamic Visualization in Web and Mobile Platforms BIBAFull-Text 38-49
  Benjamim Fonseca; Hugo Paredes; Paulo Martins; André Alberto; José Rego; Leonel Morgado; Arnaldo Santos
This paper presents an interactive video system that enables users to change the flow of video playback by interacting with hotspots that were predefined throughout the video streams. These hotspots are synchronized with the underlying video streams and the interactions result in smooth transitions between the preloaded targets. This approach allows the dynamic visualization of content by interacting with the hotspots and producing the consequent changes in the flow of the story. The system includes web-based and mobile video players specifically developed to deal with the interactive features, as well as a configuration tool that allows content managers to choose which pre-produced interaction possibilities will be used for a specific target audience. The interactive video solution presented herein has potential to be used as a powerful communication tool, in commercial, e-learning, accessibility and entertainment contexts.
Implementing GPII/Cloud4All Support for Mobile Accessibility for Android BIBAKFull-Text 50-57
  Ferran Gállego
Mobile Accessibility for Android is a combination of a suite of accessible apps and a screen reader which provide accessibility on Android devices for blind and visually impaired users. Main functionality of Android devices is made available to the user through Mobile Accessibility's voice and Braille based UI. This paper describes the process of integrating this commercial product with GPII/Cloud4All online architecture, providing auto-configuration based on user's online profile and NFC user identification.
Keywords: Access to mobile interaction; Cloud4All; GPII
The GPII on Smart Phones: Android BIBAKFull-Text 58-67
  Javier Hernández Antúnez
The focus of this presentation is to go through all the aspects that are being covered during the works on the implementation of the Global Public Inclusive Infrastructure (GPII) [1] on Smart Phones, the scope, the status of the current implementation and upcoming developments where the Cloud4all [2] project is working on.
   Since The Global Public Inclusive Infrastructure aims to become an international standard, one of the biggest challenges of the GPII project is to support all those devices that are using, and will use in the future, the technologies around the Smart Phones. This initial implementation is coming from the Cloud4all project, which has bet on the Android platform to demonstrate the features that the GPII will offer to us on every device that could run Android on it, either a Smart Phone, or Tablet, or DigitialTV, etc, and will serve as inspiration for future implementations on other Smart Phone platforms such as the popular iOS and Windows Phone, or the emerging Firefox OS, Tizen or Ubuntu Touch.
Keywords: Accessibility; Internet Access; Health; Social inclusion; Cloud; Mobility
Effects of Interaction Style and Screen Size on Touchscreen Text Entry Performance: An Empirical Research BIBAKFull-Text 68-79
  Sandi Ljubic; Vlado Glavinic; Mihael Kukec
In this paper we investigate text entry performance for mobile touchscreen devices with emulated QWERTY keyboards, with special emphasis on interaction style and screen size. When addressing interaction style, we are referring to the five most common combinations of hands postures and device orientations while executing text entry tasks. Both single-finger and two-thumb methods for typing in portrait and/or landscape layout are considered. As for screen sizes, several classes of popular mobile devices are examined, specifically smartphones and tablets with smaller and larger form factor. In addition, the mobile device emulator is included in the study, in order to report the comparative analysis of text entry with an actual device and its emulation-based counterpart. The touchscreen desktop monitor was used so as to provide touch input for the device emulator. Results obtained from experimental testing, supported by thorough data analysis, provide a valuable insight into the user behavior when typing on touchscreens.
Keywords: text entry; interaction style; screen size; touchscreens; mobile devices

Access to Text, Documents and Media

An Experimental Approach in Conceptualizing Typographic Signals of Documents by Eight-Dot and Six-Dot Braille Code BIBAKFull-Text 83-92
  Vassilios Argyropoulos; Aineias Martos; Georgios Kouroupetroglou; Sofia Chamonikolaou; Magda Nikolaraizi
The main research aim of the present study focuses on issues of reading comprehension, when users with blindness receive typographic meta-data by touch through a braille display. Levels of reading comprehension are investigated by the use of 6-dot and 8-dot braille code in matched texts for the cases of bold and italic meta-data. The results indicated a slight superiority of the 8-dot braille code in reading time and scorings. The discussion considered the practical implications of the findings such as issues regarding education as well as the development of suitable design of tactile rendition of typographic signals through 6-dot or 8-dot braille code in favor of better perception and comprehension.
Keywords: typographic signals; 6-dot braille; 8-dot braille; braille display; blindness; document accessibility; assistive technology
Document Transformation Infrastructure BIBAKFull-Text 93-100
  Lars Ballieu Christensen; Amrish Chourasia
Many people face barriers to accessing textual information due to visual, reading or language limitations. They need alternative formats to text such as Braille or audio. However, producing accessible formats is often expensive, time consuming, and requires special expertise and training. RoboBraille offers a cost-effective and timely manner to accessible material production. It provides fully automated conversion of text into a number of alternative formats, including mp3 files, Daisy full text/full audio, e-books or Braille books. As part of Prosperity4all project, RoboBraille will be adapted to fit into the overall technical architecture of the Global Public Inclusive Infrastructure (GPII), and interfaces for new conversion capabilities such as semantic structure recognition, text-to-sign language and language-to-language translation will be added.
Keywords: Accessibility; Document Transformation; Braille; e-books
Accessible Metadata Generation BIBAKFull-Text 101-110
  Anastasia Cheetham; Dana Ayotte; Jonathan Hung; Joanna Vass; Colin Clark; Jess Mitchell; Jutta Treviranus
This paper outlines a strategy and suite of tools for creating more accessible and personalizable web content by supporting the creation of accessibility metadata. The tools showcased below allow content creators to easily generate metadata at the point of creation, reducing the cost and complexity of producing and delivering content that can be tailored to a user's needs and preferences.
   This work follows the AccessForAll approach, which focuses on meeting individual user's needs by matching those needs to appropriate content [1]. This level of personalization depends upon both the availability of infrastructure that can deliver alternative and adapted versions, and on the availability of content with accessibility metadata that can be used in the matchmaking process.
Keywords: Metadata; personalization; user needs and preferences; authoring; matching; AccessForAll
EAR-Math: Evaluation of Audio Rendered Mathematics BIBAKFull-Text 111-120
  Hernisa Kacorri; Paraskevi Riga; Georgios Kouroupetroglou
Audio rendering of mathematical expressions has accessibility benefits for people with visual impairment. Seeking a systematic way to measure participants' perception of the rendered formulae with audio cues, we investigate the design of performance metrics to capture the distance between reference and perceived math expressions. We propose EAR-Math, a methodological approach for user-based evaluation of math rendering against a baseline. EAR-Math measures systems' performance using three fine-grained error rates based on the structural elements, arithmetic operators, numbers and identifiers in a formula. The proposed methodology and metrics were successfully applied in a pilot study, where 5 sighted and 2 blind participants evaluated 39 stimuli rendered by MathPlayer in Greek. In the obtained results, we observed that structural elements had the highest mean and variance of errors, which improved from 18% in the first attempt to 10% and 7% in two following attempts.
Keywords: mathematics; audio rendering; visually impaired; blind; evaluation; user study
Riemann Geometric Color-Weak Compensation for Individual Observers BIBAKFull-Text 121-131
  Takanori Kojima; Rika Mochizuki; Reiner Lenz; Jinhui Chao
We extend a method for color weak compensation based on the criterion of preservation of subjective color differences between color normal and color weak observers presented in [2]. We introduce a new algorithm for color weak compensation using local affine maps between color spaces of color normal and color weak observers. We show how to estimate the local affine map and how to determine correspondences between the origins of local coordinates in color spaces of color normal and color weak observers. We also describe a new database of measured color discrimination threshold data. The new measurements are obtained at different lightness levels in CIELUV space. They are measured for color normal and color weak observers. The algorithms are implemented and evaluated using the Semantic Differential method.
Keywords: Universal Design; Color-barrier-free Technology; Color-weak Compensation; Riemann geometry
Effect of the Color Tablet Computer's Polarity and Character Size on Legibility BIBAKFull-Text 132-143
  Hsuan Lin; Wei Lin; Wang-Chin Tsai; Yune-Yu Cheng; Fong-Gong Wu
This study aimed to explore how different polarities and character sizes on tablet e-readers affect users' legibility and visual fatigue. Following the experimental method, 30 participants were required to search for the target words in pseudo-texts; meanwhile, the experimental data were connected to an exclusive database through the Internet. Thus, the participants' search times, accuracy rates, and visual fatigue levels could be analyzed. As indicated by the analytic result, all the four kinds of character size affected search time. Specifically, the 8-pt target words on a 10.1-inch screen had the slowest search speed. As character size increased to 12 pt, search speed became significantly faster. Besides, the interaction between polarity and character size had a significant effect on the accuracy rate of searched target words. This study showed that as a character size increased, polarity produced a higher accuracy rate, and that negative polarity had a more significant effect than positive polarity. Under positive polarity, 8 pt had the lowest accuracy rate, and 10 pt had the next lowest accuracy rate. However, after the character size was increased to 12 pt or above, the accuracy rate was not promoted. Moreover, a larger character size produced a higher accuracy rate. Therefore, 12 pt and 14 pt got the best performance. As for visual fatigue, a small character size was the main factor. The findings of this study can be used in the design of tablet e-readers.
Keywords: tablet computer; legibility; visual fatigue; character size
A Proposal for an Automated Method to Produce Embossed Graphics for Blind Persons BIBAKFull-Text 144-153
  Kazunori Minatani
The aim of this paper is to provide examples illustrating the conditions for effectively functionalizing the "method of converting graphics into a form that can be perceived using senses other than sight" in the field of HCI. Specifically, it is shown that advantages that method are fully achieved with the implementation of a prototype embossed graphics output function for the statistical analysis software R. In attempting to generate automated tactile graphics from the output of any kind of graphics software, the strategy described below will be useful: a. To investigate whether the intermediate graphics format used in the relevant software consists of primitive vector format drawing commands and character printing commands that handle characters as codes, and b. If the latter conditions are fulfilled, to perform conversion to tactile graphics at the stage of graphics data expressed as that intermediate format.
Keywords: blind person; embossed graphics; vector format
Usability Evaluation of a Web System for Spatially Oriented Audio Descriptions of Images Addressed to Visually Impaired People BIBAKFull-Text 154-165
  José Monserrat Neto; André P. Freire; Sabrina S. Souto; Ramon S. Abílio
This paper describes a web system designed to provide spatially oriented audio descriptions of an image for visually impaired users. The system uses a hardware-independent platform of the technique of multimodal presentation of images. Visually impaired users interact with an image displayed on the screen while moving the cursor -- with a mouse or a tablet (pen or finger touch) -- and listening to the audio description of previously marked areas within the image. The paper also describes the usability evaluation performed with five participants and its main results. Generally, the five participants accomplished the usability test tasks and could better understand the image displayed. The paper also describes the main findings and discusses some implications for design, suggesting some improvements.
Keywords: Spacial orientation; audio descriptions
Emotional Prosodic Model Evaluation for Greek Expressive Text-to-Speech Synthesis BIBAKFull-Text 166-174
  Dimitrios Tsonos; Pepi Stavropoulou; Georgios Kouroupetroglou; Despina Deligiorgi; Nikolaos Papatheodorou
In this study we introduce a novel experimental approach towards the evaluation of emotional prosodic models in Expressive Speech Synthesis. It is based on the dimensional emotion expressivity and adopts the Self-Assessment Manikin Test. We applied this experimental approach to evaluate an emotional prosodic model for Greek expressive Text-to-Speech synthesis. We used two pseudo-sentences for each of the Greek and English HMM-based synthetic voices, implemented in the MARY TtS platform. Fifteen native Greek participants were asked to assess eleven emotional states for each sentence. The results show that the "Arousal" dimension is perceived as intended, followed by the "Pleasure" and "Dominance" dimensions' ratings. These preliminary findings are consistent with the results in previous studies.
Keywords: Expressive Speech Synthesis; prosody evaluation; Text-to-Speech; emotional state
Eye Tracking on a Paper Survey: Implications for Design BIBAKFull-Text 175-182
  Lauren Walton; Jennifer C. Romano Bergstrom; David Charles Hawkins; Christine Pierce
Asking respondents to record their activity in a diary can be a difficult task due to retrospective reporting and cognitive burden as well as the complexity of the data collection tool. Diary questionnaires typically require multiple pieces of information including demographics, activities, and duration over a data collection period. Like other questionnaire types, visual design principles can be used to help people perceive and understand what is being asked of them during diary measurement. Eye tracking, a technology that allows us to passively study people's eye movements, has been used mostly for questionnaire testing within the survey research field. This study focuses on using eye tracking and other user experience measures to analyze how respondents perceive, understand and experience different designs of the paper Nielsen TV Diary. We used eye tracking to gain insights into visual elements that draw attention, the amount of text that respondents read (e.g., terms/instructions), and how respondents complete the survey. This paper centers on the collecting and analyzing of qualitative and quantitative measures of the user experience, including eye-tracking data (e.g., fixation count, time to fixate), participants' verbalizations, self-reported satisfaction, and performance data (e.g., accuracy, steps to complete). We also provide recommendations about the design of the paper diary based on the user experience and eye-tracking results.
Keywords: Eye tracking; survey; diary; visual design; usability

Access to Education and Learning

Can Evaluation Patterns Enable End Users to Evaluate the Quality of an e-learning System? An Exploratory Study BIBAKFull-Text 185-196
  Carmelo Ardito; Rosa Lanzilotti; Marcin Sikorski; Igor Garnik
This paper presents the results of an exploratory study whose main aim is to verify if the Pattern-Based (PB) inspection technique enables end users to perform reliable evaluation of e-learning systems in real work-related settings. The study involved 13 Polish and Italian participants, who did not have an HCI background, but used e-learning platforms for didactic and/or administrative purposes. The study revealed that the participants were able to effectively and efficiently apply the PB inspection technique with minimum effort. However, in some cases, participants complained that, in some cases, the technique appeared time demanding. This work provides some valuable suggestions to redesign the evaluation tools of the PB technique, in order to improve the focus on specific elements of the e-learning system and to streamline better the evaluation process.
Keywords: usability; inspection technique; exploratory study
Computer-Based Cognitive Training in Adults with Down's Syndrome BIBAKFull-Text 197-208
  Stefania Bargagna; Margherita Bozza; Maria Claudia Buzzi; Marina Buzzi; Elena Doccini; Erico Perrone
Adults with Down Syndrome show a clear genetic susceptibility to developing Alzheimer's Disease, the most common cause of dementia worldwide. In this paper we describe a set of computer-based exercises designed for cognitive training of adults with Down Syndrome. The aim is to provide tele-rehabilitation via a Web application that can be used at home to create an enriched environment. Each exercise is presented as a game with images, text and vocal communication. The user moves forward at increasing levels of difficulty according to previous positive percentage thresholds. Performance data is centrally collected and available to the tutor to check progress and better define the training. Several categories of exercises are needed to train different abilities: attention, memory, visual-spatial orientation, temporal orientation, pre-logical and logical operations, perception, visual analysis, language, and data relevance. At this time, two modules have been implemented for exercising attention and memory.
Keywords: Training software; tele-rehabilitation; Down Syndrome; dementia; accessibility; learning games
An Analytic Tool for Assessing Learning in Children with Autism BIBAKFull-Text 209-220
  Valentina Bartalesi; Maria Claudia Buzzi; Marina Buzzi; Barbara Leporini; Caterina Senette
One approach for teaching subjects with autism is Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA). ABA intervention aims to model human behavior by observing, analyzing and modifying antecedents and/or consequences of a target behavior in the environment. To achieve this, many data are recorded during each trial, such as subject response (correct/incorrect, level of prompt, inappropriate behavior, etc.). In this paper we present a web application that aggregates and visualizes data collected during technology-enhanced educational sessions, in order to monitor learning in children with autism. In a previous study we developed a free open source web application called ABCD SW, to support educators in administering ABA programs. In this study we present a learning analytic tool that retrieves, aggregates and shows -- in graphical and table form -- data gathered by ABCD SW. This software offers accurate real-time monitoring of children's learning, allowing teachers to analyze the collected data more rapidly, and to accurately tune and personalize the intervention for each child.
Keywords: Learning Analytic tool; Data Analysis; web application; Autism; ABA
Towards Improving the e-learning Experience for Deaf Students: e-LUX BIBAKFull-Text 221-232
  Fabrizio Borgia; Claudia S. Bianchini; Maria De Marsico
Deaf people are more heavily affected by the digital divide than many would expect. Moreover, most accessibility guidelines addressing their needs just deal with captioning and audio-content transcription. However, this approach to the problem does not consider that deaf people have big troubles with vocal languages, even in their written form. At present, only a few organizations, like W3C, produced guidelines dealing with one of their most distinctive expressions: Sign Language (SL). SL is, in fact, the visual-gestural language used by many deaf people to communicate with each other. The present work aims at supporting e-learning user experience (e-LUX) for these specific users by enhancing the accessibility of content and container services. In particular, we propose preliminary solutions to tailor activities which can be more fruitful when performed in one's own "native" language, which for most deaf people, especially younger ones, is represented by national SL.
Keywords: Deaf needs; Sign Language; SignWriting; User Experience; e-learning
Medium for Children's Creativity: A Case Study of Artifact's Influence BIBAKFull-Text 233-244
  Nanna Borum; Kasper Kristensen; Eva Petersson Brooks; Anthony Lewis Brooks
This paper reports on an exploratory study that investigates 16 elementary school children's interaction with two different mediums for creativity, LEGO® bricks and paper collages, drawing on the previous creativity assessment test carried out by Amabile [1]. The study is based in a playful learning theoretical framework that is reflected in the means for analyzing the video material inspired by Price, Rogers, Scaife, Stanton and Neale [2]. The findings showed that the children explored the two mediums to the same degree, but that they were more structured in their planning and division on labor when working with LEGO bricks. It was also evident that the children assigned preconceived affordances to the two mediums. The results from this study should feed into to a technology enhanced playful learning environment and these are the initial steps in the design process.
Keywords: Creativity; Playful Learning; Play; Artifacts; Technology Enhanced Learning
Action Research to Generate Requirements for a Computational Environment Supporting Bilingual Literacy of Deaf Children BIBAKFull-Text 245-253
  Juliana Bueno; Laura Sánchez García
Having as premises the user-centered design and the necessity for a greater knowledge about the real context of teaching and learning a second language to Deaf children, this study makes use of action research to get requirements for the conceptual model of a computational environment supporting bilingual literacy of Deaf children. This paper describes the activities of a particular action research process, together with its stages, performed with four Deaf children within a Brazilian public bilingual school. The process lasted three months and achieved the following results: a significant improvement in the interest of participating children in written Portuguese -- qualitative, measured by their motivation in not stopping their learning process -- and a set of functional and non functional requirements for the conceptual model to be developed.
Keywords: Action-research; user-centered design; deaf children; requirements
Early Interaction Experiences of Deaf Children and Teachers with the OLPC Educational Laptop BIBAKFull-Text 254-264
  Maíra Codo Canal; Juliana Bueno; Laura Sánchez García; Leonelo D. A. Almeida; Alessio, Jr. Miranda
The adoption of computing technologies in the schools has the potential for supporting the digital and social inclusion. However, whether such technologies are not accessible they can deepen the exclusion of students with disabilities, and other minorities. This work investigated questions regarding the use of the laptops from OLPC by deaf children between 7 and 12 years old and by teachers from a bilingual school. The results indicate that children were excited due the use of the device; even they behaved reticent during the interaction. The study also identified interaction problems regarding both hardware and software in the use of the laptop.
Keywords: Accessibility; XO laptop; computer-based learning; deaf children; OLPC
Research on Accessibility of Question Modalities Used in Computer-Based Assessment (CBA) for Deaf Education BIBAKFull-Text 265-276
  Maíra Codo Canal; Laura Sánchez García
Virtual learning environments (VLEs) are increasingly being used for several purposes and audiences worldwide. VLEs are often used for communication with peers and with teachers, for sharing and collaborating on assignments and for assessments. Although the ultimate goal of distance learning is to make education available to anyone anywhere and at anytime, this goal cannot be accomplished unless VLEs are designed to be accessible to all potential students, including those with disabilities. In this paper, we investigated the accessibility of some question types (e.g. multiple choice, essay) used in Computer-based Assessment (CBA) in the Moodle platform, focusing on deaf students. Evaluation results indicate problems related to the use of videos, images, texts and customization for users. We also propose some design solutions for those problems.
Keywords: Computer-based assessment; deaf students; virtual learning environments
Assessing Group Composition in e-learning According to Vygotskij's Zone of Proximal Development BIBAKFull-Text 277-288
  Maria De Marsico; Andrea Sterbini; Marco Temperini
In this paper we build on previous work exploring a formal way to assess the composition of learning groups. We start from our existing framework, designed to provide support to personalization in e-learning environments, comprising an implementation of the Vygotskij Theory of proximal development. In such theory, effective individual learning achievements can be only obtained within the boundaries of a cognitive zone where the learner can proceed without frustration, though with support from teacher and peers. In this endeavor, the individual development cannot disregard social-collaborative educational activities. Previously we gave operative definitions of the Zone of Proximal Development for both single learners and groups; here we aim at assessing the viability of a partition of students in groups over a common task.
Keywords: Individual Zone of Proximal Development; Group Zone of Proximal development; Personalized learning path; Social collaborative e-learning
A Data Mining Approach to the Analysis of Students' Learning Styles in an e-Learning Community: A Case Study BIBAFull-Text 289-300
  Valentina Efrati; Carla Limongelli; Filippo Sciarrone
In recent years, there has been a radical change in the world of education and training that is causing that many schools, universities and companies are adopting the most modern technologies, mainly based on Web architectures and Web 2.0 instruments and tools, for learning, managing and sharing of knowledge. In this context, an e-Learning system can reach its maximum potential and effectiveness if it could take advantage of the information in its possession and process it in an intelligent and personalized way. The Educational Data Mining is an emergent field of research where the approach to personalization makes use of the log data generated by learners during their training process, to dynamically update users learning profiles such as skills and learning styles and identify students behavioral patterns. In this paper we present a case study of a data mining approach, based on cluster analysis, in order to support the detection of learning styles in a community of learners, following the Grasha-Riechmann learning styles model. As an e-learning framework we used the Moodle LMS platform and studied the log files generated by a course taken by a community of learners. The first experimental results suggest a connection between clusters and learning styles, reinforcing the use of this approach.
Augmented Reality Tools and Learning Practice in Mobile-Learning BIBAKFull-Text 301-312
  Mauro Figueiredo; José Gomes; Cristina Gomes; João Lopes
There are many augmented reality (AR) applications available that can be used to create educational contents for these mobile devices. This paper surveys the most popular augmented reality applications and we select AR eco-systems to be used in daily teaching activities which are user friendly, do not require programming skills and are free. Different augmented reality technologies are explored in this paper to create teaching activities with animations, videos and other information to be shown on top of interactive documents. It is presented the creation of a novel augmented reality book that was developed with teachers and students. Several examples are also presented that are used in educational activities, from kindergarten to elementary and secondary schools, to improve reading, comprehension and learning of music.
Keywords: Augmented reality; e-learning; m-learning
e-Testing with Interactive Images -- Opportunities and Challenges BIBAKFull-Text 313-324
  Marjan Gusev; Sasko Ristov; Goce Armenski
Modern e-Education systems lack some basic functionalities the e-Testing systems have, such as reuse of question database, random positioning of answer options in multiple choice questions, generation of different tests with the same complexity for students, prevention of cheating by guessing and memorizing etc.
   Multimedia is essential in the delivery of e-Learning and e-Testing. However, most of the existing systems include multimedia only as delivery of static pictures and animations without any interaction with images. In this paper we refer to opportunities and challenges the interactive image might have for e-Testing.
   We present features of a new human computer interface and discuss the basic architecture of interactive images to be applied in the delivery of interactive e-Testing. At the end we discuss the benefit of this approach and present proof of a concept by analyzing the application domain.
Keywords: Google maps engine; interactive image; e-testing
On Enhancing Disabled Students' Accessibility in Environmental Education Using ICT: The MusicPaint Case BIBAKFull-Text 325-336
  Sofia J. Hadjileontiadou; Erasmia Plastra; Kostantinos Toumpas; Katerina Kyprioti; Dimitrios Mandiliotis; João Barroso; Leontios J. Hadjileontiadis
This work draws upon the theoretical foundations of Special Education for People with Disability, Environmental Education and the Human Computer Interaction (HCI), from the Activity Theory perspective, to propose the MusicPaint software. Initially, the design considerations of MusicPaint are presented. Then, its pilot use by seven students with disability is described. From the qualitative and quantitative evidence of performance that was gathered, the key findings are presented and discussed. Despite the limited number of participants in the experimental validation scenarios, the findings reveal the potentiality of the MusicPaint to enhance the accessibility of students with disability to Environmental Education opportunities, contributing to the HCI-based enhancement of accessibility in the educational settings.
Keywords: Students with Disability; Special Education; Environmental Education; ICT; MusicPaint; Human-Computer Interaction; Didactical Instruction; Activity Theory
Accessibility in Multimodal Digital Learning Materials BIBAKFull-Text 337-348
  Bolette Willemann Jensen; Simon Moe
This review is based on research-based guidelines and principles for accessibility in multimodal digital learning materials and educational texts. It also includes research on the use of the body and interaction as a kind of modality. In the context of the review a number of recommendations is themed, based on findings in the literature, from a didactic-pedagogical perspective. These themes relate to: the structure and content of learning materials; software and formats; the correlation between modalities; and kinesthetics. We conclude with a presentation of general principles for the idea of broad accessibility.
Keywords: Accessibility; Multimodality; Digitalisation; Learning materials; Reading
Accessible Open Educational Resources for Students with Disabilities in Greece: They are Open to the Deaf BIBAKFull-Text 349-357
  Vassilis Kourbetis; Konstantinos Boukouras
The development Open Educational Resources is the main outcome of the project "Design and Development of Accessible Educational & Instructional Material for Students with Disabilities". A portion of the deliverables of the project that mainly concerns Deaf students, a population that is usually under presented, is presented in this article. The Collection of Educational Resources, the Bilingual Hybrid books and the online videos with interactive text navigation cover mainly elementary school needs of Deaf students. Making textbooks accessible, as Open Educational Resources, by all students including the Deaf, on a national level meets the needs of all the students in the country by creating equal opportunities for learning, participating and accessing the curriculum.
Keywords: deaf children; Greek Sign Language; open educational resources
Measuring the Effect of First Encounter with Source Code Entry for Instruction Set Architectures Using Touchscreen Devices: Evaluation of Usability Components BIBAKFull-Text 358-369
  Mihael Kukec; Vlado Glavinic; Sandi Ljubic
In this paper we address the possibility of writing program code for instruction set architectures using the touchscreen as the input device. Instruction set architecture is the common name for a collection of resources computer engineers use when developing code at the hardware level. One of the most important subsets among these resources are instructions which programmers use to create algorithms. Students enrolled in computer engineering curricula are trained to develop such solutions, using standard personal computers equipped with keyboard and mouse, thus providing them with a high level usability working environment. As technology progress has enabled the introduction of mobile platforms in the educational process, touchscreen based m-learning becomes a viable tool. To that end, in our previous research we developed a specific keyboard VMK that supports entry of assembly language code, which is based on mnemonic keys, with the aim to achieve a better efficiency of assembly coding. In the present paper we present the outcome of an improved empirical research targeting the comparison of VMK and the standard QWERTY keyboard. The results thus obtained show improved results of key usability attributes of efficiency and subjective satisfaction.
Keywords: Technology enhanced learning; usability; mobile devices; touchscreen keyboards
Framework for Adaptive Knowledge Transmission Supported by HCI and Interoperability Concepts BIBAKFull-Text 370-377
  Fernando Luís-Ferreira; João Sarraipa; Ricardo Jardim-Goncalves
Teachers and educators have the mission of transmitting the best of their knowledge using the most from available resources and following established programmatic guidelines. The continuous evolution of technology, proposing new tools and apparatus for knowledge representation and transmission, has offered innumerous options for the mission of teaching. However, more then providing a wide set of experimental setups, or multimedia contents, would be important to determine the best content for each student. Hypothetically, the best content would be defined as the most suited to promote a seamless transmission of knowledge, according to the student status and his readiness to receive those concepts. Human Computer Interfaces can promote a better interoperability between those who teach and those who learn and can better adapt contents and transmission methods to the needs and abilities of each student in class. The present paper proposes a framework for adapting knowledge transmission, either local or remotely, to the needs and circumstances of each teaching act.
Keywords: HCI; Interoperability; Emotions; Knowledge Management; Neurosciences
HCI-Based Guidelines for Electronic and Mobile Learning for Arabic Speaking Users: Do They Effectively Exist? BIBAKFull-Text 378-387
  Muhanna Muhanna; Edward Jaser
Electronic and mobile learning in recent years has been considered as an invaluable tool to support the learning process. Several tools and comprehensive platforms have been developed in the paradigms of e-learning and m-learning. One issue is the usability of these tools. It is essential to define metrics to measure efficiency, learnability, satisfaction and other usability properties. Another equally important issue is the presence of guidelines compiled based on accumulated scientific reasoning behind design decisions. In this paper, we discuss the issue of HCI-based guideline specific to designing e- and m-learning platforms and tools intended for Arabic users. We present our analysis on the availability of such guidelines, their deployment and to whether they adequately address the challenges characteristic to Arabic language.
Keywords: HCI; Arabic; E-Learning; M-Learning; Guidelines
Accessible Online Education: Audiovisual Translation and Assistive Technology at the Crossroads BIBAKFull-Text 388-399
  Emmanouela Patiniotaki
The purpose of this paper is to give prominence to the potential of the combination of access services emerging within Translation, and more specifically Audiovisual Translation and what is also known as Accessible Media or Media Accessibility, with Assistive Technology tools, which have been more widely realised as the media for accessibility. Through a thorough investigation of access provision practices within the two fields, the research aims to combine the best applications within the two fields to suggest potential implementation of AVT and AST elements towards accessible online educational environments while catering for the needs of students with sensory impairments.
Keywords: online education; assistive technology; audiovisual translation; accessibility; access services; subtitling; audio description; deaf; hard-of-hearing; sensory impairments; blind; partially sighted
Skill Development Framework for Micro-Tasking BIBAKFull-Text 400-409
  Shin Saito; Toshihiro Watanabe; Masatomo Kobayashi; Hironobu Takagi
We propose a framework of micro-tasking that intrinsically supports the development of workers' skills. It aims to help developers of micro-tasking systems add skill development capabilities to their systems with minimal development costs. This will allow micro-tasking of skill-intensive work and improve the sustainability of micro-tasking systems. Based on the results of the micro-tasking projects we have carried out, our framework has three core modules: tutorial producer, task dispatcher, and feedback visualizer, which are supported by a back-end skill assessment engine. In closing, we discuss ways to apply the proposed framework to realistic micro-tasking situations.
Keywords: Crowdsourcing; Micro-Tasks; Skill Assessment; Skill Development; Gamification; Senior Workforce
Utilizing Eye Tracking to Improve Learning from Examples BIBAKFull-Text 410-418
  Amir Shareghi Najar; Antonija Mitrovic; Kourosh Neshatian
In recent year, eye tracking has been used in many areas such as usability studies of interfaces, marketing, and psychology. Learning with computer-based educational systems relies heavily on students' interactions, and therefore eye tracking has been used to study and improve learning. We have recently conducted several studies on using worked examples in addition to tutored problem solving. In this paper we discuss how we used eye-tracking data to compare behaviors of novices and advanced students while studying examples. We propose a new technique to analyze eye-gaze patterns named EGPA. In order to comprehend SQL examples, students require information available in the database schema. We analyzed students' eye movement data from different perspectives, and found that advanced students paid more attention to database schema than novices. In future work, we will use the outcomes of this study to provide proactive feedback.
Keywords: eye tracking; learning from examples; intelligent tutoring
Engaging Students with Profound and Multiple Disabilities Using Humanoid Robots BIBAKFull-Text 419-430
  Penny Standen; David Brown; Jess Roscoe; Joseph Hedgecock; David Stewart; Maria Jose Galvez Trigo; Elmunir Elgajiji
Engagement is the single best predictor of successful learning for children with intellectual disabilities yet achieving engagement with pupils who have profound or multiple disabilities (PMD) presents a challenge to educators. Robots have been used to engage children with autism but are they effective with pupils whose disabilities limit their ability to control other technology? Learning objectives were identified for eleven pupils with PMD and a humanoid robot was programmed to enable teachers to use it to help pupils achieve these objectives. These changes were evaluated with a series of eleven case studies where teacher-pupil dyads were observed during four planned video recorded sessions. Engagement was rated in a classroom setting and during the last session with the robot. Video recordings were analysed for duration of engagement and teacher assistance and number of goals achieved. Rated engagement was significantly higher with the robot than in the classroom. Observations of engagement, assistance and goal achievement remained at the same level throughout the sessions suggesting no reduction in the novelty factor.
Keywords: Robots; education; engagement; profound and multiple intellectual disabilities; case studies; video analysis
Transfer of Learnings between Disciplines: What S-BPM Facilitators Could Ask Progressive Educators (and might not dare to do) BIBAKFull-Text 431-442
  Chris Stary
Subject-oriented Business Process Management (S-BPM) is a novel paradigm in Business Process Management (BPM). Educating students and business stakeholders in S-BPM requires facilitating a substantial mind shift from function- towards communication-oriented (re-)construction of processes. Reformist pedagogy, as driven by Maria Montessori, allows learners grasping and applying novel concepts in self-contained settings and in an individualistic while reflected way. So why not learn from her experiences for introducing S-BPM? In this contribution her analysis of human cultural factors enabling literacy has been transcribed to S-BPM education. When informing S-BPM capacity development according to progressive education, understanding the actual situation and readiness of learners seems to play a crucial role, as it influences their engagement in learning environments. These factors need to be differentiated when conveying S-BPM concepts and activities.
Keywords: Subject-oriented Business Process Management; learning; literacy; progressive education; prepared environment; BPM capacity building
DayByDay: Interactive and Customizable Use of Mobile Technology in the Cognitive Development Process of Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder BIBAKFull-Text 443-453
  Vanessa Tavares de Oliveira Barros; Cristiane Affonso de Almeida Zerbetto; Kátia Tavares Meserlian; Rodolfo Barros; Murilo Crivellari Camargo; Táthia Cristina Passos de Carvalho
Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD) was firstly described as a disturbance of affective contact, including language deficiency, social interaction limitation, and repetitive/restrictive behaviors. ASD individuals are to be motivated and encouraged to seek for independence and cognitive development, in order to overcome the restrictions imposed by the disturbance. This paper presents the development of an application aimed specifically at helping ASD children aged 8-12 years improve, by establishing a sequential and highly-customizable routine. Developed with the help of professionals that work with autistic children and their caregivers, the application proves to be a support tool for the ASD individuals' reality.
Keywords: Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD); Assistive Technology (AT); Accessibility
An Introduction to the FLOE Project BIBAKFull-Text 454-465
  Jutta Treviranus; Jess Mitchell; Colin Clark; Vera Roberts
Learners learn differently. Research shows that learners learn best when the learning experience is personalized to individual needs. Open Education Resource (OER) platforms potentially provide an ideal learning environment to meet the diverse needs of learners, including learners with disabilities. Unfortunately accessibility was not a consideration when OER were initially designed or developed. When the FLOE (Flexible Learning for Open Education) Project was asked to address the accessibility of OER, rather than a traditional approach to accessibility with a single set of fixed criteria, FLOE set out to support the OER community in providing a personalized and fully integrated approach to accessible learning. This approach advances the strengths and values of open education and also encourages pedagogical and technical innovation. While ensuring the resources are accessible to diverse learners, including learners with disabilities, the approach also supports content portability, ease of updating, internationalization and localization, content reuse and repurposing, and more efficient and effective content discovery.
Keywords: Accessibility; inclusive design; open education; personalization; open education resources
Design of a Virtual Reality Driving Environment to Assess Performance of Teenagers with ASD BIBAKFull-Text 466-474
  Joshua Wade; Dayi Bian; Lian Zhang; Amy Swanson; Medha Sarkar; Zachary Warren; Nilanjan Sarkar
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is an extremely common and costly neurodevelopmental disorder. While significant research has been devoted to addressing social communication skill deficits of people with ASD, relatively less attention has been paid to improving their deficits in daily activities such as driving. Only two empirical studies have investigated driving performance in individuals with ASD -- both employing proprietary driving simulation software. We designed a novel Virtual Reality (VR) driving simulator so that we could integrate various sensory modules directly into our system as well as to define task-oriented protocols that would not be otherwise possible using commercial software. We conducted a small user study with a group of individuals with ASD and a group of typically developing community controls. We found that our system was capable of distinguishing behavioral patterns between both groups indicating that it is suitable for use in designing a protocol aimed at improving driving performance.
Keywords: Virtual Reality; Autism intervention; Adaptive task; Physiological signals; Eye gaze
Learning from Each Other: An Agent Based Approach BIBAKFull-Text 475-486
  Goran Zaharija; Saša Mladenovic; Andrina Granic
This paper presents an agent based approach to knowledge representation and learning methods. Agent architecture is described and discussed, together with its advantages and limitations. Main purpose of the proposed approach is to gain further insight in current teaching methods with a foremost aspiration for their improvement. Two different experimental studies were conducted; the first one addressing knowledge representation and the second one regarding knowledge transfer between agents. Obtained results are presented and analysed.
Keywords: learning; artificial intelligence; machine learning; agent based systems

Access to Games and Ludic Engagement

SMART VIEW: A Serious Game Supporting Spatial Orientation of Subjects with Cognitive Impairments BIBAKFull-Text 489-500
  Rosa Maria Bottino; Andrea Canessa; Michela Ott; Mauro Tavella
The paper presents SMART VIEW a serious game developed with the aim of helping young people with moderate cognitive disabilities acquire those spatial abilities that are key prerequisites to autonomous mobility. The game was conceived for cognitively impaired teenagers; it proposes exercises supporting the acquisition and consolidation of competences related to space awareness and self-perception in the space; such skills are necessary to develop the sense of spatial orientation, which is critical for the target population. SMART VIEW makes use of Touch Screen tables so to allow easier access to the game content and augmented interaction. Particular attention has been devoted to the game interface design, so to make it free from cognitive barriers and fully accessible to the target population. Contents are as close as possible to reality and the educational strategy entails slow and gradual increase of the game complexity, so to properly sustain the users' cognitive effort.
Keywords: Serious Games; Spatial Orientation; Cognitive Disabilities; Perspective Taking; E-inclusion; Technology Enhanced Learning
Tabletop Computer Game Mechanics for Group Rehabilitation of Individuals with Brain Injury BIBAKFull-Text 501-512
  Jonathan Duckworth; Jessica D. Bayliss; Patrick R. Thomas; David Shum; Nick Mumford; Peter H. Wilson
In this paper we provide a rationale for using tabletop displays for the upper-limb movement rehabilitation of individuals with brain injury. We consider how computer game mechanics may leverage this technology to increase patient engagement and social interaction, and subsequently enhance prescribed training. In recent years there has been a growing interest among health professionals in the use of computer games and interactive technology for rehabilitation. Research indicates that games have the potential to stimulate a high level of interest and enjoyment in patients; enhance learning; provide safe task conditions; complement conventional therapy; and become intrinsically motivating. We explore how game mechanics that include reward structures, game challenges and augmented audiovisual feedback may enhance a goal-orientated rehabilitation learning space for individuals with brain injury. We pay particular attention to game design elements that support multiple players and show how these might be designed for interactive tabletop display systems in group rehabilitation.
Keywords: Computer Game Mechanics; Game Design; Group Interaction; Tabletop Display; Movement Rehabilitation; Acquired Brain Injury
Learning through Game Making: An HCI Perspective BIBAKFull-Text 513-524
  Jeffrey Earp; Francesca Maria Dagnino; Michela Ott
One of the areas of Game-Based Learning (GBL) that has been attracting considerable interest in recent years is digital game making, whereby learners play games but also design, construct and share them as active participants in a learning community. Human Computer Interaction (HCI) is a critical aspect of processes and tools within game making, and plays a key role in ensuring that learning experiences are both engaging and educationally fruitful. In this light, this paper examines two different game authoring environments from an HCI perspective, taking account of certain interface characteristics can affect and shape the authoring process and thus have a potential bearing on educational effectiveness. The investigation draws on findings from an EU co-funded project called MAGICAL (MAking Games In CollaborAtion for Learning), which is exploring the potential that game making offers for activating key transversal skills such as problem-solving, creativity and ICT competency, particularly at primary school level.
Keywords: Game Making; Game-Based Learning; Technology Enhanced Learning; Human Computer Interaction; Usability; Accessibility
Videogaming Interaction for Mental Model Construction in Learners Who Are Blind BIBAKFull-Text 525-536
  Matías Espinoza; Jaime Sánchez; Márcia de Borba Campos
The purpose of this work is to present the design, development and evaluation of a videogame that allows users who are blind to gradually build up a mental model based on references between different points on a Cartesian plane, in a way that is both didactic and entertaining. Two prototypes were iteratively created, and were subjected to usability evaluations by the end users, who used the videogame in the context of a set of defined tasks. This allowed researchers to adjust, improve and validate various aspects of the interfaces that had been designed and implemented. In addition, the cognitive impact of the game on blind learners was evaluated, based on the use of the final version of the videogame, and leading to revealing results regarding the proposed objectives.
Keywords: People who are blind; Videogame; Reference system; Mental model; Audio and haptic based interfaces; Wiimote
A Data-Driven Entity-Component Approach to Develop Universally Accessible Games BIBAKFull-Text 537-548
  Franco Eusébio Garcia; Vânia Paula de Almeida Neris
Design and implementing accessible games can be challenging, particularly when the designers wish to address different interaction capabilities. Universally-Accessible Games (UA-Games), for instance, follow the principles of the Design for All, aiming to enable the broadest audience as possible to play. Although there are papers regarding the design of UA-Games, the implementation can still be challenging. This paper presents a flexible and extensible approach to implement an UA-Game. The approach relies in a data-driven and component based architecture to allow game entities to be created, managed and customized during run-time. Doing so, it is possible to change the behavior and presentation of the game whilst it is running, allowing the game to adapt itself to better address the interaction needs of the user. Furthermore, being data-driven, it is possible to create and customize user profiles to address specific interaction requirements.
Keywords: Universal Design; Game Accessibility; Universally-Accessible Game; Game Design; Game Development
Players' Opinions on Control and Playability of a BCI Game BIBAFull-Text 549-560
  Hayrettin Gürkök; Bram van de Laar; Danny Plass-Oude Bos; Mannes Poel; Anton Nijholt
Brain-computer interface (BCI) games can satisfy our need for competence by providing us with challenges that we should enjoy tackling. However, many BCI games that claim to provide enjoyable challenges fail to do so. Some common fallacies and pitfalls about BCI games play a role in this failure and in this paper we report on a study that we carried out to empirically investigate them. More specifically, we explored (1) active and passive interaction with BCI games, (2) BCI gaming as a skill and (3) playability of a BCI game. We conducted an experiment with 42 participants who played a popular computer game called World of Warcraft using a commercial BCI headset called EPOC. We conducted interviews about the participants' experiences of the game and ran a phenomenological analysis on their responses. The analysis results showed that (1) the players would like to play a BCI game actively if the BCI controls critical game elements, (2) the technical challenges of BCI cannot motivate the players to play a BCI game and (3) the players' enjoyment of one-time playing of a BCI game does not imply playability of the game.
Designing Playful Games and Applications to Support Science Centers Learning Activities BIBAFull-Text 561-570
  Michail N. Giannakos; David Jones; Helen Crompton; Nikos Chrisochoides
In recent years there has been a renewed interest on science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education. Following this interest, science centers' staff started providing technology enhanced informal STEM education experiences. The use of well-designed mobile and ubiquitous forms of technology to enrich informal STEM education activities is an essential success factor. The goal of our research is to investigate how technology applications can be better used and developed for taking full advantage of the opportunities and challenges they provide for students learning about STEM concepts. In our approach, we have conducted a series of interviews with experts from science center curating and outdoor learning activities development, with the final goal of exploring and improving current learning environments and practices. This paper presents the development of set of design considerations for the development of STEM games and applications of young students. An initial set of best practices was first developed through semi-structures interviews with experts; and afterwards, by employing content analysis, a revised set of considerations was obtained. These results are useful for STEM education teachers, curriculum designers, curators and developers for K-12 education environments.
Designing Sociable CULOT as a Playground Character BIBAKFull-Text 571-580
  Nihan Karatas; Nozomi Kina; Daiki Tanaka; Naoki Ohshima; P. Ravindra S. De Silva; Michio Okada
CULOT is designed as a playground character with the aim of grounding the playground language (verbal, non-verbal, playing-rules, etc) between children through play-routing while experiencing the pleasure of play. A robot establishes "persuasiveness" activities inside the playground, through the process of generating play rules/contexts and executive social interactions and engagement toward the intention of "attachment" of the children to the robot through interaction and activities. The behavior of the robot plays a significant role in executing the above playground activities (or interaction). As a primary study, our focus is to explore how robot behaviors (cues) are capable of generating the playground rules, social interaction and engagement in order to convey its intention to children and extract the potential dimensions in order to design CULOT behaviors as a playground character by considering the above factors.
Keywords: Playground language; persuasiveness; attachment
KidSmart© in Early Childhood Learning Practices: Playful Learning Potentials? BIBAKFull-Text 581-592
  Eva Petersson Brooks; Nanna Borum
This paper reports on a study exploring the outcomes from children's play with technology in early childhood learning practices. The study is grounded in a sociocultural perspective on play and learning and consists of an analysis of children's interaction with the KidSmart furniture, particularly focusing on playful learning potentials and values suggested by the technology. The study applied a qualitative approach and included125 children (aged three to five), 10 pedagogues, and two librarians. The results suggests that educators should sensitively consider intervening when children are interacting with technology, and rather put emphasize into the integration of the technology into the environment and to the curriculum in order to shape playful structures for children's individual and collective interaction with technology.
Keywords: Early childhood learning; playful learning; interaction; technology; affordances
Interactive Multimodal Molecular Set -- Designing Ludic Engaging Science Learning Content BIBAKFull-Text 593-604
  Tine Pinholt Thorsen; Kasper Holm Christiansen; Kristian Jakobsen Sillesen; Torben Rosenørn; Eva Petersson Brooks
This paper reports on an exploratory study investigating 10 primary school students' interaction with an interactive multimodal molecular set fostering ludic engaging science learning content in primary schools (8th and 9th grade). The concept of the prototype design was to bridge the physical and virtual worlds with electronic tags and, through this, blend the familiarity of the computer and toys, to create a tool that provided a ludic approach to learning about atoms and molecules. The study was inspired by the participatory design and informant design methodologies and included design collaboratorium sessions, interviews and observations. The results indicated that bridging the physical and digital worlds can support learning where the affordances of the technologies can be described in terms of meaningful activity: exploration, reasoning, reflection, and ludic engagement. Here, the electronic tags facilitate the application and provide the students to articulate knowledge through different modes; images, gestures, and 3D objects.
Keywords: Human-computer interaction; multimodality; ludic engagement; learning; abstract concepts; pedagogy
Modeling Videogames for Mental Mapping in People Who Are Blind BIBAKFull-Text 605-616
  Jaime Sánchez; Matías Espinoza; Márcia de Borba Campos; Letícia Lopes Leite
Mental maps allow users to acquire, codify and manipulate spatial information, as they are schematics that guide behavior and help to deal with spatial problems by providing solutions. This is to say that mental or cognitive maps involve processes of spatial reasoning. The purpose of this work was to design a videogame development model to serve as a framework for designing videogames to help learners who are blind to construct mental maps for the development of geometric-mathematical abilities and orientation and mobility (O&M) skills.
Keywords: Development model; videogames; mental map; geometry; orientation and mobility
Most Important in the Design: Focus on the Users' Needs, a Case Study BIBAKFull-Text 617-625
  Cecilia Sik Lanyi; Agnes Nyeki; Veronika Szücs
This paper presents the design process of the rehabilitation game "Gardener" that was carried out within the StrokeBack project as a case study. The game was developed for the purpose that stroke patients with upper limb injuries should carry out flexion and extension movements with their fingers several times in a row constantly. During the development, the developers did not only perform the alpha testing with stroke patients, but they were in connection with the therapists and were seeking for their views at the creation of each new version. As a result, the "Gardener" game is not only useful, but also a delightful rehabilitation game for patients.
Keywords: stroke; rehabilitation; game; user needs
Combining Ludology and Narratology in an Open Authorable Framework for Educational Games for Children: the Scenario of Teaching Preschoolers with Autism Diagnosis BIBAFull-Text 626-636
  Nikolas Vidakis; Eirini Christinaki; Iosif Serafimidis; Georgios Triantafyllidis
This paper presents the initial findings and the on-going work of IOLAOS project, a general open authorable framework for educational games for children. This framework features an editor, where the game narrative can be created or edited, according to specific needs. A ludic approach is also used both for the interface as well as for the game design. More specifically, by employing physical and natural user interface (NUI), we aim to achieve ludic interfaces. Moreover, by designing the educational game with playful elements, we follow a ludic design. This framework is then applied for the scenario of teaching preschoolers with autism diagnosis. Children with autism have been reported to exhibit deficits in the recognition of affective expressions and the perception of emotions. With the appropriate intervention, elimination of those deficits can be achieved. Interventions are proposed to start as early as possible. Computer-based programs have been widely used with success to teach people with autism to recognize emotions. However, those computer interventions require considerable skills for interaction. Such abilities are beyond very young children with autism as most probably they don't have the skills to interact with computers. In this context, our approach with the suggested framework employs a ludic interface based on NUI, a ludic game design and takes account of the specific characteristics of preschoolers with autism diagnosis and their physical abilities for customizing accordingly the narrative of the game.

Access to Culture

Engaging People with Cultural Heritage: Users' Perspective BIBAKFull-Text 639-649
  Maria Eugenia Beltrán; Yolanda Ursa; Silvia de los Rios; María Fernanda Cabrera-Umpiérrez; María Teresa Arredondo; Miguel Páramo; Belén Prados; Lucía María Pérez
Although Culture is a very important asset of population and a driver for personal and economic development, the engagement of citizens with their cultural heritage environment remains low. The European project TAG CLOUD explores the use of cloud-based technologies that lead to adaptability and personalisation to promote lifelong engagement with Culture. Within the context of this project, early-stage evaluations with users have been carried out for designing the scenarios and use cases that will be developed, and will act as a general framework, for the project. This paper presents the results of two evaluations: the user-driven evaluation conducted in the Monumental Complex of Alhambra and Generalife, which assessed the main users' needs and expectations; and the Cultural Heritage managers' focus group, which assessed technologies and approaches for alignment with users' expectations.
Keywords: engagement; cultural heritage; UCD; ICT; TAG CLOUD
The Practice of Showing 'Who I am': A Multimodal Analysis of Encounters between Science Communicator and Visitors at Science Museum BIBAKFull-Text 650-661
  Mayumi Bono; Hiroaki Ogata; Katsuya Takanashi; Ayami Joh
In this paper, we try to contribute to the design of future technologies used in science museums where there is no explicit, pre-determined relationship regarding knowledge between Science Communicators (SCs) and visitors. We illustrate the practice of interaction between them, especially focusing on social encounter. Starting in October 2012, we conducted a field study at the National Museum of Emerging Science and Innovation (Miraikan) in Japan. Based on multimodal analysis, we examine various activities, focusing on how expert SCs communicate about science: how they begin interactions with visitors, how they maintain them, and how they conclude them.
Keywords: Multimodal Interaction Analysis; Social encounter; Science Communicators (SCs); Science Museum
Using Augmented Reality and Social Media in Mobile Applications to Engage People on Cultural Sites BIBAKFull-Text 662-672
  Silvia de los Ríos; María Fernanda Cabrera-Umpiérrez; María Teresa Arredondo; Miguel Páramo; Bastian Baranski; Jochen Meis; Michael Gerhard; Belén Prados; Lucía Pérez; María del Mar Villafranca
One of the toughest challenges that curators and professionals in the heritage sector face is how to attract, engage and retain visitors of heritage institutions. The current approaches have only limited success since they still follow the same centralized strategy of producing and delivering cultural content to the general public. This paper provides an overview of current trends in information technology that are most relevant to cultural institutions, and investigates how augmented reality, gamification, storytelling and social media can improve visitors' experience by providing new means of participation, proposing a radically new approach in defining cultural content and creating personalised experiences with cultural heritage objects. The paper considers actual use cases provided by the European research project TAG CLOUD to define the functional range of suitable applications and proposes a set of system components that are being implemented in TAG CLOUD.
Keywords: Augmented reality; social media; gamification; storytelling; mobile applications; cultural heritage; TAG CLOUD
Using Cloud Technologies for Engaging People with Cultural Heritage BIBAKFull-Text 673-680
  Silvia de los Ríos; María Fernanda Cabrera-Umpiérrez; María Teresa Arredondo; Patricia Abril; Viveca Jiménez; Christos Giachritsis
Cultural heritage is an important asset of Europe which is largely underexplored. One of the main reasons is that the general public do not really incorporate cultural activities in their life style. Currently, curators and professionals in the heritage sector face the toughest challenges on how to attract, engage and retain visitors of heritage institutions (libraries, museums, archives and historical societies). TAG CLOUD FP7 European project seeks to overcome this situation and promote lifelong engagement with culture by personalising the visitors' cultural experiences through cloud technologies.
Keywords: cultural heritage; cloud technologies; TAG CLOUD; engagement; personalisation
Tailoring Lifelong Cultural Experiences BIBAFull-Text 681-692
  Jacqueline Floch; Shanshan Jiang; Maria Eugenia Beltrán; Eurydice Georganteli; Ioanna Koukounis; Belén Prados; Lucia María Pérez; María del Mar Villafranca; Silvia de los Ríos; María F. Cabrera-Umpiérrez; María T. Arredondo
ICT-based personalization in cultural heritage has been an important topic of research during the last twenty years. Personalization is used as a means to enhance the visitors' experience of a cultural site. Little consideration has however been set on lifelong cultural experiences, i.e. engaging the public in culture beyond the visit of a single site and bridging multiple sites. Cultural sites differ leading to a diversity of needs that should be taken into account through a personalization approach. This paper presents a set of scenarios tailored to suit the needs of three different Cultural Heritage sites in different EU countries. These scenarios have been developed within the EU funded project TAG CLOUD that aims at leveraging existing technologies to support realistic lifelong engagement experiences with cultural heritage through personalized content and interaction.
Designing Personalised Itineraries for Europe's Cultural Routes BIBAKFull-Text 693-704
  Eurydice S. Georganteli; Ioanna N. Koukouni
Throughout history it has been necessary for mankind to travel: for a better life, for pilgrimage, for religious or political freedom, for trade, for communication between nations or for conquest. Each culture as it developed found in coinage the most powerful means to facilitate and control economic activities within and outside its territories. And as peoples from different cultures travelled and mixed with others, so did their coins. Byzantine, Islamic, and western medieval European coins circulated and changed hands along routes of migration, trade, war, pilgrimage and diplomacy; the routes set out from Constantinople/Istanbul to the Adriatic in the western Balkans; from the Black Sea to the eastern and western Mediterranean; from Britain, Scandinavia to Russia. The Barber Institute of Fine Arts at the University of Birmingham houses one of the finest collections of medieval Christian and Islamic coins worldwide. This paper presents select case studies based on the numismatic resources of the Barber Institute to show the role of coins as a means to track and discuss inter-cultural dialogue that took place along Europe's cultural routes. The combination of storylines based on coins, related artefacts and sites, and the implementation of modern technologies can further social engagement and alert existing and new audiences of the potential of cultural heritage as a major connecting thread of Europe's diverse cultural communities.
Keywords: cultural routes; coins; lifelong learning; Byzantium; medieval Europe; medieval Islam; cross-cultural encounters; global audience; museum; exhibition; heritage; cultural routes
Widening Access to Intangible Cultural Heritage: towards the Development of an Innovative Platform BIBAKFull-Text 705-713
  Michela Ott; Francesca Maria Dagnino; Francesca Pozzi; Mauro Tavella
The paper discusses around Human Computer Interaction aspects of advanced learning systems. It underlines the added value (in terms of widening the learning possibilities and enhancing the learning experience) of designing the system itself only after having carefully taken into account the users' requirements regulating the interactions between the learners and the technological environments. In doing so, it offers the view of what has been done in the EU project i-Treasures, which focuses on Intangible Cultural Heritage (ICHs) and investigates whether and to what extent new technology can play a role in widening the access to the underpinning rare know-how, and possibly sustaining its transmission / passing down to next generations. The project can be regarded as exemplar since it instantiates a very peculiar situation where HCI aspects are deeply affected by the fact that the i-Treasures technological system foresees the massive use of cutting edge sensors.
Keywords: Cultural Heritage Education; Intangible Cultural Heritage; Human Computer Interaction; Learning Management Systems; Educational platforms; Accessibility; Usability
Adaptive User Experiences in the Cultural Heritage Information Space BIBAFull-Text 714-725
  Luke Speller; Philip Stephens; Daniel Roythorne
Given the thematic diversity, richness and variance in exposition of published cultural heritage information and artefacts, accessing pertinent information can be a cumbersome task. The TAGCLOUD project aims to create an adaptive cultural heritage experience for individuals based on their personal preferences, allowing users to navigate with ease around both cultural artefacts and the related information space. Users will establish a narrative between themselves and their cultural heritage experience.
   We propose metrics and methods for making the transition from a pull-based dynamic to a successful push-based methodology. Users are inevitably overwhelmed by the volume and specificity of cultural data, so traditional query-based interaction (e.g. filtering and sorting) is insufficient to guarantee a relevancy to the user of the retrieved information. Further, the small form factor of mobile devices poses strict limitations on the complexity of the interface and interaction methods available.
   The TAGCLOUD system applies content personalisation and context aware techniques from web search and marketing, to the realm of cultural heritage. We incorporate the geographical, chronological, historical and narrative relationships between cultural items, and span levels ranging from entire cities to individual artefacts. For each of these levels it is important to broadly define the possible ways the experience can be tailored. Information may be presented via different modalities, including audio, text, and augmented reality; and can vary according to an individuals interests and level of understanding. The context of the user can affect how and what is delivered, and may depend on their location, familiarity with their surroundings, or who they are with. Information and media should be presented so as to complement the experience and not detract from it.
   We investigate how we can retrieve information about the user both passively and actively. Information from the users device allows us to investigate their interaction with artefacts, and enables the system to form assumptions of their respective interest levels. Additional information is procured from social networking information, such as local graph traversal, and interactions related to the cultural heritage experience. We investigate how preference is extracted from the user model, how the system mitigates against destructive feedback that would show inappropriate suggestions. We propose the use of non-normative expressions of preference, to circumvent the tendency towards the populist mean, a generic weakness of ratings-based recommender systems.