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UAHCI Tables of Contents: 07-107-207-309-109-209-311-111-211-311-413-113-213-314-114-214-314-415-115-215-315-4

UAHCI 2013: 7th International Conference on Universal Access in Human-Computer Interaction, Part II: User and Context Diversity

Fullname:UAHCI 2013: 7th International Conference on Universal Access in Human-Computer Interaction, Part II: User and Context Diversity
Note:Volume 7 of HCI International 2013
Editors:Constantine Stephanidis; Margherita Antona
Location:Las Vegas, Nevada
Dates:2013-Jul-21 to 2013-Jul-26
Volume:2
Publisher:Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Series:Lecture Notes in Computer Science 8010
Standard No:DOI: 10.1007/978-3-642-39191-0 hcibib: UAHCI13-2; ISBN: 978-3-642-39190-3 (print), 978-3-642-39191-0 (online)
Papers:78
Pages:741
Links:Online Proceedings | Conference Website
  1. UAHCI 2013-07-21 Volume 2
    1. Age-Related Issues
    2. Human Vision in Universal Access
    3. Emotions and Persuasion in Universal Access
    4. Design for Autistic Spectrum Disorders
    5. Cognitive Issues for Universal Access
    6. Universal Access to the Web and Social Communities

UAHCI 2013-07-21 Volume 2

Age-Related Issues

How E-Inclusion and Innovation Policy Affect Digital Access and Use for Senior Citizens in Europe BIBAKFull-Text 3-12
  Stijn Bannier; Ruediger Glott; Valérie Meijs
Research on e-inclusion and innovation policy on a national and supra-national (European Union) level not always shows to what extent successful e-inclusion and innovation policy have been pursued. Therewithal the aims of national e-inclusion and innovation strategies do not always coincide with the aims of the European Commission. Policies with regard to active aging and senior citizens' participation in the information society on the one hand and local, regional or national initiatives and policy on the other hand might hence be different from the European level. We discuss how e-inclusion and digital access of and use by senior citizens became an important topic in Europe and European policy. We propose not only to focus on a top-down (policy) approach but also a bottom-up approach, where local, regional or national initiatives alongside policy are included in the assessment. We will discuss this on the basis of a literature research together with case studies of The Netherlands and Estonia.
Keywords: Digital access; e-inclusion; innovation policy; senior citizens
Elderly's Barriers and Requirements for Interactive TV BIBAKFull-Text 13-22
  Mai Baunstrup; Lars Bo Larsen
This paper presents a study to identify the problems and experiences that the elderly have using interactive TV (iTV) services. The study comprised an in-depth qualitative interview series backed up with a questionnaire survey; a list with the elderly's interaction problems and the reasons for wanting or not wanting to use iTV services was developed. These findings in turn lead to the formulation of a set of user requirements. The paper presents the studies carried out and the resulting design recommendations for iTV services for the elderly. The recommendations also take cognitive and as physiological impairments into consideration. The recommendations propose on increased ease-of-use, transparency, colour schemes, familiarity and a reduced set of iTV services for the elderly. Ultimately, designers should aim at customizable interface profiles for future iTV devices and services to better accommodate the diversity of users and especially the elderly.
Keywords: Categories and Subject Descriptors H.5.2 Information Interfaces and Presentation (e.g., HCI) -- User Interfaces; Evaluation/Methodology; General Terms: Human Factors; Measurement TV; iTV; Qualitative Study; Explorative Interview; Survey; Elderly
A Survey on Technology Exposure and Range of Abilities of Elderly and Disabled Users in India BIBAFull-Text 23-31
  Pradipta Biswas; Patrick M. Langdon
This paper reports a survey on people with age-related and physical impairments in India. The survey evaluates functional parameters related to human computer interaction and reports subjective attitude and exposure of users towards technology. We found a significant cognitive decline in elderly users while their functional parameters are sufficient to use existing electronic devices. However young disabled users are found to be experienced with computer but could not have access to appropriate assistive devices, which would benefit them. Most users used desktop computers and mobile phone but none used tablet, smartphone or kiosks though they are keen to learn new technologies. Overall we hope that our results will be useful for HCI practitioners in developing countries.
Senior Patients Online: Which Functions Should a Good Patient Website Offer? BIBAKFull-Text 32-41
  Nadine Bol; Christin Scholz; Ellen M. A. Smets; Eugène F. Loos; Hanneke C. J. M. de Haes; Julia C. M. van Weert
This study proposes a theoretical framework for patient website functions and provides empirical input for the framework. A pilot survey among younger (aged 50 -- 64, M = 55.95, SD = 4.48, n = 21) and older (aged 65 -- 84, M = 72.79, SD = 6.33, n = 14) cancer patients revealed that patients' website preferences vary across type of website functions as well as across age groups. Whereas the majority of patients reported high preference for website functions in general (e.g., information provision), preferences varied across preferred delivery methods of these functions. Furthermore, differences in information preferences indicate a trend of younger patients preferring to search information themselves whereas older patients seem to prefer receiving disease relevant information and practical tips. We provide first evidence for patient preferences regarding specific website functions and thus provide practical implications for website design.
Keywords: aging; information preferences; patient website functions; cancer-related information
Single Tap Hierarchy-Structured Zoom as Interface for Interactive Indoor Wayfinding Map for Elderly Users BIBAKFull-Text 42-50
  Chun-Wen Chen; Kevin C. Tseng; Yun-Fong Kao
The aim of this research is to design a simplified and acceptable interface for an indoor wayfinding map for elderly users. This research proposes a single-tap, zooming user interface using a hierarchy-structured zoom that integrates the operation of re-center zoom and a non-predefined hierarchy-structured map. Simulated maps and interfaces were built to test user acceptance.
Keywords: wayfinding map; zoomable user interface; aging
Older Adults' Perceptions and Use of Technology: A Novel Approach BIBAKFull-Text 51-58
  Cara Bailey Fausset; Linda Harley; Sarah Farmer; Brad Fain
This study investigated older adults' perceptions of technology in their everyday lives by using the stages of change model, a behavioral change model, as a guiding framework. Participants answered daily workbook questions about their experiences with technology and also recorded daily interactions and difficulties with technology for a 28-day period. Overall, participants were positive about technology but expressed concerns such as identity theft and loss of human contact. Participants reported using a wide range of technology in their everyday lives and cited efficiency, making life easier, and communication as reasons why they use technology. A recurring theme throughout the study was that their children played a major role in influencing aspects of technology adoption and use. Participants also reported not using technology if the need or value was not apparent. Older adults do adopt and use technologies, but only if the value and personal relevance is clear.
Keywords: Older adults; aging; technology; behavioral change model
A Usability Study of Websites for Older Travelers BIBAKFull-Text 59-67
  Kate Finn; Jeff Johnson
Older people (aged 45+) are the fastest growing segment of the population, make up a significant percentage of overseas travelers, and often book their travel online. Despite these trends, several studies indicate users' frustration with online travel sites. This could indicate that travel companies are not factoring their customers' web usability needs into the design of their websites. Focusing on three travel websites explicitly target mature travelers, we conducted an exploratory study to assess their usability for older adults. The travel websites, all of which were professionally designed, represent popular travel agencies. Nine study participants, aged 55-80, completed usability sessions (three per site). After giving their impressions of the website's Home page, participants were asked to perform a series of information-seeking and trip-finding tasks using the website. Their voices were audio-recorded and their activity on the website was recorded using screen-capture software. All three mature traveler websites presented problems for the test participants. Common problems included: text too small and not easily enlargeable, difficulty returning to Home page, confusing terminology, hard-to-operate menus, poor marking of links, changes too subtle to notice, hard-to-navigate search results, and cluttered page layouts. Participants exhibited several noteworthy behaviors, including: misunderstanding the scope of information and controls, not knowing where in the site they were, functional fixedness, change blindness, and a preference for talking to someone on the telephone rather than using the site to get information or book a trip. The usability problems found in the three travel websites are well-known in the web-design community and are addressed in published guidelines for designing for seniors and for usability in general. Many web designers ignore usability and accessibility design guidelines, but it is somewhat surprising that companies that target older adults would fail to follow such guidelines. The HCI community must expand its efforts to educate web designers.
Keywords: Website; usability test; older adults; seniors; design; guidelines
Designing Intrinsically Motivating User Interfaces for the Ageing Population BIBAKFull-Text 68-77
  Tanya S. Goldhaber; Patrick M. Langdon; P. John Clarkson
Older people often find it difficult to learn to use new technology. Although they may want to adopt it, they can find the learning process challenging and frustrating and subsequently lose motivation. This paper looks at how psychological theories of intrinsic motivation could be applied to make the ICT learning process more engaging for older users and describes an experiment set up to test the applicability of these theories to user interface (UI) design. The results of the experiment confirmed that intrinsic motivation theory is a valid lens through which to look at current ICT design and also uncovered significant gender differences in reaction to different kinds of learning tasks.
Keywords: UI design; intrinsic motivation; ageing population; gender
Effect of Impairment on Upper Limb Performance in an Ageing Sample Population BIBAKFull-Text 78-87
  Newton Howard; Ross Pollock; Joe Prinold; Joydeep Sinha; Di Newham; Jeroen Bergmann
Ageing and age-related impairments have a detrimental effect on human performance and are likely to affect gesture based Human-Computer Interaction (HCI). Relying on "healthy" individuals to define gestures used for interfacing is likely to bias HCI design within the older population. To what extent gestures are affected by a common ageing disease remains to be determined. The aim of this study is to explore spatial and temporal changes in shoulder motion between rotator cuff patients and "healthy" controls. Seven controls and eight pre-operative patients participated in this study and performed several predefined gestures. The results show that the ROM and speed of movement can be affected by a common age-related disease. Wavelet analysis indicated that patients have a higher level of coupling between conditions making it harder to differentiate between different gestures. These results highlight the need to include age-related disabilities in HCI study populations.
Keywords: Human Gesture; Pattern Recognition; Ageing; Rotator Cuff Injury; Wavelet Analysis
Demands and Needs of Elderly Chinese People for Garment BIBAKFull-Text 88-95
  Xiaoping Hu; Xia Feng; Delai Men; Robert C. C. Chen
The purpose of this paper is to determine the elderly people's consumer behavior, demands and needs about the garment. The sample consists of 106 aged people all around china. A questionnaire was prepared and given to these people to determine their consumer behavior, demands and needs. It was found that most elderly people would like to choose comfortable, pastel, loosely or a little loosely casual clothing. The garment with natural material and some special design on details will be favorable. Meanwhile, most of the interviewee complained about there is no enough suitable size to choose. Therefore, the height, neck circumference, shoulder width, bust, waist, abdominal circumference, hip circumference were measured, and these data would provide theoretical reference for apparel products to meet the needs of the elderly.
Keywords: Elderly people; garment; consumer behavior; demands and needs
What Is Age's Affect in Collaborative Learning Environments? BIBAFull-Text 96-103
  Kieran Jordine; Dale-Marie Wilson; Raghavi Sakpal
In educational environments, the learners' affective state is the subject of continuous research that seeks to create the most effective learning environment. This state has been shown to have a direct correlation on the learners' motivation and engagement, subsequently affecting their success or failure. This is consistent for both physical and virtual educational settings. In intelligent tutoring systems, embodied pedagogical agents have been used for the many benefits they provide including their affective influence. The agents are designed based on specific criterion including competency, gender, ethnicity or behavioural tendencies, to optimise their effect on a targeted audience. We developed a web-based collaborative learning application that supports simultaneous learner-to-virtual agent and learner-to-learner interactions. We conducted a study that investigated the influence of virtual agents' physical characteristics (attributes), specifically age, on learners' experience and its' influence on learning outcome. The results revealed that the age of virtual agents is an important factor that must be considered in virtual tutor design.
Age-Based Task Specialization for Crowdsourced Proofreading BIBAKFull-Text 104-112
  Masatomo Kobayashi; Tatsuya Ishihara; Toshinari Itoko; Hironobu Takagi; Chieko Asakawa
Crowdsourcing can efficiently produce accessible digital books for people with print disabilities. However, particularly in Japan, the proofreading step tends to be expensive because of language-related issues. The elderly population is a promising source of proofreaders. Our surveys found that they have strong linguistic skills and want to contribute to society. So why do they rarely participate in Internet-based work scenarios such as crowdsourcing? We introduce a collaborative crowdsourcing model that aims to fully utilize the linguistic skills of the elderly by encouraging younger people to support the elderly in overcoming their limited technical skills. We decompose each proofreading task into several types of sub-tasks, where some tasks require more linguistic skills while the other tasks need more technical skills, so that the linguistic and technical tasks can be distributed to older and younger participants, respectively. We also discuss other scenarios that may be suitable for such multi-generational crowdsourcing model.
Keywords: Accessibility; Micro-tasks; Crowdsourcing; Collaboration; Elderly; Intergenerational Communications
What "Digital Divide" between Generations? A Cross-National Analysis Using Data from the World Internet Project BIBAKFull-Text 113-122
  Tiago Lapa; Gustavo Cardoso
Individuals who grew up in the digital age are, according to some, digital natives, with increased expertise, compared to the rest of the population, using digital technology as an integral part of their lives. However, this paper aims to make a critical evaluation of approaches that naturalize the notion of "digital native," supported by the available data of the World Internet Project (WIP 2010) regarding the relationship of individuals of different cohorts with new technologies. Using the concept of digital natives without carrying out a careful and extensive comparative analysis runs the risk of masking asymmetric social situations (social, economic, geographic, gender, educational, cultural), both in younger and in older adults. Our proposed analysis takes into account alternative proposals that argue that the extent of use and experience has greater explanatory power than the simple comparison of inter-generational use of new technologies.
Keywords: new media; generations; digital natives; digital immigrants; age differences
Symbiosis: An Innovative Human-Computer Interaction Environment for Alzheimer's Support BIBAKFull-Text 123-132
  Dimitris Mandiliotis; Kostas Toumpas; Katerina Kyprioti; Kiki Kaza; João Barroso; Leontios J. Hadjileontiadis
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia diagnosed in people over 65 years of age. There is no cure for the disease, which worsens as it progresses, and eventually leads to death. As the disease advances, symptoms can include confusion, irritability and aggression, mood swings, trouble with language, and long-term memory loss. As the sufferer declines they often withdraw from family and society. Gradually, body functions are lost, ultimately leading to death. Current treatments only help with the symptoms of the disease. Following the vision of WHO and AD International for innovative approaches to AD, the system proposed here, namely Symbiosis, aims at creating a novel human-computer interaction (HCI) environment to facilitate, understand and incorporate the needs of the whole AD community (patients, caregivers and doctors).
Keywords: Alzheimer's Disease; Alzheimer's Community; Holistic Approach; Novel Environment; Cloud Database; Augmented Reality; Kinect Games; EEG; GPS Tracking
Interaction Science and the Aging User: Techniques to Assist in Design and Evaluation BIBAKFull-Text 133-141
  Sandra P. Marshall
The aging user presents unique challenges to designers of new technologies, in part because of physical changes in the user's visual system. This paper reviews a number of these changes and shows how eye tracking can assist interaction science studies, both through traditional eye-movement metrics as well as with pupil-based estimates of cognitive workload. Three studies of older and younger participants are described.
Keywords: Aging; Cognitive Workload; Eye Tracking; Interface Design
User Interfaces for Older Adults BIBAKFull-Text 142-150
  Christopher Mayer; Martin Morandell; Matthias Gira; Miroslav Sili; Martin Petzold; Sascha Fagel; Christian Schüler; Jan Bobeth; Susanne Schmehl
Needs and wishes regarding the interaction with ICT solutions change over time and vary between older adults. They depend on the user's physical and mental capabilities and preferences. Thus the user interface, which is considered critical to the success or failure of an ICT product or service, should be adaptable. AALuis provides an open middleware layer to guarantee accessible and usable user interfaces for Ambient Assisted Living services. The general idea is to foster a detachment of the user interface from the service and its functionality, respectively. Furthermore an input fusion and output fission regarding I/O modalities based on the user's preferences is striven for. At the heart of AALuis lays a dynamically adapted, personalized interaction between an older adult and the service, with various I/O devices. The first results of the project look promising to achieve flexibility in the creation and usage of interfaces. The chosen approach allows further developments expanding the functionalities and improving the generated user interfaces.
Keywords: Ambient Assisted Living Services; Human-Computer Interaction; User Interface; Framework; Automatic Adaptation
Volunteer Website for the Older Adult BIBAFull-Text 151-155
  Melissa L. McDonald
The need for volunteering has always been high, and the desire to volunteer has also been equally as significant especially for those who have retired or are nearing retirement. For those in the senior age group, volunteering is one way to give back to the community and to stay active. In this particular study, the ages of the participants ranged from 55 to 70. With this in mind, a prototype website for this particular age group was created that easily and efficiently found volunteer work around the area in which the individuals reside.
Age Differences in the Knowledge and Usage of QR Codes BIBAKFull-Text 156-161
  Jonathan Mendelson; Jennifer C. Romano Bergstrom
The adoption of a new technology is often affected by its perceived utility and ease of use, both of which could vary by age due to cognitive differences. A recently invented technology, the quick response (QR) code, enables smartphone users to access content on their mobile devices by scanning two-dimensional barcodes. In this paper, we examine awareness, knowledge, and usage of QR codes across different age groups in the United States, using a representative survey. Controlling for demographic characteristics, we find that older adults were only 13% as likely as younger adults to have used a QR code. We discuss survey results and implications for future research.
Keywords: age; technology usage; technology adoption; QR; quick response
Time-Mosaic Formation of Senior Workforces for Complex Irregular Work in Cooperative Farms BIBAKFull-Text 162-170
  Takahiro Miura; Masato Nakayama; Atsushi Hiyama; Naomi Yatomi; Michitaka Hirose
Although the challenges posed by aging populations are great, they can be offset to some degree by harnessing the increasing vitality and productivity of senior citizens in developed countries. To improve work opportunities for seniors and to make use of their abilities, we propose a mosaic-type work system in which elderly human resources are combined to form a single "virtual worker" based on seamless information sharing. In this study, we particularly focus on part of the mosaic, the time-mosaic, for the stable worker generation in the case of complex irregular work. The objective is to demonstrate the effectiveness of the time-mosaic formation system in cooperative farms for shift work organizations. In interviews with the workers, most of the leading workers at the farm found the system to be useful for effective formation and modification of the time-mosaic.
Keywords: Mosaic-type work; seniors; information communication technologies (ICT); cooperative farms
Development and Field Trial of a Social TV System for Elderly People BIBAKFull-Text 171-180
  Masaru Miyazaki; Masanori Sano; Shigeaki Mitsuya; Hideki Sumiyoshi; Masahide Naemura; Arisa Fujii
As the core of an innovative business model, we seek to develop an ICT (information and communications technology) platform called "Senior Cloud" that will activate communication among the elderly and utilize their knowledge and labor skills in the hyper-aged society of Japan, in which the percentage of people aged 65+ currently exceeds 21% of the total population. As one aspect of this effort, we studied what leads to the activation of communication among the elderly; specifically, we extended the viewing action and social graphs of the social TV system "teleda," which features VOD (Video on Demand) and SNS (Social Networking Service) functions. In this paper, we describe several experiments that verify the possibility of employing social TV systems to activate the elderly.
Keywords: Social TV; Social Networking Service; Video on Demand; Senior Cloud
Small Input Devices Used by the Elderly -- How Sensorimotor Transformation and Task Complexity Affect Interaction BIBAKFull-Text 181-190
  Michael Oehl; Luisa Dahlmanns; Christine Sutter
Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) often challenges the human motor system, especially when small input devices have to be used. An inclusive design of input devices for a broad user group has to be provided that assures an efficient and effective interaction with the device. Therefore, this paper focuses on aging effects and the usability of small input devices integrated into computer notebooks. In two experiments we examined the most common input devices with regard to sensorimotor transformation and with regard to task complexity. In both experiments we compared younger and older middle-aged adults to younger adult users. Especially for the younger and older middle-aged user group we found a more efficient use of the motion-controlled tool (touchpad) in comparison to the force-controlled tool (mini-joystick) to perform a rather simple task.
Keywords: Age; tool use; sensorimotor transformation; gain factor; task complexity
Conversational System Encouraging Communication of the Aged by Method of Reminiscence and Quantification of Active Participation BIBAKFull-Text 191-200
  Tetsuaki Okada; Misato Nihei; Takuya Narita; Minoru Kamata
We developed a conversational system encouraging aged persons to have conversations. This system quantifies the degree of active participation (DAP) by analyzing attitudes of the users, and selects topic based on it. The DAP was revealed to be quantified with vertical movement of face per question for each topic. As a result of experiments, the system succeeded in keeping or raising the DAP in 75% (9 out of 12) of topic selection cases. In addition, the method of reminiscence was proposed and applied to the system. The method proved to be effective in encouraging conversations of the aged persons.
Keywords: Speech and natural language interfaces; New technology and its usefulness
Age-Related Differences in Search Strategy and Performance When Using a Data-Rich Web Site BIBAKFull-Text 201-210
  Erica Olmsted-Hawala; Jennifer C. Romano Bergstrom; Wendy A. Rogers
In a usability study on a portion of the Census Bureau Web site, we assess how people of different ages search for specific information by evaluating performance and strategy differences between age groups. We collected usability metrics of accuracy and efficiency, including mouse click data. Eye-tracking data were also collected including eye-movement patterns in pre-defined areas of interest. This paper focuses on the number of fixations (whether participants looked at the correct area of the screen) and number of unique visits (whether participants re-checked their answers). Results show that on the hard task only, older adults took longer to make the first click when initially starting the task, and there was a trend for younger adults to have higher accuracy. All age groups re-checked their answers suggesting that users of all ages experience difficulties when reading and comprehending complex data tables.
Keywords: eye tracking; usability; age differences; search strategy; mouse clicks; cognition
Are Internet and Social Network Usage Associated with Wellbeing and Social Inclusion of Seniors? -- The Third Age Online Survey on Digital Media Use in Three European Countries BIBAKFull-Text 211-220
  Dirk Richter; Stijn Bannier; Ruediger Glott; Markus Marquard; Thomas Schwarze
Research on the psychosocial effects of Internet and social network usage in seniors is either contradictory or sparse. As part of the Third Age Online project, this paper reports a cross-sectional survey conducted in Germany, the Netherlands and in Switzerland. The survey, utilizing regression analysis, examined whether or not social inclusion and mental wellbeing were predictors of Internet usage and social network usage. Results showed that social inclusion variables were associated with both Internet usage and social network usage. Internet usage was associated with respondents who were both less and more socially included. Mental wellbeing was positively related to Internet usage but not to social network usage. In further studies, longitudinal designs are needed to reveal the directions of causality between Internet/social network usage and mental wellbeing/social inclusion.
Keywords: Internet; social networks; mental wellbeing; social inclusion; elderly
Age and Computer Self-Efficacy in the Use of Digital Technologies: An Investigation of Prototypes for Public Self-Service Terminals BIBAKFull-Text 221-230
  Günther Schreder; Michael Smuc; Karin Siebenhandl; Eva Mayr
Previous research suggests that self-efficacy (SE), i.e. the belief 'in one's capabilities to organize and execute the courses of action required to produce given attainments' (Bandura), plays an important role in the usage of self-service technologies especially for elder customers. Two experiments with different prototypes of ticket vending machines (TVM) were conducted. Participants were selected according to their age (half of the participants aged 55 or older) and levels of general computer self-efficacy (CSE). The first experiment shows that CSE contributes to both the user's performance and ratings of task-specific SE, while age affects the performance only. The second experiment indicates that using the novel TVM increases the user's task-specific SE except for elder users with low CSE -- who faced critical problems in the more complex tasks. Results indicate that future research on digital inclusion should focus on elder users with low CSE.
Keywords: ticket vending machine; self-service terminals; self-efficacy; age and technology; older adults
A Framework of Affordance and Usability of Mobile User Interface for Older Adults BIBAKFull-Text 231-239
  Chui Yin Wong
Growing ageing phenomena and prevalence of mobile technology give rise to the unexplored 'silver surfer' group in the local market. Due to ageing, many older adults suffer declination of cognitive, motor and physical abilities. Many of them experience difficulties using certain features when interacting with their mobile phones, especially technology shift from keypad-enabled to touch-screen mobile user interfaces. However, there is still no profound knowledge about how to design for local older adults, and which particular role of affordance might play to ensure usability of mobile user interface for older adults. The role of affordance is very much related to how an older adult perceives a new mobile user interface when they first expose to it that s/he has never seen it before, and have no clues what to do with it. This paper formulates a conceptual research framework for affordance and usability of mobile user interface for older adults.
Keywords: affordance; usability; mobile user interface; older adults
Designing for the Wisdom of Elders: Age Related Differences in Online Search Strategies BIBAKFull-Text 240-249
  Robert J. Youmans; Brooke Bellows; Christian A. Gonzalez; Brittany Sarbone; Ivonne J. Figueroa
Information search is one of the main reasons that older adults go online, but older adults experience more difficulties than younger adults when interacting with search engines. In this study, 15 younger and 14 older participants completed a battery of cognitive tasks, and then searched for information via a realistic search simulator. Older participants searched using a more methodical strategy that entailed careful word selection and serial processing of search results, while younger participants used a more impulsive strategy whereby they scanned search results quickly and jumped between links more frequently. In keeping with past studies, older adults displayed lower cognitive flexibility, but these deficiencies were apparently offset by their search strategy, and young and old participants ultimately found information in similar amounts of time. We argue that, while age-related cognitive changes certainly exist, their effect on older adults' interactions with search engines may be due to mismatches between older adults' search strategies and the design of current versions of popular search interfaces.
Keywords: Internet Search; Age; Search Strategy; Cognitive Flexibility

Human Vision in Universal Access

Using Pupil Size Variation during Visual Emotional Stimulation in Measuring Affective States of Non Communicative Individuals BIBAKFull-Text 253-258
  Dania Al-Omar; Areej Al-Wabil; Manar Fawzi
In this paper we describe an exploratory experiment conducted in the early stages of the design and development of a screening program for non-communicative individuals. The system incorporates eye-tracking and biosensor technologies for objectively measuring affective states by combining measures of ElectroDermal Activity (EDA), temperature and eye gaze metrics of pupil dilation. The objective is to provide individuals with cognitive disabilities who experience difficulties in expressing their feelings with an alternate form of communicating their emotional states in clinical screening and occupational therapy sessions. The interactive computer-based screening program is comprised of stimuli-sets designed to elicit emotional response from viewers with a trend analysis component designed with an interface for health care providers. The focus of this paper is the feasibility of including pupil dilation as a measure reflecting affective states of individuals in the overall emotional intelligence screening system.
Keywords: Multi-sensory interfaces; Autism; Eye Tracking
SERPs and Ads on Mobile Devices: An Eye Tracking Study for Generation Y BIBAKFull-Text 259-268
  Soussan Djamasbi; Adrienne Hall-Phillips; Ruijiao (Rachel) Yang
We use eye tracking data to analyze the search behavior of Generation Y users when searching for information using a mobile phone. Following previous studies, we use Google as an example of list-based SERPs to explore the impact of advertisements in search results and their impact on attention before the user's first action on the page. Results provide evidence that the presence of advertisements and location on the screen can have an impact on user experience and search.
Keywords: Fixation; Generation Y; Search Engine Results Pages (SERPs); viewing behavior; mobile phone
Effects of Long-Time 3D Viewing on the Eye Function of Accommodation and Convergence BIBAKFull-Text 269-274
  Hiromu Ishio; Takehito Kojima; Takumi Oohashi; Yuuki Okada; Hiroki Takada; Masaru Miyao
Recently we developed a device by combining a binocular autorefractometer and an eye mark recorder. Then, using the device together with images of very natural and high quality, we have carried out a sequence of experiments on simultaneous measurements of both accommodation and convergence while viewing virtual 3D objects.
   The results show that there is essentially no discrepancy in the dynamical behaviors of accommodation and convergence especially for young subjects and that they are hence very close to the case of natural viewing of real 3D objects.
   Following our previous experiments, we now investigate effects of long-time viewing of virtual 3D objects on the eye function of accommodation and convergence. We show that the synchronous dynamical behaviors of accommodation and convergence are definitely not a temporal effect but last for a long time.
Keywords: 3D; virtual image; accommodation; convergence; long-time viewing
Image Quality Assessment for the Visually Impaired BIBAKFull-Text 275-284
  Tatiana Koshkina; Éric Dinet; Hubert Konik
In recent years, image enhancement methods have been developed to assist visually impaired people in the everyday life. These methods are promising but they currently suffer from the problem of their correct adjustment according to the specificities of each patient. To address such a problem, an objective quality metric could be used to quantify if enhancement schemes do not introduce artifacts that could be perceived as troublesome by visually deficient persons. As all existing metrics were designed to assess the image quality for observers with normal or corrected to normal vision, they are not appropriate in the context of low vision. Then an alternate framework is presented in this paper. This framework combines three distinct quality attributes that were identified as important features for the visually impaired in image quality assessment and it has been developed to adapt to the different types of visual pathologies.
Keywords: visual aid; quality metric; image enhancement; low vision
An Evaluation of the iPod Touch as an Alternative Low-Vision Magnifier for People with Low Vision BIBAKFull-Text 285-292
  Seunghyun Tina Lee; Jon A. Sanford
This study evaluated the feasibility of using the iPod Touch as an alternative low-vision magnifier by comparing its usability issues, subjective ratings, and preferences with those of two existing low-vision magnifiers (SmartView Pocket and Amigo). Thirty participants (30-91 years) performed magnification adjustment tasks and reading tasks using three devices and rated the devices based on ease of use, ease of understanding, and satisfaction. The results show 60% of the participants preferred the pinch zoom gesture and 66% preferred the scrolling one-finger gesture on the iPod Touch. This high user preference data indicate participants' acceptability of finger gestures, which suggests new opportunities for the adoption of new technology for low-vision video magnifiers. The gesture interfaces may be a promising method for magnification and navigation for low-vision users.
Keywords: Low vision video magnifier; gesture
Form in Potential Functions While Maintaining an Upright Posture during Exposure to Stereoscopic Video Clips BIBAKFull-Text 293-301
  Yasuyuki Matsuura; Masaru Miyao; Hiroki Takada
Visually induced motion sickness (VIMS) is a well-known phenomenon in viewing video, playing video games and others. The VIMS is caused by sensory conflict, the disagreement between convergence and visual accommodation while observing stereoscopic images. The VIMS can be measured by psychological and physiological methods. We propose a mathematical methodology to measure the effect of 3-dimensional (3D) images on the equilibrium function. In this study, body sway in the resting state is compared with that during exposure to 3D video clips on a liquid crystal display and on a head mounted display. In addition, the Simulator Sickness Questioner (SSQ) was completed immediately afterward. Based on the statistical analysis of the SSQ sub-scores and each index for stabilograms, we succeeded in determining the quantity of the VIMS during exposure to the stereoscopic images. Moreover, we discuss the metamorphism in the potential functions to control the standing posture during the exposure to stereoscopic video clips.
Keywords: Visually induced motion sickness; Stabilometry; Sparse density; Stochastic Differential Equation (SDE); Liquid crystal displays (LCDs); Head-mounted displays (HMDs)
Evaluating the Legibility of Streoscopic Game Consoles BIBAKFull-Text 302-308
  Yuki Okada; Takehito Kojima; Takumi Oohashi; Masaru Miyao
Recently, 3D technology has been developing and spreading into many aspects of our life; for example, in television and mobile phones. It is generally believed that during stereoscopic vision, a person' accommodation and convergence are mismatched when viewing 3D images and thus causing visual fatigue. During stereoscopic vision, while accommodation is fixed on the display showing a 3D image, convergence of the left and right eyes crosses at the location of the stereo-image. According to the findings presented in our previous observation, however, such explanations are mistaken. Results from our previous research found that accommodation is not fixed on the display and actually moved to suit convergence. We used a parallax barrier system for the 3D image in the previous study. In this experiment, we measured accommodation and convergence simultaneously using a handheld 3D game console (parallax barrier scheme).
Keywords: Accommodation; Convergence; 3D images
Measurement of Lens Accommodation and Convergence during the Viewing of 3D Images BIBAKFull-Text 309-317
  Takumi Oohashi; Hiromu Ishio; Yuki Okada; Tomohiko Yanase; Takehito Kojima; Masaru Miyao
Three-dimensional display technology has developed rapidly in recent years. This has been accompanied by increasing problems of visual complaints such as eye strain. There are also various types of digital signage, in which text information moves on a screen. In this paper, we conducted two experiments for the purpose of easy to read, dynamic characters that pop out when viewing 3D images, and safe and comfortable 3D viewing. We conducted a survey of accommodation and convergence of viewers when they watched a movie with a television opaque projector for large outward projection of characters. We also compared the results of a survey on the readability of characters that pop out and the proportion and the perception of the amount of protrusion. We examined the maximum distance in which subjects' eyes could recognize the 3D character representations without any difficulty or discomfort. The distance of the images as they popped out from the screen as a theoretical virtual target was compared with what the subjects recognized according to each age group. There was no significant difference between the theoretical and observed values in any age groups. In a second experiment, we performed objective measurements of accommodation and convergence for 3D character representation using original instruments. We then compared the values of the measurements of the subjects with the theoretical positions of emergence. When a subject recognized a 3D character representation, the position of his or her accommodative and convergent focus was closer to the theoretical position of the virtual object that projected out from the screen. Nearly all of the subjects recognized the 3D representation at even 3.8 degrees, which was the largest parallax condition. Cognitively, almost all of the subjects viewed the positions of the objects correctly without much difficulty.
Keywords: 3Ddisplay; ergonomics; accommodation; convergence
Multi-evaluation Method of Visual Fatigue and Motion Sickness While Viewing 2D/3D Video Clips on a Liquid Crystal Display BIBAKFull-Text 318-326
  Hiroki Takada; Kazuhiro Fujikake; Yasuyuki Matsuura; Masaru Miyao
It is physiologically known that the vestibular system and the autonomic nervous system interact with each other. The motion sickness can affect both these systems, and severity of the motion sickness is expected to be measured by dysfunction of the equilibrium system. We have proposed a new index, sparse density (SPD), of stationary stabilograms for detecting the metamorphism in the (temporally averaged) potential function of stochastic differential equations, which occurs when a human attempts to maintain an upright posture. It is known that a mathematical model of the body sway can be developed by a stochastic process. The authors have succeeded in finding the nonlinearity in the potential function. Subjects in a standing position were stimulated by a movie scrolling from left to right on a liquid crystal display (LCD) in measurement 1 and a stereoscopic video clip on an LCD in measurement 2. As a result, the dynamics of the body sway in the presence of the stimulus as well as in its absence were considered to be stochastic. The metamorphism in the potential function during exposure to blurred images and a stereoscopic video clip could be detected by using the SPD.
Keywords: Visual Fatigue; Visually Induced Motion Sickness (VIMS); Blurred Images; Stereoscopic Images; Stabilometry
Exploring Psychophysical Factors Influencing Visibility of Virtual Image Display BIBAKFull-Text 327-335
  Shys-Fan Yang-Mao; Ming-Hui Lin; Yu-Ting Lin; Wen-Jun Zeng; Yueh-Yi Lai
Mixed reality (MR) or augmented reality (AR) is a very popular displaying technology in various applications. It allows the user to see the real world and virtual image simultaneously, with displaying virtual objects composited with or superimposed upon the real world. Since the usability of interactive user interface based on MR or AR relies heavily on visibility of displaying content, for virtual image display particularly. In this paper, we explore several psychophysical factors that can influence visibility on our virtual image display prototype. Factors include contrast sensitivity, transparency, color, brightness, texture gradient and ambient light. The experiment results reveal many interesting and fascinating features. The features can be the user interface design guidelines for every similar see-through near-eye display system.
Keywords: augmented reality; mixed reality; see-through near-eye display; user interface; usability; visibility
Effect of Display Size on Body Sway in Seated Posture While Viewing an Hour-Long Stereoscopic Film BIBAKFull-Text 336-341
  Kazuki Yoshikawa; Hiroki Takada; Masaru Miyao
Viewing stereoscopic films may have adverse effects, such as asthenopia and visually induced motion sickness (VIMS). The phenomenon of VIMS is not fully understood, so the aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of viewing a long stereoscopic film on the human body. We conducted stabilometric analysis on subjects in the Romberg posture, carried out flicker tests, and provided subjective questionnaires to detect fatigue and eye strain every 20 min. Symptoms of VIMS were detected during exposure to an hour-long stereoscopic film. The display size and the engagement were analyzed for their affect on the total locus length and the sway area, respectively. The severity of the motion sickness induced by viewing the 3D film was measured by stabilometry, and the analogous sway was not observed in participants after viewing the 2D film in this study. Based on these results, guidelines can be developed to ensure safety while viewing stereoscopic movies.
Keywords: Visually induced motion sickness; Stabilometry; Liquid crystal displays (LCDs); Hour-long stereoscopic film

Emotions and Persuasion in Universal Access

GreenSense: Developing Persuasive Service Technology by Integrating Mobile Devices and Social Interaction for Sustainable and Healthy Behavior BIBAKFull-Text 345-354
  Po-Chun Chen; Taysheng Jeng; Yi-Shin Deng; Sheng-Fen Chien
Energy and carbon dioxide emissions are becoming the major issue for creating a sustainable living environment. According to ITF reports, transportation represent 23% carbon dioxide emissions globally in 2010, and has grown by 45% from 1990 to 2007. However, the lack of Information transparency of energy consumption and carbon dioxide emission may become the barrier for users who are willing to perform sustainable behaviors. Moreover, the unchanged human behavior and habits are the major obstacles toward the sustainable living.
   In this paper, we proposed a mobile persuasive service to promote "green" sense that encourages sustainable transportation by revealing both sustainable and health information to users. The service design includes: 1) A mobile App for users to monitor their own transportation behaviors; 2) A visualization interface for users better realizing their own performance and states; 3) A virtual "Green Credit" rewards concept to create social interactions and encourage behavior change. A working prototype has been implemented and tested in a university campus. We describe the design, implementation and future work of the GreenSense project in this paper.
Keywords: Behavior Change; Mobile Devices; Social Interaction; Persuasive Technology
How Do We Feel When Babyloid Starts Crying Suddenly? BIBAKFull-Text 355-362
  Felix Jimenez; Masayoshi Kanoh; Masato Goto
We investigated whether Babyloid, which is a robot designed to act like a human baby, induces feeling that people want to care or help it by focusing on the distance between individuals and the robot. We evaluated how people when Babyloid suddenly started crying by using three distances of personal spaces (intimate (30 cm), personal (100 cm), and social (200 cm)). As a result, participants at an intimate distance had a feeling to help Babyloid, those at a personal distance either wanted to help it or avoided it, and those at a social distance showed no such feeling.
Keywords: Human-robot interaction; personal space; Babyloid
How Does Unintentional Eye Contact with a Robot Affect Users' Emotional Attachment to It?: Investigation on the Effects of Eye Contact and Joint Attention on Users' Emotional Attachment to a Robot BIBAKFull-Text 363-372
  Takanori Komatsu; Haruka Takahashi
Eye contact behavior plays a significant role in establishing intimate interaction between a user and a robot. In this study, more specifically, we assumed that unintentional eye contact with a robot would make a person feel a stronger emotional attachment to the robot, especially when the user believes that s/he had achieved joint attention with the robot. To verify this assumption, we developed an experimental setting to make users establish joint attention and eye-contact with a robot. We then conducted an experiment to investigate the above assumption; that is, independent variables were with/without eye-contact and with/without joint attention, while the dependent variable was a questionnaire that consisted of a love-liking scale. The results showed that our assumption was verified.
Keywords: eye contact; joint attention; emotional attachment; human-robot interaction
Interaction Design for Robotic Avatars Does Avatar's Aging Cue Affect the User's Impressions of a Robot? BIBAKFull-Text 373-382
  Angie Lorena Marin; Sukhan Lee
Human Computer/Robot Interaction has concerned about developing embodied computer/robot agents effective for their use in user interaction. In particular, the study on the dependency of the interaction design on the target users has been of a core theme to investigate. For instance, in the case of designing an embodied agent such as an avatar specifically to support the performance of a robot assistant to the elderly, the aspect of social interaction with the older adults should be of a serious concern. In this paper, we present a study that explores the relationship between the degree of aging cues (i.e., the visual features related to the age of embodied agents) and the level of perceived anthropomorphism, intelligence, safety and likeability by the older adults as customers. The study found that avatar aging cues affect the perception of the older adults in intelligence and safety: the older adults perceived the agent more intelligent with older avatars but safer with younger avatars. However, the aging cue seems not affecting the sense of anthropomorphism and likeability on users. An Interesting finding is the difference in the likability associated with the aging cue according to the gender of the older adults: the male participants tend to like older avatars while the female participants the younger ones. Since how the older adults perceive the aging cues of avatars could affect their expectation and trust on the assistant robots, thus, the findings related to the aging cue influence in the design of a series of attributions of the robots in terms of their roles and capabilities. Based on the results of this work, we can approach toward design considerations to help guide interaction designers in creating the visual appearance of an embodied agency as the robotic avatar interfaces for the elderly.
Keywords: Robotics; avatar; embodied agent; elderly; aging cues; interfaces; user experience
"Multicultural/Cross-Cultural Emotional Design:" The Usage of Pictographs to Design Emotional Interactive Environments BIBAKFull-Text 383-393
  Haytham Nawar; Hala Gabr
With the advancement of technology and communication, globalization is realized progressively as geographical barriers break. The idea of visual communication systems started developing under the cross-culture interaction and communication umbrella. The development of such a visual language serves as a universal form of communication bridging linguistic and cultural gaps. The proposed visual communication system cannot be considered a language, but rather a supplement to languages to create better and faster understanding. In this research, we ask two questions; 1. Would the existence of a universal visual language bridge cultural gaps? And 2. we study the effect of having a visual language on the emotional experience of the user, so we ask if the usage of pictographs as a universal language would make the experience of people a more emotional one? In this paper, we propose an augmented reality application that translates natural languages to pictographic symbols.
Keywords: multiculturalism; cross-culture; universal language; visual communication system; pictograph; emotional design; interactive environment
Talking Ally: Toward Persuasive Communication in Everyday Life BIBAKFull-Text 394-403
  Yuki Odahara; Naoki Ohshima; P. Ravindra S. De Silva; Michio Okada
Exploiting a social intelligent agent (robot) for the embodiment of communication and interaction in a social and engaging manner is more exceptionally challenging than developing the basic capabilities of embedded robots (moving and acting). A robot should mainly have the capability of executing its communication capabilities within a social manner that is sufficient for establishing interaction with humans. The field of social robotics is mainly concerned with exploring desirable conventions embedded in social robots, which must contemplate and incorporate non-verbal communication. As such, we are developing a social robot (Talking-Ally) that is capable of liking the state of the person (addressee) through an utterance-generation mechanism (addressivity) that refers to the hearer's resources (hearership) in order to persuade the user through dynamic interactions.
Keywords: Mutually influences; Persuasive communication; Hearership; Addressivity
Beyond Rationality: Affect as a Function of User Interfaces BIBAKFull-Text 404-413
  Bernardo Santos Schorr; Rejane Spitz
The emotional part of human nature is rarely explored in design projects that involve interaction with electronic devices. Designs are usually guided by technical efficiency and the astonishment that derives from the speed of information processing in digital media. Considering the contemporary context and the concept of ubiquitous computing, this article seeks to identify achievements and future directions for the implementation of affective functions in interaction design projects, revealing a wide range of possibilities for development in this area. To achieve these goals, this paper draws parallels between computer science, neuroscience and interaction design; discusses the definition of the term 'affect' in Spinoza and Deleuze; and establishes categories to analyze a series of objects that are either affectively influenced by the user, that are designed to affectively influence the user, or that facilitate affective exchange between two or more users.
Keywords: affect; affective design; interaction design; user interface
Characteristics of Robots and Virtual Agents as a Persuasive Talker BIBAKFull-Text 414-423
  Kaoru Sumi; Mizue Nagata
Considering the spread of computers and the technological advances of recent years, research on persuasive intelligent user interfaces with a fifty-fifty relationship for communicating with humans is necessary. Recently, anthropomorphic user interfaces have been developed, such as virtual agents and robots. In this paper, we introduce an experiment on the effect on a human of persuasive interaction with a virtual agent which is capable of facial and verbal expression. Then, considering the results, we discuss an experiment on persuasion to maintain motivation, comparing human agent interaction and human robot interaction.
Keywords: Persuasion; human agent interaction; human robot interaction
Age-Related Differences in Factors Contributing to Affective Experiences among Japanese Adults BIBAKFull-Text 424-433
  Qin Tang; Wendy A. Rogers; Hiroyuki Umemuro
People's needs for products and services providing affective experiences continue to grow. Previous studies have made initial attempts at clarifying affective factors contributing to the generation of affects among Japanese participants. However, those studies focused only on younger adults. Given that most products are designed for a wide range of users, it is important to determine whether results obtained among Japanese younger adults generalize to broader populations including older adults. The purpose of this study was to explore the difference in factor structures of affective factors among Japanese older and younger adults. This study also explored how people's affective responses toward stimuli may vary across ages. A questionnaire-based investigation was conducted with both younger and older adults in Japan. Results indicated that affective responses elicited by the same stimulus varied across age groups. Younger and older adults' affects were evoked in different ways while participants' perceptions toward the same stimulus also varied across age groups. The result of this study would help designers to design products or services that elicit target users' affects more effectively according to the characteristics of younger and older adults as target users.
Keywords: aging; affect; affective experiences; design; product; service
Regression Modeling of Reader's Emotions Induced by Font Based Text Signals BIBAKFull-Text 434-443
  Dimitrios Tsonos; Georgios Kouroupetroglou; Despina Deligiorgi
In this work we presented a mathematical model for the readers' emotional state responses triggered by font style, type and color. It is based on multiple regression analysis of the repeated measures from 45 students and for 35 textual stimuli using the Self-Assessment Manikin test. Based on the dimensional theory of emotions, we propose a model on how emotional dimensions Pleasure, Arousal, and Dominance vary according to the typographic text signals: font style, font type and font/background color combinations. We observe that "Pleasure" dimension is affected negatively by font type ("Arial" and "Times New Roman") and positively by color brightness difference of font/background color combinations. "Arousal" and "Dominance" are affected only by color brightness difference (negative correlation). According to the proposed model, font type "Arial" elicits more pleasant emotional state than "Times New Roman". The results can be applied to augment user interface experience or to add expressivity in Text-to-Speech systems and provide accessibility of typography induced text signals.
Keywords: document accessibility; text signals; reader's emotions; Text-to-Speech; Self-Assessment Manikin test
Note: Best paper award

Design for Autistic Spectrum Disorders

A Usability Study on Natural Interaction Devices with ASD Children BIBAKFull-Text 447-453
  Ravi Agarwal; Harini Alagarai Sampath; Bipin Indurkhya
Intelligent agents such as social robots and avatars have been used with Children with Autism (CWA) to help them learn social skills. Social robots afford a natural interaction but are expensive. Interaction with avatars, on the other hand, is through point-and-click interfaces and touch-screens. In this paper, we explore the use of Microsoft KinectTMas an interaction modality with children with autism. We found that while CWA could understand the concept of interacting through gestures, though they needed explicit physical modeling from their teachers to perform those gestures. We discuss the implications of this to user-interface design.
Keywords: Gesture Controlled User Interfaces; Natural User Interfaces; Assistive technology; Autism
Virtual Reality-Based Facial Expressions Understanding for Teenagers with Autism BIBAKFull-Text 454-463
  Esubalew Bekele; Zhi Zheng; Amy Swanson; Julie Davidson; Zachary Warren; Nilanjan Sarkar
Technology-enabled intervention has the potential to individualize and improve outcomes of traditional intervention. Specifically, virtual reality (VR) technology has been proposed in the virtual training of core social and communication skills that are impaired in individuals with autism. Various studies have demonstrated that children with autism have slow and atypical processing of emotional faces, which could be due to their atypical underlying neural structure. Emotional face recognition is considered among the core building blocks of social communication and early impairment in this skill has consequence on later complex language and communication skills. This work proposed a VR-based facial emotion recognition mechanism in the presence of contextual storytelling. Results from a usability study support the idea that individuals with autism may employ different facial processing strategies. The results are discussed in the context of the applicability of multimodal processing to enable adaptive VR-based systems in delivering individualized intervention.
Keywords: Social interaction; virtual reality; multimodal system; adaptive interaction; eye tracking; physiological processing; autism intervention
A Step towards Adaptive Multimodal Virtual Social Interaction Platform for Children with Autism BIBAKFull-Text 464-473
  Esubalew Bekele; Mary Young; Zhi Zheng; Lian Zhang; Amy Swanson; Rebecca Johnston; Julie Davidson; Zachary Warren; Nilanjan Sarkar
Recent advances in computer and robotic technology are enabling the application of such technology in assisting traditional intervention in developmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorders (ASD). A number of research studies indicate that many children with ASD prefer technology and this preference can be explored to develop systems that may alleviate several challenges of traditional treatment and intervention. The current work proposes to develop an adaptive virtual reality-based social interaction platform for children with ASD. It is hypothesized that endowing a technological system that can detect the feeling and state of the child and adapt its interaction accordingly is of great importance in assisting and individualization of traditional intervention approaches. The proposed system employs sensors such as eye trackers and physiological signal monitors and models the context relevant psychological state of the user from combination of these sensors together with the performance of the participant.
Keywords: Social interaction; virtual reality; multimodal system; adaptive interaction; eye tracking; physiological processing; autism intervention
A Novel Virtual Reality Driving Environment for Autism Intervention BIBAKFull-Text 474-483
  Dayi Bian; Joshua W. Wade; Lian Zhang; Esubalew Bekele; Amy Swanson; Julie Ana Crittendon; Medha Sarkar; Zachary Warren; Nilanjan Sarkar
Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) often have difficulty functioning independently and display impairments related to important tasks related to adaptive independence such as driving. Ability to drive is believed to be an important factor of quality of life for individuals with ASD. The presented work describes a novel driving simulator based on a virtual city environment that will be used in the future to impart driving skills to teenagers with ASD as a part of intervention. A physiological data acquisition system, which was used to acquire and process participant's physiological signals, and an eye tracker, which was utilized to detect eye gaze signals, were each integrated into the driving simulator. These physiological and eye gaze indices were recorded and computed to infer the affective states of the participant in real-time when he/she was driving. Based on the affective states of the participant together with his/her performance, the driving simulator adaptively changes the difficulty level of the task. This VR-based driving simulator will be capable of manipulating the driving task difficulty in response to the physiological and eye gaze indices recorded during the task. The design of this novel driving simulator system and testing data to validate its functionalities are presented in this paper.
Keywords: Virtual Reality; Autism intervention; Adaptive task; Physiological signals; Eye gaze
A Proposed ASD-Centric Framework: The Case of ASDAPT BIBAKFull-Text 484-493
  Panagiotis Germanakos; Maria Claudia Buzzi; Marina Buzzi
As the number of individuals diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) rises, the need for providing one-to-one treatment increases significantly. ASD is a complex lifelong disorder that has an intense impact on a person's development predominantly demonstrating strong deficiencies in many types of social behavior, social imagination and communication. Although people with autism share some common characteristics, no two individuals are the same. In this regards, computer-based treatment approaches should always be emphasizing on the abilities, individualistic characteristics and preferences of a person with ASD. In this paper, we propose an ASD-centric adaptation and personalization framework, namely ASDAPT, that utilizes an extended user profile which attempts to capture inclusively the attributes that could formulate a strong basis for the apt identification of an individual with ASD. Main aim of ASDAPT is to provide a unified adaptive approach to the learning process over a computer-based environment for children with ASD, discussing implementation considerations, taking place during the dynamic adaptation process, supported by a real life case scenario.
Keywords: Adaptation; Personalization; Autistic Spectrum Disorder; Computer-based Education
Project Communicate BIBAKFull-Text 494-503
  Ruchir Hajela; Prasanta Bhattacharya; Rahul Banerjee
The work illustrated in this paper seeks to establish the case around children suffering from autism in developing countries. This paper proposes the design and development of a ubiquitous computing framework (codenamed Project Communicate) to provide a playful HCI model in order to help them learn and communicate effectively. The key merit of this study is in the illustration of how economical off-the-shelf technologies can be effectively integrated to achieve two key use cases in the area of autism interventions, namely Communication and Pedagogy. The proposed framework congregates some of the interventions designed and implemented by the authors in each of these test cases with a special focus on how mobile phone usage could be operationalized and leveraged in the context of a developing country like India.
Keywords: Adaptive and augmented interaction; Children with autism; Resource constrained communities; Augmented reality
Towards an Affective Computing Feedback System to Benefit Underserved Individuals: An Example Teaching Social Media Skills BIBAKFull-Text 504-513
  Mohammad Nasser Saadatzi; Karla Conn Welch; Robert Pennington; James Graham
Researchers have suggested that the use of technology may be effective during the instruction of a variety of academic and communication skills for individuals with disabilities [1, 2]. Also, the design of affect-sensitive interactions between humans and technology, a research area known as affective computing, is an increasingly important discipline in the human-computer interaction (HCI) and human-robot interaction (HRI) communities. Physiological signals could be used to determine which affective states are involved in HCI and HRI for a broad section of the population but may have increased utility for individuals with social or intellectual impairments. Therefore, employing affect-sensitive technologies in intervention sessions may provide a means to make strides in appropriate social interaction skills and other deficits, but further research is necessary to understand why these methods are successful and what applications are most useful for different individuals.
Keywords: affective computing; autism; intellectual disabilities; social media
Evaluating Therapeutic Engagement and Expressive Communication in Immersive Multimedia Environments BIBAKFull-Text 514-523
  Ceri Williams
This paper documents two case studies of pupils using the Picturing Sound Multisensory Environment. This cause and effect environment responds to the gestures of users by creating visuals and sounds. Two pupils, one with a severe physical disability (stroke), and one diagnosed as on the Autistic Spectrum (AS), are observed in the environment and comparisons are made between interactions in the multimedia environment against interactions and behaviors in other daily school environments. Results indicate increased periods of physical engagement and social interaction from the case studies. The paper comments on how the environment system has developed and how the system design can be further refined.
Keywords: Autistic Spectrum; AS; autism; physical disability; stroke; rehabilitation; physiotherapy; engagement; motivation; multimedia; Kinect; communication; cause and effect
Design and Evaluation of Applying Robots to Assisting and Inducing Children with Autism in Social Interaction BIBAKFull-Text 524-533
  Tzu-Chi Yin; Fang-Wu Tung
This article is a pilot study in which autistic children alternated between playing a diverse card game, physical instructions game with two different humanoid level robots. The purpose of the study was explores whether the differing humanoid levels and movements regarding robot appearance influence the responses of autistic children. The objective is to design an effective robot at a reasonable cost. The result of this study indicated that autistic children were happily involved in interactive scenarios. Two different humanoid level robots were able to guide the autistic children to complete the assigned experimental tasks, and generate basic social behavior. In other words, robots with various levels of physical similarity to humans are capable of generating positive effects in social interaction learning for autistic children.
Keywords: Autism; robot; humanoid; social interaction; turn-taking

Cognitive Issues for Universal Access

To Embody the N-Body: Spatial Perception Utilized in Large-Scale Visualizations BIBAKFull-Text 537-546
  Julieta Aguilera-Rodríguez
This paper articulates space as a visual, proprioceptive and physical experience that is the basis for synthetic representations created to convey astronomically-sized dynamic structures that are beyond unaided human perception. Astronomy visualizations based on real data as well as simulations are presented as examples, since they are tailored to the space and time that lie within the range of human scale, in order to show relationships that are important for the understanding of large phenomena. The experience of space is further characterized in relation to metaphors, image schemas and force gestalts, emphasizing the enactive approach to embodiment, as well as the associative and emotional connections developed in the fields of psychology, philosophy and neuroscience that are relevant to the design of synthetic experiences. A fluid perceptual state of mindfulness is important to notice those relationships, and tying them through embodied interaction helps to integrate complex relationships in a direct manner. Perceptual cues that exploit the experiential connections of the senses to reality are used to reinforce the vivid richness of visualizations. Sound, vision, and tracked movement work together to build a full sensory experience by reconstructing the missing input such as touch and smell through the senses afforded by the media used, as well as the person experiencing it.
Keywords: Visualization; space; interaction; immersion; astronomy; perception; embodiment; enaction; mindfulness
Cognitive-Based Approach for Assessing Accessibility of e-Government Websites BIBAKFull-Text 547-554
  Khulud AlJarallah; Robert C. C. Chen; Omar AlShathry
The importance of internet and other communication technologies play a vital role in modern life. Websites are inherently designed for a targeted group of users, normal sighted or for the whole population including those who are visually impaired. Blind and visually impaired people often face accessibility and usability problems while accessing websites. Related literature did not consider the interaction mechanism and cognitive features of visually impaired people when testing for accessibility. In this study, a novel user centered, task oriented, and cognitive approach is proposed to evaluate the accessibility problems faced by blind people. An e-Government website will be used as a case study for evaluating the proposed methodology considering practical user tasks and the WCAG guidelines.
Keywords: blind and visually impaired users (BVI); Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG); accessibility; usability; e-Government; cognitive
Musically Inspired Computer Interfaces: Reaction Time and Memory Enhancements in Visuo-Spatial Timelines (ViST) for Graphic User Interfaces BIBAFull-Text 555-564
  Gisela Susanne Bahr; Melissa M. Walwanis; Beth F. Wheeler Atkinson
A principal component of simulation-based training is the collaboration of distributed instructor teams. The cognitive workload of instructors during complex scenarios rapidly increases to levels that result in impaired performance. Empirical research on the investigation of cognitive performance and optimization for timeline GUI supported Human Computer Interaction (HCI) is limited. As part of the research and development of a specialized Graphic User Interface (GUI) for aviation instructors, we evaluated the differences between multi-timeline displays in a traditional, alphanumeric format and an alternative, visuo-spatial format. The current study investigated user cognitive efficiency (i.e., reactions times, memory performance) when interacting with traditional alphanumeric Timelines (AnT) and Visuo-Spatial Timelines (ViST). Stimuli complexity was controlled for density and set size. MANOVAs and ANOVAs revealed significant differences in favor of ViST conditions. For ViST users average reaction times decreased by 43.34% and 51.33% (3.78 s; 2.31 s) for last event and simultaneous events detection, respectively, and, cued recall performance increased on average by 22.5%. Inspired by musical notation, the alternative timeline design of ViST was designed to support human processing characteristics. Our findings indicate that individual users demonstrate enhanced performance compared to traditional, vertically oriented timelines. The findings presented have supported the Graphic Embedded Timeline (G.E.T.) Tools, a GUI module in use by the U.S. military. The ViST performance enhancements provoke the reevaluation of GUIs designed with list formats, such as drop-down menus, and emphasize research and design of visuo-spatial formats.
Visual Perception of Deaf Children to Inform Interaction of Tools for Literacy BIBAKFull-Text 565-574
  Juliana Bueno; Cayley Guimarães; André Luiz Alencar de Mendonça; Laura Sánchez García; Rubens Massayuki Suguimoto
The Deaf community has its own culture, a term applied to the social movement that holds Deafness to be a difference in human experience, rather than a disability. The disability view of Deafness has deprived the Deaf of natural language acquisition, which is crucial for intellectual development. Human-Computer Interaction should be held accountable to better understand the needs of the Deaf community to inform design. There is a lack of tools for visual literacy of the Deaf (i.e. a learning process for teaching to read based on image interpretations). This research proposes an online environment that educators and designers could use to evaluate visual characteristics of the Deaf. The environment contains four tests designed to assess visual perception and subjective preference. The case study within a classroom context validated the environment. Designers could use the results of their testing to inform design.
Keywords: Deaf culture; user-centered design; testing environment; visual perception
Back on Track: Lost and Found on Public Transportation BIBAFull-Text 575-584
  Stefan Carmien; Michael Obach
Errors, in particular human errors, play an important role in many aspects of human life, from day-to-day activities to extraordinary situations. This paper describes the theoretical background in the context of Distributed Cognition and the practical design process of an error trapping and mitigation system for supporting seniors' (including disabled seniors) use of public transportation.
   Data available from the ASSISTANT project support the basic assumption that there are not many things that typically go wrong when people from this target group use buses, trams, trains etc., but that these classes of errors cover a majority of instances. An error model, being a first approximation of a rule-based error capturing and mitigation system, is proposed that is adequate for sparse data and available before the initial use of the system.
   Several error types, sources of information coming from a Personal Navigation Device and reasonable conclusions are presented and discussed. Furthermore, some examples of an error trapping and mitigation class tree are provided, as well as some aspects of implementing these systems in earlier projects.
   The on-going ASSISTANT project addresses especially mitigation types and error type classification, which can lead to easier implementation and broader acceptance in a near future.
Cognitive Factors Involved in the Ability to Manipulate a Digital Camera BIBAKFull-Text 585-593
  Keisuke Ishihara; Toshihisa Doi; Sou Yanagimoto; Toshiki Yamaoka
The purpose of this study is to understand who user' property affects the ability to manipulate a digital camera. The N-back task, the action control scale, usability test, structural test, functional test, protocol analysis and some questioner are used to understand user' distinction. The relationships among each property and performance were cleared by correlation analysis. As a result, functional models about the camera are most important to use well.
Keywords: mental models; working memory; human property
A Study of Cognitive Behavior in Relation to the Elderly Visual Experiences BIBAKFull-Text 594-603
  Delai Men; Xiaoping Hu; Wen Cing-Yan Nivala; Robert C. C. Chen
Makepeace in his 1998 article describes how enjoyment and pleasure also factor into the function of an object [1]. Since visual impression is the first occurrence of visual perception, and all human visual experiences are determined by design, the quality of product design is closely associated with the effect an object has on a viewer and may determine their understanding and experience of it. Since China will have the most aged population in the world by 2050, this study takes into consideration the rapidly growing elderly population globally and how currently design practice ignores the changing perceptual habits caused by physical aging. It explores the necessity of evaluating these changes, and the relationship between the visual experience and emotional reflection. A data collection methodology, comprised of two analytical assessment tools, was utilized to determine results. The first approach, Tasting Board System (TBS), was created by the author to gauge subjective preferences. The second, Eye Tracking (ET) Device, evaluates objective reflection. The results of the study identify the common cognitive features of the elderly so that it may positively affect design practice and enhance pleasurable visual experience.
Keywords: The elderly; cognitive features; visual experience
An Approach to Universal Interaction on the Case of Knowledge Transfer BIBAKFull-Text 604-613
  Saša Mladenovic; Andrina Granic; Goran Zaharija
This paper presents an approach to universal interaction which can be used for robot knowledge acquisition and transfer of acquired knowledge between different robots. There are similarities between human and machine learning techniques so learning by demonstration and conceptual learning were used as a basis for demonstrating our proposed type of interaction. Advantages and limitations of proposed interaction are described and discussed. Also, empirical study to test our approach was carried out and results are presented and analyzed.
Keywords: learning; artificial intelligence; machine learning; universal interaction; knowledge transfer
An Error Tolerant Memory Aid for Reduced Cognitive Load in Number Copying Tasks BIBAFull-Text 614-623
  Frode Eika Sandnes
Number copying tasks are still common despite increased digitalization of services. Number copying tasks are cognitively and visually demanding, errors are easily introduced and the process is often perceived as laborious. This study proposes an alternative scheme based on dictionary coding that reduces the cognitive load on the user by a factor of five. The strategy has several levels of error detection and error correction characteristics and is easy to implement.
Integrating the Image Identifiable Principle of Human Cognition and Computer Vision to Develop a New Pattern Recognition Design System for Smart Home BIBAKFull-Text 624-633
  Pin-Chin Wang; Wan-Ting Tseng; Chun-Min Cheng; Yi-Hsuan Sung; Yi-Chun Chou; Fong-Gong Wu
In this study, we invented a new way which classifies objects according to their functions and the regions of use. Then we proceeded to innovate and design the systematic pattern on the objects. For this goal, we make the pattern on the objects as the goal of recognition that can be captured by camera. In this study we intend to design a new way to derive pattern reasonably and that can be recognized by algorithms. The result of our pattern recognition program test pattern that consisted of systematic components showed that the identification rate of success was more than 90%. This result indicated that our pattern design method can derive a significant pattern which is recognized by computer algorithms and can be effective in detecting the state of the object in using.
Keywords: Pattern recognition; Smart Home; Kitchen; TUIs
Handling Structural Models Composed of Objects and Their Mutual Relations in the Spatial Cognition Experiments BIBAKFull-Text 634-641
  Nobuhito Yamamoto; Shoko Shiroma; Tomoyuki Nishioka
It is one of the basic approaches to use the graphical representation of problem spaces for the spatial cognition experiments of the hard of hearing students. Virtual items and the virtual space are thought to be used practical both to build up questions and to assemble answers between experimenters and subjects. Objects and their mutual relations are the basic components of structural model that have to be managed for forming problems. The object oriented processing is the significant and useful framework for modern programming languages. An object is theoretically the functional abstract closure. However, the idea of closure can be easily extended to the practical items. In this article, object oriented representation and its applying to constraint relation problem for interactive experiments are discussed.
Keywords: object handling; structural model; spatial cognition; programming language; interactive experiment

Universal Access to the Web and Social Communities

Using Mediating Metacommunication to Improve Accessibility to Deaf in Corporate Information Systems on the Web BIBAKFull-Text 645-654
  Aline da Silva Alves; Simone Bacellar Leal Ferreira; Viviane Santos de Oliveira Veiga; Ingrid Teixeira Monteiro; Denis Silva da Silveira
In general, pre-linguistic deaf bilingual users have difficulty understanding the textual information available in web pages. Therefore, this paper focuses on the use of dialogs mediating the interaction of pre-linguistic deaf in a bilingual organizational context, identify possible breakdowns in communication between both user interface and web page system information, as in the use of mediation dialogues. In that context, we evaluated the interaction of users' activities navigation and data entry in the organizational system, investigating differences in interactive communication system with and without the use of mediation dialogues through tool Web Navigation Helper (WNH). The survey results identified that the development of communication strategies that meet the specific language of deaf pre-linguistic bilingual improves the quality of metacommunication, promoting accessibility during interaction with the system.
Keywords: Accessibility; Deafness; Communicability
Network for All: A Proposal for an Accessible Social Media Aggregator Solution BIBAKFull-Text 655-663
  Mário Correia; Gonçalo Cruz; Ricardo Nunes; José Martins; Ramiro Gonçalves; Hugo Paredes; Paulo Martins
This paper presents an on-going work around accessibility issues within the use of social media. With a lack of background in this field, the purpose of the study was to analyze the accessibility levels of different social media websites and aggregators. Based on W3C Web Content Accessibility Guidelines, we have selected three automatic evaluation tools in order to realize a first set of preliminary tests. We verified that none of the websites clearly passed in the evaluation process and our sample didn't meet the adopted accessibility guidelines. The errors occurrence within the social media aggregators' tests was less than in the social media websites. Therefore, it seems to be indisputable to propose a tool that allows users to manage their own social media websites accounts in a more accessible way. Thus, this study presents a list of defined requirements to implement an accessible social media aggregator solution.
Keywords: Social media websites; Social media aggregators; Accessibility; WCAG; W3C
Web Accessibility -- From the Evaluation and Analysis to the Implementation -- The anoGov/PEPPOL Case BIBAKFull-Text 664-673
  Ramiro Gonçalves; José Martins; Frederico Branco; João Barroso
The XXI Century society has developed a drive for Information and the Web, as one of the extremely important technologies of our times, represents the main channel to access it. As a result of this, one can perceive that the Web, and the inherent websites, must be accessible to all, in order to maintain the imperative social equality. Despite the legal requirements to the Portuguese Web content accessibility levels, in effect since 1999, the existent studies that focused on assessing those same levels of accessibility reported that the Portuguese websites, in their majority, were not compliant with the existent standards. In mid-2007 we started, within our research group and in partnership with both UMIC -- Knowledge Society Agency and APDSI -- Association for the Promotion and Development of the Information Society, a Web accessibility barometer. The goal of this barometer has been assessing the accessibility levels of the Portuguese websites, creating recommendations -- for both the organizations and the civil society -- towards the improvement of the referred websites, and publicly presenting the achieved results. One of the Portuguese enterprises that is adopting the accessibility standards into its public procurement platform anoGov is ANO. This company established a research project alongside UTAD University in order to achieve technical know-how and good practices that allowed them to develop accessible and usable Web content.
Keywords: Web accessibility; Barometer; Portugal; ANO; anoGov/PEPPOL
WebSight: The Use of the Grid-Based Interface to Convey Layout of Web-Pages in a Non-visual Environment BIBAKFull-Text 674-683
  Hesham M. Kamel; Halil I. Erhan
Accessing Web content including lay out of web pages is currently limited for sight-impaired people. In general, Internet content is designed with sighted users in mind, requiring users without this ability to adapt (Edwards, 1994). The non-visual interaction methods presented by Screen Readers are often serial in nature and laborious. In this paper we introduce the design and evaluation of WebSight, a talking browser that conveys layouts of Web pages for the blind. WebSight is a plug-in for Internet Explorer and employs a universal 3X3 grid-based interface (Kamel, 2002), to assist blind people with visualizing Web content with respect to its absolute and relative positions. Each cell of the grid contains a 3X3 virtual sub-grid with nine unique positions. We conducted an experiment involving six blind and six sighted navigating a layout of a particular webpage. The study reveals that the use of absolute and relative position coupled with a grid-based interface enable blind users to build mental model of page layout at least as well as sighted users. In addition, findings of the study suggest that the grid-based interface is a universal mechanism that enhances the process of building mental models of layout designs.
Keywords: Talking browser; Blind; Grid-based interface; Web page layout; Internet; Absolute and relative positions; Visually impaired; Mental model
Automatically Generating Online Social Network Messages to Combat Social Isolation of People with Disabilities BIBAFull-Text 684-693
  John J. Magee; Margrit Betke
We investigate the use of social networks for people with disabilities and their family and caregivers. Loneliness and isolation are problems people with limited communication abilities may experience. Online social networks may help overcome such communication barriers, but there are still many challenges. One challenge encountered by users of assistive technology is a learning curve not only of the user, but of family and caregivers. Our system automatically generates messages that would help answer the question "What did I do today?" and posts some of the user's daily activities with the software to online social networks. The users of our software would be able to post these messages to social networking websites to better enhance their communication with family and caregivers. We report qualitative feedback from a small preliminary user study.
Analyzing Barriers for People with Hearing Loss on the Web: A Semiotic Study BIBAKFull-Text 694-703
  Marta Angélica Montiel Ferreira; Rodrigo Bonacin
The correct interpretation of Web content by users is a major condition for an effective and accessible Web. However, many people with hearing loss have difficulties interpreting long and complex texts. In this work, we investigated barriers in the usage of Web systems by users with hearing loss. A participatory study with 21 users with hearing loss was conducted in the city of Macapá in Brazil. All the participants use internet frequently, but have different profiles, and reading and writing skill levels. Artifacts and methods from Organizational Semiotics were employed in the elicitation and analysis of problems, barriers, as well as solutions with the participants. The results provide alternatives that range from simple design directives to solutions that demand further research.
Keywords: Universal Usability; Accessibility; Organizational Semiotics; Universal Design
Ibero-American Minors: How Are They Accessing and Using Information BIBAKFull-Text 704-709
  Charo Sádaba
The presence of the Internet and all kind of digital devices is clear in developed countries, especially among youngsters. But technology access and usage is also growing in developing societies, where minors are in most cases at the forefront of the adoption of these new services, exploring the opportunities. The present proposal intends to analyze how and for what reasons are minors of four Ibero-American countries (Brazil, Colombia, Mexico and Ecuador) are accessing the Internet, specially the kind of services and the types of contents they are consuming online.
Keywords: Internet access; Internet usage; young users; web content; web services
User Perception Knowledge for Socially-Aware Web Document Accessibility BIBAKFull-Text 710-717
  Dimitris Spiliotopoulos; Pepi Stavropoulou; Georgios Kouroupetroglou; Dimitrios Tsonos
Social Media provide a vast amount of information identifying stories, events, entities that play the crucial role of shaping the community in an everyday heavy user involvement. This work involves the study of social media information in terms of type (multimodal: text, video, sound, picture) and role players (agents, users, opinion leaders) and the potential of using that information for the design of accessible, usable preservation strategies. The challenge was to analyze the social web and present ways of preserving the web documents with social content in such way as to make them accessible for the future. The web documents should preserve accessible data and stored in such way as to enable intelligent retrieval.
Keywords: social media; meta-information analysis; user-driven; document accessibility
The Survey of Usability Evaluation in Social Network Sites' Reply Mechanism BIBAKFull-Text 718-725
  Tsung-han Tsai; Fong-gong Wu; Yu-Hsiu Hung
Social Network Sites' rapid development has attracted thousands of user, and help user connect with people in life. For the reason of building the good relationship with social interact, it provide a mechanism for user to keep in touch with their friends, such as Instant Message system or post articles on blogs, etc. Reply mechanism is the main part of Social Network Sites. Therefore, it has become more important to let users clearly understanding the message flow of a series of communications. In this paper, first we choose three sites that have amount of users worldwide: Facebook, YouTube and Reddit. After users finishing the System Usability Scale questionnaire, we will proceed to analyze the positives and negatives of these three social network sites. In the end, we will analyze and conclude all the questions and propose a new mechanism, also improve the interface of this reply mechanism in the future.
Keywords: Reply Mechanism; Message Flow; Social Network Sites
Early Accessibility Evaluation in Web Application Development BIBAFull-Text 726-733
  Helmut Vieritz; Daniel Schilberg; Sabina Jeschke
Existing accessibility guidelines are mainly focused on runtime behavior and do not provide recommendations and evaluation for conceptual design of Web applications. Our approach aims to support more abstract principles for analysis and design of accessible Web applications. Combined with a prototype evaluation, it provides early integration of accessibility requirements into the process of Web application development.
   The approach is based on a model-driven user interface design method. Analysis of tasks and workflow is used to design a prototype which is evaluated with a simple screening technique to get fast and efficient results on selected accessibility requirements.
   The longtime objective of this work is a general concept for software development which bridges the gap between user requirements and developers needs in the field of accessibility.