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UAHCI Tables of Contents: 07-107-207-309-109-209-311-111-211-311-413-113-213-314-114-214-314-415-115-215-315-4

UAHCI 2013: 7th International Conference on Universal Access in Human-Computer Interaction, Part I: Design Methods, Tools, and Interaction Techniques for eInclusion

Fullname:UAHCI 2013: 7th International Conference on Universal Access in Human-Computer Interaction, Part I: Design Methods, Tools, and Interaction Techniques for eInclusion
Note:Volume 6 of HCI International 2013
Editors:Constantine Stephanidis; Margherita Antona
Location:Las Vegas, Nevada
Dates:2013-Jul-21 to 2013-Jul-26
Volume:1
Publisher:Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Series:Lecture Notes in Computer Science 8009
Standard No:DOI: 10.1007/978-3-642-39188-0 hcibib: UAHCI13-1; ISBN: 978-3-642-39187-3 (print), 978-3-642-39188-0 (online)
Papers:74
Pages:707
Links:Online Proceedings | Conference Website
  1. UAHCI 2013-07-21 Volume 1
    1. Design for All Methods, Techniques and Tools
    2. eInclusion Practice
    3. Universal Access to the Built Environment
    4. Multi-sensory and Multimodal Interfaces
    5. Brain-Computer Interfaces

UAHCI 2013-07-21 Volume 1

Design for All Methods, Techniques and Tools

Designing Ethnographic Encounters for Enriched HCI BIBAKFull-Text 3-12
  Jo-Anne Bichard; Catherine Greene; Gail Ramster; Tom Staples
This paper present three case studies of design research in HCI that has utilized an ethnographic approach to understand user needs. All of the projects were undertaken at the Helen Hamlyn Centre for Design (HHCD), based at the Royal College of Art. The HHCD specialises in an inclusive design philosophy, which seeks to directly involve users in the design process. Two of the projects were undertaken as Research Council United Kingdom (RCUK) funded initiatives, and one was commissioned by a major technology company. They highlight how a design ethnography approach can be both rigorous for academic design research within HCI, and dynamic for the needs of the commercial sector.
Keywords: ethnography; inclusive design; design research methods; user engagement
Heuristic Methods Aiding Ergonomic Design BIBAKFull-Text 13-20
  Marcin Butlewski
The increasing complexity of the world of technology and the technical components surrounding humans increases the need for ergonomic measures. However, these activities often have only a corrective character, and therefore, despite (or perhaps because of) the possibility of computer support, their results are not satisfactory. When solving problems, very often it is difficult to give up the well-worn strategies or hypotheses, even though they turn out to be ineffective. During the design process a specific attitude is formed towards a certain kind of conduct, which certainly makes it difficult to adopt new and effective strategies, which in turn inhibits creativity. Moreover, it appears that in many cases a functional solution is not determined by a systematic evaluation of all possible solutions, and the initially adopted concept's primary reasons often have been removed. Therefore, in this article, it was decided to take on the subject of the possibility of using heuristic methods in ergonomic design. In the article, described is the use of specific methods and design situations requiring a new approach. Also presented are the limitations of heuristic methods for ergonomic design and the possibility of their fusion in typical design processes.
Keywords: ergonomic design; heuristic methods; design; ergonomics
Universal Access to Interaction as Revealed by UAHCI Words BIBAKFull-Text 21-30
  Maria Cecília Calani Baranauskas; Julián Esteban Gutiérrez Posada
The analysis of publications created over time as journal articles and other media is important to emphasize the interests, identity and culture in a certain research area. This paper proposes an analysis on the content of the Universal Access in Human-Computer Interaction (UAHCI) conferences since 2007, based on information from the article titles. We were especially interested in knowing about changes in recent years related to user categories, the technologies used, and the processes associated with the systems engineering or with the human-computer interaction practices. Discussions are situated from the creation and observation of tagclouds formed with the data. As a contribution, we found what the words reveal about main trends of the area, the profile and the differences between the various editions of the conference, and also the gaps and potential for future research work toward accessibility and design for all.
Keywords: Universal Design; User and Context Diversity; Applications
Implementing Disability Accommodations in a Widely Distributed Web Based Visualization and Analysis Platform -- Weave BIBAKFull-Text 31-39
  Heather Granz; Merve Tuccar; Shweta Purushe; Georges Grinstein
Visualization tools give authors the ability to present large amounts of data in a way that allows the viewer to gain understanding of the data with just a glance. This strategy, while useful to the sighted population, presents obvious barriers for blind or visually impaired individuals. A solution to this problem has become more vital, as ever more publicly funded agencies turn to data visualization as a tool for conveying information to the public. In this paper we present a solution based on previous research that allows a system to do automatic analysis of a line chart visualization to extract and then present it's intended message. Previous advancements in this area, an implemented prototype of the proposed solution and a description of the platform in which it was built are presented, as well as a discussion of the implications of this research and future work.
Keywords: Weave; visualization; accessibility; blind; screen reader; disability; universal design; vision; access
Interviewer Agent for Cognitive Task Analysis BIBAKFull-Text 40-49
  Taro Kanno; Masahiro Uetshuhara; Kazuo Furuta
A chat-based interviewer agent (IA) for cognitive task analysis was developed. This agent automatically generates questions for and responses to the answers from the human interviewee. The automated response process is based on shallow intelligence incorporating an interview technique for cognitive task analysis. We also considered the knowledge awareness (KA) effect and designed the interview as a fake group interview, with one agent interviewer, one agent interviewee, and a human interviewee. We conducted test interviews with 14 subjects to evaluate the new functions of the IA. The results show that KA and the fake group interview were effective and that the performance was better than that of the previous version, which used a one-on-one interview without considering KA.
Keywords: interviewer agent; cognitive task analysis; knowledge awareness; group interview effect
A Method to Evaluate Disabled User Interaction: A Case Study with Down Syndrome Children BIBAKFull-Text 50-58
  Isys Macedo; Daniela G. Trevisan
Testing products with representative users is a key factor for user-centered design. When such representative users are disabled children the user testing process becomes a challenge and in this case evaluation methods based on heuristics and inspection could not attend the final user needs. The major purpose of our research is to provide an evaluation method that could measure disabled children interaction. This work first discusses the development of the coding scheme based on the detailed video analysis method which was adapted to observe interaction of children with Down syndrome. After that we demonstrate the method reliability by applying the cohen's kappa coefficient and the any-two agreement measure. Finally we discuss how this method could be used to evaluate usability and fun problems.
Keywords: Usability game evaluation; children interaction; down-syndrome
Prototype of a Virtual User Modeling Software Framework for Inclusive Design of Consumer Products and User Interfaces BIBAKFull-Text 59-66
  Svetlana Matiouk; Markus Modzelewski; Yehya Mohamad; Michael Lawo; Pierre Kirisci; Patrick Klein; Antoinette Fennell
The recent developments in technology inspire designers and engineers in creating more and more sophisticated and smart consumer products. However, the most ingenious device in the world will fail, if its users are not able to access the mastermind it provides. How can we best support product creators in the thorny task of inclusive design? In this paper a prototypic realization of a virtual user modeling framework to support designers in creating more inclusive products following the phase-based product development process is presented. A qualitative usability survey evaluated the acceptance of the proposed end-user applications among designers and the effectiveness of the recommendations-driven support -- the paper provides insights.
Keywords: Virtual user modeling; digital human model; recommendations-driven design support; virtual usage simulation; user experience; inclusive product design
Inclusive Design and the Bottom Line: How Can Its Value Be Proven to Decision Makers? BIBAKFull-Text 67-76
  Anna Mieczakowski; Sue Hessey; P. John Clarkson
Designing technology products that embrace the needs and capabilities of heterogeneous users leads not only to increased customer satisfaction and enhanced corporate social responsibility, but also better market penetration. Yet, achieving inclusion in today's pressured and fast-moving markets is not straight-forward. For a time, inaccessible and unusable design was solely seen as the fault of designers and a whole line of research was dedicated to pinpointing their frailties. More recently, it has become progressively more recognised that it is not necessarily designers' lack of awareness, or unwillingness, that results in sub-optimal design, but rather there are multi-faceted organisational factors at play that seldom provide an adequate environment in which inclusive products could be designed. Through literature review, a detailed audit of inclusivity practice in a large global company and ongoing research regarding quantification of cost-effectiveness of inclusive design, this paper discusses the overarching operational problems that prevent organisations from developing optimally inclusive products and offers best-practice principles for the future.
Keywords: Inclusive Design; Cost-Benefit Model; Principles for Change
Designing Sustainable IT System -- From the Perspective of Universal Design Principles BIBAKFull-Text 77-86
  Moyen Mohammad Mustaquim; Tobias Nyström
Since the concept of universal design is already extending the boundary of disabilities, it is significant to include different aspects of information technology where universal design enabled efforts can contribute towards better designed systems, products and services. Sustainability is an important and growing public concern in today's world. Nevertheless, attempts of designing IT system that can be called sustainable in nature are not so evident at present. In this paper we propose a framework originating from sustainable IT system design principles (also described in the paper). The universal design principles are used as a foundation upon which the resultant sustainable IT system design principles were derived. The concept of 'sustainable IT system' addressed in this research paper is beyond the common phenomenon of sustainability like green IT, CO2 emission etc. Rather, the framework proposed in this paper incorporates more user inclusion and increased user satisfaction together towards higher usability. And an IT system designed in this manner is a sustainable IT system according to the argument of this paper which can therefore be designed by following the proposed design principles and framework.
Keywords: Universal design; Sustainability; Sustainable design principles; Design for all
Usability in a New DCS Interface BIBAKFull-Text 87-96
  Manuel Pérez Cota; Miguel Ramón González-Castro
The current operating displays of DCS (Distributed Control System) are designed for 2D environments. This limits the full awareness situation of the industrial process, since it is distributed across multiple operator displays and requires the operator to navigate among them. This inspired the idea of creating a single operation DCS display, in a 2.5D/3D environment that allows a full view of the entire manufacturing process. This increases the amount and quality of information that is given to the operator and prevents unnecessary operation navigation between displays.
Keywords: DCS; HCI; 3D; 2.5D; visualization models
Best Practice for Efficient Development of Inclusive ICT BIBAKFull-Text 97-106
  Till Halbach Røssvoll; Kristin Skeide Fuglerud
This work aids ICT projects in delivering solutions which are highly accessible and usable in an efficient manner, i.e., with a minimum of additional costs. The aid comes in the form of guidelines / best-practice recommendations. The guidelines are based on a literature survey considering related research, and an analysis of development work conducted at our research institute which discusses possible pit-falls. This approach led to both high-level recommendations, such as which overall research methodology to apply, as well as detailed low-level guidelines, such as which activities to include in the project workflow and when. The advice is supported by a template for an example workflow with relevant activities. The recommendation from the literature is to extend general user centered methodology with particular activities to ensure that also individuals with impairments are accounted for, while our own development experience suggests an iterative approach with user involvement from early on in the project throughout the end.
Keywords: Software development; agile user centered design; IT; ICT; universal design; e-inclusion; accessibility; usability; impairments; iterative design; best practices; workflow
The Evolving Global Public Inclusive Infrastructure (GPII) BIBAKFull-Text 107-116
  Gregg C. Vanderheiden; Jutta Treviranus; Maria Gemou; Evangelos Bekiaris; Kasper Markus; Colin Clark; Antranig Basman
We are facing a perfect storm where, just as access to ICT is becoming mandatory for meaningful participation, independence, and self sustenance, we find that we not only are nowhere near providing access to everyone who needs it, but we are actually losing ground due to reasons such as technical proliferation across platforms, increasing product churn (breaking existing solutions), decreasing social resources to address it, and an inability to effectively serve the tails of these populations because of the higher cost to do so. At the same time the incidence of disabilities is increasing as our population ages. This paper describes the Cloud4all and Prosperity4All projects and progress in building the Global Public Inclusive Infrastructure, an infrastructure based on cloud, web and platform technologies that can increase dissemination and international localization while lowering the cost to develop, deploy, market, and support a broad range of access solutions.
Keywords: Universal Design; Inclusive Design; Digital Divide; Cloud computing
Universal Access: The "Universal" Is Not as It Seems BIBAKFull-Text 117-126
  Helia Vannucchi; Alexandre Torrezam
The quest for universal access, still today is faced with the expectation of a minimal knowledge of the use of interactive equipment in order to establish successful communication between these equipments and users. We propose to broaden the discussion on ways to include those unfamiliar with the use of computers, the internet and interactive devices, people with little education and/or illiterate, while not excluding those already accustomed to the use of information technologies. We are not unaware of the undeniable fact that the search for a fully universal interaction is utopian, however, we try to explain the problem here and provoke discussion about the concept of universality.
Keywords: universality; interactive systems; interface; usability
Improvements in Interface Design through Implicit Modeling BIBAKFull-Text 127-136
  Patrick K. A. Wollner; Ian Hosking; Patrick M. Langdon; P. John Clarkson
Touchscreen devices are often limited by the complexity of their user interface design. In the past, iterative design processes using representative user groups to test prototypes were the standard method for increasing the inclusivity of a given design, but cognitive modeling has potential to be an alternative to rigorous user testing. However, these modeling approaches currently have many limitations, some of which are based on the assumptions made in translating a User Interface (UI) into a definition file that cognitive modeling frameworks can process. This paper discusses these issues and postulates potential approaches to improvements to the translation procedure.
Keywords: inclusive design; universal design; cognitive modeling; cognitive architectures
Evaluating User Interface Design Using Hierarchical Requirements Extraction Method (REM) BIBAKFull-Text 137-142
  Toshiki Yamaoka
The paper shows the hierarchical requirements extraction method in order to evaluate user interface design. REM has two functions, (1) extracting the source of systems, products and GUI problems, (2) constructing the ultimate purpose of systems, products and GUI. The process is as follows. After the problems are acquired by checklist and so on, the solutions for problems are derived using the function solved the problems. The purpose of solutions is defined from view point of the relation of "purpose and means". The ultimate purpose is examined repeatedly based on the solutions from view point of the relation of "purpose and means", and finally defined. Next the cause of problems is defined from view point of the relation of "results and cause". The source of the problems is examined repeatedly from view point of the relation of "results and cause", and defined.
Keywords: hierarchical requirements extraction method (REM); User interface design; usability
A Conceptual Client-Designer Framework: Inspiring the Development of Inclusive Design Interactive Techniques BIBAKFull-Text 143-152
  Emilene Zitkus; Patrick M. Langdon; John Clarkson
The adoption of inclusive design approach into design practice is compatible to the needs of an ageing society. However, tools and methods that promote inclusivity during new product development are scarcely used in industry. This paper is part of a research project that investigates ways to accommodate inclusive design into the design process in industrial context.
   The present paper is based on the finds from the observations and interviews with industrial designers and interviews with stakeholders. The outcomes from the study supported a better understanding of the client-designer dynamic as well as the stages in the design process where information related to inclusive design could be introduced. The findings were essential to inspire the development of an inclusive design interactive technique to be used by clients and designers.
Keywords: universal design; design for all; new product development; industry; designer

eInclusion Practice

ICT Accessibility Criteria in Public Procurement in OECD Countries -- The Current Situation BIBAKFull-Text 155-164
  Gunela Astbrink; William Tibben
Public procurement is the process by which government bodies purchase their Information and Communication Technology (ICT) products and services. Including accessibility criteria in the procurement process may improve employment opportunities in government for people with disabilities and could have flow-on effects for increased accessibility. Various methods of incorporating accessibility criteria in public procurement need to be assessed to ascertain the most effective processes to achieve e-inclusion. This paper outlines a research project investigating the current status of legislation, regulation and policy of ICT accessibility criteria in public procurement in OECD countries. Using mixed-methods research to gather information, the paper draws on contrasting cases for comparative analysis. The research finds that voluntary schemes contributed to the failure of these programs. It is apparent that lack of understanding about ICT accessibility plays a key role. Mandatory processes based on uniform global standards coupled with compliance will have an impact.
Keywords: Public procurement; ICT accessibility; web accessibility; people with disabilities; accessibility
Rational Interfaces for Effective Security Software: Polite Interaction Guidelines for Secondary Tasks BIBAFull-Text 165-174
  Gisela Susanne Bahr; William H. Allen
States of the science and practice agree on the failure of security application to engage end users in the assurance of security and privacy in everyday personal computing. We propose as the cause an underlying irrational interface model of security related applications. Irrational Interfaces are counterproductive because they minimize the intended software utility and pay-off. In the case of security interactions, utility is minimized by the assumption of security primacy and the alienation of end user from the decision making process through disruptive messaging and disengaging content. Therefore effective security dialogues must be based on a rational interaction model. We present a small set of simple guidelines based on cognitive psychological research for polite interactions that appropriately optimize user engagement during tasks that users perceive as secondary. The guidelines for secure applications that politely interact with the end user are supported by a pay-off matrix that can be used to predict and evaluate rational secure interface performance. The rational, polite interface is a radical paradigm shift for security applications' design because it integrates end users as active stakeholders and resources in the assurance of security and privacy.
Social Dimension of Sustainable Development -- Safety and Ergonomics in Maintenance Activities BIBAKFull-Text 175-184
  Malgorzata Jasiulewicz-Kaczmarek; Przemyslaw Drozyner
The paper considered the issue of the impact of maintenance services for the safety and health of workers. This is undoubtedly an important issue as statistics show that in Europe 10 to 15% of fatal industrial accidents can be traced to maintenance operations. The role of these services in the modern enterprise is increasing, as companies increasingly depend on the proper functioning of its technical systems. In addition, the maintenance process involves not only technical services company employees, but also the employees of other functional areas and external agencies. All this makes, that maintenance in terms of security is a complex issue. Activities of maintenance services are generally associated only with phase of the operation of machinery. In the paper authors consider the effects of enlargement of operations maintenance services for all phases of the life of a technical object, including not only operation but also design, manufacturing and disposal phases. Such approach is able to provide more effective, proactive and preventive health and safety system.
Keywords: Maintenance; maintenance stakeholders; safety culture levels
Using Human Factors Standards to Support User Experience and Agile Design BIBAKFull-Text 185-194
  Martin Maguire
The ISO 9241-210 standard provides a framework for human-centred design (HCD) activities comprising the four stages: context of use, specification of user and organisational requirements, design solutions, and evaluation against requirements. Other parts of the 9241 standard cover user interface design and usability. This paper uses the HCD framework to emphasise user experience (UX) design and methods used to help create good user experiences. It also relates the framework to an agile software development environment. It is concluded that the flexible and iterative nature of ISO 9241-210 makes it a good basis for both user experience design and an agile development process.
Keywords: Human-centred design; User experience (UX); Usability; Agile; Standards
Secure, Usable Biometric Authentication Systems BIBAKFull-Text 195-204
  Liam M. Mayron; Yasser Hausawi; Gisela Susanne Bahr
Biometrics are physiological features that allow individuals to be identified. Popular biometrics include fingerprints, faces, and irises. A common use of biometric systems is to authenticate users desiring access to a system or resource. Universal Access can be promoted with biometrics. Biometrics provide a secure way to access information technology, although the use of biometrics presents challenges and opportunities unique to other authentication methods (such as passwords and tokens). Biometric systems are also vulnerable to poor usability. Such systems must be engineered with wide user accessibility and acceptability in mind, but also need to provide robust security. This paper considers the application of biometrics in Universal Access systems with regards to usability and security.
Keywords: universal access; biometrics; security; usability
Breaking Psychological Barrier toward Changes: Two Experiences BIBAKFull-Text 205-213
  Bruno Merlin
The paradigm of multilayer interface was created to promote universal use of software. We previously revisit this concept and adapt it to smooth the transition between two versions of software involved in a critical activity. Then we generalized this idea by proposing multilayer interface as a technical and psychological way to ease transition between software versions. We resumed two projects applying this paradigm and observe common results into those two different contexts. It mainly enabled to break a psychological barrier toward changes and improve the acceptability of new versions of software and new working methods.
Keywords: Multilayer interface; learning; transition; universal usage
Design Principles of Open Innovation Concept -- Universal Design Viewpoint BIBAKFull-Text 214-223
  Moyen Mohammad Mustaquim; Tobias Nyström
The concept of open innovation is becoming an increasingly popular topic of interest and seems to promise a lot in organizational development. However, to date there are no certain design principles that can be followed by organizations on how to use open innovation successfully. In this paper seven design principles of open innovation concept have been proposed. The derived principles are the outcome which is based on the principles of universal design. The open innovation design, based on these principles could create better business values and new business strategies. Finally a theoretical framework is also proposed that shows how to use these principles for successful open innovation design.
Keywords: Open innovation; Universal Design; Design Principles for Open Innovation; Design Principles
E-Inclusion as the Next Challenge for Sustainable Consumption BIBAKFull-Text 224-232
  Amon Rapp; Alessandro Marcengo; Marina Geymonat; Rossana Simeoni; Luca Console
In this paper we highlight how small producers of quality food, depositary of traditions that nowadays are running the risk of being lost, could be included in the benefits provided by digital technologies, through an interactive system that could enhance their old communication habits. Within PIEMONTE Project we adopted a co-design process to include these social actors in the design development. The result is an interactive system that, based on three technological pillars (a visual recognition algorithm, an ontology based knowledge manager, and a social network engine) and a vision of intelligent objects as a mean to promote the access and the interconnection in the world of quality food, tries to keep alive the cultural heritage of a territory.
Keywords: co-design; sustainability; gastronomy
Effect of Accommodation Training in Foreign Labor BIBAKFull-Text 233-241
  Masumi Takada; Yasuyuki Matsuura; Masaru Miyao; Hiroki Takada
By relaxing the contracted focus-adjustment muscles around the eyeball, such as the ciliary and extraocular muscles, improvement of the pseudo-myopia is expected. This understanding has led to the accommodation training in which the visual target is given by stereoscopic video clips. However, it is pointed out that the motion sickness can be induced by viewing stereoscopic video clips. In the measurement 1 of this study, we verify whether the new 3-dimensional (3D) technology reduce the severity of motion sickness in accordance with the stabilometry. We then evaluate short-term effects of the accommodation training utilizing new stereoscopic video clips on foreign labors (11 females) suffering from eye fatigue in the measurement 2. The foreign workers were trained in 3 days. We could show that the new 3D technology reduce the severity of motion sickness in accordance with the stabilometry. The effect of the accommodation training utilizing the new 3D video clip was investigated in foreign labors suffering from eye fatigue, and the eye strain was reduced by the continuous accommodation training for a short-term period.
Keywords: Visually induced motion sickness; Stabilometry; Sparse density; Liquid crystal displays (LCDs); Accommodation training; 3D video clip
A Study of Accommodation Training by Stereoscopic Film Presentation BIBAKFull-Text 242-251
  Masumi Takada; Akihiro Sugiura; Yasuyuki Matsuura; Masaru Miyao; Hiroki Takada
By relaxing the contracted focus-adjustment muscles around the eyeball, such as the ciliary and extraocular muscles, improvement of the pseudo-myopia is expected. This understanding has led to the accommodation training in which the visual target is given by stereoscopic video clips. In this study, we verify short-term effects of the accommodation training on eyesight of visual inspection workers (22 females) suffering from eye fatigue and 12 middle-aged persons. In the Measurement 1, the workers were trained in 3 days. Moreover, the middle-aged were investigated on several trials of the eyesight recovering apparatus in the Measurement 2. In the Measurement 3, we verify the effects of the accommodation training on eyesight and asthenopia of the young. The accommodation training is compared with close work on VDTs. As a result, the visual acuity was statistically improved by continuous accommodation training which will promote a ciliary muscle-stretching effect.
Keywords: Myopia; Presbyopia; Spherical Diopter (SPH); Visual Acuity (VA); Stereoscopic Images; Ciliary Muscle; Accommodation

Universal Access to the Built Environment

The Impact of Visual Impressions on Human Work Environment -- Based on the Example of Industrial Design BIBAKFull-Text 255-263
  Wojciech Bonenberg
This paper presents an original method for evaluating aesthetic factors in the work environment. The study assumes that the aesthetic appeal affects the behavior, enhances the identification, positive effects on the emotional attitude toward work. On the contrary, ugliness causes negative attitude, discourages creativity, causes indifference. In reality between perfection and aesthetic ugliness there is a whole range of intermediate states, which are in very different ways shaping our emotional relationship to the environment. The aim of research is to associate those emotions with d characteristic aesthetic features of industrial forms.
Keywords: work environment; visual quality; emotions
Facade Retention Accomplishments in View of Ergonomic Design BIBAKFull-Text 264-272
  Jerzy Charytonowicz; Maciej Skowronski
Both individual buildings and large complexes of buildings that are now being adapted or revitalized may have been withdrawn from using due to some general economic tendencies progressing, as well as in consequence of technical deterioration of the given object or just not being able to keep up-to-date maintenance standards. These objects, although appreciated for their monumental value and favorable location near the center of a big city, may easily fall into ruin if they are not properly used and maintained. The reconstruction and modernization of the interiors in such buildings, with the original facade retained -- which sometimes is a necessary condition imposed by the local planning authorities -- may be a chance to restore the building functionality and thus avoid the costly, energy-consuming demolition.
Keywords: facade retention; facade technology; ecology; reuse; sustainable design
Creating Public Space in Wroclaws Urban Housing Environment BIBAKFull-Text 273-280
  Barbara Gronostajska
Despite the passage of time the polands housing built in panel technology is not modernized sufficiently. More and more interesting examples from abroad appears, which shows how this kind of housing can be transformed. Actions should be carried out in three areas, starting from town-planning and architectural transformations (macro scale), thru the neighborhood spaces transformation (mezo scale) to the individual functional-spatial flats transformation (micro scale).
Keywords: concrete slabs technology; estate environment; housing
The Current Possibilities for Controlling Parameters of Environment of Housing and Workplace Based on the Selected Architectural Realizations BIBAKFull-Text 281-287
  Pawel Horn
In the introduction the author outlines the scope of the present possibilities to control internal parameters of internal climate in buildings. As an example the author analyzes the relationship between the systems applied in MGP office building in Katowice, Poland and the quality of work environment, comparing at the same time the financial aspects of using building management systems in public and residential buildings.
Keywords: parameters of inner environment of a building; sustainable design; tri-generation system; Maria Goeppert-Mayer building in Katowice Poland
The Computed-Aided Judiciary -- How the Contemporary Technologies Change the Courtroom Design? BIBAKFull-Text 288-296
  Grazyna Hryncewicz-Lamber
The introduction of multimedia electronic systems changed the legal practice over the last decade. The presence of computer-aided techniques such as information booths, digitalized case lists and land registers, e-courts in selected case categories, and electronic registration of the proceedings have entered the courts. Juristic buildings are permeated by sophisticated technologies, some of them influence the spatial organization of the courts. Has this change impacted courthouse architecture and furnishings? In order to answer this question the paper presents some implications of the implementation of computer-aided jurisdiction. The paper concentrates on the problems of architectural and acoustic requirements for the courtroom in view of electronic registration of the court proceedings; spatial needs for new types of rooms ie. electronic land register reading rooms, e-courts, secure teleconference and hearing facilities, server rooms; spatial and ergonomic requirements for the location of electronic information devices such as secure info-booths and electronic case lists.
Keywords: architecture; IT in courtroom; spatial organization of courtroom
Design Research of Augmented Realty Plant to Depressurize on Office Ladies BIBAKFull-Text 297-303
  Jei-Chen Hsieh; Chang-Chan Huang; Hwa-San Kwan
Melancholia is regarded as one of the three major diseases by World Hygiene Organization of United Nations. By using two stage questionnaires with virtual plant (named Green Point) design, research focuses on what is the office lady pressure comes from and what product could release her stress? The result reveals that career women have the positive evaluation in the aspect of degree of satisfaction of virtual plant. Being asked for which virtual planting tension-relieving product design style is more likeable, career women prefer pure fashion and lovely look, and have a deep impression on nature and creativity.
Keywords: Adaptive and augmented interaction; Augmented Realty; Depressurize; Office Ladies
Religious and Cultural Aspects in Shaping the Public Space of Hygiene and Sanitation Activities BIBAKFull-Text 304-312
  Anna Jaglarz
All cultures and religions of the world, in all theirs branches and sects, have their own point of view and way of teaching when it comes to the human body, its purification and physiological needs. It was not only the result of social and cultural dimensions of the times, but also the then common medical knowledge shaping opinions and views on these matters. The paper discusses and analyzes the complex religious and cultural aspects affecting the reactions and attitudes towards water, bathing and hygiene practices and defining the range of the needs, requirements and preferences for public health, hygiene and sanitary environment, its form and equipment.
Keywords: public bathing; public hygiene practices; public hygiene facilities; religious and cultural aspects of public hygiene; sanitary spaces formation
Touching Buildings -- A Tangible Interface for Architecture Visualization BIBAKFull-Text 313-322
  Tiffany Chen; Andreas Kratky
The process of architectural design and urban planning has been fundamentally transformed through digital media. While providing the opportunity to make the process more flexible and open to realize an extensive public participation, they also pose specific problems. Touching Buildings is a prototype for a multimodal, collaborative interface that integrates the various aspects of the planning and communication process through a platform for tangible interaction with an open communication system. This paper presents the results of a first implementation of this prototype.
Keywords: Urban planning; visualization; touch interfaces; natural user interface; tangible interaction
Photography as a Research Method in Collecting Information from Elderly Respondents in Senior Housing Design BIBAKFull-Text 323-329
  David Ming-Da Lee; Robert C. C. Chen; Tsai-Ju Lee
This study is concerned with acquiring knowledge of elderly peoples' perceptions toward senior housing design by using "photographic technique" based on participant design theory. The researchers asked 78 participants to choose 5 important areas of their own home and to take pictures of these. This was followed by a semi-structured interview. From those meaningful dialogues during the interview process the best insight into the elderly persons' experience is revealed and, therefore, offers an understanding of the elderly persons' perceptions and their spatial design preferences.
   The results reveal four very important issues for the elderly participants in their everyday life. First, is concerning the items connected to or from the past. The second relates to family or social life. Third, concerns their hobbies or interests. Fourth, is in regards to where they spend most of their time. Moreover, the results show that by using a "photo taking" method this could possibly make the elderly participant feel themselves as contributing more to the project. Potentially this could improve the effectiveness of data gathered from the elderly respondents.
Keywords: Senior housing Design; Ethnographic method; User experience; Photographic method
The Role of Woman and Man on Shaping the Old and Modern Households BIBAKFull-Text 330-338
  Przemyslaw Nowakowski
Owning a house or a flat is closely related to the necessity of maintaining it. Housework requires various skills and abilities, as well as both physical and mental effort, overcoming weariness caused by the repetition of activities while experiencing lack of lasting effects, financial difficulties, and sometimes shortages of supplies and services. Moreover, the housework sometimes has to be done in poor living conditions. The primary goal of housework is creating, for each of the household members, the conditions in which one can develop, regenerate and relax. Modern households, especially the kitchenware, reflect the technological advancement of our digitalized contemporary world. The declining role of people in housework reflects grave social and cultural problems in the developed countries, such as: disintegration and atomization of family, anonymity and unification of behavior. The paper presents: the models of housework organization and their evolution in history, the role of women and men in housework, historically changing specificity of housework (including kitchen chores), as well as contemporary tendencies in domestic life in industrialized countries.
Keywords: Ergonomics; households; housework
Optimum Building Shape in View of Energy Saving BIBAKFull-Text 339-347
  Andrzej Skowronski
In most highly developed countries there are standards applied to define the requirements for the insulation coefficient of outer partitions, as well as adequate computer programs to both measure the heat loss in the buildings designed and calculate the amount of electrical and thermal energy needed for heating and ventilating the building. Although these programs are able to calculate the heat loss in the designed buildings, they cannot define their optimum shape. Apart from other numerous factors which influence the ecological and ergonomic value of the architectural project the building shape itself may significantly reduce the construction and maintenance costs of the object. An optimum shape of the building is very important for energy effectiveness, as well as keeping ecological and ergonomic standards applied to solve the space of the building. These factors should be analyzed by the architect as early as in the initial design stage, i.e. while the visual concept of the object is being developed. For different shapes of the object, with the same area of the plan and the same insulation quality of outer partitions, the area of these partitions can be very different, so the amount of the building materials necessary for the constructing, as well as the heat loss resulting from its maintenance can also differ significantly.
Keywords: architecture; ecology; ergonomics; economy
Spatial Transformations of Architect's Workplace Due to Development of Computer Aided Design BIBAKFull-Text 348-357
  Elzbieta Trocka-Leszczynska; Joanna Jablonska
Architects, among other professional groups, are especially involved in the technical development of their occupation at three different levels: designed objects, ways of performing investment processes and methods of current communication. The usage of stationary and mobile computers, graphical tablets, smart phones and other multimedia equipment are currently influencing not only the way of work, but the space of workplaces as well. This paper is aimed at researching this transformation and development. A comparison between two approaches towards a design process will be made, i.e. classical -- based on a drawing board and modern -- with implementation of Computer Aided Design, graphical stations, virtual modeling and multimedia presentations. There will be a discussion on proper measurements and parameters of the workplace in relation to human needs and limitations tested in case studies and in literature examples. Based on conclusions, the guidelines concerning designer's work with the modern electronic equipment will be formulated.
Keywords: architect's workplace; workplace with computer; work with multimedia equipment
Design of Modern Hotels -- Humanization of the Residential Environment BIBAKFull-Text 358-367
  Elzbieta Trocka-Leszczynska; Joanna Jablonska
After the hotel building boom before Euro 2012, the Polish tourist branch is currently experiencing a period of stabilization. Current investments are prepared with more consideration as regards the ways of gaining and attracting new customers to the proposed services. Small and very economical buildings like hostels and motels that are erected nowadays are attracting a young part of the society, while elegant and more expensive buildings gain customers from constantly aging people. Attempts to provide better and well-adjusted functions evolve along the demand to meet different needs of people with various disabilities. Humanization and individualization of service for the benefit of various customers should be based on appropriate ergonomic solutions and novel technologies. Analyses will be carried out on recommendations for hotels designed for people with disabilities, different medical conditions and representative case studies of German examples.
Keywords: ergonomics in architecture; hotels for the disabled; hotels for the elderly; ergonomics of the disabled
Evaluation of Guideline System and Sign Design of Public Space in Taiwan Emergency Department BIBAKFull-Text 368-375
  Wan-Ting Tseng; Jin-Han Tseng; Hsin-Hsi Lai; Fong-Gong Wu
In order to prevent the man-made error under stressful environment in the Emergency Department (ED), it is important to design the clear guidance of the sign. The anticipated goal of this study is to evaluate the emergency service in three major hospitals of southern Taiwan, especially to compare the strengths and weakness of guidance sign and the medical flow. By the focus groups with design professional and twice questionnaires, this study not only indicates the common problem of ED, but also redesigns the guideline system. The researchers consulted the strength in current emergency system and integrated color-coding to signal redesign. Guiding Line, Banner Design and Color Coding Integration were shown in the design stage. In the end, three factors (Guidance, Identification and Comprehension) were estimated the usability by Likert scale in questionnaire II. The design improvement might increase the efficiency and efficacy care of S.O.P in hospital emergency service, as well as quality of patient in future ED.
Keywords: Sign; Emergency Department; Public Area; Color Coding
Dwelling Houses of Building Cooperative Schlesische Heimstätte in Wroclaw (Former Breslau) and in Silesia in 1919-1941 as a Precursor of Modern Ergonomics in Architecture BIBAKFull-Text 376-385
  Jadwiga Urbanik
Wroclaw should be regarded as the most important amongst German cities in developing and promoting modern domestic architecture in interwar period. The influx of refugees fleeing the territories of Germany had lost as a result of the war and massive migration to other cities exacerbated the housing shortages. With its economy ruined by the war and burdened with huge reparations imposed on Germany, the country undertook considerable efforts to develop and present model solutions. New building cooperatives and societies were established to develop modern housing estates. In Wroclaw, with the financial back up of the state, a housing cooperative -- "Schlesiche Heimstätte" was founded in 1919. Between 1919-1925 it was managed by Ernst May and it specialized in building cheap and functional houses for the people of modest means. It worked out the catalogue of ready-made designs and published a magazine called "Heim". It built housing estates with small flats and functional gardens in sub-Wroclaw districts and towns in Lower Silesia. It existed till 1941. In new housing estates not only a new form but also or may be first of all, new construction solutions, new, promoted at that time, materials, new colors, new layouts of flats, new interior arrangement, new way of living in modern houses and new urban planning were presented.
Keywords: interwar period; "Schlesiche Heimstätte"; dwelling houses
The Discussion of Innovative Concept for Icon Display on Elevator's Indicator BIBAKFull-Text 386-395
  Ming-Tang Wang
In this paper, we focus on the researching innovation of open-close button of elevator by questionnaire. The text of native language is found the best cognition for button indicator of open-close on the attributes of observability and relative advantage in elevator. The conclusions are: (1) Chinese glyphs "開 (open)" and "關 (close)" are the most easily observable and the highest relative advantage. So the text of native language could be the best for open-close button in elevators. (2) The complex symbols are the thick stroke with multi-element. (3) Important indicators of elevators could not only need thick black and slender arrows, but also it is non-highlighted.
Keywords: elevator; button indicator; caring concept; diffusion of Innovations
A Map Guidance System by Multiple Dialog Robots Cooperation BIBAKFull-Text 396-405
  Ken Yonezawa; Yu Suzuki; Hirotada Ueda
The purpose of this study is to release user's feeling of unease and loneliness, which occur in people's mind while heading for the destination, by appropriate encouragement by multiple robots. In our development, we combined the robot technology with "good old-fashioned guidance know-how" and employed five concepts: Manual less, Operation free, Device free, corporeality of robot and Advantage of network robot. A comparative experiment was conducted. It proved the effectiveness of robot giving ease and joy to user. At the same time, we have found that the user come to feel uneasy with increasing distance from the robot. Therefore, measures for improving this problem have been studied. Those are the quantification of psychic distance concerning unease and the introduction of mobile robot.
Keywords: multiple dialog robots; guidance; networks; cooperation; encouragement

Multi-sensory and Multimodal Interfaces

Towards Designing Audio Assistance for Comprehending Haptic Graphs: A Multimodal Perspective BIBAKFull-Text 409-418
  Özge Alaçam; Christopher Habel; Cengiz Acartürk
Statistical graphs, such as line graphs are widely used in multimodal communication settings. Language accompanies graphs and humans produce gestures during the course of communication. For visually impaired people, haptic-audio interfaces provide perceptual access to graphical representations. The local and sequential character of haptic perception introduces limitations in haptic perception of hard-to-encode information, which can be resolved by providing audio assistance. In this article we first present a review of multimodal interactions between gesture, language and graphical representations. We then focus on methodologies for investigating hard-to-encode information in graph comprehension. Finally, we present a case study to provide insight for designing audio assistance.
Keywords: Haptic Graph Comprehension; Audio-Verbal Assistance
User Target Intention Recognition from Cursor Position Using Kalman Filter BIBAKFull-Text 419-426
  Gökçen Aslan Aydemir; Patrick M. Langdon; Simon Godsill
This paper discusses user target intention recognition algorithms for pointing -- clicking tasks to reduce users' pointing time and difficulty. Predicting targets by comparing the bearing angles to targets proposed as one of the first algorithms [1] is compared with a Kalman Filter prediction algorithm. Accuracy and sensitivity of prediction are used as performance criteria. The outcomes of a standard point and click experiment are used for performance comparison, collected from both able-bodied and impaired users.
Keywords: Intention Recognition; cursor movement; tracking; Kalman Filter
The Effects of Mirroring in a Playful Virtual Environment: A Comparative Study with Children and Adults Having Impairments BIBAFull-Text 427-435
  Nanna Borum; Line Gad Christiansen; Henrik Wolff Jepsen; Kasper Kristensen; Jacob Nghia Trung Lam; David Lindholm; Eva Petersson Brooks; Anthony Lewis Brooks
This study explored the effects of a projected self-image in a game situation created for people with different impairments and ages, to question life quality and social cognition. A simple video capture game utilizing the Microsoft Kinect enabling embodied interaction was created. Test sessions consisting of two test conditions, a mirrored self-image condition and a silhouette condition, were conducted with repeated measurement and an interval of one week between each condition. The participants were from four special needs daycare centers and selected by caregivers. They consisted of 20 children (10 male, 10 female) and nine adults (three male, six female), all with various impairments. Video recordings were analyzed with a qualitative case study approach, and a follow up semi-structured "in-situ" interview with the caregivers was held to support the interpretations. Overall findings indicate that the system has a variety of possibilities and the participants used it in their own way e.g. for rough-and-tumble play, creative expression, and as a medium for cooperation. However there was no visible difference between the mirrored condition and the silhouette condition.
Designing Accessible Visualizations: The Case of Designing a Weather Map for Blind Users BIBAKFull-Text 436-445
  Dustin Carroll; Suranjan Chakraborty; Jonathan Lazar
Major strides have been made to improve the accessibility of text-based documents for blind users, however, visualizations still remain largely inaccessible. The AISP framework represents an attempt to streamline the design process by aligning the information seeking behaviors of a blind user with those of a sighted user utilizing auditory feedback. With the recent popularity of touch-based devices, and the overwhelming success of the talking tactile tablet, we therefore suggest that the AISP framework be extended to include the sense of touch. This research-in-progress paper proposes such an extended design framework, MISD. In addition, the article also presents the preliminary work done in designing an accessible weather map based on our theory-driven design. A discussion and an outline of future work conclude the manuscript.
Keywords: Accessibility; Universal Usability; Auditory Information Seeking Principle; Multi-Sensory; Sonification; Spatial Sound; Visualizations; Weather
Modified Control-Response Ratio for Move and Rotation Operations on a Large Multi-touch Interface BIBAKFull-Text 446-453
  Wenzhi Chen; Chun-Wen Chen; Kuan-Hung Chen
This study focused on the effect of the control-response ratio (C/R ratio) of a multi-touch interface for move and rotation operations. The experiments were conducted to collect data on user performance and subjective evaluation to analyze the effects of five levels of the C/R ratio. Forty-five participants, 15 male and 30 female, were given tasks to complete. The results showed that in overall operations, subjective satisfaction was highest with the C/R ratio 1/1, but in the usability analysis among the C/R ratios 1/1, 1/2, and 2/1, there was no significant difference. Specific operations that analyzed the effects of the C/R ratio showed in the move operations the best C/R ratio was located between 1/1 and 1/2, and in the rotation operations, the difference among the C/R ratios 2/1, 1/1, and 1/2 was not significant. The best C/R ratio might be located among the three values. The results show that on a mid-size multi-touch screen, a modified C/R ratio may help users in pan and rotation operations to improve performance and satisfaction.
Keywords: C/R ratio; multi-touch; large touchscreen
Gesture-Based Interaction for Cultural Exhibitions BIBAKFull-Text 454-463
  Tin-Kai Chen; Robert C. C. Chen; Fong-Gong Wu
The study aims to reveal the effect of in-air gesture interaction using the depth camera technology on complex human performance and to identify possible design failures and its implementation to the digital shadow play. Since in-air coordinate system of body kinematics shares the same directional vector with on-screen coordinate of the visual character, a systematic approach "directional vector transformation" has been proposed for transforming the in-air coordinate into the on-screen coordinate. A comprehensive literature review of human computer interaction, digital shadow play and gesture interfaces is given. Finally, identification of design failures and design guideline for further study are made for the design of in-air gesture interfaces.
Keywords: Gesture Interfaces; Depth Camera; Fitts' law; FLG; Usability
Including Uncertainty Treatment on the Accessibility Assessment of DOSVOX System BIBAKFull-Text 464-473
  Maria Isabel Farias Carneiro; José Eustáquio Rangel de Queiroz; Joseana Macêdo Fechine
The speech interface development per se is not a guarantee of quality for the accessibility to visually impaired users either to as much of a website as possible where it can be achieved or to as much of functions a stand-alone product can provide. In this paper, a methodological approach for assessing accessibility problems in voice user interfaces (VUI) is proposed, which includes uncertainty treatment by using Bayesian networks. A case study is discussed, in which the proposed approach has provided encouraging results, and seems to have a potential to be successfully applied to other similar speech stand-alone software applications.
Keywords: Accessibility; Conformance Inspection; Bayesian Networks; Vocal User Interfaces; VUI
OnScreenDualScribe: A Computer Operation Tool for Users with a Neuromuscular Disease BIBAKFull-Text 474-483
  Torsten Felzer; I. Scott MacKenzie; Stephan Rinderknecht
We developed a tool based on a modified number pad aimed at empowering persons with neuromuscular diseases to efficiently operate a computer and enter text. As the keypad lies securely in both hands, the system is ideal for someone who has motor problems using a full-size keyboard but cannot use speech recognition as an alternative method, because of dysarthria. The software offers various assistive techniques; for example, text entry is facilitated with the help of word prediction. An ambiguous mode with word-level disambiguation allows text entry with six keys. Initial empirical results with the system -- which is already in regular use -- indicate that it indeed represents a viable alternative, since it decreases effort without increasing the time to operate a computer.
Keywords: human-computer interaction; keyboard replacement; mouse emulator; word prediction; ambiguous keyboards; dysarthria; neuromuscular diseases; Friedreich's Ataxia
Universal Access to Participatory Musical Experiences for People with Disabilities BIBAKFull-Text 484-489
  Nizan Friedman; David J. Reinkensmeyer; Mark Bachman
Participating in music is a promising way to provide therapy for people with neurological and developmental disabilities. Unfortunately people are often unable to participate in music because of cognitive or physical impairment, and the steep learning curve of playing an instrument. We developed the Sensor to MIDI Interface (SMIDI) controller in order to provide a common platform to create MIDI-based musical instruments that are appropriate for people with disabilities. In this paper we discuss the SMIDI controller and three unique applications that use the system. The first is the MusicGlove, a musical instrument that motivates use of the hand through practicing functional gripping movements. The second is a fabric-based sensor technology that can be cut into any size or shape and connects with SMIDI to turn ordinary objects into a musical instrument. The third is a sensor laden stuffed animal that elicits sounds through bending and squeezing various appendages. Through the SMIDI system we hope to make music participation an accessible and enjoyable medium for therapy.
Keywords: music therapy; participation in music; physical disability; musical instruments; stroke; spinal cord injury; autism
An Ontology-Based Architecture for Natural Language Access to Relational Databases BIBAKFull-Text 490-499
  Lawrence Muchemi; Fred Popowich
Natural language (NL) access to databases is a problem that has interested researchers for many years. We demonstrate that an ontology-based approach is technically feasible to handle some of the challenges facing NL query processing for database access. This paper presents the architecture, algorithms and results from the prototype thereof which indicate a domain and language independent architecture with high precision and recall rates. Studies are conducted for each of English and Swahili queries, both for same language and cross-lingual retrieval, from which we demonstrate promising precision and recall rates, language and domain independence, and that for language pairs it is sufficient to incorporate a machine translation system at the gazetteer level.
Keywords: Natural Language Interfaces; Databases; Ontologies
Multimodal Kinect-Supported Interaction for Visually Impaired Users BIBAFull-Text 500-509
  Richard Gross; Ulrich Bockholt; Ernst W. Biersack; Arjan Kuijper
This paper discusses Kreader, a proof-of-concept for a new interface for blind or visually impaired users to have text read to them. We use the Kinect device to track the users body. All feedback is presented with auditory cues, while a minimal visual interface can be turned on optionally. Interface elements are organized in a list manner and placed ego-centric, in relation to the user's body. Moving around in the room does not change the element's location. Hence visually impaired users can utilize their "body-sense" to find elements. Two test sessions were used to evaluate Kreader. We think the results are encouraging and provide a solid foundation for future research into such an interface, that can be navigated by sighted and visually impaired users.
Evaluating Facial Expressions in American Sign Language Animations for Accessible Online Information BIBAKFull-Text 510-519
  Hernisa Kacorri; Pengfei Lu; Matt Huenerfauth
Facial expressions and head movements communicate essential information during ASL sentences. We aim to improve the facial expressions in ASL animations and make them more understandable, ultimately leading to better accessibility of online information for deaf people with low English literacy. This paper presents how we engineer stimuli and questions to measure whether the viewer has seen and understood the linguistic facial expressions correctly. In two studies, we investigate how changing several parameters (the variety of facial expressions, the language in which the stimuli were invented, and the degree of involvement of a native ASL signer in the stimuli design) affects the results of a user evaluation study of facial expressions in ASL animation.
Keywords: American Sign Language; accessibility technology for people who are deaf; animation; natural language generation; evaluation; user study; stimuli
Multimodal Synthesizer for Russian and Czech Sign Languages and Audio-Visual Speech BIBAKFull-Text 520-529
  Alexey Karpov; Zdenek Krnoul; Milos Zelezny; Andrey Ronzhin
This paper presents a model of a computer-animated avatar for the Russian and Czech sign languages. Basic principles of sign language(s) and their implementation in a computer model are briefly sketched. Particular attention is paid to animation principles of the "talking head", which allows for maximum expansion of the functions of the program, making it suitable not only for deaf and hard-of-hearing people, but for blind and non-disabled people too, so the universal audio-visual synthesizer is proposed.
Keywords: Signing Avatar; Speech Synthesis; Talking Head; Assistive Technology; Multimodal User Interface; Universal Access
Investigation into a Mixed Hybrid Using SSVEP and Eye Gaze for Optimising User Interaction within a Virtual Environment BIBAKFull-Text 530-539
  Paul McCullagh; Leo Galway; Gaye Lightbody
Brain Computer Interface (BCI) technology has been used successfully in neurophysiological research laboratories, but has had less success when used outside the laboratory and particularly for people with disability. The hybrid BCI approach offers the potential for a more robust solution, with potential better usability to promote greater acceptance. The emphasis on improving human computer interaction may facilitate more widespread deployment, particularly where BCI alone has proved unsuccessful. This paper adapts an existing modular BCI architecture to support a 'mixed hybrid', by combining a BCI with a commercial eye tracker, and suggests graphical user interfaces to facilitate operation and control of a virtual environment.
Keywords: Hybrid; Brain; Computer; Interface; Eye-gaze
Odours and Spatialities: Designing Sensory Experiences BIBAKFull-Text 540-547
  Luisa Paraguai
Smell is a chemical phenomenon, historically signified and culturally shared; it creates deep interactions, enforcing social structures or transgressing them. From natural environments to urban spaces, the large variety of odours can stimulate olfactory senses and evoke experiences, in which pleasant and unpleasant, and even non-smelling scents, are combined as parameters of spatial limits. The main aim of this paper is to contextualize some chemical and cultural aspects of smells, and their potential to create and reconfigure spatial orientations. Based on Constance Classen, David Howes, and Anthony Synnott's researches, odours are understood as cultural classification systems, and therefore they are possible modes of ordering the world. At the end, some projects and scent maps are brought since odours are considered an aesthetic medium to design evocative experiences and perceptive access modes.
Keywords: Odours and spatialities; perception and accessibility; spatial experiences; design and technology; art and technology
Subunit Modeling for Japanese Sign Language Recognition Based on Phonetically Depend Multi-stream Hidden Markov Models BIBAKFull-Text 548-555
  Shinji Sako; Tadashi Kitamura
We work on automatic Japanese sign Language (JSL) recognition using Hidden Markov Model (HMM). An important issue for modeling sign is that how to determine the constituent element of sign (i.e., subunit) like "phoneme" in spoken language. We focused on special feature of sign language that JSL is composed of three types of phonological elements which is hand local information, position, and movement. In this paper, we propose an efficiently method of generating subunit using multi-stream HMM which is correspond to phonological elements. An isolated word recognition experiment has confirmed the effectiveness of our proposed method.
Keywords: Hidden Markov models; Sign language recognition; Subunit; Phonetic systems of sign language
A Biological and Real-Time Framework for Hand Gestures and Head Poses BIBAKFull-Text 556-565
  Mario Saleiro; Miguel Farrajota; Kasim Terzic; João M. F. Rodrigues; J. M. Hans du Buf
Human-robot interaction is an interdisciplinary research area that aims at the development of social robots. Since social robots are expected to interact with humans and understand their behavior through gestures and body movements, cognitive psychology and robot technology must be integrated. In this paper we present a biological and real-time framework for detecting and tracking hands and heads. This framework is based on keypoints extracted by means of cortical V1 end-stopped cells. Detected keypoints and the cells' responses are used to classify the junction type. Through the combination of annotated keypoints in a hierarchical, multi-scale tree structure, moving and deformable hands can be segregated and tracked over time. By using hand templates with lines and edges at only a few scales, a hand's gestures can be recognized. Head tracking and pose detection are also implemented, which can be integrated with detection of facial expressions in the future. Through the combinations of head poses and hand gestures a large number of commands can be given to a robot.
Keywords: Hand gestures; Head pose; biological framework
Challenges for Inclusive Affective Detection in Educational Scenarios BIBAFull-Text 566-575
  Olga C. Santos; Alejandro Rodriguez-Ascaso; Jesus G. Boticario; Sergio Salmeron-Majadas; Pilar Quirós; Raúl Cabestrero
There exist diverse challenges for inclusive emotions detection in educational scenarios. In order to gain some insight about the difficulties and limitations of them, we have analyzed requirements, accommodations and tasks that need to be adapted for an experiment where people with different functional profiles have taken part. Adaptations took into consideration logistics, tasks involved and user interaction techniques. The main aim was to verify to what extent the same approach, measurements and technological infrastructure already used in previous experiments were adequate for inducing emotions elicited from the execution of the experiment tasks. In the paper, we discuss the experiment arrangements needed to cope with people with different functional profiles, which include adaptations on the analysis and results. Such analysis was validated in a pilot experiment with 3 visually impaired participants.
Enriching Graphic Maps to Enable Multimodal Interaction by Blind People BIBAKFull-Text 576-583
  Caterina Senette; Maria Claudia Buzzi; Marina Buzzi; Barbara Leporini; Loredana Martusciello
Geographical maps are by their nature inherently inaccessible to blind users since the information is conveyed mainly in a visual way. The attempt to convert all the information to an alternative modality allowing satisfactory exploration by blind people is a very active field of research. Several studies offer interesting solutions currently only available as prototypes. The work described herein investigates multimodality, focusing on the tactile interaction skills of a blind subject. Given the difficulty of rendering all the information available in a generic map in a tactile and/or text (Braille) format, the challenge is to provide additional substantial information content through different means: speech synthesizer, text or sound alerts and vibration events that the user may call as needed. A further challenge of our work is to make a map opportunely modified to "speak" for itself, without using dedicated devices, through web technologies and the possibility of easily developing programs for Android-based mobile devices.
Keywords: Blind; visual impairment; tactile maps; graphics maps; multimodal interaction; Android; accessibility
I-Ball: A Programmable Sporting Aid for Children with a Visual Impairment to Play Soccer BIBAKFull-Text 584-591
  Surya P. N. Singh; Paul E. I. Pounds; Hanna Kurniawati
The Interactive Ball ("I-Ball") is a programmable tonal soccer ball that varies its output based on measurements from an inertial sensor. As a sporting aid for children with blindness and low-vision it makes participation in team sports more accessible without a conspicuous constant tone and in a manner the provides information when stationary. The paper presents the design rationale of the system. Exploitative evaluation with visually impaired users indicates that the encoded information provides utility, but also that noise and wind are complicating external factors that can limit perceptual range.
Keywords: Accessibility; adaptive user feedback; HRI; sporting aids
Design of Intuitive Interfaces for Electric Wheelchairs to Prevent Accidents BIBAKFull-Text 592-601
  Hitoshi Tamura; Yasushi Kambayashi
Japan has more than 200 accidents related to electric wheelchairs every year. Current electric wheelchairs do not have any device for accident prevention; it can be said they are dangerous vehicles. In order to mitigate the situation, we have proposed and implemented an interface that makes user recognize the surrounding circumference so that it prevents electric wheelchair accidents. In this paper, we present the design, implementation and feasibility study of intuitive human interfaces for electric wheelchairs.
Keywords: Prevention of accidents; Electric wheelchair; HMD; Multi touch panel; Assistive technology
Using Sonification and Haptics to Represent Overlapping Spatial Objects: Effects on Accuracy BIBAKFull-Text 602-611
  Junlei Yu; Kris Lohmann; Christopher Habel
For blind and visually impaired people, the access to spatial information is crucial. Therefore, the development of non-visual interfaces to spatial representations, e.g. maps and floor plans, are important tasks. In earlier empirical work [19], we investigated virtual haptic floor plans, accessible through a Phantomforce feedback device, which allows haptic exploration of virtual objects (walls), in combination with sonification for representing overlapping objects (windows). In the following we present an empirical study on multiple-overlap constellations (in the room-plan scenario: walls, windows and radiators). We reduced the complexity of the environments from complete apartments to only one wall and overlapping subsections, to focus on the spatial accuracy of acquired knowledge. This one-wall experiment has two goals: to compare the accuracy of size and position estimation with the experiment with complete apartments and to investigate the usability of sonification to represent overlapping entities at walls. Qualitative measures on the correctness of overlap-relationship identification and quantitative investigation on the accuracy of size and position estimations are discussed. The results can be extended to the use of sonification to represent overlapping entities in general.
Keywords: Spatial Knowledge Acquisition; Virtual Haptics; Sonification; Representational Multimodality

Brain-Computer Interfaces

Effortless Passive BCIs for Healthy Users BIBAKFull-Text 615-622
  Anne-Marie Brouwer; Jan van Erp; Dirk Heylen; Ole Jensen; Mannes Poel
While a BCI usually aims to provide an alternative communication channel for disabled users who have difficulties to move or to speak, we focused on BCIs as a way to retrieve and use information about an individual's cognitive or affective state without requiring any effort or intention of the user to convey this information. Providing only an extra channel of information rather than a replacement of certain functions, such BCIs could be useful for healthy users as well. We describe the results of our studies on neurophysiological correlates of attention, workload and emotion, as well as our efforts to include physiological variables. We found different features in EEG to be indicative of attention and workload, while emotional state may be better measured by physiological variables like heart rate and skin conductance. Potential applications are described. We argue that major challenges lie in hardware and generalization issues.
Keywords: Passive BCI; user state monitoring; attention; workload; emotion; EEG; MEG; NIRS; physiological measures
Brain-Computer Interfacing for Users with Cerebral Palsy, Challenges and Opportunities BIBAFull-Text 623-632
  Ian Daly; Martin Billinger; Reinhold Scherer; Gernot Müller-Putz
It has been proposed that hybrid Brain-computer interfaces (hBCIs) could benefit individuals with Cerebral palsy (CP). To this end we review the results of two BCI studies undertaken with a total of 20 individuals with CP to determine if individuals in this user group can achieve BCI control.
   Large performance differences are found between individuals. These are investigated to determine their possible causes. Differences in subject characteristics are observed to significantly relate to BCI performance accuracy. Additionally, significant relationships are also found between some subject characteristics and EEG components that are important for BCI control. Therefore, it is suggested that knowledge of individual users may guide development towards overcoming the challenges involved in providing BCIs that work well for individuals with CP.
Multi-modal Computer Interaction for Communication and Control Using EEG, EMG, EOG and Motion Sensors BIBAKFull-Text 633-641
  Guenter Edlinger; Christoph Kapeller; Arnau Espinosa; Sergi Torrellas; Felip Miralles; Christoph Guger
This work introduces a new system to allow persons with motor disabilities to control remote devices and communicate with their environment. This system consists of a real-time data processing computer that analyzes biosignals like the electroencephalogram (EEG), electromyogram (EMG), electrooculogram (EOG) and a second computer that controls a smart home system, a robot, a TV, a webcam and social networks like Twitter and Facebook. The user can choose the input method that best suits his/her individual condition. A comparative study over 11 healthy subjects and different input methods showed best performance of EMG and mouse inputs, followed by EOG and EEG based inputs. However, the usability might change for disabled persons.
Keywords: EEG; EMG; EOG; motion tracking; BCI
Experimental Art with Brain Controlled Interface BIBAKFull-Text 642-651
  Tania Fraga; Mauro Pichiliani; Donizetti Louro
This essay presents experimental computer artworks using Brain Controlled Interface (BCI). It points to a preliminary contextualization and general development emphasizing affective, sensory, poetic and aesthetic experiences intermediated by mindware devices. BCI offers a new research art field using a low-cost neuro system to explore human mind's untapped potential. A BCI for a Java3D framework allowed to arrive at the concept of exoendogenous interactivity. The main contribution of this essay is the novel use of affective quantified data to provide emotional feedback to computers and participants while experimenting an art piece, intertwining human affective states with computational autonomous processes. May one say that computer agents, by capturing world percepts, perceive the human mind activity? Possible answers to this question may open poetic and aesthetic research fields for artists, leading to a better understanding of how computers collect and respond to emotional states within human minds.
Keywords: Brazilian Computer Art; Brain Controlled Interface (BCI); exoendogenous interactivity; Caracolomobile; affective computing; awareness widgets; Emotiv neural EEG headset; machine percepts
Multi-Brain Games: Cooperation and Competition BIBAKFull-Text 652-661
  Anton Nijholt; Hayrettin Gürkök
We survey research on multi-user brain-computer interfacing applications and look in particular at 'multi-brain games'. That is, games where in one or other form the (EEG-) measured brain activity of more than one user is needed to play the game. Various ways of integrating and merging brain activity in a game context are investigated. Existing research games are mentioned, but the emphasis is on surveying BCI research that will provide ideas for future multi-brain BCI games.
Keywords: brain-computer interfaces; multi-brain games; social games
A Passive Brain-Computer Interface for Supporting Gaze-Based Human-Machine Interaction BIBAKFull-Text 662-671
  Janna Protzak; Klas Ihme; Thorsten Oliver Zander
Tracking eye movements to control technical systems is becoming increasingly popular; the use of eye movements to direct a cursor in human-computer interaction (HCI) is particularly convenient and caters for both healthy and disabled users alike. However, it is often difficult to find an appropriate substitute for the click operation, especially within the context of hands-free interaction. The most common approach is the use of dwell-times, but this can lead to the so-called "Midas-Touch" problem. This problem is defined by the fact that the system incorrectly interprets fixations due to long processing times or spontaneous dwellings as a user command. The current study explores the event-related potentials (ERPs) that might indicate a user's intention to select. Therefore, Electroencephalography (EEG) data was recorded from 10 participants during an interaction with a dwell-time system within a selection process. The aim was to identify EEG potentials related to the intention to interact (i.e. the selection of targets on a screen) and to classify these against EEG potentials unrelated to interaction during random fixations on the screen. As a result, we found a clear negativity over parietal electrodes for the intention of item selection. This negativity did not occur when participant fixated an object without intention to select (no specific intention). We robustly could classify the underlying brain activity in most of our participants with an average accuracy of 81%. The presented study provides evidence that the intention to interact evokes EEG activity that can clearly be detected by passive BCI technology. This leads to a new type of implicit interaction that holds the potential to improve human-machine interaction by increasing efficiency and making it more intuitive.
Keywords: EEG; passive BCI; implicit interaction; gaze-based interaction
A Collaborative Brain-Computer Interface for Accelerating Human Decision Making BIBAKFull-Text 672-681
  Peng Yuan; Yijun Wang; Xiaorong Gao; Tzyy-Ping Jung; Shangkai Gao
Recently, collective intelligence has been introduced to brain-computer interface (BCI) research, leading to the emergence of collaborative BCI. This study presents an online collaborative BCI for improving individuals' decision making in a visual Go/NoGo task. Six groups of six people participated in the experiment comprising both offline and online sessions. The offline results suggested that the collaborative BCI has the potential to improve individuals' decisions in various decision-making situations. The online tests showed that using Electroencephalogram (EEG) within the first 360 ms after the stimulus onset, which was 50 ms earlier than the mean behavioral response time (RT) (409±85 ms), the collaborative BCI reached a mean classification accuracy of 78.0±2.6% across all groups. It was 12.9% higher than the average individual accuracy (65.1±8.1%, p<10-4). This study suggested that a collaborative BCI could accelerate human decision making with reliable prediction accuracy in real time.
Keywords: brain-computer interface (BCI); group decision making; Electroencephalogram (EEG); collaborative BCI
Towards Implicit Control through Steady-State Somatosensory Evoked Potentials BIBAKFull-Text 682-688
  Thorsten Oliver Zander; Jonas Brönstrup; Elisa Klose; Robert S. Sonnenberg; Wouter K. Vos; Marc Grootjen
We present a reliable reactive BCI based on steady-state somatosensory evoked potentials (SSSEPs). As the stimulation frequencies are higher than 35 Hz this system ensures no interference with BCIs relying on ERPs or SMR. Hence, the presented system can be combined with other BCIs broadening the bandwidth of communication.
Keywords: Reactive BCIs; steady-state somatosensory evoked potentials (SSSEPs)
Designing Wearable Bio-Interfaces: A Transdisciplinary Articulation between Design and Neuroscience BIBAKFull-Text 689-699
  Rachel Zuanon
This paper presents and discusses the rapprochement between Design and Neuroscience in the design of wearable bio-interfaces based on the contributions of studies related to the environment/behavior/neuroscience paradigm and emotional processing in the human brain, regarding the identification and recognition of neurophysiological information relevant to projectual practice in Design. The article also considers the Design-Neuroscience relationship in the projectual practice of wearable computers "BioBodyGame" (2006-2008) and "NeuroBodyGame" (2008-2010) by means of which it addresses the interaction between the body of the user (neurophysiological signals and brain waves) and the computer by the use of bio-interfaces.
Keywords: Design; Neuroscience; Wearable Bio-Interfaces; Transdiciplinarity