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UAHCI Tables of Contents: 07-107-207-309-109-209-311-111-211-311-413-113-213-314-114-214-314-415-115-215-315-4

UAHCI 2009: 5th International Conference on Universal Access in Human-Computer Interaction, Part II: Intelligent and Ubiquitous Interaction Environments

Fullname:UAHCI 2009: 5th International Conference on Universal Access in Human-Computer Interaction, Part II: Intelligent and Ubiquitous Interaction Environments
Note:Volume 6 of HCI International 2009
Editors:Constantine Stephanidis
Location:San Diego, California
Dates:2009-Jul-19 to 2009-Jul-24
Volume:2
Publisher:Springer-Verlag
Series:Lecture Notes in Computer Science 5615
Standard No:ISBN: 978-3-642-02709-3 (print), 978-3-642-02710-9 (online); hcibib: UAHCI09-2
Papers:85
Pages:770
Links:Online Proceedings | Publisher Book Page
  1. UAHCI 2009-07-19 Volume 2
    1. Universal Access in the Home Environment
    2. Ambient Intelligence and Ambient Assisted Living
    3. Mobile and Ubiquitous Interaction
    4. Alternative Interaction Techniques and Devices
    5. Intelligence, Adaptation and Personalisation

UAHCI 2009-07-19 Volume 2

Universal Access in the Home Environment

Key Properties in the Development of Smart Spaces BIBAKFull-Text 3-12
  Sergey Balandin; Heikki Waris
This paper is targeted at improving and expanding the understanding of the Smart Spaces concept of by the R&D community. Through the identification of key properties based on an analysis of evolving trends in the mobile industry, the developers are provided with recommendations that improve the adoption of Smart Spaces. It is especially important to understand how Smart Spaces can change the whole services ecosystem and the role that mobile devices will play.
   The paper discusses some core technologies being developed in the industry that might play a dominant role in the future Smart Spaces. A special attention of the discussion is the latest trend towards a networked inter-device architecture for mobile devices and what new possibilities it opens. With that the discussion expands into general properties of Smart Spaces. The paper summarizes functional and non-functional properties. By understanding the properties and their implications to the development and adoption of Smart Spaces, the developers are better equipped to ensure that the needs of the various stakeholders are taken into account. For this purpose, the paper proposes a set of questions that can be used to estimate how well the planned Smart Space fares when compared against each of the properties.
Keywords: Smart Spaces; Future Mobile Devices; Properties; Taxonomy
Design a Multi-Touch Table and Apply to Interior Furniture Allocation BIBAKFull-Text 13-19
  Chien-Hsu Chen; Ken-Hao Nien; Fong-Gong Wu
This is a study based on the integration of FTIR multi-touch technology with Industrial Design to produce a multi-touch table. An multi-touch system interface is also developed through this study. Furniture allocation is applied as the content to provide users practical operating experience on the multi-touch interface. The process includes FTIR structure related testing, hardware technology and specifications; and the exterior design. The system interface includes image recognition system and multi-touch application, and is developed in FLASH. This study not only uses the easy-to-use characteristics of the multi-touch technology but also integrates PV3D to link the 3D scene with the user interface. This provides a real-time 3D simulation image that the user can view the result of the furniture allocation while controlling the user interface. Observation and interviews are made on the users to evaluate the advantages and related problems of the multi-touch technology for future study and development.
Keywords: Multi-Touch; Interior Design
Implementation of a User Interface Model for Systems Control in Buildings BIBAKFull-Text 20-28
  Szucheng Chien; Ardeshir Mahdavi
Occupant control actions in a building (i.e. user interactions with environmental systems for heating, cooling, ventilation, lighting, etc.) can significantly affect both indoor climate in and the environmental performance of buildings. Nonetheless, relatively few systematic (long-term and high-resolution) efforts have been made to observe and analyze the means and patterns of such user-system interactions with building systems. Specifically, the necessary requirements for the design and testing of hardware and software systems for user-system interfaces have not been formulated in a rigorous and reliable manner. This paper includes the prototyping of a new generation of user interface model for building systems in sentient buildings. The outcome of these efforts, when realized as a web-based user interface, would allow the occupants to achieve desirable indoor climate conditions with higher levels of connectivity between occupants and sentient environments.
Keywords: sentient buildings; user interface; environmental controls
A Web-Based 3D System for Home Design BIBAKFull-Text 29-38
  Anthony Chong; Ji-Hyun Lee; Jieun Park
Buying a home is a big investment and is one of the most important decisions made in one's life. Home owners after purchasing the apartments are interested in having their own home unique design identity. They often seek expert interior designers to assist in designing the homes and bringing out the uniqueness in them. In current interior design industry, designers have to meet the owners often to discuss the designs and alter the housing layout design accordingly to the owners' preferences. This process is often repeated many times before a finalized housing design layout will be accepted by the owners. In this paper, we propose a rule-based housing design system to generate many sets of alternatives housing design layouts based on the initial designer's housing design layout. Designers, therefore, are able to produce alternative housing designs for the owners and also able to explore various alternatives done by the rule-based design system that they have not encountered before.
Keywords: Housing design; rule-based system; web-based system
Attitudinal and Intentional Acceptance of Domestic Robots by Younger and Older Adults BIBAKFull-Text 39-48
  Neta Ezer; Arthur D. Fisk; Wendy A. Rogers
A study was conducted to examine the expectations that younger and older individuals have about domestic robots and how these expectations relate to robot acceptance. In a questionnaire participants were asked to imagine a robot in their home and to indicate how much items representing technology, social partner, and teammate acceptance matched their robot. There were additional questions about how useful and easy to use they thought their robot would be. The dependent variables were attitudinal and intentional acceptance. The analysis of the responses of 117 older adults (aged 65-86) and 60 younger adults (aged 18-25) indicated that individuals thought of robots foremost as performance-directed machines, less so as social devices, and least as unproductive entities. The robustness of the Technology Acceptance Model to robot acceptance was supported. Technology experience accounted for the variance in robot acceptance due to age.
Keywords: Domestic Robots; Older Adults; Technology Acceptance
Natural Language Interface for Smart Homes BIBAKFull-Text 49-56
  María Fernández; Juan Bautista Montalvá Colomer; Maria Fernanda Cabrera-Umpierrez; María Teresa Arredondo
The development of new ICT technologies, like Ambient Intelligence (AmI), and smart homes technologies has been proven to be a key factor to allow people with disabilities gain independency at their homes, vehicle or working environments. The biggest problem that users with disabilities face at the moment of using these technologies is the difficult use of their interfaces. In this paper we present the methodology and implementation used for the development of an interface with smart homes, based on natural language, which provides an easier way, especially for people with physical disabilities and the elderly, to perform the usual tasks at home without the need of a previous learning and complex processes.
Keywords: Smart Home; natural language; ambient intelligence
Development of Real-Time Face Detection Architecture for Household Robot Applications BIBAKFull-Text 57-66
  Dongil Han; Hyunjong Cho; Jaekwang Song; Hyeonjoon Moon; Seong Joon Yoo
This paper describes the structure of real-time face detection hardware architecture for household robot applications. The proposed architecture is robust against illumination changes and operates at no less than 60 frames per second. It uses Modified Census Transform to obtain face characteristics robust against illumination changes. And the AdaBoost algorithm is adopted to learn and generate the characteristics of the face data, and finally detected the face using this data. This paper describes the hardware structure composed of Memory Interface, Image Scaler, MCT Generator, Candidate Detector, Confidence Mapper, Position Resizer, Data Grouper, and Overlay Processor, and then verified it using Virtex5 LX330 FPGA of Xilinx. Verification using the images from a camera showed that maximum 16 faces can be detected at the speed of maximum 30.
Keywords: multiple face detection; MCT (Modified Census Transform); real-time FPGA implementation; hardware design
Appropriate Dynamic Lighting as a Possible Basis for a Smart Ambient Lighting BIBAKFull-Text 67-74
  Lajos Izsó
The objectives of this empirical study were to contribute to the development of an intelligent, adaptive home lighting system for the elderly. The basic idea was that a carefully chosen dynamic lighting with seemingly ever-increasing ("up") -- or ever-decreasing ("down") -- illuminance can be used to increase (or decrease) the users' activation level as they wish, a change that will be reflected in objective psychophysiological parameters, in objective performance, and also in subjective feelings. The paper examines the effects of two particular different forms of dynamic lighting -- having the same average illuminance over time -- on the performance of the number verification task (NVT) by older adults. As a group, the older adults showed no difference between the two forms of dynamic lighting. However, by involving the individual's sensation seeking needs it was shown that the kind of dynamism influences both the subjective preferences and the objective visual performance. These findings emphasize the importance and sensitivity of individual characteristics of the elderly and have to be taken into consideration for the design of adaptive lighting systems.
Keywords: AAL (ambient assisted living); ambient lighting assistance; dynamic lighting; sensation seeking needs
A New Approach for Accessible Interaction within Smart Homes through Virtual Reality BIBAKFull-Text 75-81
  Viveca Jimenez-Mixco; Rafael de las Heras; Juan Luis Villalar; María Teresa Arredondo
This paper proposes an innovative Virtual-Reality-based interaction strategy integrated with a real domotics platform as a testbed to evaluate user experience of people with disabilities and their assistants. A living lab has been arranged to analyze and extract those applications with better acceptance for the users, making use of a multimodal approach to adapt the interaction mechanisms to their needs, skills and preferences. A preliminary testing phase validated the system in terms of performance, reliability and usability. A complete evaluation trial is about to be configured for assessing the final system with a wide range of target users.
Keywords: virtual reality; domotics; accessibility; living lab; smart homes
A Design of Air-Condition Remote Control for Visually Impaired People BIBAKFull-Text 82-91
  Cherng-Yee Leung; Yan-Ting Yao; Su-Chen Chuang
Air condition is operated by a remote control presented mainly with visual cues. Individuals with visual impairment have difficult to use it. This research aims to design an air condition remote control for them. Based on investigation, literature review, and discussion among 4 experts, a set of design principles emphasizing on consistency, discrimination, efficiency, label, and feedback has been set up. 6 main functions each having 2~4 alternatives were modeled by ABS accordingly. 20 visually impaired people volunteered in two experiments: within function and between function. By Friedman test and LSD method, the 6 functions have been classified into three groups: (power switch, temperature setting), (wind speed selection, wind direction selection), and (sleeping mode, time setting) arranging form top to bottom on a remote control. Through discussion, the braille labels have been decided placed at the left side of the function buttons. The implications were discussed in the conclusion.
Keywords: Air Condition; Non-barrier environment; Remote Control; User Center Design; Visually Impaired
Verb Processing in Spoken Commands for Household Security and Appliances BIBAKFull-Text 92-99
  Ioanna Malagardi; Christina Alexandris
The present paper concerns the handling of verbs in the Speech Recognition Module of an HCI system for the remote control of household security and the operation of household appliances. The basic language used is Modern Greek, but the system's design includes the basis of a multilingual extension for the use of the system by native-speakers of other languages. The human-computer communication must preferable to be accomplished in natural language. Some methods of Artificial Intelligence can contribute to the solving of the natural language processing problems. The target for a multilingual extension of the system has imposed the restrictions that commands are kept simple and referring expressions such as deictic noun phrases and pronouns as well as anaphoric expressions are avoided. The interaction with the system is strictly based on dialogs with restricted options in order to increase the feasibility of the speech interface.
Keywords: speech recognition; natural language processing; motion verbs; interlinguas
Thermal Protection of Residential Buildings in the Period of Energy Crisis and Its Influence on Comfort of Living BIBAKFull-Text 100-107
  Przemyslaw Nowakowski
It has been noticed within a few years now that energy prices soared all over the world. Apart from growing costs of vehicle fuels, prices of energy used in flats have risen. They take a substantial share in domestic budgets. It poses a problem mainly for residents in countries where the building industry have been using less advanced technologies. The solutions applied there refer both to conditions of the residential resources management and selection of building and decor materials. A response to the need for reducing energy consumption in residential buildings comprises successively corrected and tightened legal rules and regulations concerning thermal protection of buildings. Also, the users themselves undertake independent initiatives aimed at reduction of exploitation costs. However, the issue of improving thermal isolation of buildings is a costly venture, and profits from its implementation are noticeable only after many years. The paper will discuss technical tendencies of thermal protection of newly erected residential buildings (passive buildings, among other things) as well as the older ones, subject to so called thermal modernisation. What is more, the paper will concern the influence the buildings have on the living comfort and possibilities of counteracting negative consequences as far as influence of thermal isolation technologies on people, natural environment and a technical condition of buildings is concerned.
Keywords: residential buildings; low energy consumption; living comfort
Design for All Approach with the Aim to Support Autonomous Living for Elderly People in Ordinary Residences -- An Implementation Strategy BIBAKFull-Text 108-116
  Claes Tjäder
Most elderly want to remain in their ordinary home. There are products and services available which make it possible to support an autonomous living with a high quality of life. To finds ways how to implement DfA supportive technology in co-operation with housing enterprises is dealt with in this paper. Methods used at some workshops to single out measures from different perspectives are described.
Keywords: Elderly; autonomous living; implementation strategy; DfA technology support; real estate and/or housing enterprises
Speech Input from Older Users in Smart Environments: Challenges and Perspectives BIBAFull-Text 117-126
  Ravichander Vipperla; Maria Klara Wolters; Kallirroi Georgila; Steve Renals
Although older people are an important user group for smart environments, there has been relatively little work on adapting natural language interfaces to their requirements. In this paper, we focus on a particularly thorny problem: processing speech input from older users. Our experiments on the MATCH corpus show clearly that we need age-specific adaptation in order to recognize older users' speech reliably. Language models need to cover typical interaction patterns of older people, and acoustic models need to accommodate older voices. Further research is needed into intelligent adaptation techniques that will allow existing large, robust systems to be adapted with relatively small amounts of in-domain, age appropriate data. In addition, older users need to be supported with adequate strategies for handling speech recognition errors.
Sympathetic Devices: Communication Technologies for Inclusion Across Housing Options BIBAKFull-Text 127-136
  Claudia Winegarden; Brian Jones
Encouraging wellness at home is a necessary step in alleviating the healthcare system, but also a vehicle for promoting independence and quality of life among older adults. Even though much healthcare research is focused on autism, asthma, diabetes, to mention a few, depression caused by isolation is a serious condition related to healthy aging and outcomes. Addressing communication patterns across housing options might bring us closer to understanding and preventing social isolation and loneliness among older people. This paper discusses a research-based iterative process of applied within subjects survey and action research studies for designing communication technology devices for older adults. The relevance of this project is to understand the role of design and technology for adoption, home care affecting an independent healthy aging.
Keywords: design; older adults; communication technologies; isolation

Ambient Intelligence and Ambient Assisted Living

Design Framework for Ambient Assisted Living Platforms BIBAKFull-Text 139-142
  Patricia Abril-Jiménez; Cecilia Vera-Muñoz; Maria Fernanda Cabrera-Umpierrez; María Teresa Arredondo; Juan-Carlos Naranjo
Nowadays the new technological advances offer the possibility to provide a great number of different personalized services that cover the needs of diverse categories of users. The application of the Ambient Intelligence (AmI) paradigm and the Ambient Assisted Living (AAL) concept makes possible the creation of new applications that can significantly improve the quality of life of elderly and dependant people. This paper presents an interaction framework that provides a new generation of user interfaces for AAL services in the context of an AmI-based platform. This solution aims to develop the technological context where elderly and dependant citizens can increase their life independence.
Keywords: Ambient Intelligence; Ambient Assisted Living; wireless sensor networks; adaptative interfaces
Ambient Intelligence in Working Environments BIBAKFull-Text 143-149
  Christian Bühler
The concept of ambient intelligence (AmI) has recently been adopted related to living scenarios and denoted as ambient assisted living (AAL). It has received high attention related to the demographic shift and the positive options of care and support for elderly people at home and on the move. However, there exists an equally important field of application related to work. In the context of labour high mobility and flexibility of people is requested. The demand to work up to higher ages complements the situation. People in the workforce develop growing expertise and different abilities over time. They need tailored support systems at work keeping the efficiency and effectiveness and elements of prevention or adjustment to changing abilities. Indeed, environments in industry and at work provide already a high degree of networking and computing infrastructure, much more than in the private sector and can provide a basis for an advanced AmI infrastructure. The idea is discussed within the framework of creating accessible workplaces for people with disabilities. Here, so far a reactive strategy has been followed based on the individual case. Only in case a concrete person with a disability is included in the work force and only in that very moment a workplace adaptation is considered. However, now this reactive strategy is outdated, because today the complete infrastructure needs to be considered to make a workplace accessible. Following an AmI strategy -- ambient assisted working (AAW) provides a flexible approach towards workplace adaptation for all, including people with disabilities and older people in the workforce. In order to use AAW, the process has to start much earlier in a more inclusive way. Without knowing the exact demands of a future worker, the system needs to be designed. The flexible networking character of AmI provides the required flexibility.
Keywords: Ambient Intelligence; Work; Ambient Assisted Working; Universal Design; Accessibility; Information technologies; Higher Age
Towards a Framework for the Development of Adaptive Multimodal User Interfaces for Ambient Assisted Living Environments BIBAKFull-Text 150-159
  Marco Blumendorf; Sahin Albayrak
In this paper we analyse the requirements and challenges ambient assisted living and smart environments pose on interactive systems. We present a framework for the provisioning of user interfaces for such environments. The framework incorporates model-based user interface development technologies to create a runtime system that manages interaction resources and context information to adapt interaction. This approach allows the creation of adaptive and multimodal interactive ambient assisted living applications.
Keywords: smart environments; multimodal interaction; model-based user interface development; ambient assisted living; multi-access service platform
Workflow Mining Application to Ambient Intelligence Behavior Modeling BIBAFull-Text 160-167
  Carlos Fernández; Juan Pablo Lázaro; José-Miguel Benedí
The handmade human behavior modeling requires too many human resources and for too long a time. In addition, the final result does probably not reflect the current status of the person due to the influence of time. The use on Workflow Mining techniques to infer human behavior models from past executions of actions can be a solution to this problem. In this paper, a Human Behavior modeling methodology based on Workflow Mining Techniques is proposed.
Middleware for Ambient Intelligence Environments: Reviewing Requirements and Communication Technologies BIBAFull-Text 168-177
  Yannis Georgalis; Dimitris Grammenos; Constantine Stephanidis
Ambient Intelligence is an emerging research field that aims to make many of the everyday activities of people easier and more efficient. This new paradigm gives rise to opportunities for novel, more efficient interactions with computing systems. At a technical level, the vision of Ambient Intelligence is realized by the seamless confluence of diverse computing platforms. In this context, a software framework (middleware) is essential to enable heterogeneous computing systems to interoperate. In this paper we first consider the basic requirements of a middleware that can effectively support the construction of Ambient Intelligence environments. Subsequently, we present a brief survey of existing, general-purpose middleware systems and evaluate them in terms of their suitability for serving as the low-level communication platform of an Ambient Intelligence middleware. Finally, we argue that an Object-Oriented middleware such as the Common Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) is most suited for basing a middleware for Ambient Intelligence environments.
A Hybrid Approach for Recognizing ADLs and Care Activities Using Inertial Sensors and RFID BIBAFull-Text 178-188
  Albert Hein; Thomas Kirste
In this paper we present a feasibility study regarding the recognition of high level daily living and care activities. We examine a hybrid discriminative and model based generative approach based on RFID and inertial sensor data. We show that the presented sensor configuration is able to deliver sensor readings and object sightings at a sufficient rate without forcing user compliance. We further evaluated the advantage of a model based approach over a static classifier, compared the individual contribution of each sensor type and could reach accuracy rates of 97% and 85%.
Towards Universal Access to Home Monitoring for Assisted Living Environment BIBAKFull-Text 189-198
  Rezwan Islam; Sheikh Iqbal Ahamed; Chowdhury Sharif Hasan; Mohammad Tanviruzzaman
The improvement of the conditions of daily life at home and work, promoted by the socio-economic progression, best quality private living environments and the immense development in healthcare and biomedical technologies has extended the average age of life beyond 70. According to recent surveys this "population aging" phenomenon will contribute to reach the record number of 1 billion people over 60 years on earth by the year 2020. Due to a variety of reasons such as convenience or a need for security and privacy these elderly people generally prefer to avail healthcare facilities at their home. This is time to break through the physical boundaries of hospitals and bring healthcare facilities to the homes. Wireless and internet-based healthcare devices can play a vital role in this regard given that reliable, individualized systems with user-friendly interfaces are developed to enable elderly people feel comfortable with making use of novel technology. This paper presents a remote home monitoring application called Living Assistant that could be utilized to continuously monitor and control a wide range of electronic appliances and ambient parameters. Basically it has been designed to function as a healthcare aide for elderly patients suffering from restricted mobility or other chronic diseases. The advanced ways of user interfaces presented in this paper are simple, generic and universally applicable. With little customization the application can be used to accommodate other user groups as well.
Keywords: Universal access; Home monitoring; Smart home; Assisted living; Living Assistant; Elderly people; Technology-enhanced learning; TinyOS
An Approach to and Evaluations of Assisted Living Systems Using Ambient Intelligence for Emergency Monitoring and Prevention BIBAKFull-Text 199-208
  Thomas Kleinberger; Andreas Jedlitschka; Holger Storf; Silke Steinbach-Nordmann; Stephan Prueckner
Ambient Assisted Living (AAL) is currently one of the important research and development areas, where software engineering aspects play a significant role. The goal of AAL solutions is to apply ambient intelligence technologies to enable people with specific needs to continue to live in their preferred environments. This paper presents an approach and several evaluations for emergency monitoring applications. Experiments in a laboratory setting were performed to evaluate the accuracy of recognizing Activities of Daily Living (ADL). The results show that it is possible to detect ADLs with an accuracy of 92% on average. Hence, we conclude that it is possible to support elderly people in staying longer in their homes by autonomously detecting emergencies on the basis of ADL recognition.
Keywords: Ambient Assisted Living; Emergency Monitoring; Experiments
Anamorphosis Projection by Ubiquitous Display in Intelligent Space BIBAKFull-Text 209-217
  Jeong-Eom Lee; Satoshi Miyashita; Kousuke Azuma; Joo-Ho Lee; Gwi-Tae Park
This paper describes a projection based information display system, which can make a user see three-dimensional (3D) object with naked eyes. The proposed system is based on Intelligent Space and a projector mounted mobile robot which is called Ubiquitous Display. Human can perceive a 3D structure from 2D retinal images by using diverse cues. As adopted psychological cues, the proposed system makes that a user can perceive 3D object by seeing oblique anamorphosis projected on where the user is facing. Through this, the user can get information more realistically and experience augmented reality which the real and virtual objects coexist without optical devices such as glasses, head-mounted display. Moreover, by using Ubiquitous Display in Intelligent Space, ultimately human centered active information display can be feasible.
Keywords: Anamorphosis Projection; Active Information Display; Ubiquitous Display; Intelligent Space
AAL in the Wild -- Lessons Learned BIBAKFull-Text 218-227
  Edith Maier; Guido Kempter
In the EU-funded ALADIN project the prototype of an ambient assistive lighting system was subjected to a three-month test in private households of older people. Despite intensive usability testing in the development phase, field trials pose special challenges including ethical issues such as obtaining informed consent and the need for guidelines for interviewing old people. Besides, real-life settings give rise to particular distortion effects which have to be taken into account in the analysis of the results. Although the findings indicate any overall slight increase in people's mental and physical fitness, they also suggest how the prototype can be improved in several respects. Above all it has been shown that packaging the technology with social support measures is essential to achieve higher user acceptance. Besides, the article discusses lessons learned related to the organization of user testing in real-life settings.
Keywords: AAL (ambient assisted living); ambient intelligence; lighting assistance; adaptive algorithm; field trial
A Modelling Framework for Ambient Assisted Living Validation BIBAKFull-Text 228-237
  Juan-Carlos Naranjo; Carlos Fernandez-Llatas; Pilar Sala; Michael Hellenschmidt; Franco Mercalli
This paper describes a modeling framework that facilitates and streamlines the process of creation, design, construction and deployment of technological solutions in the context of AAL assuring that they are accessible and usable for senior citizens. The framework supports the design of the Human Interaction aspects of an AAL solution in all the stages of a user centered design methodology, putting in practice the guidelines for the verification and validation of the accessibility and usability facets. Two environments are defined: The authoring environment allow the definition of the user, environment and service models. The simulation environment is composed by software and hardware components that constitute a physical ensemble that in conjunction allow the ICT designer to implement actual Virtual Reality scenarios of AAL. It will be used to verify interaction designs and validate the accessibility of the AAL products by means of immersing the users in 3D virtual spaces.
Keywords: Modeling framework; AAL services; workflow technology; Ontology; Services choreography
Methods for User Experience Design of AAL Services BIBAFull-Text 238-247
  Pilar Sala; Juan-Pablo Lázaro; J. Artur Serrano; Katrin Müller; Juan-Carlos Naranjo
This paper presents the approach followed to design the Ambient Assisted Living Services considered for its implementation and validation during PERSONA project. A methodology based on Goal Oriented Design have been followed in iterative cycles to incorporate insights from different stakeholders to the selected services, enriching and refining them through the development of mock-ups and interview assessment.
Self Care System to Assess Cardiovascular Diseases at Home BIBAKFull-Text 248-257
  Elena Villalba; Ignacio Peinado; María Teresa Arredondo
CUORE is a Heart Failure (HF) Disease Assessment System that uses Information Technologies (IT) and portable monitoring devices, for to assess and to manage the HF progression. The system valuates the cardiac condition integrating patient data from different sources such as blood pressure cuff or questionnaires. Rather than just evaluate the cardiovascular status, the system also aims to motivate patients to have an active role in their health management and to improve their cardiac condition through an active lifestyle. This paper presents the CUORE validation with patients and professionals.
Keywords: personal health systems; mobile applications; goal oriented design; cardiovascular diseases
Ambient Intelligence and Knowledge Processing in Distributed Autonomous AAL-Components BIBAKFull-Text 258-266
  Ralph Welge; Helmut Faasch; Eckhard C. Bollow
With the development of computers regarding integration, size and performance we observe a quick increase of computational intelligence into all areas of our daily life. It is shown how to build Ad-Hoc-networks with our middleware to generate emergent intelligence in the behavior of the complete networks. Our approach shows the application of AAL-components (components for ambient assisted living (AAL)). Here we have as well the questions of sustainable development: increasing consumption of resources and energy in the production phase, reduced periods of use phases. Ambient computing and ambient intelligence show a high potential to modify the society's treatment of resources and energy. The interaction with "intelligent" things will change our conception of production and consumption.
Keywords: Autonomous Systems; AAL (Ambient Assisted Living); Knowledge Representation; Services for Human-Computer-Interfaces; Ad-hoc Network; Semantic Method Invocation
Configuration and Dynamic Adaptation of AAL Environments to Personal Requirements and Medical Conditions BIBAKFull-Text 267-276
  Reiner Wichert
AAL concepts have been shaping scientific and market-oriented research landscapes for many years now [1]. Population development demands have made residing and receiving care in one's own home a better alternative than institutionalized inpatient care. This reality has been reflected in open calls for proposals, as well as in numerous European and domestic projects, and has resulted in a considerable number of applications and product concepts with AAL ties. Unfortunately, it is already foreseeable that these project results will not be implemented in a comprehensive fashion, as individual applications and products can only be combined into a comprehensive solution with a great deal of effort and potential cost. Through stereotypical projects and prototypes, as well as concrete usage scenarios, this paper will extrapolate the added value resulting from integrating individual products into coherent comprehensive solutions within the framework of the complete supply and value chain. Business and technological obstacles will be identified and pathways shown by which AAL concepts and visions can lead to a better reality for all of those concerned, from healthcare recipients to those bearing the costs.
Keywords: Ambient Assisted Living; User Interfaces; Elderly People; End User Configuration; AAL Platform

Mobile and Ubiquitous Interaction

Designing Universally Accessible Networking Services for a Mobile Personal Assistant BIBAKFull-Text 279-288
  Ioannis Basdekis; Panagiotis Karampelas; Voula Doulgeraki; Constantine Stephanidis
At present, a tendency towards smaller computer sizes and at the same time increasingly inaccessible web content can be noted. Despite the worldwide recognized importance of Web accessibility, the lack of accessibility of web services has an increasingly negative impact on all users. In order to address this issue, W3C has released a recommendation on Mobile Web Best Practices, supplementary to the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines. This paper presents the design and prototype development of universally accessible networking services that fully comply with those standards. Validation and expert accessibility evaluation on the XHTML Basic prototypes present 100% compliance. The followed design process is presented in details, outlining general as well as specific issues and related solutions that may be of interest to other designers. The results will be further verified through user tests on implemented services.
Keywords: Web accessibility; mobile accessibility; user interface design; device independence; prototyping
Activity Recognition for Everyday Life on Mobile Phones BIBAKFull-Text 289-296
  Gerald Bieber; Jörg Voskamp; Bodo Urban
Mobile applications for activity monitoring are regarded as a high potential field for efficient improvement of health care solutions. The measurement of physical activity within every-day conditions should be as easy as using an automatic weighing machine. Up to now physical activity monitoring required special sensor devices and are not suitable for an every day usage. Movement pattern recognition based on acceleration data enables the usage of standard mobile phones for measurement of physical activity. Now, just by carrying a standard phone in a pocket, the device provides information about the type, intensity and duration of the performed activity. Within the project DiaTrace, we developed the method and algorithm to detect activities like walking, jumping, running, cycling or car driving. Based on activity measurement, this application also calculates the consumed calories over the day, shares activity progress with friends or family and might deliver details about different kinds of transportation during a business trip. The DiaTrace application can easily used today by standard phones which are already equipped with the required sensors.
Keywords: Physical Activity Monitoring; Sensor Location; Mobile Assistance; Acceleration Sensor; Pattern Recognition; feature extraction; DiaTrace
Kinetic User Interface: Interaction through Motion for Pervasive Computing Systems BIBAKFull-Text 297-306
  Pascal Bruegger; Béat Hirsbrunner
We present in this paper a semantic model for the conception of pervasive computing systems based on object or user's motions. We describe a system made of moving entities, observers and views. More specifically, we focus on the tracking of implicit interaction between entities and their environment. We integrate the user's motion as primary input modality as well as the contexts in which the interaction takes place. We have combined the user activities with contexts to create situations. We illustrate this new concept of motion-awareness with examples of applications built on this model.
Keywords: Pervasive computing; Ubiquitous computing; Motion-awareness; Kinetic User Interface; HCI
On Efficiency of Adaptation Algorithms for Mobile Interfaces Navigation BIBAKFull-Text 307-316
  Vlado Glavinic; Sandi Ljubic; Mihael Kukec
Many ubiquitous computing systems and applications, including mobile learning ones, can make use of personalization procedures in order to support and improve universal usability. In our previous work, we have created a GUI menu model for mobile device applications, where personalization capabilities are primarily derived from the use of adaptable and adaptive techniques. In this paper we analyze from a theoretical point of view the efficiency of the two adaptation approaches and related algorithms. A task simulation framework has been developed for comparison of static and automatically adapted menus in the mobile application environment. Algorithm functionality is evaluated according to adaptivity effects provided in various menu configurations and within several classes of randomly generated navigation tasks. Simulation results thus obtained support the usage of adaptivity, which provides a valuable improvement in navigation efficiency within menu-based mobile interfaces.
Keywords: personalization; adaptation; algorithmics; m-devices; m-learning
Accessible User Interfaces in a Mobile Logistics System BIBAKFull-Text 317-326
  Harald K. Jansson; Robert Bjærum; Riitta Hellman; Sverre Morka
In this paper, we focus on ICTs for young people attending occupational rehabilitation and training. An important goal is to develop ICTs that decrease the need for reading and writing dramatically. The UNIMOD-proto type demonstrates how mobile phones can be used as the main and only ICT-device by truck drivers who deliver mats from the laundry to a large number of companies and public places. The mobile phone can be used in the truck for navigation according to traffic situation and geography, and for handling the customer and delivery information. The test sessions show that mobile phones of fer an excellent point of departure for the development of simple and intuitive services that support users with cognitive declines.
Keywords: Accessibility; Cognitive disabilities; GIS; Mobile solutions
Multimodal Interaction for Mobile Learning BIBAKFull-Text 327-334
  Irina Kondratova
This paper discusses issues associated with improving usability of user interactions with mobile devices in mobile learning applications. The focus is on using speech recognition and multimodal interaction in order to improve usability of data entry and information management for mobile learners. To assist users in managing mobile devices, user interface designers are starting to combine the traditional keyboard or pen input with "hands free" speech input, adding other modes of interaction such as speech-based interfaces that are capable of interpreting voice commands. Several research studies on multimodal mobile technology design and evaluations were carried out within our state-of the art laboratories. Results demonstrate feasibility of incorporating speech and multimodal interaction in designing applications for mobile devices. However, there are some important contextual constrains that limit applications with speech-only interfaces in mobile learning, including social and environmental factors, as well as technology limitations. These factors are discussed in detail.
Keywords: Mobile usability; multimodal interaction; speech recognition; mobile evaluation
Acceptance of Mobile Entertainment by Chinese Rural People BIBAKFull-Text 335-344
  Jun Liu; Ying Liu; Hui Li; Dingjun Li; Pei-Luen Patrick Rau
This study explores and analyzes contributing factors of mobile entertainment acceptance by Chinese rural people. First, 27 factors were drawn from literatures. Then a new factor "cost" was found through interview. After that, a survey was built based on the 28 factors. From the data collected in Chinese rural area, seven factors were extracted through explorative factor analysis: social influence, technology and service quality, entertainment utility, simpleness and certainty, self-efficacy, perceived novelty, and cost. Finally, a comprehensive model was provided involving the seven factors as well as their importance rank. This research provides a comprehensive approach in technology acceptance theory. It can also help practitioners to better understand the rural user group and improve their products accordingly.
Keywords: Technology acceptance; mobile entertainment; rural people
Universal Mobile Information Retrieval BIBAKFull-Text 345-354
  David Machado; Tiago Barbosa; Sebastião Pais; Bruno Martins; Gaël Dias
The shift in human computer interaction from desktop computing to mobile interaction highly influences the needs for new designed interfaces. In this paper, we address the issue of searching for information on mobile devices, an area also known as Mobile Information Retrieval. In particular, we propose to summarize as much as possible the information retrieved by any search engine to allow universal access to information.
Keywords: Mobile Information Retrieval; Clustering of Web Page Results; Automatic Summarization
ActionSpaces: Device Independent Places of Thought, Memory and Evolution BIBAKFull-Text 355-364
  Rudolf Melcher; Martin Hitz; Gerhard Leitner
We propose an inherently three-dimensional interaction paradigm which allows individuals to manage their personal digital artifact collections (PAC) regardless of the specific devices and means they are using. The core of our solution is to provide unified access to all user artifacts normally spread across several repositories and devices. Not till then individuals may foster and evolve persistent multi-hierarchical artifact structures (PAS) fitting their cognitive needs. PAS subsets can be arranged and meaningfully related to virtual habitats or even mapped to physical contexts and environments they are frequenting to solve their tasks.
Keywords: 3DUI; interaction paradigm; semantic desktop metaphor; ubiquitous computing; distributed computing; distributed cognition; mixed realities; concept maps; virtual file system; post-WIMP; post-desktop; digital artifacts; information space
Face Recognition Technology for Ubiquitous Computing Environment BIBAKFull-Text 365-373
  Kanghun Jeong; Seongrok Hong; Ilyang Joo; Jaehoon Lee; Hyeonjoon Moon
In this paper, we explore face detection and face recognition algorithms for ubiquitous computing environment. We develop algorithms for application programming interface (API) suitable for embedded system. The basic requirements include appropriate data format and collection of feature data to achieve efficiency of algorithm. Our experiment presents a face detection and face recognition algorithm for handheld devices. The essential part for proposed system includes; integer representation from floating point calculation, optimization of memory management scheme and efficient face detection performance on complex background scene.
Keywords: ubiquitous computing environment; face recognition; face detection; application programming interface; algorithm optimization
Location-Triggered Code Execution -- Dismissing Displays and Keypads for Mobile Interaction BIBAKFull-Text 374-383
  Wolfgang Narzt; Heinrich Schmitzberger
Spatially controlled electronic actions (e.g. opening gates, buying tickets, starting or stopping engines, etc.) require human attentiveness by conventional interaction metaphors via display and/or keystroke at the place of event. However, attentiveness for pressing a button or glimpsing at a display may occasionally be unavailable when the involved person must not be distracted from performing a task or is handicapped through wearable limitations (e.g. gloves, protective clothing) or disability. To automatically trigger those actions just at spatial proximity of a person, i.e. dismissing displays and keypads for launching the execution of electronic code in order to ease human computer interaction by innovative mobile computing paradigms is the main research focus of this paper.
Keywords: Location-Triggered Code Execution; Natural Interaction Paradigms
Mobile Interaction: Automatically Adapting Audio Output to Users and Contexts on Communication and Media Control Scenarios BIBAKFull-Text 384-393
  Tiago Reis; Luís Carriço; Carlos Duarte
This paper presents two prototypes designed in order to enable the automatic adjustment of audio output on mobile devices. One is directed to communication scenarios and the other to media control scenarios. The user centered methodology employed on the design of these prototypes involved 26 users and is also presented here. Once the prototypes were implemented, a usability study was conducted. This study involved 6 users that included our prototypes on their day-to-day lives during a two-week period. The results of the studies are presented and discussed on this paper, providing guidelines for the development of audio output adjustment algorithms and future manufacturing of mobile devices.
Keywords: Media Control; Communication; Automatic Volume Adjustments; Context Awareness; Hand-held Devices; User Centered Design; Contextual Evaluation
Interactive Photo Viewing on Ubiquitous Displays BIBAKFull-Text 394-401
  Han-Sol Ryu; Yeo-Jin Yoon; Seon-Min Rhee; Soo-Mi Choi
This paper presents a method of showing photos interactively based on a user's movements using multiple displays. Each display can identify the user and measure how far away he is using an RFID reader and ultrasonic sensors. When he approaches to within a certain distance from the display, it shows a photo that resides in his photo album and provides quasi-3D navigation using the TIP (tour into the picture) method. In addition, he can manipulate photos directly using a touch-screen or remotely using an air mouse. Moreover, a group of photos can be represented as a 3D cube and can be transferred to PDA for a continuous viewing on other displays.
Keywords: photo viewing; distance-based interaction; multiple displays
Mobile Audio Navigation Interfaces for the Blind BIBAKFull-Text 402-411
  Jaime Sánchez
In this paper we present a set of mobile, audio-based applications to assist with the navigation of blind users through real environments. These applications are used with handheld PocketPC devices and are developed for different contexts such as the neighborhood, bus transportation, the Metro network and the school. The interfaces were developed with the use of verbalized and sound-based environments. The usability of the hardware and the software was evaluated, obtaining a high degree of acceptance of the sound and user control, as well as a high level of satisfaction and motivation expressed by the blind users.
Keywords: blind navigation; orientation and mobility; mobile audio interfaces
A Mobile Communication System Designed for the Hearing-Impaired BIBAKFull-Text 412-421
  Ji-Won Song; Sung-Ho Yang
This is a case study of the design of a communication system and its interfaces aimed at addressing the communication needs of the hearing-impaired. The design work is based on an in-depth investigation of the problems pertaining to mobile phone usage and general conversation difficulties of Korean deaf people. It was determined from this investigation that the technology-related issues of the hearing impaired are not limited to usability or accessibility, but arise from hindered executive actions and differing executive behaviors for achieving communication goals at varying levels of ability. Therefore the design study has developed a new approach to the unique communication needs of the hearing-impaired, as well as their behavioral patterns, and presents possible overall improvements in face-to-face and distance communication through mobile technology.
Keywords: Hearing-impaired; Communication system; Behavior pattern
A Study on the Icon Feedback Types of Small Touch Screen for the Elderly BIBAKFull-Text 422-431
  Wang-Chin Tsai; Chang-Franw Lee
Small touch screens are widely used in applications such as bank ATMs, point-of-sale terminals, ticket vending machines, facsimiles, and home automation in the daily life. It is intuition-oriented and easy to operate. There are a lot of elements that affect the small screen touch performance. One of the essential parts is icon feedback. However, to merely achieve beautiful icon feedback appearance and create interesting interaction experience, many interface designers ignore the real user needs. It is critical for them to trade off the icon feedback type associated with the different users needs in the touch interaction. This is especially important when the user capability is very limited. This paper described a pilot study for identifying factors that determine the icon feedback usability on small touch screen in four older adult Cognitrone groups since current research aimed mostly at general icon guidelines and recommendations and failed to consider and define the specific needs of small touch screen interfaces for the elderly. In this paper, we presented a concept from the focus on human necessity and use a cognitive assessment tool, which is, Cognitrone test, to measure older adult's attention and concentration capability and learn more about how to evaluate and design suitable small screen icon feedback types. Forty-five elder participants were participated. Each subject was asked to complete a battery of Cognitrone tests and divided into 4 groups. Each subject was also requested to perform a set of 'continuous touch' usability tasks on small touch screen and comment on open-ended questions. Results are discussed with respect to the perceptual and cognitive factors that influence older adults in the use of icon feedback on small touch screen. It showed significant associations between icon feedback performance and factors of attention and concentration. However, this interrelation was much stronger for the Group 2 and Group 4, especially for Type B, Type C and Type G. Moreover, consistent with previous research, older participants were less sensitive and required longer time to adapt to the high-detailed icon feedback. These results are discussed in terms of icon feedback design strategies for interface designers.
Keywords: small touch screen; icon feedback; older adults; cognitrone style
Ubiquitous Accessibility: Building Access Features Directly into the Network to Allow Anyone, Anywhere Access to Ubiquitous Computing Environments BIBAKFull-Text 432-437
  Gregg C. Vanderheiden
Traditionally access to computers and electronic devices has relied extensively on the strategy of adapting the devices that the person with a disability needs to access or using a special version of the product. This was especially true for people with more severe or multiple disabilities. As we move to an environment where computers and information services are incorporated into our environments, and where people must be able to access the technologies they encounter throughout their day, we need to move to a different model that might be called "ubiquitous accessibility". Ubiquitous accessibility would involve building access features for all people directly into the ICT systems in the environment so that access could be invoked directly by the user when they needed it. This approach would need to involve a combination of access features that were built in and features that could be invoked on demand from the network.
Keywords: Ubiquitous accessibility; universal design; access for all; ubiquitous computing
Using Distributed Processing to Create More Powerful, Flexible and User Matched Accessibility Services BIBAKFull-Text 438-444
  Gregg C. Vanderheiden
Accessibility today is characterized by individual devices, which have been custom-built for people with disabilities (talking alarm clock, braille watches, special communication devices, etc.) or mainstream devices such as computers, which have been adapted with hardware or software to be usable by an individual with disabilities. This model results in more isolated access packages whose capabilities are limited by the particular devices on which they are run. By moving to more distributed, network-based accessibility solutions, we open up the potential for a much wider range of accessibility solutions which can not only evolve over time, but vary by environment, task, etc. A rainbow of on-demand services and capabilities can be available to them. It also opens up the potential for individuals who cannot afford assistive technologies to be able to tap into a pool of free public assistive services that they can use on any device which they encounter.
Keywords: Web accessibility; services on demand; virtual AT; ubiquitous accessibility
Spearcon Performance and Preference for Auditory Menus on a Mobile Phone BIBAKFull-Text 445-454
  Bruce N. Walker; Anya Kogan
This study investigates the use of spearcons as an auditory cue. It looks simultaneously at both performance and subjective preference of spearcons and text-to-speech (TTS). The study replicated on a mobile phone a previous PC-based study run by Palladino and Walker [1]. Performance results have been very similar to those found in the previous study, supporting the generalizability of spearcon performance from PCs to mobile phones. TTS and spearcons both provided comparable performance improvements, suggesting that spearcons do not negatively effect the design of visual and non-visual menus and may, within the right context, lead to enhanced designs. Participants gave positive performance scores to both TTS and spearcons when no visual cues were provided. Higher rankings were provided for all audio cues when Spearcons were included both in visual and non-visual conditions.
Keywords: sonification; spearcons; auditory interfaces; auditory menus
Design and Evaluation of Innovative Chord Input for Mobile Phones BIBAKFull-Text 455-463
  Fong-Gong Wu; Chia-Wei Chang; Chien-Hsu Chen
Text message is one of the most popular functions of mobile phones, apart from talking through the phone. This study focuses on how chord input is being used on mobile phones, as well as operating phones with chord input. We propose two new mobile phones: Tri-joint key and Four-corner key, which combines with the chord input and the natural finger localization. There were 14 male participants and 6 female participants that participated in this research; after 9 days of practice with the content of numerals, English characters and English phrases. The result shows the performances of the participants have increased, including the speed of completing tasks and accuracy. There is no significant difference between these two new styles of phones and the ordinary type concerning the user satisfaction chart. This also means users could accept new kinds of input devices.
Keywords: mobile phones; keyboard; chord input; input device; innovation

Alternative Interaction Techniques and Devices

The Potential of the BCI for Accessible and Smart e-Learning BIBAKFull-Text 467-476
  Ray Adams; Richard Comley; Mahbobeh Ghoreyshi
The brain computer interface (BCI) should be the accessibility solution "par excellence" for interactive and e-learning systems. There is a substantial tradition of research on the human electro encephalogram (EEG) and on BCI systems that are based, interalia, on EEG measurement. We have not yet seen a viable BCI for e-learning. For many users for a BCI based interface is their first choice for good quality interaction, such as those with major psychomotor or cognitive impairments. However, there are many more for whom the BCI would be an attractive option given an acceptable learning overhead, including less severe disabilities and safety critical conditions where cognitive overload or limited responses are likely. Recent progress has been modest as there are many technical and accessibility problems to overcome. We present these issues and report a survey of fifty papers to capture the state-of-the-art in BCI and the implications for e-learning.
Keywords: brain-computer-interface; e-learning; accessibility; disability; artifacts
Visualizing Thermal Traces to Reveal Histories of Human-Object Interactions BIBAKFull-Text 477-482
  Tomohiro Amemiya
Traces of human-object interactions remain on objects in the form of thermal information. This paper describes a human memory aid that exploits such traces to create a thermal 'lifelog' of one's interactions with the environment, without disrupting ongoing activities and without any special apparatus or wires. The goal of the aid is to build a digitized surrogate memory to assist in recalling personal experiences. A system with an infrared camera that records the thermal traces left by human-object interactions was fabricated. Measurements obtained with this system can help us understand the nature of thermal traces and be used to develop thermal models that can describe the heat transfer process on object surfaces after contact.
Keywords: thermal trace; lifelog; surrogate memory
Interacting with the Environment through Non-invasive Brain-Computer Interfaces BIBAKFull-Text 483-492
  Febo Cincotti; Lucia Rita Quitadamo; Fabio Aloise; Luigi Bianchi; Fabio Babiloni; Donatella Mattia
The brain computer interface (BCI) technology allows a direct connection between brain and computer without any muscular activity required, and thus it offers a unique opportunity to enhance and/or to restore communication and actions into external word in people with severe motor disability. Here, we present the framework of the current research progresses regarding non-invasive EEG-based BCI applications specifically devoted to interact with the environment. Despite of the technological advancement, the operability of a BCI device in an out-laboratory setting (i.e. real-life condition) still remains far from being settled. The BCI control is indeed, characterized by unusual properties, when compared to more traditional inputs (long delays, noise with varying structure, long-term drifts, event-related noise, and stress effects). Current approaches to this are constituted by post hoc processing the BCI signal in order to better conform to traditional control. A long-term approach is to devise novel interaction modalities. In this regard, BCI can offer an unusual and compelling testing ground for new interaction ideas in the Human Computer Interaction field.
Keywords: BCI; EEG; Applications; Functional Model; Standards
Movement and Recovery Analysis of a Mouse-Replacement Interface for Users with Severe Disabilities BIBAKFull-Text 493-502
  Caitlin Connor; Emily Yu; John J. Magee; Esra Cansizoglu; Samuel Epstein; Margrit Betke
The Camera Mouse is a mouse-replacement interface for users with movement impairments. It tracks a selected body feature, such as the nose, eyebrow or finger, through a web camera and translates the user's movements to movements of the mouse pointer. Occasionally, the Camera Mouse loses the feature being tracked, when the user moves quickly or out of frame, or when the feature is occluded from view of the web camera. A new system has been developed to recognize when the tracked feature has been lost and to locate and resume tracking of the originally selected feature. In order to better understand the directions of movement which are most and least comfortable for users with disabilities, a game interface was developed to test the accuracy and speed of users across different trajectories. The experiments revealed that trajectories most comfortable for a user with severe cerebral palsy were along diagonal axes.
Keywords: HCI; Assistive Technology; Camera Mouse; Video-based Interface
Sonification System of Maps for Blind -- Alternative View BIBAKFull-Text 503-508
  Gintautas Daunys; Vidas Lauruska
An inexpensive sonification system of maps and charts for visually impaired is described. A digitiser (tablet) is used as systems input device, which helps to investigate the map. The maps are presented using xml technology -- mainly svg language tags. Then the maps from svg are converted to RGB bitmap A system software is based on Microsoft .NET technology. Free Microsoft development systems as Visual C# 2008 Express Edition and Direct Sound are used to implement sonification system.
Keywords: Blind; sonification; map; svg language
Scanning-Based Human-Computer Interaction Using Intentional Muscle Contractions BIBAKFull-Text 509-518
  Torsten Felzer; Rainer Nordmann; Stephan Rinderknecht
It has already been shown in the past that it is possible to leverage tiny muscular contractions produced at will (e.g., by frowning) in order to give someone complete control over a PC [1]. The underlying interaction technique is ideal for persons with severe motor impairments who are in need for an alternative, non-standard way to operate a computer. This paper deals with a scanning-based computer application of that approach to enable its user to control the immediate environment, e.g., by making a phone call, toggling the lights, or sending particular Infra-Red (IR) remote signals. Although the software is primarily targeted at people with disabilities, it is ready -- and (in certain situations) even expected -- to be used by able-bodied individuals as well. A user study evaluating the remote control module of the system has been conducted with twelve non-impaired subjects, and the results are discussed herein.
Keywords: Human-computer interaction; bio-signal interfaces; scanning; hands-free access; universal remote control; Speech API (SAPI)
Utilizing an Accelerometric Bracelet for Ubiquitous Gesture-Based Interaction BIBAFull-Text 519-527
  Albert Hein; André Hoffmeyer; Thomas Kirste
In this paper we present an approach for recognizing free-handed gestures using an embedded wireless accelerometric bracelet. We developed a very low complexity algorithm which can be directly implemented on the device and operate in real-time. New gestures can be easily added through supervised learning. An evaluation shows the feasibility of our approach. Simple gestures are detected and recognized at a very high rate (>97%) while more complex ones were misclassified more often (48%-95%).
A Proposal of New Interface Based on Natural Phenomena and So on (2) BIBAKFull-Text 528-534
  Ichiro Hirata; Toshiki Yamaoka; Akio Fujiwara; Sachie Yamamoto; Daijirou Yamaguchi; Mayuko Yoshida; Rie Tutui
The purpose of this research is "realization of the user interface that is kind to person". We live together with nature. Therefore, it is effective to use natural phenomena for the user-interface. To explore the new user-interface based on natural phenomena and so on, the data of three categories ("Accustomed manners friendly", "natural phenomenon", "Movement, behavior of plants and animals") were gathered by field survey. The gathered data were classified and structured. New user-interface that combines many user-interfaces (picture scroll interface, water lily interface, fish shoal interface, and so on) was constructed. This paper presents the example of four user-interfaces that are selected from collected data.
Keywords: user-interface; natural phenomena; manners; behavior
Timing and Accuracy of Individuals with and without Motor Control Disabilities Completing a Touch Screen Task BIBAFull-Text 535-536
  Curt B. Irwin; Mary E. Sesto
As touch screen technology improves in functionality and decreases in price, these input devices are becoming much more prevalent. People are increasingly required to interact with touch screens at places ranging from their local grocery stores to airport check-in kiosks. Since it is becoming necessary for people to use touch screens in order to access needed products or services, we conducted an experiment to examine how individuals with varying motor control disabilities perform on a simple number entry task. We feel this research is important because, to date, most of the usability research related to touch screens has only included young, healthy subjects.
Gaze and Gesture Activity in Communication BIBAFull-Text 537-546
  Kristiina Jokinen
Non-verbal communication is important in order to maintain fluency of communication. Gestures, facial expressions and eye-gazing function as non-verbal means to convey feedback and provide subtle cues to control and organise conversations. In this paper, verbal and non-verbal feedback are discussed from the point of view of how they contribute to the communicative activity in conversations, especially the type of strategies that the speakers deploy when they aim to construct shared understanding of the tasks and duties in interaction in general. The study concerns conversational data, collected for the purposes of designing and developing more natural interactive systems.
Augmenting Sticky Notes as an I/O Interface BIBAKFull-Text 547-556
  Pranav Mistry; Pattie Maes
The design and implementation of systems that combine both the utilities of the digital world as well as intrinsic affordances of traditional artifacts are challenging. In this paper, we present 'Quickies', an attempt to bring one of the most useful inventions of the 20th century into the digital age: the ubiquitous sticky notes. 'Quickies' enriches the experience of using stickynotes by linking hand-written sticky-notes to the mobile phone, digital calendars, task-lists, e-mail and instant messaging clients. By augmenting the familiar and ubiquitous physical sticky-note, 'Quickies' leverages existing patterns of behavior, merging paper-based sticky-note usage with the user's informational experience. The project explores how the use of Artificial Intelligence (AI), Natural Language Processing (NLP), RFID, and ink recognition technologies can make it possible to create intelligent sticky notes that can be searched, located, can send reminders and messages, and more broadly, can act as an I/O interface to the digital information world.
Keywords: Sticky notes; paper as an I/O interface; connecting the physical and information world; intelligent user interface
Sonification of Spatial Information: Audio-Tactile Exploration Strategies by Normal and Blind Subjects BIBAKFull-Text 557-563
  Marta Olivetti Belardinelli; Stefano Federici; Franco Delogu; Massimiliano Palmiero
On the basis of a meta-analysis of existing literature about sonification technologies, new experimental results on audio-tactile exploration strategies of georeferenced sonificated data by sighted and blind subjects are presented, discussing: technology suitability, subjects' performances, accessibility and usability in the user/technology interaction.
Keywords: sonification; blindness; mental mapping; audio-tactile exploration strategies
What You Feel Is What You Get: Mapping GUIs on Planar Tactile Displays BIBAKFull-Text 564-573
  Maria Schiewe; Wiebke Köhlmann; Oliver Nadig; Gerhard Weber
Exploiting the advantages of planar tactile displays, we aim for efficient and effective information retrieval for blind users. To facilitate orientation, we define four regions segmenting the available space: header, body, structure, and detail region. Furthermore, we suggest four views -- layout, outline, symbol and operating view -- that define how detailed and in which manner information from window-based applications is displayed on tactile displays.
Keywords: Tactile user interface; tactile interaction; visually impaired; tactile devices; pin-matrix devices
Multitouch Haptic Interaction BIBAKFull-Text 574-582
  Michael Schmidt; Gerhard Weber
Gestural user interfaces designed for planar touch-sensitive tactile displays require an appropriate concept for teaching gestures and other haptic interaction to blind users. We consider proportions of hands and demonstrate gestures by tactile only methods without the need for Braille skills or verbalization. A user test was performed to confirm blind users may learn gestures autonomously.
Keywords: haptic interaction; assistive technology; gestures
Free-form Sketching with Ball B-Splines BIBAKFull-Text 583-592
  Rongqing Song; Zhongke Wu; Mingquan Zhou; Xuefeng Ao
Quickly and conveniently generating a 3D freeform model is a challenging problem in computer graphics field. This paper proposes a new approach for rapid building 3D freeform shapes through sketching based on ball B-splines.
Keywords: Sketch; Ball B-Spline; Free-form Shapes
BC(eye): Combining Eye-Gaze Input with Brain-Computer Interaction BIBAKFull-Text 593-602
  Roman Vilimek; Thorsten O. Zander
Gaze-based interfaces gained increasing importance in multimodal human-computer interaction research with the improvement of tracking technologies over the last few years. The activation of selected objects in most eye-controlled applications is based on dwell times. This interaction technique can easily lead to errors if the users do not pay very close attention to where they are looking. We developed a multimodal interface involving eye movements to determine the object of interest and a Brain-Computer Interface to simulate the mouse click. Experimental results show, that although a combined BCI/eye-gaze interface is somewhat slower it reliably leads to less errors in comparison to standard dwell time eye-gaze interfaces.
Keywords: Brain-Computer Interaction; BCI; multimodal; eye tracking; eye-controlled applications
Note: Best Paper Award
Colorimetric and Photometric Compensation for Optical See-Through Displays BIBAKFull-Text 603-612
  Christian Weiland; Anne-Kathrin Braun; Wolfgang Heiden
Optical see-through displays are an established technology within augmented reality. Wearing such a display the users eyes automatically adapt to the luminance of the real world environment, while the virtual part is displayed using a steady brightness. This often results in clear differences between real and virtual elements. This paper shows a technique for colorimetric compensation which avoids this effect. Furthermore algorithms for photometric compensation will be demonstrated. The appearance of background shapes and colours arise from the combination of the luminance of the background and the projected luminance of the object. These "ghosts" are photometrically compensated.
Keywords: augmented reality; see-through display; colorimetry; photometry; compensation
A Proposal of New Interface Based on Natural Phenomena and so on (1) BIBAKFull-Text 613-620
  Toshiki Yamaoka; Ichiro Hirata; Akio Fujiwara; Sachie Yamamoto; Daijirou Yamaguchi; Mayuko Yoshida; Rie Tutui
This study aimed at creating new user-interfaces based on natural phenomena, objects, accustomed manners and so on. At first, literature and script survey was conducted to get framework of the study. Next, 33 places like famous garden, castle, temple and so on in Japan were surveyed to get clue of creating new user-interfaces. New user-interfaces were created based on a lot of collected data. The three selected user-interface design were visualized to evaluate from the viewpoint of usability and emotion and so on. These user-interfaces were evaluated highly.
Keywords: user-interface; natural phenomena; manners; behavior; observation

Intelligence, Adaptation and Personalisation

Managing Intelligent Services for People with Disabilities and Elderly People BIBAKFull-Text 623-630
  Julio Abascal; Borja Bonail; Luis Gardeazabal; Alberto Lafuente; Zigor Salvador
Ambient Supported Living systems for people with physical, sensory or cognitive restrictions have to guarantee that the environment is safe, fault tolerant and universally accessible. In addition it is necessary to overcome technological challenges, common to ubiquitous computing, such as the design of a middleware layer that ensures the interoperability of multiple wired and wireless networks and performs discovery actions. On top of that the system has to provide efficient support to the intelligent applications designed to assist people living there. In this paper we present the AmbienNet architecture designed to allow structured context information to be shared among the intelligent applications that support people with disabilities or elderly people living alone.
Keywords: Supportive Ambient Intelligence; Users with disabilities; Elderly people; Ambient Assisted Living
A Parameter-Based Model for Generating Culturally Adaptive Nonverbal Behaviors in Embodied Conversational Agents BIBAKFull-Text 631-640
  Afia Akhter Lipi; Yukiko I. Nakano; Matthias Rehm
The goal of this paper is to integrate culture as a computational term in embodied conversational agents by employing an empirical data-driven approach as well as a theoretical model-driven approach. We propose a parameter-based model that predicts nonverbal expressions appropriate for specific cultures. First, we introduce the Hofstede theory to describe socio-cultural characteristics of each country. Then, based on the previous studies in cultural differences of nonverbal behaviors, we propose expressive parameters to characterize nonverbal behaviors. Finally, by integrating socio-cultural characteristics and nonverbal expressive characteristics, we establish a Bayesian network model that predicts posture expressiveness from a country name, and vice versa.
Keywords: conversational agents; enculturate; nonverbal behaviors; Bayesian network
Intelligence on the Web and e-Inclusion BIBAKFull-Text 641-649
  Laura Burzagli; Francesco Gabbanini
Within the context of Web, the word intelligence is often connected with the visions of Semantic Web and Web 2.0. One of the main characteristic of Semantic Web lies in the fact that information is annotated with metadata and this gives the opportunity of organizing knowledge, extracting new knowledge and performing some basic operations like query answering or inference reasoning. Following this argument, the advent of the Semantic Web is often claimed to bring about substantial progress in Web accessibility (which is part of the e-Inclusion concept). Web 2.0 sites, favoring massive information sharing, could as well be of great importance for e-Inclusion, enabling new forms of social interaction, collective intelligence and new patterns of interpersonal communication. Benefits could be substantial also for people with activity limitations. The paper tries to highlight the possible roles and convergence of Web 2.0 and Semantic Web in favoring e-Inclusion. It highlights the fact that examples of applications of these concepts to the e-Inclusion domain are few and limited to the e-Accessibility field.
Keywords: e-Inclusion; Web 2.0; Semantic Web
Accelerated Algorithm for Silhouette Fur Generation Based on GPU BIBAKFull-Text 650-657
  Gang Yang; Xin-yuan Huang
In the method that represents fur with multi-layer textured slices, representing silhouette fur is a time consuming work, which requires silhouette-edge detection and fin slices generation. In the paper, we present an accelerated method for representing silhouette fur by taking advantage of the programmable ability of Graphic Process Units (GPU). In the method, by appending edge info on each vertex, the silhouette-edge detection can be implemented in GPU; and by storing fin slices data in video memory in preprocessing, the time spent on fin slices generation and on data transmission from CPU to GPU can be saved. Experimental results show that our method accelerates silhouette fur representation greatly, and hence improves the performance of rendering furry objects.
Keywords: fur rendering; GPU; silhouette fur; multi-layer textured slices
An Ortho-Rectification Method for Space-Borne SAR Image with Imaging Equation BIBAKFull-Text 658-666
  Xufei Gao; Xinyu Chen; Ping Guo
An ortho-rectification scheme for space-borne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) image is investigated in this paper. It was usually achieved by indirect mapping between real SAR image pixels and the Digital Evaluation Model (DEM) grids. However, the precise orbit data cannot be easily obtained and using the Newton algorithm needs more calculation. In order to reduce the time consumed during iteration and further improving the accuracy of the SAR image, we propose a new ortho-rectification method with imaging equation. It removes the coordinate conversion by uniformly using the World Geodetic System 1984 (WGS-84). Moreover, the initial time of each DEM grid can be set according to the iteration result of its adjacent point. Compared to other methods, such as Collinearity Equation method, it costs less time and makes the SAR image more accurate. It is also much easier to be implemented in practice.
Keywords: Ortho-rectification; Synthetic Aperture Radar; Digital Elevation Model; Imaging Equation
Robust Active Appearance Model Based Upon Multi-linear Analysis against Illumination Variation BIBAKFull-Text 667-673
  Gyeong-Sic Jo; Hyeonjoon Moon; Yong-Guk Kim
Independent Active Appearance Model (AAM) has been widely used in face recognition, facial expression recognition, and iris recognition because of its good performance. It can also be used in real-time system application since its fitting speed is very fast. When the difference between the input image and the base appearance of AAM is small, the fitting is smooth. However, when the difference can be large because of illumination and/or pose variation in the input image, the fitting result is unsatisfactory. In this paper, we propose a robust AAM using multi-linear analysis, which can make an Eigen-mode within the tensor algebra framework. The Eigen-mode can represent the principal axes of variation across the order of tensor and it can apply to AAM for increasing robustness. In order to construct both of original AAM and the present AAM, we employ YALE data base, which consists of 10 subjects, 9 poses, and 64 Illumination variations. The advantage of YALE data base is that we can use the coordinate of landmarks, which are marked for train-set, with ground truth. Because when the subject and the pose were same, the location of face is also same. We present how we construct the AAM and results show that the proposed AAM outperforms the original AAM.
Keywords: AAM; YALE data base; Multi-linear Analysis; Eigen-mode; Tensor
Modeling and Simulation of Human Interaction Based on Mutual Beliefs BIBAKFull-Text 674-683
  Taro Kanno; Atsushi Watanabe; Kazuo Furuta
This paper presents the modeling and simulation of human-human interaction based on a concept of mutual beliefs, aiming to describe and investigate the cognitive mechanism behind human interactions that is a crucial factor for system design and assessment. The proposed model captures four important aspects of human interactions: beliefs structure, mental states and cognitive components, cognitive and belief inference processes, and metacognitive manipulations. This model was implemented with a Bayesian belief network and some test simulations were carried out. Results showed that some basic qualitative characteristics of human interactions as well as the effectiveness of mutual beliefs could be well simulated. The paper concludes by discussing the possibility of the application of this model and simulation to universal access and HCI design and assessment.
Keywords: Human Modeling; Team Cognition; Interaction; Sharedness; Mutual Beliefs; Agent Simulation; Design and Assessment
Development of Open Platform Based Adaptive HCI Concepts for Elderly Users BIBAKFull-Text 684-693
  Jan-Paul Leuteritz; Harald Widlroither; Alexandros Mourouzis; Maria Panou; Margherita Antona; Asterios Leonidis
This paper describes the framework and development process of adaptive user interfaces within the OASIS project. After presenting a rationale for user interface adaptation to address the needs and requirements of older users, the paper presents and discusses the architecture and functionality of the OASIS adaptation framework, focussing in particular on an advanced library of adaptive widgets, as well as on the process of elaborating the adaptation rules. The results of the adopted approach are discussed and hints to future developments are provided.
Keywords: Automatic user interface adaptation; Unified User Interface Design; adaptive widgets; adaptation decision-making
User Individual Differences in Intelligent Interaction: Do They Matter? BIBAKFull-Text 694-703
  Jelena Nakic; Andrina Granic
Designing an intelligent system, as confirmed by research, must address relevant individual characteristics of users. This paper offers a brief review of individual differences literature in the HCI field in general and e-learning area in particular. Research suggests that using adaptive e-learning systems may improve user learning performance and increase her/his learning outcome. An empirical study presented in this paper encompasses a comprehensive user analysis regarding a web-based learning application. Statistically significant correlations were found between user intelligence, experience and motivation for e-learning with her/his learning outcome accomplished in an e-learning session. These results contribute to the knowledge base of user individual differences and will be considered in an estimation of possible benefits from enabling the system adaptivity.
Keywords: individual differences; user analysis; adaptive systems; e-learning; empirical study
Intelligent Interface for Elderly Games BIBAKFull-Text 704-710
  Changhoon Park
This paper proposes an intelligent interface to improve the game accessibility for the elderly based on the multimodal interface and dynamic load balancing. This approach aims to control the fidelity of feedback and the level of difficulty dynamically when the elderly become bored or frustrated with the game. By applying the proposed intelligent interface, we will present the implementation of a rhythm game for the elderly with a specialized game controller like a drum.
Keywords: Game Accessibility; Multimodal Interface; Dynamic Game Balancing; Rhythm Game
User Interface Adaptation of Web-Based Services on the Semantic Web BIBAFull-Text 711-719
  Nikolaos Partarakis; Constantina Doulgeraki; Asterios Leonidis; Margherita Antona; Constantine Stephanidis
The Web is constantly evolving into an unprecedented and continuously growing source of knowledge, information and services, potentially accessed at by anyone anytime, and anywhere. Yet, the current uptake rates of the Web have not really reached their full potential, mainly due to the design of modern Web-based interfaces, which fail to satisfy the individual interaction needs of target users with different characteristics. A common practice in contemporary Web development is to deliver a single user interface design that meets the requirements of an "average" user. However, this "average" user is in fact an imaginary user. Often, the profiles of a large portion of the population, and especially people with disability, elderly people, novice users and users on the move, differ radically. Although much work has been done in the direction of providing the means for the development of inclusive Web-based interfaces that are capable to adapt to multiple and significantly different user profiles, the current evolution towards the semantic web poses several new requirements and challenges for supporting user and context awareness. Building upon existing research in the field of semantics-based user modeling, this paper aims to offer potential new directions for supporting User Interface Adaptation on the Semantic Web. In this context, the benefits gained from supporting semantically enabled ontology based profiling are highlighted, focusing on the potential impact of such an approach to existing UI adaptation frameworks.
Measuring Psychophysiological Signals in Every-Day Situations BIBAKFull-Text 720-728
  Walter Ritter
Psychophysiological signals enable computer systems to monitor the emotional state of a user. Such a system could adapt its behavior to reduce stress, give assistance, or suggest well-being tips. All of this should lead to a technology that is more user-friendly and more accessible to older people. Measuring physiological signals in research labs has been done for many years. In such a controlled environment the quality of signals is very high because of the optimal placement of electrodes by research staff. Analysis techniques can therefore rely on high quality data. Measuring physiological signals in real-life settings without the assistance of well-trained staff, is much more challenging because of artifacts and signal distortions.
   In this paper we discuss the approach taken in the Aladin project to cope with the inferior and unreliable quality of physiological signal measurements. We discuss a sensor design intended for every-day use and present the variance of skin conductance we experienced within measurements, between different measurements of the same individual as well as between different persons. Finally, we suggest using trends instead of absolute values as a basis for physiology-enhanced human-computer interaction "in the wild".
Keywords: psychophysiology; skin conductance; heart rate; sensor technology; real-life settings; artifacts
Why Here and Now BIBAKFull-Text 729-737
  Antonio Rizzo; Elisa Rubegni; Maurizio Caporali
The paper presents our vision in the process of creating new objects and things, based on reducing the estrangement of Internet content consumption by conceiving interaction modalities suitable for social activities occurring in the here-and-now, in real-time and real-place. These aspects should be incorporated in interactive artefacts not only for the contents consumption but also for editing and manipulating information. We present some projects and concepts that go in this direction, and among them we show the design solutions developed in our laboratory that aim to enhance the role of the physical location, social and cultural environment in affecting the contents and the way to interact with them.
Keywords: Human-Computer Interaction; Interaction design; Situated Editing; Design for all; Tangible User Interface; Ubiquitous computing; Internet of Things
A Framework for Service Convergence via Device Cooperation BIBAKFull-Text 738-747
  Seungchul Shin; Do-Yoon Kim; Sungyoung Yoon
Device convergence is one of the most significant trends in current intelligence technology (IT). It is incorporating various kinds of existing services into one device that enables users to provide converged services. However, device convergence is not the whole counterplan that in some fields, costumers prefer divergent application-specific device. In addition, service is always hardware dependent that if a new service appears device convergence will be helpless in case of the hardware not supporting the service. In this situation to use the new service, we have to purchase the whole new device. Therefore, we propose a framework for service convergence via device cooperation supported by the wireless network to overcome the constraint of device convergence. Our framework shows a guideline that enables a device to provide a service by cooperating with other devices despite it lacks the hardware support or only provides one or two specialized services.
Keywords: service convergence; device cooperation; device convergence; mobile computing
Enhancements to Online Help: Adaptivity and Embodied Conversational Agents BIBAKFull-Text 748-757
  Jérôme Simonin; Noëlle Carbonell
We present and discuss the results of two empirical studies that aim at assessing the contributions, to the effectiveness and efficiency of online help of: adaptive-proactive user support (APH), multimodal (speech and graphics) messages (MH), and embodied conversational agents (ECAs). These three enhancements to online help were implemented using the Wizard of Oz technique. The first study (E1) compares MH with APH, while the second study (E2) compares MH with embodied help (EH). Half of the participants in E1 (8) used MH, and the other half used APH. Most participants who used MH, resp. APH, preferred MH, resp. APH, to standard help systems which implement text and graphics messages (like APH). In particular, proactive assistance was much appreciated. However, higher performances were achieved with MH. A majority of the 22 participants in E2 preferred EH to MH, and were of the opinion that the presence of an ECA, a talking head in this particular case, has the potential to improve help effectiveness and efficiency by increasing novice users' self confidence. However, performances with the two systems were similar, save for help consultation rate which was higher with EH. Longitudinal (usage) studies are needed to confirm the effects of these three enhancements on novice users' judgments and performances.
Keywords: Adaptive user interfaces; Embodied conversational agents; Talking heads; Online help; Speech and graphics; Multimodal interaction; Eye tracking
Adaptive User Interfaces: Benefit or Impediment for Lower-Literacy Users? BIBAKFull-Text 758-765
  Ivar Solheim
This paper addresses web accessibility and usability for lower-literacy users with limited ICT skills. Although adaptive and adaptable user interfaces have been studied and discussed at least since the 80s, the potential of adaptive user interfaces is still far from realization. A main conclusion drawn in this paper is that simple, straightforward and intuitive adaptivity mechanisms may work well, but more complex and pervasive ones don't, and may even be counterproductive. A potential pitfall may be simplistic and "cognitivist" user and task modelling that fails to take the user's experience, competence and socio-psychological context -- in short, the user's actual, real perspective and environment -- into account.
Keywords: adaptive interfaces; personalisation; multimodality; user modelling; universal design
Adaptative User Interfaces to Promote Independent Ageing BIBAKFull-Text 766-770
  Cecilia Vera-Muñoz; Mercedes Fernández-Rodríguez; Patricia Abril-Jiménez; Maria Fernanda Cabrera-Umpierrez; María Teresa Arredondo; Sergio Guillén
During the last years, the EU population is experiencing an increasing aging process. This tendency is motivating the emergence of new needs and the appearance of diverse services and applications oriented improve the quality of life of senior citizens. The creation of such services requires the use of technological advances and design techniques specifically focused on addressing elderly requirements. This paper presents the adaptative user interfaces that have been developed in the context of an EU funded project, PERSONA, aiming to provide different services to promote independent aging.
Keywords: adaptative user interfaces; ambient assisted living; services for elderly; independent aging