HCI Bibliography Home | HCI Conferences | UAHCI Archive | Detailed Records | RefWorks | EndNote | Hide Abstracts
UAHCI Tables of Contents: 07-107-207-309-109-209-311-111-211-311-413-113-213-314-114-214-314-415-115-215-315-4

UAHCI 2009: 5th International Conference on Universal Access in Human-Computer Interaction, Part I: Addressing Diversity

Fullname:UAHCI 2009: 5th International Conference on Universal Access in Human-Computer Interaction, Part I: Addressing Diversity
Note:Volume 5 of HCI International 2009
Editors:Constantine Stephanidis
Location:San Diego, California
Dates:2009-Jul-19 to 2009-Jul-24
Volume:1
Publisher:Springer-Verlag
Series:Lecture Notes in Computer Science 5614
Standard No:ISBN: 978-3-642-02706-2 (print), 978-3-642-02707-9 (online); hcibib: UAHCI09-1
Papers:77
Pages:686
Links:Online Proceedings | Publisher Book Page
  1. UAHCI 2009-07-19 Volume 1
    1. Interaction and Support for People with Sensory Impairments
    2. Older Users and Technology
    3. Interaction and Support for People with Cognitive Impairments
    4. Design Knowledge and Approaches for Accessibility and Universal Access

UAHCI 2009-07-19 Volume 1

Interaction and Support for People with Sensory Impairments

Technology Support for Analyzing User Interactions to Create User-Centered Interactions BIBAKFull-Text 3-12
  Dirk Burkhardt; Kawa Nazemi; Nadeem Bhatti; Christoph Hornung
Alternative interaction devices become more important in the communication between users and computers. Parallel graphical User Interfaces underlay a continuous development and research. But today does no adequate connection exist between these both aspects. So if a developer wants to provide an alternative access over more intuitive interaction devices, he has to implement this interaction-possibility on his own by regarding the users perception. A better way to avoid this time-consuming development-process is presented in this paper. This method can easy implement by a developer and users get the possibility to interact on intuitive way.
Keywords: User-Centered Interactions; Human-Computer-Interaction; gesture recognition
User-Centred Design and Literacy Tools for the Deaf BIBAFull-Text 13-20
  Tania Di Mascio; Rosella Gennari
The need of literacy intervention and of tools for deaf people is largely documented in the literature of deaf studies. This paper aims at eliciting the interests of HCI researchers and practitioners alike on the creation of more intelligent web tools for the literacy of deaf people. Our paper overviews several e-tools for the literacy of the deaf, and it assesses them according to the user centred design methodology. It concludes with a proposal, namely, a first set of guidelines for designing usable e-tools for deaf people, and calls for a debate on the need of a deaf user centred design.
Sign Language Recognition, Generation, and Modelling: A Research Effort with Applications in Deaf Communication BIBAKFull-Text 21-30
  Eleni Efthimiou; Stavroula-Evita Fotinea; Christian Vogler; Thomas Hanke; John R. W. Glauert; Richard Bowden; Annelies Braffort; Christophe Collet; Petros Maragos; Jérémie Segouat
Sign language and Web 2.0 applications are currently incompatible, because of the lack of anonymisation and easy editing of online sign language contributions. This paper describes Dicta-Sign, a project aimed at developing the technologies required for making sign language-based Web contributions possible, by providing an integrated framework for sign language recognition, animation, and language modelling. It targets four different European sign languages: Greek, British, German, and French. Expected outcomes are three showcase applications for a search-by-example sign language dictionary, a sign language-to-sign language translator, and a sign language-based Wiki.
Keywords: Sign Language; Deaf communication; HCI; Web accessibility
Improving Static Print Design Readability Using Mobile Reading Filters BIBAKFull-Text 31-37
  Jackson Feijó Filho; Wilson Prata
This work proposes the use of mobile computer cameras as an alternative assistive technology for people who do not read easily. It attempts to explore mobile camera software options to improve readability, making use of well known reading filters concepts. A proof of concept of this work is demonstrated by the implementation and demonstration of a mobile application prototype that applies various real-time filters to the viewfinder.
Keywords: Readability; mobility; visual impairments; accessibility
ICT Services for Every Citizen: The Challenge of Gaps in User Knowledge BIBAKFull-Text 38-47
  Kristin Skeide Fuglerud
Many services in our society are digitalized. Being able to access and use information and communication products and services (ICTs) has become a prerequisite for independent living and to fully be able to take part in society. Therefore, ICTs should be designed in such a way that they are usable and accessible to all citizens. Experiences and results from four case studies involving diverse user groups are discussed in this paper. The focuses of the studies were usability and accessibility of ICTs intended to be used by "anyone." When looking across user interaction observations of these mainstream ICTs, the challenge of gaps in user knowledge were striking. The challenge of defining a basic level of usable and accessible ICT features is also discussed.
Keywords: universal usability; e-Inclusion; universal design; gaps in user knowledge; accessibility; user diversity; elderly; visually impaired
Transmission of Acoustic Information of Percussion Instruments through Tactile Sensation Using Air-Jet Stimulation for Hearing Impaired Person BIBAKFull-Text 48-57
  Tomokazu Furuya; Yuki Yanagisawa; Takahiro Tamesue; Kazunori Itoh
We are trying to transfer acoustic information to hearing impaired persons through tactile sensation using air-jet stimuli. We focused on psychological tonal impressions given when hearing various sounds, and examined whether these impressions could be given by air-jet stimuli. In order to replace percussion sounds with air-jets, we connected the acoustic characteristics to the parameters of the air-jet stimuli. Relationships between the acoustic characteristics of percussion instruments and the physical characteristics of air-jets have been found by analysis of psychological impressions given when hearing percussion instrument sounds and perceiving air-jet stimuli. As a result, transmitting musical information was possible.
Keywords: Acoustic information; Percussion sound; Tactile sensation; Air-jet stimulation; Hearing impaired person; Psychological impression
Enabling People -- Creating Inclusive Human-Computer Interactions BIBAKFull-Text 58-67
  Rama Gheerawo; Yanki Lee
Inclusive design has traditionally dealt with physical design and differences in age and ability. However, as information technology becomes more pervasive, the new barriers to inclusivity are increasingly digital. Centring design around people can increase competitiveness and value, especially in fast-moving technology markets, but technology-specific, people-centred strategies need to be developed that build on existing inclusive design processes and go beyond the 'technology-push needs-pull' approach to accommodate the social complexity that surrounds the everyday use of technology. This paper focuses on the challenges of implementing inclusive design in an technology context, illustrating this with examples drawn from the Royal College of Art Helen Hamlyn Centre (HHC). It outlines work done with students within an educational context and projects completed by design graduates working with industry. The case studies aim to demonstrate an approach that brings together the user's voice and the designer's creativity to enable a more inclusive approach.
Keywords: Inclusive design; technology; people-centred
A Multimodal Board Game System Interface Using Finger Input for Visually Impaired Computer Users BIBAKFull-Text 68-77
  Yusuke Hamaguchi; Daisuke Nagasaka; Takahiro Tamesue; Kazunori Itoh; Michio Shimizu; Masahiko Sugimoto; Masami Hashimoto; Mizue Kayama
In this paper, we developed a new board game system on a PC that feels like a real board game. The main improvements of this system are the tactile guide, the finger input interface, and an output method using vibrating stimuli. These improvements allow players to grasp the layout better than previous systems. We evaluate the system using the Othello game. As the result, we see that visually impaired persons can play the Othello game.
Keywords: visually impaired person; tactile guide; speech guide; auditory display; vibrating stimulus
Applying Human-Centered Design to Rehabilitation Device BIBAKFull-Text 78-85
  Lan-Ling Huang; Dengchuan Cai
The current study investigated the patients' problems and needs during therapy process. The investigation results were transferred to the product requirements of the rehabilitation device. The features of the new rehabilitation device included the following: 1) a webcam that can provide patients to communicate with his/her families or doctors during the therapy process, 2) a visual display that provides patients the function to see their posture and is able to correct their actions immediately, 3) physiological data such as movement angle, strength, and exercise time which were provided for diagnosis application for the doctors and their families, and 4) the main operational was designed to be adjustable for different individuals including its height, angle, and direction. The current design obtained positive evaluation preliminary by the occupational therapists. The procedure, methods and design of this study can be used as a reference for rehabilitation product design.
Keywords: upper extremities; rehabilitation therapy; product design
Implications of Participatory Design for a Wearable Near and Far Environment Awareness System (NaFEAS) for Users with Severe Visual Impairments BIBAKFull-Text 86-95
  Si-Jung Kim; Tonya L. Smith-Jackson; Katherine Carroll; Minyoung Suh; Na Mi
This paper presents experiences from a study that included five users with Severe Visual Impairments (SVIs), fashion designers, and human factors engineers. We used participatory design (PD) to develop a wayfinding and object-recognition system. The PD study consisted of three sessions and was designed to include actual users in the design process. The primary goal of the PD was to validate the system concept and to determine the attributes of system interaction. Two of the three sessions are discussed here. We obtained several insights from a technological perspective, textile and apparel perspective, and user interface design perspective. Among the results identified, users with SVIs preferred to wear assistive technology unless that was not distracting to the participant or those that came into contact with the participant. Auditory feedback was chosen as a primary modality in user interface design, and we realized that constructing a good pool of PD members is essential to transform actual users' needs and requirements into the design process.
Keywords: participatory design; usability; inclusive design; user interface; assistive technology; wearable technology; severe visual impairment
Design of an Assistance System for Elderly Based on Analyses of Needs and Acceptance BIBAKFull-Text 96-105
  Stefan Lutherdt; Carsten Stiller; Katrin Lienert; Sabine Spittel; Fred Roß; Christoph Ament; Hartmut Witte
The changing demography requires new kinds of support for elderly people. The project WEITBLICK aims to give seniors assistance to gather information about several services and their providers, relaying the access to such services and offer them in an individualized manner. To determine the requirements of elderly users a broad analysis will be performed in four stages. To fulfill the aims of the project the system has two principles incorporated: the service relay can be triggered by the users' former activities or by the users actively themselves. The base for both is a database with user and service profiles.
Keywords: assistance system for elderly; requirement analyses; user and service profiles; changing demography; information gathering; individualization
Educational Sound Symbols for the Visually Impaired BIBAKFull-Text 106-115
  Steven Mannheimer; Mexhid Ferati; Davide Bolchini; Mathew J. Palakal
Acoustic-based computer interactivity offers great potential [1], particularly with blind and visually impaired users [2]. At Indiana University's School of Informatics at IUPUI, we have developed an innovative educational approach relying on "audemes," short, nonverbal sound symbols made up of 2-5 individual sounds lasting 3-7 seconds -- like expanded "earcons"[3] -- to encode and prompt memory. To illustrate: An audeme for "American Civil War" includes a 3-second snippet of the song Dixie partially overlapped by a snippet of Battle Hymn of the Republic, followed by battle sounds, together lasting 5 seconds. Our focus on non-verbal sound explores the mnemonic impact of metaphoric rather than literal signification. Working for a year with BVI students, we found audemes improved encoding and long-term memory of verbal educational content, even after five months, and engaged the students in stimulating ways.
Keywords: Audeme; sound; acoustic; interface; accessibility; blind and visually impaired; cognition; long-term memory; education
Accessing User Information for Use in Design BIBAKFull-Text 116-125
  Chris McGinley; Hua Dong
This paper investigates the issue of accessibility of data and end user information in a typical design development project, the barriers that exist, and how relevant user information might be presented through ergonomic data tools. The barriers typically include a combination of financial outlet, time expenditure and lengthy sourcing of suitable user groups, all of which could be reduced through effective use of tools. Ergonomics information and data useful for 'inclusive' design outputs can be underused in design development at a professional level. This study reports on tool concept development and a co-design workshop, which were carried out as part of ongoing research into effective communication of user data to designers in more human and engaging ways.
Keywords: Inclusive design; universal access; tools; ergonomics; user data
Engineering User Centered Interaction Systems for Semantic Visualizations BIBAKFull-Text 126-134
  Kawa Nazemi; Thomas Daniel Ullmann; Christoph Hornung
For intuitive interaction with semantic visualizations, gesture-based interaction seems a promising way. However, the development of such ensembles is costly. To cut down the engineering effort, we propose a development model for interaction systems with semantic visualizations. In addition, we provide a set of evaluation tools to support the interaction developer engineer evaluating the engineering process.
Keywords: semantic visualization; gesture; interaction; universal access
An Open Source Tool for Simulating a Variety of Vision Impairments in Developing Swing Applications BIBAFull-Text 135-144
  Theofanis Oikonomou; Konstantinos Votis; Dimitrios Tzovaras; Peter Korn
A lot of tools have been created lately in order to simulate how a vision impaired or color-blind person would perceive web rich-client applications and content. In this work we propose a simulation tool for non-web Java™ Swing applications. The aim is to assist the developers in preventing accessibility barriers and improving the overall quality throughout the design and implementation phases of the whole development process.
Unexploited Resources in Interaction Design for Universal Access: People with Impairments as a Resource for Interaction Designers BIBAKFull-Text 145-153
  Hans Persson; Kjell Ohlsson; Sigrid Petersén; Anette Jonsäll
A challenge to HCI-designers is to create simple, usable, and useful applications. The current paper addresses this problem and presents an innovative possibility to extract useful information from users rarely represented in contemporary participatory design approaches. The study was conducted from a Universal Access point of view.
   The primary result of the study is that people with well defined intellectual (e.g. understanding and logical reasoning) difficulties provided the designers of web-pages with more valuable and elaborated answers to bottlenecks in the interaction than a more representative group of web-users.
   With this result in mind Universal Access should not be an unreachable goal. This implies that people with intellectual difficulties can be regarded as an unexploited resource in HCI when using a participatory approach.
Keywords: Universal access; Design methods; Design for all; Universal Design
Older People and ICT: Towards Understanding Real-Life Usability and Experiences Created in Everyday Interactions with Interactive Technologies BIBAKFull-Text 154-163
  Sergio Sayago; Josep Blat
This paper reports key findings on an ethnographical study of everyday interactions of older people with ICT. The research questions addressed are what easy or difficult to use means for older people in their daily interactions with ICT and what the relationship between usability and experiences created between older people and ICT is. 388 older people were observed and conversed with while using a wide array of ICT during 3 years. The results reveal that usability is related to independency. When ICT are easy to use, older people are independent users. Independency (dependency) can be identified by the number and type of questions, environmental noise disturbing interactions and required practice to master ICT. Independency leads to experiences that are emotionally fulfilling, supportive of exploration and reassuring. Dependency results in very sad experiences. These results suggest another way of seeing the interactions of older people with ICT, far from traditional individual age-related changes in functional abilities.
Keywords: Ethnography; older people; real interaction; usability; experience
Interaction with Colored Graphical Representations on Braille Devices BIBAKFull-Text 164-173
  Christiane Taras; Thomas Ertl
For several years there has been the wish to make colors accessible to blind people. Colors are all around us and sighted people often talk about colors as it is a simple means of distinguishing objects. They are used in educational materials to ease perception, support comprehension, and focus on different aspects. In this paper we present a new color code for viewing and editing colored graphics on Braille devices and report on our experiences with presenting graphics on Braille devices and our ongoing work on exploration strategies.
Keywords: tactile graphics display; Braille display; Braille color code; digital graphics; blind and visually impaired people; exploration strategies
Living Labs as a Methodological Approach to Universal Access in Senior Design BIBAKFull-Text 174-183
  Julie Christiane Thiesen Winthereik; Lone Malmborg; Tanja Belinda Andersen
In this paper we discuss the potential of using the Living Lab methodology as an approach to ensuring universal access when designing for senior citizens. Our understanding of Living Labs is based on a recent study of 32 Living Labs cases, identifying central activities and issues in different applications of the methodology. We describe a Danish Living Lab project initiated to design for better quality of life for senior citizens in Sølund, a nursing home in Copenhagen. Two crucial concepts from the Living Lab methodology -- co-creation and context -- act as the core concepts for our analysis of user participation and universal access in Living Labs in general and in the Sølund Living Lab specifically. In our conclusion we suggest areas that should be given special attention when designing Living Lab projects and selecting user participants.
Keywords: Universal access; living labs; co-creation; participatory design
A UCD Approach towards the Design, Development and Assessment of Accessible Applications in a Large Scale European Integrated Project BIBAKFull-Text 184-192
  Karel Van Isacker; Karin Slegers; Maria Gemou; Evangelos Bekiaris
ÆGIS (Open Accessibility Everywhere: Groundwork, Infrastructure, Standards) is a user-centred project, involving several user groups (users with visual, hearing, motion, speech and cognitive impairments as well as application developers) throughout the design, development and assessment phases. In this paper the holistic UCD (User Centred Design) approach of the project is introduced. This approach ensures that the project's objectives to determine whether 3rd generation access techniques will provide a more accessible, more exploitable and deeply embeddable approach in mainstream ICT applications (desktop, rich Internet and mobile applications) are met, with the full support and involvement of a huge end-user group in every single step of the design, development and deployment of accessible mainstream ICT.
Keywords: accessible; mainstream ICT; Open Accessibility Framework; Holistic User Centred Design; design; development; assessment; end-user groups; desktop; rich web applications; Java-based mobile devices

Older Users and Technology

Lessons Learned from Developing Cognitive Support for Communication, Entertainment, and Creativity for Older People with Dementia BIBAKFull-Text 195-201
  Norman Alm; Arlene Astell; Gary Gowans; Richard Dye; Maggie Ellis; Phillip Vaughan; Philippa Riley
We have developed cognitive support for people with dementia in three areas of activity: communication, entertainment and creativity. In each case the cognitive support was intended to in some way replace an effective working memory. With all three projects our findings have been a mix of expected results and surprises. We are still working out the implications of some of the surprising results. In this paper we set out some key findings from each of these projects, and the lessons learned.
Keywords: Dementia; cognitive prostheses; assistive technology; multimedia; multidisciplinary working
The OASIS Concept BIBAKFull-Text 202-209
  Evangelos Bekiaris; Silvio Bonfiglio
OASIS is an Integrated Project with the aim to revolutionise the interoperability, quality, breadth and usability of services for all daily activities of the elderly, by developing and deploying innovative technological challenges, consisting of a new, open architecture and a hyper-ontological framework. A wide range of applications are integrated in the areas of independent living, socialization, autonomous mobility and smart workplaces. User friendliness and acceptability of OASIS services are a top priority of the project, ensured with a user-centered design approach and the development of interactive services.
Keywords: ontological framework; elderly users; independent living; autonomous mobility; smart workplaces
Confronting the Transition: Improving Quality of Life for the Elderly with an Interactive Multisensory Environment-A Case Study BIBAKFull-Text 210-219
  Phil Ellis; Lieselotte van Leeuwen
Continuing developments in medical science are leading to a general increase in length of life. These have been accompanied by an increase in disabilities and diseases associated with ageing and the quality of life for the old and older old can be seen often to decline progressively. An interactive multisensory environment (iMUSE) has been developed, together with a particular methodology -- vibroacoustic sound therapy -- (VAST), to offer the possibility of amelioration for some of these conditions with the aim of providing the opportunity for an improvement of well-being for some elderly and older old people. This paper describes the development of this environment, its modus operandi, and concludes with a case study of an elderly frail man who provides a model for the application of iMUSE in care homes for the elderly frail and mentally infirm.
Keywords: elderly well being; successful ageing; multi sensory; vibroacoustic sound therapy
Influences of Age and Experience on Web-Based Problem Solving Strategies BIBAKFull-Text 220-229
  Peter G. Fairweather
Older adults experience the World Wide Web differently than younger ones do. For example, they move more slowly from page to page, take more time to complete tasks, make more repeated visits to pages, and take more time to select link targets. Age-related cognitive and physical changes have been held responsible for these differences, engendering the view that older adults do the same sorts of things as younger ones but with less efficiency, speed and precision. This paper challenges that position. To accomplish their purposes, older adults may systematically undertake different activities and use different parts of websites than younger adults do. We examined the ways a group of adults aged 18 to 73 moved through an intricate website to solve a multipart problem. As they moved through the website, users followed different paths than younger ones. However, the number of years of their experience with computers and the web did not differentiate their paths. We discuss the results and reconsider our "tally sheet" definition of experience.
Keywords: World Wide Web; age; experience
An Application for Active Elderly Follow-Up Based on DVB-T Platforms BIBAKFull-Text 230-235
  Maria Jesus Falagan; Juan Luis Villalar; María Teresa Arredondo
This paper describes the T-CUIDA project, an ongoing collaborative initiative, partially funded by the Spanish Government, which aims at designing and developing an application for promoting active elderly in their habitual environments. The platform takes advantage of the DVB-T infrastructure, the European digital TV broadcasting system, recently deployed in Spain. Design for All principles are applied in a multimodal and personalized approach to provide a complementary set of services that help aged people to keep themselves physically and mentally dynamic. The final system is about to be conveniently evaluated during six months by more than a hundred of potential users in four different locations around the country.
Keywords: active elderly; usability; user acceptance; digital TV
Preliminary Study on Remote Assistance for People with Dementia at Home by Using Multi-media Contents BIBAKFull-Text 236-244
  Toshimi Hamada; Noriaki Kuwahara; Kazunari Morimoto; Kiyoshi Yasuda; Akira Utsumi; Shinji Abe
We are developing the system that remotely support the daily living of people with dementia at home by using multi-media contents for bringing their peace of mind, for preventing their behavioural disturbances, and for guiding actions of their daily living, because a major problem in providing good care at home to people with dementia is that it must be constantly provided without interruption, which puts a great burden on family caregivers. At first, our developed system can provide dementia people with multi-media contents such as reminiscence photos and videos for instilling a sense of peacefulness in their minds. These contents are used in remote reminiscence therapy by using simultaneous photo and video sharing. Also, we developed video instruction system for guiding their actions in a toilet to help them. We evaluated the effectiveness of our system from viewpoints of relieving the stress of their family caregivers, and of the extent of their independence in daily living. According to the evaluation results, we discuss on essential problems to be overcome for supporting people with dementia remotely, and present our approach towards realizing the system that effectively guides and navigates people with dementia for living independently.
Keywords: Dementia; reminiscence; assistive technology; content
Cognition, Age, and Web Browsing BIBAKFull-Text 245-250
  Vicki L. Hanson
The literature on Web browsing indicates that older adults exhibit a number of deficiencies when compared with younger users. But have we, perhaps, been looking at the question in the wrong way when considering technology skills of older users? What are the strengths of older users that can be leveraged to support technology use? This paper considers cognitive aging with respect to distinctions in abilities that decline, and those that do not, with age. A look at specific abilities and their interactions may serve to help designers create software that meets the needs of older users.
Keywords: older adults; Web; cognitive abilities
Towards an Account of Sensorimotor Knowledge in Inclusive Product Design BIBAKFull-Text 251-260
  Jörn Hurtienne; Patrick Langdon; P. John Clarkson
By 2020, one in every two European adults will be over 50 years in age. As old age brings along reductions in sensory, cognitive, and motor abilities, product development methodologies have to adjust. While sensory and motor abilities are relatively straightforward to measure, cognitive abilities are more elusive. The paper discusses how different sources of prior knowledge can inspire inclusive design. Special emphasis is put on knowledge derived from basic sensorimotor experiences. This is proposed to complement previous studies investigating the effects of tool knowledge on inclusiveness. Image schema theory as an account of sensorimotor knowledge is introduced and its universality, robustness, and multimodality are discussed. Current evidence for the usefulness of applying image schemas in user interface design is reviewed and implications for inclusive design research are derived. More specifically, a research program is developed that includes theoretical, empirical, as well as practical studies to promote the ideas developed in this paper.
Keywords: Inclusive Design; Image Schemas; Prior Knowledge; Cognitive Abilities; Embodied Cognition
A Touch Screen Button Size and Spacing Study with Older Adults BIBAFull-Text 261-262
  Maria LaVictoire; Nick Everhart
In 2003 Boston Scientific was planning the release of a touch screen-based in-home monitor for patients with Boston Scientific Implanted Cardioverter Defibrillators (ICD). The demographic of these patients is heavily weighted towards older populations. The research, recommendations, and guidelines at that time were largely based on young healthy users. Hence, a need existed to determine acceptable button size and spacing for aged populations.
Access Tool? Accelerating Treadmill? Technology and the Aging Population BIBAKFull-Text 263-268
  Clayton Lewis; Lise Menn
Smart homes, smart cars, and electronic interactions with family, merchants, and service providers promise to make the lives of the elderly and people with disabilities much easier. Paradoxically, the constantly accelerating pace of technological change will eventually make the machines we live with inaccessible to everyone who has a normal life span. Thought, planning, policy formulation, and action will be required to insure that everyday technology maintains interfaces that will be accessible to aging users, who are among the people who need it most. The User Access community is uniquely qualified to formulate and pioneer accessible design principles, and to bring these principles and policies to the attention of the public, relevant non-government organizations like the AARP, and public officials.
Keywords: older adults; Web; interface; design policy; disabilities
Use Cases Functionality of the OASIS HCI BIBAKFull-Text 269-277
  Maria Panou; Evangelos Bekiaris; Maria Fernanda Cabrera-Umpierrez; Viveca Jimenez-Mixco; María Teresa Arredondo
Within OASIS, a set of detailed Use Cases have been developed, after capturing the specific needs of elderly users on the use and acquisition of services for the support of their every day life. These use cases offer direct input to the design and development of the user interaction elements in terms of key characteristics, such as self-adaptivity and personalisation parameters that abide to the devices capabilities and environmental restrictions and satisfy the user personal needs and wants.
Keywords: use cases; personalisation; user needs; self-adaptation; independent living; autonomous mobility
Keep It Simple! Assisting Older People with Mental and Physical Training BIBAKFull-Text 278-287
  Herbert Plischke; Niko Kohls
The demographic change is having a strong impact upon Europe's societies and upon our financial and social security systems. To avoid cost intensive retirement homes, one main goal for European governments is to build up and maintain a socio-technological infrastructure that allows elderly people to stay in their familiar surroundings and cultivate their social networks as long as possible, with support of assistive technologies. However, when deployed in real-life settings, i.e. "in the wild", it has been shown that these will only be accepted and therefore effective, when integrated into an environment that aims at enhancing people's health and well-being in general. Although it is well known that moderate physical training as well as mental exercising are crucial for maintaining health and well-being, lack of motivation frequently prevents individuals from exercising regularly. We introduce a simple way to motivate elderly people for mental jogging and physical training with assistive indoor and outdoor technology.
Keywords: demographic change; social interaction; social network; social technology; mental jogging; physical training; elderly care; AAL; ambient assisted living; Near Field Communication; NFC; senior playground
RACE: Towards Exploring the Design Dimensions of a Route Assisting and Communicating System for Elderly BIBAKFull-Text 288-296
  Suleman Shahid; Omar Mubin; Abdullah Al Mahmud
This paper explores the usability requirements of a navigation system for older adults by identifying the key usability and ergonomic problems in existing navigation systems and proposing a set of new guidelines for designing such systems. We also discuss the design of a new Route Assisting and Communication system for Elderly (RACE) in which design guidelines are incorporated. Our results are primarily obtained from a series of usability evaluations undertaken with the elderly. This paper also identifies a number of advance features that a routing system should have for satisfying older adults on road. We suggest design implications for navigation systems based on our research and lay the path for future work.
Keywords: Elderly; Navigation Systems; Usability; Design Guidelines; Communication
The Effects of Camera System on Caregivers' Behaviors to Persons with Dementia BIBAKFull-Text 297-303
  Taro Sugihara; Kenichi Nakagawa; Xi Liu; Tsutomu Fujinami
We installed a camera system into a group home to investigate how such a device may help caregivers in responding to the behaviors of the persons with dementia. We studied how their behaviors have changed by introducing the system into the home through video recording and a series of interviews. We found that the system enables caregivers to optimize their responses to the persons with dementia depending on their degree of mobility.
Keywords: group home; persons with dementia; caregiving; camera system
A Function Based Approach towards Adaptive Interfaces for Elderly Users BIBAKFull-Text 304-311
  Edmund Wascher; Gerhard Rinkenauer; Michael Falkenstein
Recent information technologies may support elderly people in living independently even when they become immobile. Most computer systems, however, are hard to use when age-related impairments increase. While sensory and motor deficits can be alleviated by built in accessibility tools, cognitive alterations with increasing age are often not addressed. Here, we present an approach that intends to evaluate the adaptation of interfaces based on individual capabilities.
Keywords: Accessibility; information technologies; higher age; cognitive functions

Interaction and Support for People with Cognitive Impairments

Cognitive Chance Discovery BIBAFull-Text 315-323
  Akinori Abe
Dementia is the progressive decline in cognitive function due to damage or disease in the body beyond what might be expected from normal aging. Dementia persons cannot reasonably live their lives. In order to support dementia persons' lives, various approaches are proposed. Bozeat and Hodges showed affordance might give a certain support to (semantic) dementia persons of understanding (meanings of) objects. In this paper, based on the concept of affordance, abduction, and chance discovery, a dementia care under the concept of affordance is proposed.
Efficacy of Cognitive Training Experiences in the Elderly: Can Technology Help? BIBAKFull-Text 324-333
  Cristina Buiza; Mari Feli González; David Facal; Valeria Martinez; Unai Díaz; Aitziber Etxaniz; Elena Urdaneta; José Javier Yanguas
Cognitive training has been a growing field in recent years. It is established that training improves cognitive abilities in healthy elderly people. Specialized software and commercial devices including the possibility of cognitive gaming has been placed into the market; most of them are based on neuropsychological models of cognitive aging, but few have been scientifically tested. Computerized cognitive games are being developed in "HERMES -- Cognitive Care and Guidance for Active Aging", a research project co-funded by the European Union under the Seventh Framework Program (FP7). Cognitive training designed for HERMES includes daily live events introduced by the user into the system, allowing the stimulation of prospective memory with their own information. Gaming model, concepts and assessment aims (including usability, subjective value and efficacy) are described.
Keywords: Cognitive training; cognitive stimulation; cognitive games; elderly; aging
Distributed Intelligence and Scaffolding in Support of Cognitive Health BIBAKFull-Text 334-343
  Stefan Carmien; Randal A. Koene
Computers have dramatically changed the social landscape and living practices in the 21st century. Most of those changes have empowered typically abled adults, while it is only in the last few years that platforms and frameworks have been developed to extend support to those with diminished cognitive capacity. In this paper we discuses the use of scaffolding and distributed intelligence in assistive technology design. Four examples are presented, in domains from education to cognitive orthotics. We discuss the technology of such applications and the problems that technology designers must be aware of. Finally, we specify how these support frameworks fit into overall efforts toward a culture that supports cognitive health.
Keywords: assistive technology; distributed intelligence; scaffolding; design frameworks
Asperger Syndrome and Mobile Phone Behavior BIBAKFull-Text 344-352
  Laura Daley; Shaun Lawson; Emile van der Zee
This paper introduces the idea of using modern technology to work as an assistive tool for adults with Asperger's Syndrome (AS) and Higher-Functioning Autism (HFA) The study investigated the use of mobile phones by a neurotypical control group. Participants reported their pattern of phone use given specific social scenarios. Results showed that participants were more likely to use the text messaging facility on their phone to contact someone rather than call them. It also showed that their choice of communication mode did not differ given different social scenarios and neither did it when the information was given from the recipients' perspective. Further investigation is described where this information will be compared to a group of AS individuals.
Keywords: Asperger's Syndrome; Autism; Computer mediated communication; mobile phones
Age Related Cognitive Impairments and Diffusion of Assistive Web-Base Technologies BIBAKFull-Text 353-360
  Senaka Fernando; Tony Elliman; Arthur G. Money; Lorna Lines
Several researchers argue that age related cognitive impairments have detrimental affect on use of web services by older adults. However little and systematic applied research has been conducted on how age related cognitive impairments might affect the usage of web services by older adults. Undoubtedly, understanding the relationship between the cognitive changes that accompany aging and their impact on older adults' usage of web services will be beneficial for designing web services for this group. The paper demonstrates how such understanding has been employed to develop an assistive technology in order to improve older adults' interaction with online forms (e.g. state benefit application form). However the paper acknowledges that this new assistive technology does not guarantee that people with age related cognitive impairments accept it, as diffusion of innovation research shows that getting a new technology adopted even when it has noticeable advantage is often very difficult. Consequently the paper identifies critical factors that need to be considered when adopting this new assistive technology, drawing on Rogers (2003) theory of Diffusion of Innovations.
Keywords: age related cognitive impairments; older adults; assistive technology; online forms and web services; innovation; diffusion
Does Health Related Quality of Life Differ between People with Chronic Mental Illness Who Use Computers and Those Who Do Not? BIBAKFull-Text 361-365
  Yan-hua Huang; I-Ju Su
Occupational therapists are increasingly interested in promoting quality of life and digital divides in people with chronic mental illness. This study aims to compare quality of life between people with chronic mental illness who use and do not use computer. Twenty-four participants were recruited from a medical center in northern Taiwan. Two assessments were used including 1) a Quality of life questionnaire (WHOQOL-BREF Taiwan) and 2) a questionnaire relating to computer and internet use developed specifically for this study. The results show that there was a statistically significant difference in environment domain of quality of life between people who use computers and people who do not use computers in their daily life (p=.029). There was no statistically significant difference in the physical, psychological and social relationship domains of quality of life. Occupational therapists may help people with chronic mental illness to engage in meaningful activities through using the computer as ordinary part of their daily lives and in order to improve their perception of quality of life.
Keywords: Computer Use; Digital Divide; Mental Illness; Occupational Therapy; Quality of life
Cognitive Impairments, HCI and Daily Living BIBAFull-Text 366-374
  Simeon Keates; James Kozloski; Philip Varker
As computer systems become increasingly more pervasive in everyday life, it is simultaneously becoming ever more important that the concept of universal access is accepted as a design mantra. While many physical impairments and their implications for human-computer interaction are well understood, cognitive impairments have received comparatively little attention. One of the reasons for this is the general lack of sufficiently detailed cognitive models. This paper examines how cognitive impairments can affect human-computer interaction in everyday life and the issues involved in trying to make information technology more accessible to users with cognitive impairments.
Remote Conversation Support for People with Aphasia: Some Experiments and Lessons Learned BIBAKFull-Text 375-384
  Kazuhiro Kuwabara; Shohei Hayashi; Takafumi Uesato; Kohei Umadome; Keisuke Takenaka
This paper describes a system for supporting remote conversation for people with aphasia. We have constructed an initial prototype using Skype for video chat and the RemoteX plug-in for screen sharing over a network. Preliminary experiments conducted using the prototype have revealed that simply providing video chat and screen-sharing functions is not sufficient for supporting remote conversation with people with aphasia. We propose various simple communication tools to facilitate questioning and answering in the remote conversation, where a person with aphasia can reply by marking an appropriate portion of a window provided by the tool. Their effectiveness is demonstrated through experiments.
Keywords: remote conversation support; people with aphasia; screen sharing; video phone
Mobile Technology for People with Cognitive Disabilities and Their Caregivers -- HCI Issues BIBAKFull-Text 385-394
  Clayton Lewis; James Sullivan; Jeffery Hoehl
Smart phone technology is evolving to become more open to application developers. This trend is opening the way to development of personalized assistive technologies, location-aware services, and enhanced person-to-person communications. This paper presents findings from an international workshop, with participants from industry, policy, education, and private organizations. Participants mapped future directions for exploiting technical opportunities, with a focus on people with cognitive disabilities. HCI issues that emerged as critical include profile-based configuration of user interfaces and functionality, support for spoken presentation of text content, support for viewing web content on devices with small screens, and support for remote assistance, so that users can get help when they get stuck. In addition to technical issues, key process and methodology issues were identified, including more inclusion of self-advocates in design development and user testing, and increased recognition of and support for the overall "value chain" throughout system deployment and use.
Keywords: mobile technology; persons with cognitive disabilities; caregivers; assistive technology
ESSE: Learning Disability Classification System for Autism and Dyslexia BIBAKFull-Text 395-402
  Nor'ain Mohd Yusoff; Muhammad Hafiz Abdul Wahab; Mohamad Azrulnisyam Aziz; Fauzul Jalil Asha'ari
This paper presents an Expert System for Special Education (ESSE) based on scenario in Malaysia. This system is developed through the process of knowledge-gaining which is gathered from various expertise in chosen domain. Realizing the limitation of traditional classification system that teachers adopted, we developed ESSE to automate a centralized decision making system. ESSE is also able to provide consistent answers for repetitive decisions, processes and tasks. Besides, teachers using this system hold and maintain significant level of information pertaining both learning disabilities, thus reduce amount of human errors. ESSE knowledge-based resulted from the knowledge engineering called Qualifiers and Choice. Both are gathered from the analysis of symptoms that are experienced by Autism and Dyslexia patients. Every type of disability is divided to several categories and sub-category to facilitate question's arrangement. This paper presents a review of Expert System for Special Education (ESSE), problems arises and the knowledge-based classification systems.
Keywords: Qualifiers; Choice; Autism; Dyslexia; Knowledge Engineering
Coimagination Method: Communication Support System with Collected Images and Its Evaluation via Memory Task BIBAFull-Text 403-411
  Mihoko Otake; Motoichiro Kato; Toshihisa Takagi; Hajime Asama
Prevention of dementia is a crucial issue in this aged society. We propose coimagination method for prevention of dementia through supporting interactive communication with images. Coimagination method aims to activate three cognitive functions: episode memory, division of attention, and planning function, which decline at mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Participants of the coimagination program bring images according to the theme and communicate with them. They share feeling rather than memory, which is a major difference between coimagination and reminiscence. They take memory task whether they remember the owner or theme of images after the series of sessions. We held coimagination program successfully at the welfare institution for elderly people in Kashiwa city, Japan. Each session was held one hour per week for five times. The result of the task indicates that the subjects showed empathy with each other. The effectiveness of the proposed method was validated through the experiment.
Intelligent Mobile Interaction: A Learning System for Mentally Disabled People (IMLIS) BIBAKFull-Text 412-421
  Heidi Schelhowe; Saeed Zare
This paper describes the main ideas and the architecture of a system called Intelligent Mobile Learning Interaction system (IMLIS) that provides a mobile learning environment for mentally disabled people. The design of IMLIS is based on the idea to adjust its content, the kind of tasks and the mode of display to specific needs of individuals and to engage them for learning activities with new learning motivations due to IMLIS' dynamic structure and flexible patterns. We apply knowledge from the field of research and practice with mentally disabled people as well as pedagogical and didactical aspects in the design.
Keywords: Mobile Learning; Mobile Technology; Mentally Disabled People; Pedagogy; Learning Process; Interactive Learning Environments; Inclusive Design; Tacit Knowledge; Accessibility
Studying Point-Select-Drag Interaction Techniques for Older People with Cognitive Impairment BIBAKFull-Text 422-428
  Nadine Vigouroux; Pierre Rumeau; Frédéric Vella; Bruno Vellas
Graphical user interfaces and interactions that involve pointing to items and dragging them are becoming more common in rehabilitation and assistive technologies. We are currently investigating interaction techniques to understand point-select-drag interactions for older people with cognitive impairment. In particular, this study reports how older perform such tasks. Significant differences in behavior between all of the interaction techniques are observed and the reasons for these differences are discussed according the cognitive impairment.
Keywords: Cognitive impairment; older people; interaction technique; task duration; Alzheimer disease
Remote Reminiscence Talking and Scheduling Prompter for Individuals with Dementia Using Video Phone BIBAKFull-Text 429-438
  Kiyoshi Yasuda; Noriaki Kuwahara; Kazunari Morimoto
Caring for individuals with dementia is very difficult and frustrating task, especially for home caregivers. We have created two remote assisting systems, the remote reminiscence talking and scheduling prompter using video phone, and used them with four individuals with dementia living in their homes. For two out of four individuals, reminiscence talking and scheduling prompter are effective respectably, compared to TV watching and care giver's instructions. The psychological stability of one individual has continued for three hours even after the remote reminiscence talking finished. We suggest that remote reminiscence talking and scheduling prompter are very promising for caring individuals with dementia, although further revisions are required.
Keywords: Remote; reminiscence; scheduling; dementia; video phone

Design Knowledge and Approaches for Accessibility and Universal Access

A Modern Integration of Cognitive and Computer Sciences BIBAKFull-Text 441-449
  Gisela Susanne Bahr; Matthew G. Bell; Jason Metz; Sarah Sowle; Elizabeth Beasley
Cognitive and Computer sciences have a long history of shared concepts and shared terminology. This paper explores a radical way of interdisciplinary thinking that ventures beyond loosely modeled metaphorical applications of computer systems and the use of terminology with mere face validity. Our focus is on interdisciplinary conceptual, structure and process commonalities. We provide an example of the discovery of shared concepts, knowledge structures and a common mental model using semantic memory organization in humans and object oriented programming, in particular the principle of inheritance. We discuss whether JAVA applications forget and suggest further research topics.
Keywords: Cognitive Science; Computer Sciences; Interdisciplinary; Cross-cutting; Common Concepts; Hierarchical Network Model; Inheritance; Memory; Forgetting
Evolutionary Changes in the Traditional Ergonomics BIBAKFull-Text 450-459
  Jerzy Charytonowicz
To an average user the term ergonomics means first of all comfort and convenience, and only then safety, orientation to health, functionality and efficiency of a system. On the one hand such a sequence of associations and 'knowledge of ergonomics' undoubtedly results from marketing strategies and intensity of influence of advertisements of various commodities, but on the other hand it shows a still low level of ergonomic consciousness of society. From prehistory, man has always taken care of their comfort and convenience by making the first tools and successively transforming the material environment, in order to adjust them to their own needs and thus subconsciously initializing paraergonomic activities. The time from prehistory to the second half of the nineteenth century can be described as a period of intuitive ergonomics or subconscious ergonomics. Formulating principles of a new field of a new science, which W. Jastrzebowski called ergonomics, has begun a stage which I call a period of rational ergonomics, or fully conscious ergonomics. It was at this time, lasting from the beginning of World War II, when areas of application, tools, research methods were defined and attempts to apply them in practice were made. Preparations for the war intensified the scientific research in the field of applied ergonomics, starting a new stage in its development lasting until the present moment, which I call a period of scientific ergonomics.
Keywords: intuitive ergonomics; rational ergonomics; scientific ergonomics; static ergonomics; dynamic ergonomics; ecology
Affordance Conditions of Product Parts in User-Product Interaction BIBAKFull-Text 460-469
  Li-Hao Chen; Chang-Franw Lee; Sy-Gia Kiong
The purpose of this study is to identify the influences of affordance conditions, both perceptible and hidden affordances, in product interfaces on user-product interactions. An analysis scheme was used to analysis the affordance conditions of a digital camera's parts used as example. Moreover, a usability evaluation was carried out to examine what affordance conditions would influence users' operations while they practiced the operational tasks. The results show that affordances for functionality should not only be perceptible, but more importantly, also should be lucid for users in user-product interactions; the evidence presented by other comprehensive perceptual information and conventional layouts can deal with affordances being hidden in interfaces of a product.
Keywords: Affordance; Perceptual information; User-product interaction
Conformity Assessment in the Public Procurement of Accessible ICT BIBAFull-Text 470-479
  Stephan Corvers; Loïc Martínez Normand; Clas Thorén; Enrique Varela; Eric Velleman; Klaus Peter Wegge
Public procurement is an important instrument for improving the accessibility of the information society. In Europe, in December 2005, the European Commission issued mandate M/376 to CEN, CENELEC and ETSI, to harmonize and facilitate the public procurement of accessible ICT products and services by identifying a set of functional European accessibility requirements for public procurement of products and services in the ICT domain. The mandate is to be carried out in two phases: Phase I -- inventory of accessibility requirements and assessment of suitable testing and conformity schemes, and Phase II -- standardization activities. This paper presents an overview of the technical report produced by the authors as members of a CEN and CENELEC project team assigned to carry out "an analysis of testing and conformity schemes of products and services meeting accessibility requirements". The work was developed from October 2007 until October 2008.
Evaluation Framework towards All Inclusive Mainstream ICT BIBAKFull-Text 480-488
  Maria Gemou; Evangelos Bekiaris
The current paper presents the evaluation framework and plans developed for the evaluation of the applications to be developed in the context of the ÆGIS Integrating Project (Grant Agreement: 224348) of the 7th Framework Programme, which aims to embed support for accessibility through the development of an Open Accessibility Framework, upon which open source accessibility interfaces and applications for the users as well as accessibility toolkits for the developers will be built. Within ÆGIS, three mainstream markets are targeted, namely the desktop, rich Internet applications and mobile devices/applications market segments. Upon the basis of an overall user-centred approach, the developed evaluation framework will involve all types of targeted end-users, namely persons with disabilities as well as experts in Assistive Technology, trainers/tutors and developers as well as a series of other related stakeholders. Evaluation will be held in three iterative phases and across 4 Pilot sites (Belgium, Spain, Sweden and in the UK), providing in-between each phase, feedback to the development teams for debugging and optimization.
Keywords: Evaluation; accessibility; iterative testing; user-centred approach; mainstream ICT; Open Accessibility Framework
Digital Design Mobile Virtual Laboratory Implementation: A Pragmatic Approach BIBAKFull-Text 489-498
  Vlado Glavinic; Mihael Kukec; Sandi Ljubic
The omnipresence of m-devices, and especially those of the cellular phones type, certainly makes the basis for the introduction and use of m-learning systems, but their implementation heavily depends on the area to be covered hence showing a different degree of complexity. This especially holds for the area of digital design, where there is the need for handling logic schemes which includes both displaying and modifying them in addition to the usual imaging of text and graphics. In this paper we discuss essential HCI issues, which are related to the implementation of a Mobile Virtual Laboratory for digital logic design. We make use of a pragmatic approach by blending a number of interaction methods known from other application fields hopefully providing a holistic effect in the process of learning and teaching in the mobile.
Keywords: digital logic design; m-devices; m-learning; touch sensitive screen; virtual laboratories
Eliciting Mental Models of User Methods for Product and Communications Design BIBAKFull-Text 499-505
  Joy Goodman-Deane; Patrick Langdon; P. John Clarkson; Susannah Clarke
In order for products and services to be designed inclusively, designers need to understand users' capabilities and needs Thus methods for involving and understanding users are of key importance for inclusive design. However, many of these methods have limited uptake, possibly because of a poor fit with design practice. We conducted a card-sorting study with twenty-one product and communications designers, examining how they view user-centred methods, and how they relate them to other design methods. Results were analysed using hierarchical agglommerative cluster analysis to try to identify groups of methods that are considered similar to each other. This paper particularly examines the differences between product and communications designers. We found that product designers perceive a larger distinction between user involvement and other design methods, and communications designers are less structured in their approach to methods. We conclude that inclusive design methods and their presentation need to be adapted for different groups of designers.
Keywords: Inclusive design; user methods; design practice
Functional Accessibility Testing Using Best Practices BIBAKFull-Text 506-514
  Jon Gunderson
The problem with many automated web accessibility testing tools is that they assume a repair oriented approach to web accessibility. The functional web accessibility approach is based on best practices design approach to creating web resources. The best practices build upon the use of web standards to increase developer acceptance, since developers benefit from the design efficiencies of web standards while they build highly accessible websites based on best practices coding techniques. Automated testing tools can be used to look for the best practices coding patterns to verify accessibility. The best practices are essentially effective techniques to implement web accessibility standards like Section 508 or guidelines like the W3C Web Content Accessibility Guidelines.
Keywords: web accessibility; section 508; web content accessibility guidelines; automated testing; html; xhtml; best practices; disability; WCAG
Web User Interface Design Strategy: Designing for Device Independence BIBAKFull-Text 515-524
  Panagiotis Karampelas; Ioannis Basdekis; Constantine Stephanidis
Until recently, Web services were available only through a desktop web browser. Nowadays, methods of access move beyond the desktop computer towards ubiquitous access through portable devices. As a consequence, users have the chance to interact with a growing diversity of computing devices such as PDAs, smart phones, etc., with diverse characteristics that tend to replace conventional laptop and desktop computers. User interface designers, on the other hand, strive to design usable interfaces to cater for the diverse requirements of these devices. The design strategy proposed in this paper aims at assisting user interface designers in designing for diverse devices recommending a specific line of activities in the process of design. A case study of application of the proposed design strategy is presented, outlining its advantages.
Keywords: User interface design; Device independence; Web accessibility; Prototyping
Inclusive Design for Ordinary Users in Extraordinary Circumstances BIBAFull-Text 525-534
  Simeon Keates
Universal access is commonly interpreted as focusing on designing for users with atypical requirements -- specifically users with disabilities or older adults. However, universal access is also about providing access to users in all situations and circumstances, including those that place extraordinary burdens on the users. This paper examines the design of a user interface (UI) for use in an airport environment and explains how the lessons learned from designing for users with disabilities in particular have been applied in this new context. The paper further describes a series of experiments that were performed to demonstrate the usability of the new interface and also compare the efficacy of three different input strategies developed for the new UI. The most efficient method of input was a strategy of combined keyboard shortcuts offering access to the full functionality of the UI.
Towards Open Access Accessibility Everywhere: The ÆGIS Concept BIBAKFull-Text 535-543
  Peter Korn; Evangelos Bekiaris; Maria Gemou
The current paper presents the concept of ÆGIS Integrating Project (Grant Agreement: 224348), which aims to embed support for accessibility into every aspect of ICT-including the pre-built user-interface components, developer's tools, software applications and the run-time environment, and via embeddable assistive technologies. ÆGIS is a 3,5 years project, aiming to constitute a breakthrough in the eInclusion area, through the development of an Open Accessibility Framework, upon which open source accessibility interfaces and applications for the users as well as accessibility toolkits for the developers will be built. Three mainstream markets are targeted, namely the desktop, rich Internet applications and mobile devices/applications market segments.
Keywords: accessibility; open source; mainstream ICT; Open Accessibility Framework; design; development; assessment; desktop; rich web applications; Java-based mobile devices
On the Privacy-Preserving HCI Issues BIBAFull-Text 544-549
  Taekyoung Kwon; JongHyup Lee; JooSeok Song
Actual interactions between human users and computers occur at the user interface, which includes both hardware and software. When users attempt to input sensitive information to computers, a kind of shoulder surfing that might use direct observation techniques, such as looking over someone's shoulder, to get the information could be a great concern at the user interface. In this paper, we observe privacy-related issues at the user interface and then present an abstract model for privacy-preserving human-computer interactions. In such an abstract model, we also present two prototype methods which could work with traditional input devices.
E-Inclusiveness and Digital Television in Europe -- A Holistic Model BIBAFull-Text 550-558
  Peter Olaf Looms
This paper reviews the nature and size of the accessibility challenge and identifies pitfalls in the current strategies to promote e-inclusiveness. Using examples such as the DTV4ALL project which focuses on free-to-air broadcasting, the paper argues the case for working systematically with stakeholders associated with the entire access service supply chain to draw up and implement a continent-wide strategy to promote e-inclusiveness and digital television.
Modelling Product-User Interaction for Inclusive Design BIBAKFull-Text 559-567
  Anna Mieczakowski; Patrick Langdon; P. John Clarkson
Despite continuing technological advances, there are still many daily living products that are unusable for broad sections of the population, including older and impaired users. Therefore, in order to design more accessible and usable products, designers need better models that can predict how people with varying levels of capability interpret and use different features on product interfaces. The aim of this paper is to survey the background of modelling product-user interaction, discuss strengths and weaknesses of various approaches and focus on appropriate methodology to investigate inclusive interaction with everyday products. This paper concludes that a model of product-user interaction should include three representations of specific information: (1) what people want to do when operating a product (goals); (2) what people actually do while operating a product (actions); and (3) what happens to the functional parts of the product during the operation (objects). Further research is necessary in order to identify methods for combining goal, action and object approaches and developing a usable and inclusive model of product-user interaction.
Keywords: Inclusive Design; Product-User Interaction; Mental Models; Cognitive Representations; Prior Experience
Culture, Politeness and Directive Compliance BIBAKFull-Text 568-577
  Christopher A. Miller; Peggy Wu; Vanessa Vakili; Tammy Ott; Kip Smith
We argue that traditional cultural factors models (from Hofstede, Nisbett, etc.) are too abstract to provide good predictions of important human performance behaviors such as directive compliance. Instead, we focus on culture-specific social interaction behaviors (i.e., "etiquette") as a bridge between abstract cultural factors and human performance. We describe a computational model of etiquette and politeness perception, called CECAEDA (Computational Effects of Cultural Attributes and Etiquette on Directive Adherence). CECAEDA consists of four parts: (1) a culturally universal model of politeness perceptions, their causes and effects, (2) a culturally universal cognitive model compliance decision making and behaviors, (3) a set of hypotheses about how politeness perceptions alter directive compliance, and (4) a set of hypotheses about how cultural factors (specifically, those proposed by Hofstede [1]) affect etiquette perceptions and, thus, directive compliance in culture-specific ways. Each component is discussed in detail, followed by a brief presentation of our research test bed and paradigm for evaluating CECAEDA.
Keywords: culture; politeness; etiquette; directive compliance
A Harmonised Methodology towards Measuring Accessibility BIBAKFull-Text 578-587
  Alexandros Mourouzis; Grammati-Eirini Kastori; Konstantinos Votis; Evangelos Bekiaris; Dimitrios Tzovaras
This paper introduces the harmonized accessibility methodology (HAM) that has been defined and deployed in the context of the ACCESSIBLE project. HAM is aimed to harmonize existing collections of related design knowledge, such as heuristics, guidelines, standards, etc., and thereby provide the grounds for defining ontology-based rules and, and thereby implementing, within ACCESSIBLE and beyond, automated accessibility assessment of ICT designs and developments. Ultimately, ordinary developers will be enabled to conduct rapid, yet specialized, accessibility assessments focused on any relevant disability types, assistive technologies, platforms, and contextual conditions.
Keywords: Accessibility; Disability; Evaluation; Assessment tools
Interactive System to Assist Rehabilitation of Children BIBAKFull-Text 588-593
  Shuto Murai; Kenta Sugai; Michiko Ohkura; Mizuma Masazumi; Amimoto Satuki
We developed a new interactive system to support a child with physical disorders to continue appropriate rehabilitation pleasurably at home. We selected a ten-years-old boy suffering from "Spina Bifida Aperta" as the target patient and constructed an interactive system that employed the step motion, an effective rehabilitation method for him. Experiments were performed to evaluate the system.
Keywords: rehabilitation; children; system
A Framework for Remote User Evaluation of Accessibility and Usability of Websites BIBAFull-Text 594-601
  Christopher Power; Helen Petrie; Richard Mitchell
The inclusion of participants that are representative of the diverse populations of users is essential for meaningful and useful evaluations of usability and accessibility on the web. This paper proposes the requirements and architecture for an automated tool suite to help manage the design and deployment of evaluations to these participants. A prototype implementation of this architecture that is being prepared is also discussed.
Ergonomic Issues in the Material Re-use Process BIBAKFull-Text 602-608
  Maciej Skowronski; Jerzy Charytonowicz
The major purposes of ergonomic design in architecture are as follows: creating comfortable space and environment around the human body and mind, the optimization of working and living spaces, and preservation of the natural environment. One of the most important aspects of the design process is proper building materials selection. In accordance with extraction and manufacturing processes, building materials are divided into the following groups: natural materials, synthetics, and composite materials. In the second half of twentieth century, mainly due to natural resource depletion, people began to focus their attention on re-use and recycling strategies. Nowadays it seems, that thanks to material recovery and recycling, we are able to limit the destructive impact of human activity on the natural environment. However it needs to be pointed out, that today's re-use technology needs to be adjusted and improved regarding modern environmental and ergonomic issues.
Keywords: architecture; ecology; energy saving; recycling; reuse; alternative technology
User Empowerment in Standardization BIBAKFull-Text 609-614
  Mathijs Soede; Nienke Blijham; Manon Verdonschot
With the Mandate 376 on Public Procurement, the European Union aims at supporting inclusion of persons with disabilities. It is felt necessary to prepare the End-Users, i.e. persons with disabilities for participation into the standards processes (especially standardization in ICT) themselves. The background, motivation behind this goal is discussed and a special course is developed for the End-Users and presented in this paper.
Keywords: Public Procurement; Inclusion for all; Design for All; Course development
Emotion Detection: Application of the Valence Arousal Space for Rapid Biological Usability Testing to Enhance Universal Access BIBAKFull-Text 615-624
  Christian Stickel; Martin Ebner; Silke Steinbach-Nordmann; Gig Searle; Andreas Holzinger
Emotion is an important mental and physiological state, influencing cognition, perception, learning, communication, decision making, etc. It is considered as a definitive important aspect of user experience (UX), although at least well developed and most of all lacking experimental evidence. This paper deals with an application for emotion detection in usability testing of software. It describes the approach to utilize the valence arousal space for emotion modeling in a formal experiment. Our study revealed correlations between low performance and negative emotional states. Reliable emotion detection in usability tests will help to prevent negative emotions and attitudes in the final products. This can be a great advantage to enhance Universal Access.
Keywords: Biological Rapid Usability Testing; Valence; Arousal; Emotion
Teaching and Learning HCI BIBAKFull-Text 625-635
  Harold W. Thimbleby
We consider how to teach effectively with particular reference to HCI. HCI can be taught to explicitly empower students to engage with their own learning. Further, HCI motivates because HCI empowers students to make a valuable and lasting contribution to the world.
Keywords: Teaching and learning; HCI (human-computer interaction)
Quantification of Accessibility: Guidance for More Objective Access Guidelines BIBAKFull-Text 636-643
  Gregg C. Vanderheiden
Accessibility guidelines first began as recommendations or advice to designers interested in creating products that were more accessible to users with disabilities. Over the past two decades, societies have found that relying on voluntary efforts by industry was insufficient and began creating laws and regulations regarding accessibility. However these new regulations were based on the earlier voluntary recommendations, which were often qualitative in nature. For those guidelines where there were no clear objective criteria, it has created problems both for companies trying to conform and by those trying to evaluate conformance. Described here are several efforts to create more useful and objective measures to replace previous general recommendations in the areas of photosensitive seizure disorders, contrast, and provisions relating to low vision.
Keywords: Standards; quantification; regulations; accessibility
Visualizing Design Exclusion Predicted by Disability Data: A Mobile Phone Case Study BIBAKFull-Text 644-653
  Sam D. Waller; Patrick Langdon; P. John Clarkson
Disability data can help to predict the number of people that will be unable to use a particular product. The greatest benefits of this prediction are the design insights that help to reduce exclusion and thereby improve the product experience for a broad range of people. This paper uses a mobile phone case study to demonstrate how a set of visualization outputs from an exclusion audit can generate prioritized design insights to reduce exclusion, particularly when multiple tasks place demands on multiple capabilities.
Keywords: Inclusive design; calculating exclusion
Investigating Prior Experience and Product Learning through Novel Interface Interaction: A Pilot Study BIBAKFull-Text 654-664
  Christopher Wilkinson; Patrick Langdon; P. John Clarkson
In keeping with the ethos of Inclusive Design, this paper outlines a pilot study investigating how individuals perceive, process and respond to stimuli during interaction with products, and aims to reveal what occurs during novel product interaction whereupon users may posses limited, or non-existent, internal representations. Other areas of interest included the generational effect and the effects of ageing, upon interaction. A novel product is presented to a small number of participants who are recorded interacting with it whilst providing concurrent protocol and information elicited regarding the development of internal representations. The expectation was that prior experience with similar products would affect users' ability to interact with the product, and that this might be age-related. Whilst this was confirmed to a limited extent in the pilot study, experimentation provided clear evidence of internalised concept development that would, in itself, validate full-scale examination.
Keywords: Inclusive Design; Prior Experience; Interaction Learning
The Art of Cross-Cultural Design for Usability BIBAFull-Text 665-671
  Heike Winschiers-Theophilus
More and more HCI researchers and practitioners have realized the urgency of addressing culture as being more than just an interface tuning parameter. Recent publications, project initiatives and a growing number of globally dispersed collaborating workgroups explore cultural models for practical solutions. Yet many endeavors focus on singled out aspects thereby missing fundamental factors of cross-cultural design and evaluation such as contextual connotations, dynamics and integration. Thus a common research agenda should therefore be the de-construction of the entire process as a basis for a comprehensive integration of shared experiences, best practices and tested models to enhance cross-cultural design and evaluation.
HCI Standards for Handicapped BIBAKFull-Text 672-676
  Zbigniew Wisniewski; Aleksandra Polak-Sopinska
The study presents conclusions from the project realization so far. The main aim of the project is to work out the rules of evaluation and validation of application interfaces on the basis of study of the process of man-computer communication. The target group for the benefit of which the research will be carried out are disabled persons and people over 55 years of age. The disabled and the elderly, are in the social stratum systematically ignored by software producers and internet service providers as a target group of computer users.
Keywords: HCI; elderly; disabled people; digital divide
User Evaluation of Age-Centred Web Design Guidelines BIBAKFull-Text 677-686
  Panayiotis Zaphiris; Ulrike Pfeil; Dorian Xhixho
We report an evaluation of a set of age-centred web design guidelines (SilverWeb guidelines) with older web users. We invited 24 older web users and used a cooperative evaluation to validate the guidelines and collect any additional problems. As a result of the experiment, 36 out of the original 37 guidelines were accepted, 1 guideline was disagreed with, and 5 new issues that were not covered by the guidelines were identified by users. Our findings show that input from users is a valuable contribution to the development process of web design guidelines and is essential in order to ensure a user-centred design approach.
Keywords: Ageing; guidelines; web; user evaluation