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Proceedings of the 2015 ACM International Conference on Interactive Experiences for TV and Online Video

Fullname:Proceedings of the 2015 ACM International Conference on Interactive Experiences for TV and Online Video
Editors:David Geerts; Lieven De Marez; Caroline Pauwels; Frank Bentley; Christian Timmerer
Location:Brussels, Belgium
Dates:2015-Jun-03 to 2015-Jun-05
Publisher:ACM
Standard No:ISBN: 978-1-4503-3526-3; ACM DL: Table of Contents; hcibib: TVX15
Papers:32
Pages:221
Links:Conference Website
  1. Opening Keynote Address
  2. Social Experiences and Awareness
  3. Experiencing Live Events
  4. Context-aware systems
  5. Multi-screening
  6. Design for User Experience and Engagement
  7. Work in Progress (poster presentations)
  8. Course Overviews
  9. Workshop Summaries
  10. Closing Keynote Address

Opening Keynote Address

Empowering Storytellers with Social Media BIBAFull-Text 1
  Jacob Shwirtz
From entertainment to news to corporate marketing, social media has infused, informed and revolutionized the way creators are reaching their audience.
   In this discussion we will explore the core impact of social media as a storytelling medium, how standard operating procedures and strategies have changed, delve into case studies and how we chart a path forward.
   When viewed through the lens of storytelling, social media becomes a wildly exciting domain for innovative creators to push boundaries, invent new genres of content and connect with audiences in ways never before possible.
   Case studies considered will span everything from traditional talent making the move to the Internet, digital-native talent, already-successful and new TV programs and web series, as well as legacy content finding new life and audiences online.

Social Experiences and Awareness

Experiencing Liveness of a Cherished Place in the Home BIBAFull-Text 3-12
  Jinyi Wang; Mudassar Ahmad Mughal; Oskar Juhlin
Liveness, as discussed in HCI and in media studies, focuses on an intriguing and beloved experiential quality that can influence new forms of video applications. We suggest a shift from accounts of liveness in "events" to liveness in ambient media for home décor by designing a system called TransLive that exploits the "magic" of mediatizing the "now" at a distant and cherished place. We present an interview study including four families, who experienced the system for two weeks each in a concept apartment setting. It shows how immediacy and unpredictability provide compelling experiences. Authenticity and engagement, which are previously considered as inherent qualities in live media, instead occur in the context of use. Finally, the experience of transcendence triggered by slow and continuous video streams open up a new design space of liveness. Thus, not only do we take inspiration from liveness theory, but we also need to redefine it.
Audience Silhouettes: Peripheral Awareness of Synchronous Audience Kinesics for Social Television BIBAFull-Text 13-22
  Radu-Daniel Vatavu
We introduce audience silhouettes for TV, which are visual representations of viewers' body movements displayed in real-time on top of television content. With their minimal visual cues and their ability to convey presence and to leverage interactions via non-verbal kinesics, audience silhouettes are strong candidates for implementing Oehlberg et al.'s theater metaphor of an unobtrusive social TV system [37]. In a user study, we found our participants connecting well to the on-screen silhouettes, while their television watching experience was perceived more enjoyable. We also report viewers' body movement behavior in the presence of on-screen silhouettes, which we characterize numerically with new measures (e.g., average body movement) and we report experimental findings; e.g., we found that the number of silhouettes influences viewers' body movements and the body postures they adopt and that women produce more body movement than men.
It Takes Two (To Co-View): Collaborative Multi-View TV BIBAFull-Text 23-32
  Mark McGill; John Williamson; Stephen A. Brewster
This paper investigates how we can design interfaces and interactions for multi-view TVs, enabling users to transition between independent and shared activity, dynamically control awareness of other users activities, and collaborate more effectively on shared activities. We conducted two user studies, first comparing an Android-based two-user TV against both multi-screen and multi-view TVs. Based on our findings, we iterated on our design, giving users the ability to dynamically set their engagement with other users activity. We provide the foundations of a multi-user multi-view smart TV that can support users to transition between independent and shared activity and gain awareness of the activities of others, on a single shared TV that no longer suffers the bottleneck of one physical view. Through this we significantly improve upon a user's capability for collaborative and independent activity compared to single-view smart TVs.

Experiencing Live Events

First Person Omnidirectional Video: System Design and Implications for Immersive Experience BIBAFull-Text 33-42
  Shunichi Kasahara; Shohei Nagai; Jun Rekimoto
Fully recording and sharing an immersive experience is one of the ultimate goals of media technology. As extensive technical evolution, omnidirectional video is one of promising media to capture an immersive experience. First person omnidirectional video provides a unique experience of world through someone else's perspective. However, difficulties in wearable camera design and cybersickness induced by shaky video has been obstacle to explore applications of first person omnidirectional video. In this research, we introduce the design and implementation of "JackIn Head" a system including a wearable omnidirectional camera and image stabilization to alleviate cybersickness. Our evaluation revealed the alleviation of cybersickness. Then we report the series of workshops to explore user experience and applications in actual use cases such as virtual travel and virtual sports. We have compiled design implications about cybersickness and motion, immersive sensation, visualization and behavior data of spectators in experience with first person omnidirectional video.
Interactive UHDTV at the Commonwealth Games: An Explorative Evaluation BIBAFull-Text 43-52
  Judith Redi; Lucia D'Acunto; Omar Niamut
In conjunction with BBC R&D experiments and demonstrations at the 2014 Commonwealth Games, an explorative field trial was conducted with a live zoomable UHD video system. The unique field trial featured the world's first live tiled streaming of 4K UHD video to end users. During the trial, we studied and evaluated the attractiveness and novelty of an interactive UHD application, and investigated system design aspects of a live UHD tiling system. In this paper, we evaluate the overall perceived quality of experience (QoE) of the application and to what extent the QoE depends on system factors and/or network conditions. We observe that interactive UHDTV is well received by users, but the delivered experience may decrease in presence of low bandwidth availability.
Towards an Extended Festival Viewing Experience BIBAFull-Text 53-62
  Raphael Velt; Steve Benford; Stuart Reeves; Michael Evans; Maxine Glancy; Phil Stenton
Media coverage of large-scale live events is becoming increasingly complex, with technologies enabling the delivery of a broader range of content as well as complex viewing patterns across devices and services. This paper presents a study aimed at understanding the experience of people who have followed the broadcast coverage of a music festival. Our findings show that the experience takes a diversity of forms and bears a complex relationship with the actual experience of being at the festival. We conclude this analysis by proposing that novel services for coverage of this type of events should connect and interleave the diverse threads of experiences around large-scale live events and consider involving more diverse elements of the experience of "being there".

Context-aware systems

Experimental Enquiry into Automatically Orchestrated Live Video Communication in Social Settings BIBAFull-Text 63-72
  Marian F. Ursu; Manolis Falelakis; Martin Groen; Rene Kaiser; Michael Frantzis
'Orchestration' refers to the ability of a live video communication system to adapt in real-time to the communication context with a view to enhance the quality of mediation and subsequently the quality of interaction between participants. For example, this can be done by reframing the cameras and changing the way in which the video content is mixed on each screen. To be a feasible solution, orchestration has to be an automatic process. This paper reports a study of orchestration carried out in the social setting of a group of friends playing social games from two separate living rooms. The quality of the communication was assessed via two measures: one objective, in the form of task efficiency, and one subjective, in the form of a questionnaire. The objective measure indicated that mediated communication can be improved through orchestration, but the subjective measure was inconclusive. The paper also uncovers some of the complexities of the experimental space associated with orchestrated mediated communication and aims to provide motivation for further research into this new communication paradigm.
Broadcast, Video-on-Demand, and Other Ways to Watch Television Content: A Household Perspective BIBAFull-Text 73-82
  Jeroen Vanattenhoven; David Geerts
This paper presents an explorative investigation into households? uses of traditional broadcast television (TV) and more recently introduced video-on-demand (VoD) services. More specifically, we explain how each way of viewing TV and video content relates to different viewing situations in the home. We conducted in-home interviews with seven households in The Netherlands in order to obtain rich data that are required for understanding these phenomena. Our results elaborate on the uses of watching broadcast TV, catch-up services, and video-on-demand streaming services, the recording of content, and the downloading of content. While the traditional broadcast model is on the decline to some extent, our data still revealed essential uses of broadcast concerning certain types of content and specific viewing situations. Based on the results, a number of implications for the design of recommender systems and interfaces, service providers and broadcasters, and TV manufacturers are presented.

Multi-screening

Who's the Fairest of Them All: Device Mirroring for the Connected Home BIBAFull-Text 83-92
  Mark McGill; John Williamson; Stephen A. Brewster
In the UK alone smartphone adoption has reached 61% in 2014. In home and living-room contexts, this adoption has led to "multi-screening", meaning the concurrent use of devices such as smartphones and tablets alongside the TV. The resultant private "digital bubble" [12] of this device usage has been discussed as raising a problematic barrier to socialization and interaction, with mobile phone use in particular having significant anti-social connotations [24]. However mobile devices have evolved new capabilities for sharing their activity, most notably through screen mirroring. This paper explores how we can utilize the TV to view screen-mirrored device activity, decreasing the digital isolation of device usage. We examine the extent to which users can attend to multiple devices on one TV, the effect this and prior systems have had on existing TV viewing, and propose ways in which we can aid users to manage their viewing of device activity on the TV. Moreover, we examine new approaches toward the accessibility of device activity, investigating systems which allow users to attend to whichever device activity they wish using multi-view displays, and discuss the social and privacy implications of having "always-on" screen-mirrored devices.
"I'm just on my phone and they're watching TV": Quantifying mobile device use while watching television BIBAFull-Text 93-102
  Christian Holz; Frank Bentley; Karen Church; Mitesh Patel
In recent years, mobile devices have become a part of our daily lives -- much like television sets had over the second half of the 20th century. Increasingly, people are using mobile devices while watching television. We set out to understand this behavior on a minute-by-minute quantified level as well as users' motivations and purposes of device use while watching television. We conducted a novel mixed-methods study inside seven households with fourteen instrumented phone and tablet devices, capturing all app launches and app use durations, correlated with the moment in the television program when they occurred. Surprisingly, we found little difference between the volume of device use during programs and commercials. Our two main findings are that 1) participants often joined family members in the TV room to physically be together; when they lack interest in the program, they spend the majority of the show on a secondary device and watch TV only during key moments. 2) Virtually none of participants' app and web use during TV consumption was directly related to the running show. With our study, we set the stage for larger-scale investigations into the details of mobile interactions while watching television. Our novel method will aid future work of the community as a means of fully understanding multi-device use alongside television consumption.

Design for User Experience and Engagement

Dynamic Subtitles: The User Experience BIBAFull-Text 103-112
  Andy Brown; Rhia Jones; Mike Crabb; James Sandford; Matthew Brooks; Mike Armstrong; Caroline Jay
Subtitles (closed captions) on television are typically placed at the bottom-centre of the screen. However, placing subtitles in varying positions, according to the underlying video content ('dynamic subtitles'), has the potential to make the overall viewing experience less disjointed and more immersive. This paper describes the testing of such subtitles with hearing-impaired users, and a new analysis of previously collected eye-tracking data. The qualitative data demonstrates that dynamic subtitles can lead to an improved User Experience, although not for all types of subtitle user. The eye-tracking data was analysed to compare the gaze patterns of subtitle users with a baseline of those for people viewing without subtitles. It was found that gaze patterns of people watching dynamic subtitles were closer to the baseline than those of people watching with traditional subtitles. Finally, some of the factors that need to be considered when authoring dynamic subtitles are discussed.
EnvDASH: An Environment-Aware Dynamic Adaptive Streaming over HTTP System BIBAFull-Text 113-118
  Stefan Wilk; Sophie Schönherr; Denny Stohr; Wolfgang Effelsberg
The recent advances in adaptive video streaming technologies including Dynamic Adaptive Streaming over HTTP (DASH) are capable to adjust video streams to rapidly changing network conditions. Our system, EnvDASH, differs from those standard implementations as it extends DASH with mechanisms that allow sensing the environmental conditions of a device. EnvDASH leverages that users in mobile situations are often distracted from watching a video or that viewing conditions are severely degraded by adapting the video to reduce the generated network traffic. The system senses if the user is interested in watching a video, if the displaying device is held stable and if the ambient noise level allows listening to an audio track of a video. This is especially helpful as mobile devices usually use capped data volume contracts for the network access.

Work in Progress (poster presentations)

SAM: Dynamic and Social Content Delivery for Second Screen Interaction BIBAFull-Text 119-124
  Atta Badii; Marco Tiemann; Andreas Menychtas; Christina Santzaridou; Alexandros Psychas; David Tomas; Stuart Campbell; Juan Vicente Vidagany Espert
Social media services offer a wide range of opportunities for businesses and developers to exploit the vast amount of information and user-generated content produced via social media. In addition, the notion of TV second screen usage -- the interleaved usage of TV and smart devices such as smartphones -- appears ever more prominent, with viewers continuously seeking further information and deeper engagement while watching movies, TV shows or event coverage. In this work-in-progress contribution, we present SAM, an innovative platform that combines social media, content syndication and targets second screen usage to enhance media content provisioning and advance the user experience. SAM incorporates modern technologies and novel features in the areas of content management, dynamic social media, social mining, semantic annotation and multi-device representation to facilitate an advanced business environment for broadcasters, content and metadata providers and editors to better exploit their assets and increase revenues.
SensiTV: Smart EmotioNal System for Impaired People's TV BIBAFull-Text 125-130
  Diana Affi; Joël Dumoulin; Marco Bertini; Elena Mugellini; Omar Abou Khaled; Alberto Del Bimbo
In this paper, an innovative solution is presented: a smart emotional system for impaired people's TV. It aims to accompany the cognitive information contained in a movie, with the affective content. The affect is then communicated to the movie viewers in ways compatible for people with hearing and/or visual impairments, to let them experience all of the sensations offered by the movie. To do so, emotion recognition techniques are used to classify movie scenes into seven basic emotions. These emotions are then represented, in realtime, while the movie is playing, to the viewers, using environmental lights, emotional subtitles and a second screen application that integrates vibrations, emoticons and background music.
A Second-Screen Meets Hypervideo, Delivering Content Through HbbTV BIBAFull-Text 131-136
  Toni Bibiloni; Miquel Mascaro; Pere Palmer; Antoni Oliver
In this paper two improvements for the Hypervideo platform, used to represent augmented reality on Interactive TVs thanks to the hypervideo concept, are presented: the introduction of a second-screen application to the platform, enabling the user to obtain the additional information on its handheld device and delivering the video track through the broadcast channel, thanks to the HbbTV capability.
Design Requirements for PT-tv (Play Therapy with TV): An Observational Study on Play Therapy and TV Viewing BIBAFull-Text 137-142
  Kyoungwon Seo; Garam Han; Hyunju Lee; Hokyoung Ryu; Jieun Kim
Television (TV) is hard to be separated from our daily lives. Many infants and toddlers are in perpetual contact with TV and/or video content. Recent studies have focused on what characteristics of TV content would affect children's language development. We are interested in the developmental play therapy performed by pediatricians and how this can be translated into the TV content design to enhance their language development. An observational study was conducted for three weeks at the Infants Care Center. The behavioral patterns during the play therapy and TV viewing were compared and the design requirements for the play therapy with TV (PT-tv) were proposed.
Learning Lessons for Second Screen from Board Games BIBAFull-Text 143-148
  Rinze Leenheer; David Geerts; Jeroen Vanattenhoven
This paper identifies important requirements for second screen (game) companion apps. Participants were invited to create their own (board) game to play alongside a TV show. Afterwards they were interviewed about their experience. Analyses of the games and interviews lead to some valuable insights in what contributes to an engaging "TV game". Lessons learned include: using events on the TV show to influence the game, and striking the right balance between luck and skill elements.
Small-Scale Cross Media Productions: A Case Study of a Documentary Game BIBAFull-Text 149-154
  Oliver Korn; Adrian Rees; Uwe Schulz
With major intellectual properties there is a long tradition of cross-media value chains -- usually starting with books and comics, then transgressing to film and TV and finally reaching interactive media like video games. In recent years the situation has changed: (1) smaller productions start to establish cross media value chains; (2) there is a trend from sequential towards parallel content production. In this work we describe how the production of a historic documentary takes a cross media approach right from the start. We analyze how this impacts the content creation pipelines with respect to story, audience and realization. The focus of the case study is the impact on the production of a documentary game. In a second step we reflect on the experiences gained so far and derive recommendations for future small-scale cross media productions.
Making Second Screen Sustainable in Media Production: the BRIDGET Approach BIBAFull-Text 155-160
  Alberto Messina; Francisco Morán Burgos; Marius Preda; Skjalg Lepsoy; Miroslaw Bober; Davide Bertola; Stavros Paschalakis
This paper presents work in progress of the European Commission FP7 project BRIDGET "BRIDging the Gap for Enhanced broadcasT". The project is developing innovative technology and the underlying architecture for efficient production of second screen applications for broadcasters and media companies. The project advancements include novel front-end authoring tools as well as back-end enabling technologies such as visual search, media structure analysis and 3D A/V reconstruction to support new editorial workflows.
Interactive Design Documentary As A Method For Civic Engagement BIBAFull-Text 161-166
  David Green; Clara Crivellaro; Jimmy Tidey
We present a method for civic engagement that uses interactive video documentary to capture discourses within focused settings (eg workshops or focus groups) and translocate them to public spaces (via interactive vox-pops) and online spaces (via an interactive web-based tool). Our method aims to facilitate encounters and the exchange of perspectives between communities across these spaces. We describe how the method was developed through five stages, beginning with a workshop and culminating in a prototype design tool and offer preliminary insights into its potential benefits. We argue that a key strength of this method lies in its potential to support situated encounters and build connections between researchers, designers, institutions and members of the public, with potential benefits in the areas of user-centered research and design. Finally, we outline directions for future development, including a model for lightweight civic engagement that uses an "interactive design documentary" as a central component.
A Game of Thrones Companion: Orienting Viewers to Complex Storyworlds via Synchronized Visualizations BIBAFull-Text 167-172
  Pedro Silva; Yasmin Amer; William Tsikerdanos; Jesse Shedd; Isabel Restrepo; Janet Murray
The merger of television and digital technology allows TV producers to author increasingly complex narratives, which pose new challenges for modern audiences. The prototype presented here is targeted at viewers of HBO's Game of Thrones and utilizes manipulatable, tightly synchronized spatial visualizations to concretize complex character relationships. A preliminary user study was conducted, utilizing the less tightly synchronized, non-diagramatic HBO Go application as an experimental control. Results show that users were able to more accurately identify character relationships after watching segments of the TV drama with the companion app prototype.
United Universe: A Second Screen Transmedia Experience BIBAFull-Text 173-178
  Dillon Eversman; Timothy Major; Mithila Tople; Lauren Schaffer; Janet Murray
United Universe is a second screen transmedia experience aimed at supporting understanding of a complex storyworld presented across media artifacts. Using the highly interconnected and allusive Marvel Cinematic Universe as a primary example, United Universe abstracts a story into the fundamental elements of characters, events, items, and locations, and presents them in a "glanceable" manner to the interactor. As significant story elements are referenced, the application provides explanatory information on the second screen. Drawing from the larger story world made up of multiple comic books, movies, games, and television shows, United Universe aims to provide clarity and background for the novice, and depth and engagement for more knowledgeable viewers.
Engaging Citizens with Televised Election Debates through Online Interactive Replays BIBAFull-Text 179-184
  Brian Plüss; Anna De Liddo
In this paper we tackle the crisis of political trust and public engagement with politics by investigating new methods and tools to watch and take part in televised political debates. The paper presents relevant research at the intersection of citizenship, technologies and government/democracy, and describes the motivation, requirements and design of Democratic Replay, an online interactive video replay platform that offers a persistent, customisable digital space for: (a) members of the public to express their views as they watch online videos of political events; and (b) enabling for a richer collective understanding of what goes on in these complex media events.
Designing TV Recommender Interfaces for Specific Viewing Experiences BIBAFull-Text 185-190
  Jeroen Vanattenhoven; David Geerts
In this paper we report upon our prototyping and design efforts aimed at supporting specific viewing experiences or situations. In our previous studies we gathered insights into which types of viewing situations occur in the home based on the group of viewers, the mood, the type of content, and time-related factors. Based on these situated experiences we now aim to support these experiences via specific user interface designs. The focus is mainly on presenting the right content in the right way for the specific viewers in each situation. The explored interfaces vary by look & feel, content selection, and interaction possibilities. By going through different prototype evaluation sessions we aim to increase our understanding of each situation's user requirements. Ultimately, viewers should save considerable time when choosing content.
HbbTV goes Cloud: Decoupling Application Signaling and Application Execution in Hybrid TV BIBAFull-Text 191-196
  Alexandra Mikityuk; Oliver Friedrich; Randolph Nikutta
The cloud-based execution of the User Interface has already begun to disrupt the TV domain. Indeed, in European Hybrid TV Standard -- Hybrid Broadcast Broadband (HbbTV) -- the signaling of applications is terminated by special libraries on the client. Therefore, the cloud-based UI execution does directly affect the HbbTV. This work presents an architecture that enables the shift of HbbTV functionality into the Cloud. This is based on the decoupling of HbbTV application signaling and application execution on the client side. The shift is executed by defining new interfaces for HbbTV-to-cloud and cloud-to-device. This work describes possible approaches for such architectures, relevant open issues and corresponding challenges.

Course Overviews

Gesture Interfaces, Ambient Intelligence, and Augmented Reality for the Interactive TV BIBAFull-Text 197-198
  Radu-Daniel Vatavu
This course is structured into three chapters that will introduce participants to (1) ambient intelligence principles applied to home entertainment, (2) augmented reality applications, and (3) gesture interaction design. Relevant examples from research and industry will be discussed.
To Hack or not To Hack: Interactive Storytelling in the 21st Century BIBAFull-Text 201-202
  Sandra Gaudenzi
This course aims at introducing notions of user-centered design in the realm of interactive storytelling. After reviewing how software methodologies like hacks and agile development have been used in the context of storytelling prototyping, the course will provide a hands-on workshop aimed at putting the user at the center of the story from day one of the production process.

Workshop Summaries

3rd International Workshop on Interactive Content Consumption (WSICC'15) BIBAFull-Text 203-208
  Rene Kaiser; Britta Meixner; Joscha Jäger; Katrin Tonndorf; Omar A. Niamut; David Marston
The third edition of the WSICC workshop aims to bring together researchers and practitioners working on novel approaches for interactive multimedia content consumption. WSICC has established itself as a truly interactive workshop at EuroITV'13 and TVX'14 with two successful editions. The aims and scope of WSICC'15 have been sharpened based on the results from previous workshops. New technologies, devices, media formats and consumption paradigms are emerging that allow for new types of interactivity. All these recent advances have an impact on the user's experience -- therefore, discussions during the workshop based on the participants' contributions will consider this aspect with particular emphasis. The workshop's program, further details and documentation about all WSICC editions is available on the wsicc.net website.
People, Context, and Devices: Defining the New Landscape of TV Experiences BIBAFull-Text 209-213
  Isha Dandavate; Jennifer Milam; Jeanne Allen; Christiane Moser; Thomas Kargl; Manfred Tscheligi; Jeroen Vanattenhoven; Lilia Perez Romero; Fabian Schiller; Joost Negenman
Modern technologies (e.g., tablet, smartphone, large public displays) remove many of the constraints that define the scope of what television is or can be, but we often define it based upon our prior TV experiences with broadcast and cable television. This one-day workshop at TVX 2015 will address design challenges and opportunities (e.g., of video streams, social TV apps, second screens) in order to consolidate existing knowledge to describe the changing landscape of TV experiences. It's time to redefine what we think of when we say "television," and this workshop will engage participants in that process.
Media Synchronization Workshop BIBAFull-Text 215-219
  Hans Stokking; Pablo Cesar; Fernando Boronat; Mario Montagud
The Media Synchronization workshop, in its third edition, brings together an active community around the topic of media synchronization, attracting relevant researchers in this area. The objective of the workshop is to further built this community and set the research agenda on the topic of media synchronization. We will do this by sharing our current research in short presentations, and by having an active session in the afternoon. We will be working in subgroups on key problem areas, present our work to the whole group as a starting point for an active discussion on the most relevant research to be carried out in the coming years.

Closing Keynote Address

Multi-Sensory Media Experiences BIBAFull-Text 221
  Marianna Obrist
The way we experience the world is based on our five senses, which allow us unique and often surprising sensations of our environment. Interactive technologies are mainly stimulating our senses of vision and hearing, partly our sense of touch, and the sense of taste and smell are widely under-exploited. There is however a growing international interest of the film, video, and game industries in more immersive viewing and gaming experiences. In the 20th century there was a demand for a controllable way to describe colours that initiated intense research on the descriptions of colours and substantially contributed to advances in computer graphics, image processing, photography and cinematography. Similarly, the 21st century now demands an investigation of touch, taste, and smell as sensory interaction modalities to enhance media experiences.