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TEI Tables of Contents: 07080910111213141516

Proceedings of the 2016 International Conference on Tangible and Embedded Interaction

Fullname:Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Tangible, Embedded and Embodied Interaction
Editors:Saskia Bakker; Caroline Hummels; Brygg Ullmer; Luc Geurts; Bart Hengeveld; Daniel Saakes; Mendel Broekhuijsen
Location:Eindhoven, Netherlands
Dates:2016-Feb-14 to 2016-Feb-17
Publisher:ACM
Standard No:ISBN: 978-1-4503-3582-9; ACM DL: Table of Contents; hcibib: TEI16
Papers:121
Pages:793
Links:Conference Website
  1. Keynote Addresses
  2. Stuff That Works
  3. Share, Show and Tell
  4. What Your Body Can Do For You
  5. When Learning Is Tough
  6. Keep In Shape
  7. With All Your Forces
  8. Not For Kids Only
  9. Demos and Posters
  10. Work-in-Progress
  11. Art Exhibition
  12. Graduate Student Consortium
  13. Student Design Challenge
  14. Studio-Workshops

Keynote Addresses

Design Everything By Yourself User Interfaces For Graphics, CAD Modeling, and Robots BIBAFull-Text 1
  Takeo Igarashi
I will introduce our research project (design interface project) aiming at the development of various design tools for end-users. We live in a mass-production society today and everyone buy and use same things all over the world. This might be economically efficient, but not necessarily ideal for individual persons. We envision that computer tools that help people to design things by themselves can enrich their lives. To that end, we develop innovative interaction techniques for end users to (1) create rich graphics such as three-dimensional models and animations by simple sketching (2) design their own real-world, everyday objects such as clothing and furniture with real-time physical simulation integrated in a simple geometry editor, and (3) design the behavior of their personal robots and give instructions to them to satisfy their particular needs.
Inherently Meaningful BIBAFull-Text 2
  Tom Djajadiningrat
Am I the only one who got a little confused over the years on what tangible interaction is about? Originally it was about fusing the physical and the digital, but isn't everything these days? Augmented Reality, The Internet of Things ... are they too forms of tangible interaction? Does it really matter whether intelligence is embedded in an object or attributed to it through computer vision? And when a commonplace electronic product gets internet-enabled and its state affects other systems, does its use suddenly count as tangible interaction? More and more, I am starting to understand tangible interaction as an approach to designing interactive products which respect and exploit the user's bodily skills and which build upon the notion that our traditional physical environment is inherently meaningful to us. In this talk I will show a number of demonstrators built at Philips Design. Whilst none of them were designed with tangible interaction in mind, they all take cues from our interaction with the physical world. Working from these examples, I will share some of the obstacles we ran into as well as some interaction principles which I believe have recurring value when designing for tangible interaction.

Stuff That Works

Navigation of Pitch Space on a Digital Musical Instrument with Dynamic Tactile Feedback BIBAFull-Text 3-11
  Robert Jack; Tony Stockman; Andrew McPherson
We present a study investigating the impact of dynamic tactile feedback on performer navigation of a continuous pitch space on a digital musical instrument. Ten musicians performed a series of blind pitch selection and melodic tasks on a self-contained digital musical instrument with audio-frequency tactile feedback that was generated in response to their interaction. Results from the study show that tactile feedback can positively impact a performer's ability to play in tune when the instrument is hidden from sight, however with a temporal impact on performance. Furthermore, several playing techniques were observed that emerged from the performer's engagement with the tactile feedback conditions. We discuss the implications of our findings in the context of tangible interface design and non-visual interface navigation. We also discuss how our implementation suggests guidelines for future instruments and interfaces incorporating dynamic tactile feedback and present a novel tactile feedback technique that uses tactile 'beating'.
MobiSweep: Exploring Spatial Design Ideation Using a Smartphone as a Hand-held Reference Plane BIBAFull-Text 12-20
  A Vinayak; Devarajan Ramanujan; Cecil Piya; Karthik Ramani
In this paper, we explore quick 3D shape composition during early-phase spatial design ideation. Our approach is to re-purpose a smartphone as a hand-held reference plane for creating, modifying, and manipulating 3D sweep surfaces. We implemented MobiSweep, a prototype application to explore a new design space of constrained spatial interactions that combine direct orientation control with indirect position control via well-established multi-touch gestures. MobiSweep leverages kinesthetically aware interactions for the creation of a sweep surface without explicit position tracking. The design concepts generated by users, in conjunction with their feedback, demonstrate the potential of such interactions in enabling spatial ideation.
TMotion: Embedded 3D Mobile Input using Magnetic Sensing Technique BIBAFull-Text 21-29
  Sang Ho Yoon; Ke Huo; Karthik Ramani
We present TMotion, a self-contained 3D input that enables spatial interactions around mobile device using a magnetic sensing technique. We embed a permanent magnet and an inertial measurement unit (IMU) in a stylus. When the stylus moves around the mobile device, we obtain a continuous magnetometer readings. By numerically solving non-linear magnetic field equations with known orientation from IMU, we achieve 3D position tracking with update rate greater than 30Hz. Our experiments evaluated the position tracking accuracy, showing an average error of 4.55mm in the space of 80mm×120mm×100mm. Furthermore, the experiments confirmed the tracking robustness against orientations and dynamic tracings. In task evaluations, we verified the tracking and targeting performance in spatial interactions with users. We demonstrate example applications that highlight TMotion's interaction capability.
DataSpoon: Overcoming Design Challenges in Tangible and Embedded Assistive Technologies BIBAFull-Text 30-37
  Oren Zuckerman; Tamar Gal; Tal Keren-Capelovitch; Tal Karsovsky; Ayelet Gal-Oz; Patrice L. Tamar Weiss
The design of tangible and embedded assistive technologies poses unique challenges. We describe the challenges we encountered during the design of "DataSpoon", explain how we overcame them, and suggest design guidelines. DataSpoon is an instrumented spoon that monitors movement kinematics during self-feeding. Children with motor disorders often encounter difficulty mastering self-feeding. In order to treat them effectively, professional caregivers need to assess their movement kinematics. Currently, assessment is performed through observations and questionnaires. DataSpoon adds sensor-based data to this process. A validation study showed that data obtained from DataSpoon and from a 6-camera 3D motion capture system were similar. Our experience yielded three design guidelines: needs of both caregivers and children should be considered; distractions to direct caregiver-child interaction should be minimized; familiar-looking devices may alleviate concerns associated with unfamiliar technology.
T4Tags 2.0: A Tangible System for Supporting Users' Needs in the Domestic Environment BIBAFull-Text 38-43
  Andrea Vianello; Yves Florack; Andrea Bellucci; Giulio Jacucci
The use of dedicated devices may insufficiently support the variety and subtlety of domestic arrangements: they usually focus on specific aspects (e.g., home automation, health, safety, etc.) and potentially become obsolete, since they are unable to be recomposed and adapted to the needs of new situations. Open-ended and repurposable technologies could better address domestic users' needs. We present T4Tags 2.0, an open-ended toolkit for programming tangible tokens that embed different sensing technologies and can be attached to ordinary objects to create smart behaviors at home. We report findings from a one-day workshop we carried out to explore opportunities of the toolkit.

Share, Show and Tell

Interactive Jewellery: a design exploration BIBAFull-Text 44-52
  Maarten Versteeg; Elise van den Hoven; Caroline Hummels
Many current wearables have a technology-driven background: the focus is primarily on functionality, while their possible personal and social-cultural value is underappreciated. We think that developing wearables from a jewellery perspective can compensate for this. The personal and social cultural values embodied by traditional jewellery are often tightly connected to their function as memento. In this paper we reflect from a jewellery perspective, a memory-studies perspective and a TEI-perspective on three design proposals for interactive jewellery. We identify 1) drawing inspiration from interaction with traditional jewellery, 2) using relatively simple technology with high experiential qualities, 3) abstract and poetic data representation and 4) storing data uniquely on the digital jewel as possible design directions.
Technologies for Everyday Life Reflection: Illustrating a Design Space BIBAFull-Text 53-61
  Ine Mols; Elise van den Hoven; Berry Eggen
Reflection gives insight, supports action and can improve wellbeing. People might want to reflect more often for these benefits, but find it difficult to do so in everyday life. Research in HCI has shown the potential of systems to support reflection in different contexts. In this paper we present a design space for supporting everyday life reflection. We produced a workbook with a selection of conceptual design proposals, which show how systems can take different roles in the process of reflection: triggering, supporting and capturing. We describe a design space with two dimensions by combining these roles with strategies found in literature. We contribute to the extensive body of work on reflection by outlining how design for everyday life reflection requires a focus on more holistic reflection, design with openness and integration in everyday life.
Towards a Framework for Tangible Narratives BIBAFull-Text 62-69
  Daniel Harley; Jean Ho Chu; Jamie Kwan; Ali Mazalek
This paper presents a preliminary framework to inform the analysis and design of tangible narratives. Researchers and designers have been using tangible user interfaces (TUIs) for storytelling over the past two decades, but to date no comprehensive analysis of these systems exists. We argue that storytelling systems that use digitally-enhanced physical objects form a unique medium with identifiable narrative characteristics. Our framework isolates these characteristics and focuses on the user's perspective to identify commonalities between existing systems, as well as gaps that can be addressed by new systems. We find that the majority of systems in our sample require the user to perform exploratory actions from an external narrative position. We note that systems that cast the user in other interactive roles are rare but technologically feasible, suggesting that there are many underexplored possibilities for tangible storytelling.
Designing the Behavior of Interactive Objects BIBAFull-Text 70-77
  Marco Spadafora; Victor Chahuneau; Nikolas Martelaro; David Sirkin; Wendy Ju
To design proactive and autonomous interactive objects, designers deal with the design of the object's behavior. In this paper, we propose a design method, called Personality, to help designers develop interactive objects' behaviors with a focus on aesthetics of interaction; the method focuses on tangible and bodily interaction, and it includes four main steps. The "unguided improvisation" step consists of an initial interplay with the interactive object in order to size up the interaction; a brainstorming step, in which we use stereotypes of personalities to create metaphors, to support the discussion around, and the description of, possible behaviors; the "guided improvisation" step iterates over several improvisation sessions to act out interaction scenarios and behaviors; and the behavior synthesis step, in which we provide a final description of the object's behavior. To illustrate Personality we will describe the sofa-bot case study. We will report a lab study, in which we observed people reaction to the different behaviors of the sofa.
Ideating in Skills: Developing Tools for Embodied Co-Design BIBAFull-Text 78-85
  Dorothé Smit; Doenja Oogjes; Bruna Goveia de Rocha; Ambra Trotto; Yeup Hur; Caroline Hummels
In this paper, we show the development of the Ideating in Skills (IiS) toolset: an embodied design tool aimed at supporting co-design processes. The iterative process of developing the toolset was carried out by students. They worked individually at first, exploring their own skills and moods through movement, visualisations and poetry. These explorations were translated into objects that were able to communicate and connect with each other. In each iteration, the design of the qualities of these connections was based on the findings of the previous explorations. After several individual and team-based iterations, a final toolset was collaboratively created and evaluated in various short design sessions. Based on the potential of the first version of the toolset, a second version was created that is currently used and tested in one-on-one settings all over the world and in multi-stakeholder settings in a creative hub in Sweden.

What Your Body Can Do For You

Modifying Gesture Elicitation: Do Kinaesthetic Priming and Increased Production Reduce Legacy Bias? BIBAFull-Text 86-91
  Lynn Hoff; Eva Hornecker; Sven Bertel
A common issue in gesture elicitation studies is that participants are influenced by interaction with digital products, imitating touchscreen gestures or WIMP icons. In our study, we adapted and experimentally tested two of Morris' et al.'s suggestions for reducing legacy bias: increased production of gestures and covert kinaesthetic priming. Our findings indicate that the practical effectiveness of these strategies might be limited, given we only found medium effect sizes and a wide variance between participants that overshadows any effects. Our work contributes to reflection on, and indirectly, by experimentally testing potential variations, to future improvements of the gesture elicitation method.
If Your Mind Can Grasp It, Your Hands Will Help BIBAFull-Text 92-99
  Simon Stusak; Moritz Hobe; Andreas Butz
This paper describes a study comparing the information recall of participants using 2D and 3D physical visualizations. Specifically, it focuses on physical bar charts and evaluates the difference between a paper-based visualization and a version built with wooden blocks. We conducted a repeated measures study involving 16 participants in which we measured the recall of information immediately after the exploration and with a delay of one week. We used questionnaires and semi-structured interviews to obtain more information about the process of recall and participants' opinions whether and how the visualizations differ in their potential for memorizing information. The results point out that participants believe to remember the 3D visualizations better, but besides the recall of extreme values the quantitative data cannot completely verify this appreciation. Furthermore the results highlight that the in the study used physical interaction techniques are not able to compensate lacking visual differentiation. One surprising finding was the strong dependency of the different data sets on the recall performance.
Exploring the Aesthetics of Tangible Interaction: Experiments on the Perception of Hybrid Objects BIBAFull-Text 100-108
  Daniela Petrelli; Alessandro Soranzo; Luigina Ciolfi; John Reidy
We report the results of an extended empirical two-stage study on the aesthetics of hybrid objects that combine form and behaviour. By combining two shapes (spheres and cubes); two sizes (7.5cm and 15cm); two materials (fabric and plastic); and four behaviours (emitting light, emitting sound, vibrating or displaying no behaviour) we created 32 objects that differ for a single feature. In a between-participants study, 175 participants assessed and described the 32 objects. From this, seven dimensions were identified: pleasant; interesting; comfortable; playful; relaxing; special and surprising. In a second between-participants experiment 486 participants rated each object on the seven dimensions from the first study. Overall Spheres, Fabric, and Vibration were the preferred features, but for some of the dimensions specific combinations of features were rated more positively. This paper contribution is twofold: it provides a first study on the aesthetic of tangible interaction as a combination of form and behaviour outlining a potential instrument to measure it; and it provides empirical evidence of the value of experimenting with different forms (spheres) and material (fabric) even if they are difficult to create as they generate the strongest aesthetic effects.
The Aesthetics of Heat: Guiding Awareness with Thermal Stimuli BIBAFull-Text 109-117
  Martin Jonsson; Anna Ståhl; Johanna Mercurio; Anna Karlsson; Naveen Ramani; Kristina Höök
In this paper we discuss the design process and results from a design exploration on the use of thermal stimuli in body awareness exercises. A user-study was performed on an interactive prototype in the form of an interactive heat mat. The paper brings forth an alternative understanding of heat as a design material that extends the common understanding of thermal stimuli in HCI as a communication modality to instead bring the aesthetic and experiential properties to the fore. Findings account for felt body experiences of thermal stimuli and a number of design qualities related to heat as a design material are formulated, pointing to experiential qualities concerning the felt body, subjectivity and subtleness as well as material qualities concerning materiality, inertia and heat transfer.
Substituting Color for Haptic Attributes in Conceptual Metaphors for Tangible Interaction Design BIBAFull-Text 118-125
  Diana Löffler; Lennart Arlt; Takashi Toriizuka; Robert Tscharn; Jörn Hurtienne
Studies in tangible interaction have investigated how physical object attributes can stand for abstract content (e.g. IMPORTANT IS HEAVY). A less expensive and more practical alternative to dynamically change, for example, the size, weight or temperature of tangibles, could be using color-to-abstract mappings. Grounded in embodied cognition theory, a number of color-for-haptic substitutions are derived (e.g. DARK COLORS ARE HEAVY). These substitutions are then tested for their effectiveness with 15 conceptual metaphors (e.g. IMPORTANT IS DARK COLOR). In four conditions (haptic, color, haptic-color congruence, haptic-color incongruence) 48 participants matched objects of different colors, sizes, weights or temperatures with abstract words. The results indicate that color can replace haptic attributes in metaphoric mappings and that designers need to explicitly design for color, because metaphor-incongruent colors can hamper the effectiveness of metaphorical mappings. The results also indicate that an embodied experiential view can circumvent arguing about specific colors with high-level symbolic meanings.

When Learning Is Tough

It Could Just as Well Have Been in Greek: Experiences from Introducing Code as a Design Material to Exhibition Design Students BIBAFull-Text 126-132
  Jennie Schaeffer; Rikard Lindell
This paper discusses the experience and learning from introducing programming in a museum exhibition design course. Thirty-seven information design students from Sweden, with no previous experience in programming, participated in the course in 2014 and 2015. The students' tasks were to create interactive exhibition stations at a county museum in five weeks. We introduced Arduino and Processing programming in the course to enlarge the information design students' repertoire and to find ways to develop the interactive aspects of the exhibition medium. We aim to identify and discuss challenges and strengths when introducing code as design material in design education. The education of future exhibition designers is an important matter relevant the TEI community.
A Tangible Embedded Programming System to Convey Event-Handling Concept BIBAFull-Text 133-140
  Danli Wang; Lan Zhang; Chao Xu; Haichen Hu; Yunfeng Qi
Learning programming has positive effect on children's development, and Tangible User Interfaces (TUIs) is a convenient way for teaching young children programming. TanProRobot 2.0 is a tangible system as well as a small-scale distributed embedded system designed for children at grades 1-2 to learn programming concepts. The system consists of three parts: tangible programming blocks, a robot car and several manipulatives. The input and output of the system are both tangible. Children can program the robot car to act certain actions by arranging the programming blocks. Also, children can interact with the car with manipulatives. TanProRobot 2.0 aims to introduce event handling concept and sensors to children. Through a user study with 11 children, we found that TanProRobot 2.0 is an interesting programming system for children, and it is easy to learn and to use. Furthermore, it could help children get a preliminary understanding of event handling concepts.
SynFlo: A Tangible Museum Exhibit for Exploring Bio-Design BIBAFull-Text 141-149
  Johanna Okerlund; Evan Segreto; Casey Grote; Lauren Westendorf; Anja Scholze; Romie Littrell; Orit Shaer
We present SynFlo, a tangible museum exhibit for exploring bio-design. SynFlo utilizes active and concrete tangible tokens to allow visitors to experience a playful biodesign activity through complex interactivity with digital biological creations. We developed two versions of SynFlo: one that combines active tokens with real concrete objects (i.e. labware) and one that consists of only abstract active tokens. Results from an evaluation in a museum indicate that both systems support learning. We discuss design choices for biology education tools to overcome confounders of biology and facilitate positive engagement and learning.
Engaging 'At-Risk' Students through Maker Culture Activities BIBAFull-Text 150-158
  Sowmya Somanath; Laura Morrison; Janette Hughes; Ehud Sharlin; Mario Costa Sousa
This paper presents a set of lessons learnt from introducing maker culture and DIY paradigms to 'at-risk' students (age 12-14). Our goal is to engage 'at-risk' students through maker culture activities. While improved technology literacy is one of the outcomes we also wanted the learners to use technology to realize concepts and ideas, and to gain freedom of thinking similar to creators, artists and designers. We present our study and a set of high level suggestions to enable thinking about how maker culture activities can facilitate engagement and creative use of technology by 1) thinking about creativity in task, 2) facilitating different entry points, 3) the importance of personal relevance, and 4) relevance to education.
Using Tangible Smart Replicas as Controls for an Interactive Museum Exhibition BIBAFull-Text 159-167
  Mark T. Marshall; Nick Dulake; Luigina Ciolfi; Daniele Duranti; Hub Kockelkorn; Daniela Petrelli
This paper presents the design, creation and use of tangible smart replicas in a large-scale museum exhibition. We describe the design rationale for the replicas, the process used in their creation, as well as the implementation and deployment of these replicas in a live museum exhibition. Deployment of the exhibition resulted in over 14000 visitors interacting with the system during the 6 months that the exhibition was open. Based on log data, interviews and observations, we examine the reaction to these smart replicas from the point of view of the museum curators and also of the museum's visitors and reflect on the fulfillment of our expectations.

Keep In Shape

LivingSurface: Biofeedback through Shape-changing Display BIBAFull-Text 168-175
  Bin Yu; Nienke Bongers; Alissa van Asseldonk; Jun Hu; Mathias Funk; Loe Feijs
In this paper we describe the concept, design and implementation of LivingSurface, an interactive wall-like surface as a shape-changing display of biofeedback. The surface changes its shape responding to an individual's physiological data, reflecting the internal bodily processes. The surface design basically consists of two layers: the pattern layer (front layer) and the actuating layer (back layer). The first is a complex paper-based structure with repetitive incisions created by laser cutting. The actuating layer serves as a medium transforming the force from servomotors, vibration motors or fans into an action on the pattern layer. The cutout patterns are stimulated to vibrate, swing, bulge, or rotate which is used to display physiological information in dynamic physical form. This work has been exhibited on Milan Design Week 2015; we collected and analyzed the feedback from the visitors during the exhibition and discuss the possibilities of the proposed surfaces as a shape-changing interface of biofeedback or an ambient display of information.
Tangible Viewports: Getting Out of Flatland in Desktop Environments BIBAFull-Text 176-184
  Renaud Gervais; Joan Sol Roo; Martin Hachet
Spatial augmented reality and tangible interaction enrich the standard computer I/O space. Systems based on such modalities offer new user experiences and open up interesting perspectives in various fields. On the other hand, such systems tend to live outside the standard desktop paradigm and, as a consequence, they do not benefit from the richness and versatility of desktop environments. In this work, we propose to join together physical visualization and tangible interaction within a standard desktop environment. We introduce the concept of Tangible Viewport, an on-screen window that creates a dynamic link between augmented objects and computer screens, allowing a screen-based cursor to move onto the object in a seamless manner. We describe an implementation of this concept and explore the interaction space around it. A preliminary evaluation shows the metaphor is transparent to the users while providing the benefits of tangibility.
ReFlex: A Flexible Smartphone with Active Haptic Feedback for Bend Input BIBAFull-Text 185-192
  Paul Strohmeier; Jesse Burstyn; Juan Pablo Carrascal; Vincent Levesque; Roel Vertegaal
ReFlex is a flexible smartphone with bend input and active haptic feedback. ReFlex's features allow the introduction of sensations such as friction or resistance. We report results from an experiment using ReFlex in a targeting task, as well as initial users' reactions to the prototype. We explore both absolute and relative tactile haptic feedback, paired with two types of bend input mappings: position-control and rate-control. We observed that position-controlled cursors paired well with relative bend feedback, while rate-controlled cursors paired well with absolute bend feedback to indicate targets. We also explored an eyes-free condition. Results suggest that while eyes-free, haptic feedback conditions were more error-prone than visual-only conditions, the size of the error was relatively small, and users were able to complete the task in all cases. We present two application scenarios that take advantage of the unique input and output modalities of ReFlex and discuss its potential for within document navigation.
A Basic Form Language for Shape-Changing Interfaces BIBAFull-Text 193-201
  Morten Winther; Anna Vallgårda
In this paper we propose a basic form language for shape-changing forms that work independently of materials and contexts of use. This form language is meant to inform design practice and therefore it is essential that it is easily graspable and available. Instead of relying on post analyses and abstract concepts, the basic form language we propose has the potential to become a vernacular that is relevant for practitioners. We derive at the language through looking towards adjacent fields of architecture and industrial design as well as through our own practice. We qualify the relevancy of the language in three ways: through using it in practice both as generative for our designs, as means to communicate with external collaborators, and finally we demonstrate its analytical power through analyzing three shape-changing interfaces made by others.
Balancing User and System Control in Shape-Changing Interfaces: a Designerly Exploration BIBAFull-Text 202-210
  Majken Kirkegård Rasmussen; Timothy Merritt; Miguel Bruns Alonso; Marianne Graves Petersen
Despite an increasing number of examples of shape-changing interfaces, the relation between users' actions and product movements has not gained a great deal of attention, nor been very well articulated. This paper presents a framework articulating the level of control offered to the user over the shape change. The framework considers whether the shape change is: 1) directly controlled by the user's explicit interactions; 2) negotiated with the user; 3) indirectly controlled by the users actions; 4) fully controlled by the system. The four types are described through design examples using ReFlex, a shape-changing interface in the form of a smartphone. The paper concludes that shape-changing interfaces tend to assign the control to either the user or the underlying system, while few (e.g. [16,28]) consider sharing the control between the user and the system.

With All Your Forces

On the Other Hand: Embodied Metaphors for Interactions with Mnemonic Objects in Live Presentations BIBAFull-Text 211-217
  Fabian Hemmert; Gesche Joost
We describe a presentation system based on the embodied metaphors of giving presentations: topics are picked up, one goes through a series of points, and comes to a conclusion. Technically, our system is based on body tracking and hand-worn RFID readers. Wearing these readers, users can activate topics in live presentations by picking up RFID-tagged mnemonic objects. Each topic can consist of multiple points, which are mapped to positions on stage. Users can activate a point (and its corresponding slide) by walking up to its position on stage. Various actions, triggered by constellations of handheld objects and movements on stage, are supported by the system. We conducted a series of informal user feedback sessions. Its results indicate that our system has strengths and weaknesses, depending on presenter style and presentation context.
Snake Charmer: Physically Enabling Virtual Objects BIBAFull-Text 218-226
  Bruno Araujo; Ricardo Jota; Varun Perumal; Jia Xian Yao; Karan Singh; Daniel Wigdor
Augmented and virtual reality have the potential of being indistinguishable from the real world. Holographic displays, including head mounted units, support this vision by creating rich stereoscopic scenes, with objects that appear to float in thin air -- often within arm's reach. However, one has but to reach out and grasp nothing but air to destroy the suspension of disbelief. Snake-charmer is an attempt to provide physical form to virtual objects by revisiting the concept of Robotic Graphics or Encountered-type Haptic interfaces with current commodity hardware. By means of a robotic arm, Snake-charmer brings physicality to a virtual scene and explores what it means to truly interact with an object. We go beyond texture and position simulation and explore what it means to have a physical presence inside a virtual scene. We demonstrate how to render surface characteristics beyond texture and position, including temperature; how to physically move objects; and how objects can physically interact with the user's hand. We analyze our implementation, present the performance characteristics, and provide guidance for the construction of future physical renderers.
TOBE: Tangible Out-of-Body Experience BIBAFull-Text 227-235
  Renaud Gervais; Jérémy Frey; Alexis Gay; Fabien Lotte; Martin Hachet
We propose a toolkit for creating Tangible Out-of-Body Experiences: exposing the inner states of users using physiological signals such as heart rate or brain activity. Tobe can take the form of a tangible avatar displaying live physiological readings to reflect on ourselves and others. Such a toolkit could be used by researchers and designers to create a multitude of potential tangible applications, including (but not limited to) educational tools about Science Technologies Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) and cognitive science, medical applications or entertainment and social experiences with one or several users or Tobes involved. Through a co-design approach, we investigated how everyday people picture their physiology and we validated the acceptability of Tobe in a scientific museum. We also give a practical example where two users relax together, with insights on how Tobe helped them to synchronize their signals and share a moment.

Not For Kids Only

From Patchwork to Appliqué: Reflections from an Interaction Design Remake BIBAFull-Text 236-244
  Moa Bergsmark; Ylva Fernaeus
We present a case in which an existing tangible system and its core design values has been used to create a new variation with available standard technology exactly one decade later. We reflect on how the new technological setup fundamentally changed the interaction in terms of electronic media and behavior, as well as regarding perception, physical manipulation, and overall social activity. The new design is discussed in terms of transformations of practice, which shifted our conceptual understanding of the interaction from the metaphor of making a patchwork to that of an appliqué.
Embodied Companion Technologies for Autistic Children BIBAFull-Text 245-252
  Katharina Spiel; Julia Makhaeva; Christopher Frauenberger
With few exceptions, technology for autistic children tends to be focused on the regulation of perceived deficits. With OutsideTheBox we focus on the strengths of the children as design partners and created in our first year four technological objects together with them. They all have common that they are embedded in the children's lives and share some degree of embodied interaction. We present a case study along with four objects, two of them with wearable components, two of them focused at sharing experiences in an embodied mode. This opens up the argument not only for more design actually led by autistic children, but also for companion technologies that embody situatedness. Such technologies are then not driven by an outsider's perspective of what an autistic child needs, but rather are intrinsically valuable to them as a user.
SmallTalk: Using Tangible Interactions to Gather Feedback from Children BIBAFull-Text 253-261
  Sarah Gallacher; Connie Golsteijn; Yvonne Rogers; Licia Capra; Sophie Eustace
Gathering opinions from young children is challenging and different methods have been explored. In this paper we investigated how tangible devices can be used to gather feedback from children in the context of a theater performance. We introduce SmallTalk, a tangible survey system designed for use within a theater space to capture what children, aged 4 to 9, thought of a live performance they had just seen. We describe how the system was designed to build on previous feedback methods that had been tried; while at the same time meeting the constraints of the challenging theater context. We present results from seven deployments of SmallTalk and based on these we briefly discuss its value as a method for evaluating the theater performance. We then look at how the results validated the system design and present several design implications that more generally relate to tangible feedback systems for children.
Tangible Play Objects: Influence of Different Combinations of Feedback Modalities BIBAFull-Text 262-270
  Hanneke Hooft van Huysduynen; Linda de Valk; Tilde Bekker
This paper presents a study on children's play with tangible, interactive objects called MagicBuns. The aim of this study was to examine the support of different combinations of tangible feedback on different play behaviors and forms of play related to the different development stages of children. Furthermore, a comparison of the play behavior was made between children within the age category four till six and children in the age category ten till twelve years old. Creating guidelines for designing play objects which can grow along with the children. For this study MagicBuns were developed, that through rolling or shaking vibrate, create sounds or change color. Eighty children played in small groups in three different play sessions with these objects. These sessions showed that younger children engage more in parallel play, making use of one feedback modality and simple interaction rules, while older children prefer more complexity. They integrate multiple interaction rules and feedback modalities in their games.
ChillFish: A Respiration Game for Children with ADHD BIBAFull-Text 271-278
  Tobias Sonne; Mads Møller Jensen
Breathing exercises can help children with ADHD control their stress level, but it can be hard for a child to sustain attention throughout such an exercise. In this paper, we present ChillFish, a breath-controlled biofeedback game designed in collaboration with ADHD professionals to investigate the possibilities of combining breathing exercises and game design. Based on a pilot study with 16 adults, we found that playing ChillFish had a positive effect, helping the participants to reach a relaxed state similar to the one offered by traditional breathing exercises. Further, we analyze the opportunities and challenges of creating a tangible respiration-based controller and use it as a core game mechanic. Finally, we discuss the challenge of balancing engagement and relaxation in physically controlled games for children with ADHD in order to make a game that can be calming and still sustain their attention.

Demos and Posters

Comparing Tangible and Multi-touch Interaction for Interactive Data Visualization Tasks BIBAFull-Text 279-286
  Shiroq Al-Megren; Roy A. Ruddle
Interactive visualization plays a key role in the analysis of large datasets. It can help users to explore data, investigate hypotheses and find patterns. The easier and more tangible the interaction, the more likely it is to enhance understanding. This paper presents a tabletop Tangible User Interface (TUI) for interactive data visualization and offers two main contributions. First, we highlight the functional requirements for a data visualization interface and present a tabletop TUI that combines tangible objects with multi-touch interaction. Second, we compare the performance of the tabletop TUI and a multi-touch interface. The results show that participants found patterns faster with the TUI. This was due to the fact that they adopted a more effective strategy using the tabletop TUI than the multi-touch interface.
Sparse Tangibles: Collaborative Exploration of Gene Networks using Active Tangibles and Interactive Tabletops BIBAFull-Text 287-295
  Ahmed Sabbir Arif; Roozbeh Manshaei; Sean Delong; Brien East; Matthew Kyan; Ali Mazalek
We present Sparse Tangibles, a tabletop and active tangible-based framework to support cross-platform, collaborative gene network exploration using a Web interface. It uses smartwatches as active tangibles to allow query construction on- and off-the-table. We expand their interaction vocabulary using inertial sensors and a custom case. We also introduce a new metric for measuring the "confidence level" of protein and genetic interactions. Three expert biologists evaluated the system and found it fun, useful, easy to use, and ideal for collaborative explorations.
Designing the Vertigo Experience: Vertigo as a Design Resource for Digital Bodily Play BIBAFull-Text 296-303
  Richard Byrne; Joe Marshall; Florian Floyd Mueller
Vertigo can be described as an attempt to momentarily destroy the stability of perception and inflict a kind of voluptuous panic upon an otherwise lucid mind. Vertigo has, however, not been generally considered as a design resource and we believe it to be under-explored in the area of digital bodily play. To investigate how vertigo could be considered as a design resource in this context, we conducted a review of relevant literature and held a design workshop with nine students to explore the potential of vertigo as a design resource for digital bodily play. From our exploration we identify five key design themes that designers might consider when designing a Vertigo Experience. Through this work we hope to encourage designers of bodily play experiences to consider vertigo as a design resource in their games.
Gleamy: An Ambient Display Lamp with a Transparency-Controllable Shade BIBAFull-Text 304-307
  Seijin Cha; Moon-Hwan Lee; Tek-Jin Nam
We present Gleamy, a lamp supporting ambient information display in everyday environment by the shade with controllable transparency. Information can be displayed abstractly by static or animated patterns on the shade. A preliminary study with twelve users showed that Gleamy naturally blended in a home environment. It satisfied practicality both as an ambient display and as a lighting device. We found that representation of information by Gleamy was unobtrusive and informative. The changes of the pattern on the shade delivered information in an emotionally rich and private manner, and enhanced aesthetic value as well. In this paper, we discuss design considerations that could improve peripheral information display using the shade with changeable transparency.
Pneumatibles: Exploring Soft Robotic Actuators for the Design of User Interfaces with Pneumotactile Feedback BIBAFull-Text 308-315
  Kristian Gohlke; Eva Hornecker; Wolfgang Sattler
This work explores an emerging category of interfaces: pneumatibles -- interactive, pneumatically driven actuator/sensor elements, made from pliable materials and inspired by soft-robotics principles -- and their potential for the design of tangible interfaces with integrated pneumotactile feedback. We present a novel pneumatic control-system, specifically designed for pneumotactile applications and a case study of a pneumatically actuated, pressure sensitive button pneumatible capable of providing tactile feedback. Our work further contributes to a better understanding of the underlying technical parameters (i.e. air-pressure, material properties, dimensions, actuation-sequences, etc.) that determine the design space of soft and pliable actuators for providing distinct tactile stimuli and enabling expressive control. We provide insights learned from the process of constructing and controlling pneumotactile actuators and present a preliminary user study, focused on participants' ability to identify pneumotactile feedback patterns. Finally, implications for the design of pneumotactile interfaces and the transfer of principles from soft-robotics to HCI are discussed.
DoDoc: a Composite Interface that Supports Reflection-in-Action BIBAFull-Text 316-323
  Pauline Gourlet; Sarah Garcin; Louis Eveillard; Ferdinand Dervieux
In this exploratory design study, we present DoDoc: a system that enables users to collect and keep traces of embodied activities using four different media. DoDoc has been designed to support learning by doing pedagogies by collecting digital material for reflection during making or playing activities. We report the results of the deployment of DoDoc during a French Digital Technology Fair; we derive the concept of composite interfaces; and we discuss the importance of flexibility when designing trace-collecting systems. We also map the different use-cases suggested by the users, which sketches a design space for future explorations.
Soft Pillows and the Near and Dear: Physical-to-Abstract Mappings with Image-Schematic Metaphors BIBAFull-Text 324-331
  Jörn Hurtienne; Oliver Meschke
For interaction designers who need systematic and universal guidelines on how to express abstract meaning via the physical and spatial means of tangible user interfaces, image-schematic metaphors have been shown to be a promising approach. Rooted in the embodied status of human cognition, image-schematic metaphors generate many candidates for population stereotypes of physical-to-abstract mappings. In an empirical study complementing earlier research 80 participants matched tangible objects with abstract keywords derived from 30 image-schematic metaphors of the image schemas UP-DOWN, FRONT-BACK, NEAR-FAR, HARD-SOFT, STRONG-WEAK and STRAIGHT-CROOKED. On average, 77% of the participants' responses were consistent with the metaphors, and 19 metaphors received agreement rates of at least 80% suggesting these to be valid population stereotypes. As agreement rates vary dependent on context and image schema instantiation, conclusions for further studies are drawn.
Experience as an Object to Think with: from Sensing-in-action to Making-Sense of action in Full-Body Interaction Learning Environments BIBAFull-Text 332-339
  Laura Malinverni; Edith Ackermann; Narcis Pares
We present a qualitative, idiographic study aimed at exploring how children create bridges between embodied experience and meaning construction while interacting with a Full-Body Interaction Learning Environment. Starting from the analysis of four case studies, we illustrate different possible paths through which children can transform embodied experience into an 'object -- to-think-with' and delineate the different resources for meaning making that they employed. These outcomes contribute to expand the current understanding around embodied learning with interactive technologies, as well as suggest a set of qualities to think about interaction design and future research.
Crafting Mechatronic Percussion with Everyday Materials BIBAFull-Text 340-348
  Hyunjoo Oh; Jiffer Harriman; Abhishek Narula; Mark D. Gross; Michael Eisenberg; Sherry Hsi
We present a kit comprising cardboard mechanical components and a custom printed circuit board, designed to support novices in building computational percussive instruments with everyday materials. We set three design criteria: accessibility, adaptability, and expressivity. We conducted two workshops with experts and novices to assess the usability of our kit and observe the variety of constructions that users make. The kit enabled both experts and novices to build working instruments and to explore creative experimentation with different materials and objects.
Engagement Through Embodiment: A Case For Mindful Interaction BIBAFull-Text 349-356
  Vincent van Rheden; Bart Hengeveld
In this paper we describe the development and evaluation of three kitchen blenders that were specifically designed to stimulate mindfulness in interaction, that is: engagement with, and care for what you are doing. We find that the directness we used to have preparing our food has been sacrificed to efficiency and ease of use, which does not match our current zest for 'slow food' and 'slow cooking'. We argue that most of our kitchen appliances make us less engaged in the act of and less caring for cooking. In order to counter this we see opportunities for a more tangible or embodied interaction style where expressive input leads to expressive output. In order to research this argument we have developed three embodied kitchen blender interaction styles and compared these to a more traditional blender interaction. Preliminary findings suggest that more embodied interaction styles do indeed lead to more mindful engagement in interaction.
miMic: The Microphone as a Pencil BIBAFull-Text 357-364
  Davide Rocchesso; Davide A. Mauro; Stefano Delle Monache
miMic, a sonic analogue of paper and pencil is proposed: An augmented microphone for vocal and gestural sonic sketching. Vocalizations are classified and interpreted as instances of sound models, which the user can play with by vocal and gestural control. The physical device is based on a modified microphone, with embedded inertial sensors and buttons. Sound models can be selected by vocal imitations that are automatically classified, and each model is mapped to vocal and gestural features for real-time control. With miMic, the sound designer can explore a vast sonic space and quickly produce expressive sonic sketches, which may be turned into sound prototypes by further adjustment of model parameters.
MOR4R: How to Create 3D Objects Using a Microwave Oven BIBAFull-Text 365-372
  Kentaro Yasu
This study presents a technique to make 3D objects by folding a resin sheet using a piece of common home electronic equipment: a microwave oven. Though personal fabrication has grown widely popular because of the price reduction of digital fabrication tools such as 3D printers or laser cutters, printing a 3D object is still slow. Moreover, installation of laser cutter at home is still difficult because of issues of health and safety. So, we have proposed a simple but widely applicable home fabrication method called "MOR4R": Microwave Oven Recipes for Resins. By putting properly sized microwave susceptor strips onto a piece of acrylic sheet, and microwaving it for about 3 minutes at a power of 800 W, only the part where the susceptor has been placed becomes soft. This paper reveals a suitable size of susceptor strips for folding an acrylic sheet. This technique allows the creator to form a rigid and strong object, much like folding an origami.

Work-in-Progress

EmotiPlant: Human-Plant Interaction for Older Adults BIBAFull-Text 373-379
  Leonardo Angelini; Stefania Caparrotta; Omar Abou Khaled; Elena Mugellini
This paper presents EmotiPlant, a system that aims to facilitate the nurturing of indoor plants for older adults. The proposed concept exploits the idea of a plant that is able to express emotions and display its status in relation to the environmental conditions. Thanks to the humanized behavior and the possibility to interact through the touch, the augmented plant can be seen as a companion for older adults. In this article, we present a first prototype of the system and we discuss the challenges to obtain a final product that older adults could use easily at home.
Maketec: A Makerspace as a Third Place for Children BIBAFull-Text 380-385
  David Bar-El; Oren Zuckerman
Makerspaces of various models are forming all around the world. We present a model and case study of the Maketec, a public drop-in makerspace for children, run by teens. The Maketec model is designed to promote making and socializing opportunities for girls and boys of ages 9-14. It is based on three underlying principles: (1) "Low Floor/Wide Walls": construction kits and digital fabrication technologies that allow kids to invent and create with no prior knowledge or expertise; (2) "Unstructured Learning": no formal instructors, teens serve as mentors for kids, and promote a culture of self-driven learning through projects; and (3) "A Makerspace as a Third Place": the Maketec is free and managed by kids for kids in an effort to form a unique community of young makers. We report on interviews with four recurring visitors, and discuss our insights around the three principles and the proposed model.
Functional Demonstrators to Support Understanding of Smart Materials BIBAFull-Text 386-391
  Bahareh Barati; Elvin Karana; Kaspar Jansen; Paul Hekkert
The emergence of smart materials has urged design education to keep up and take part in introducing them to design students. There has been a great deal of work on teaching conventional materials like wood, metal and polymers in product design. Yet when it comes to learning smart materials, the sources are very limited. Our research group in Delft University of Technology has initiated a number of projects, particularly focusing on understanding technical and experiential characteristics of smart materials as materials of design. Our mission is to communicate smart material qualities through pre-design tinkering activities and functional demonstrators, which also serve as a source for inspiration. In this paper, we explain our approach through an example case on electroluminescent materials.
IrukaTact: Submersible Haptic Search Glove BIBAFull-Text 392-397
  Aisen C. Chacin; Takeshi Oozu; Hiroo Iwata
IrukaTact is an open source assistive underwater glove that translates ultrasonic range finding data into haptic feedback. This paper describes the development of new models for underwater haptic actuation and the ongoing prototype development process necessary for creating this tool. Our objective is to create a system that detects underwater topographies to assist the location of sunken objects in flooded areas by sending haptic signals to wearer's fingertips produced by micropumps that propel water of varying pressures. This feedback system extends current haptic technologies by providing hybrid actuation including pressure and vibration underwater, while preserving the wearer's natural ability to grasp objects. This technology has many potential applications beyond underwater echohaptic location, such as new interfaces for virtual reality object simulation in aqueous environments.
Penseive Box: Themes for Digital Memorialization Practices BIBAFull-Text 398-403
  Charu Chaudhari; Anjanakshi Prakash; A. M. Tsaasan; Jed R. Brubaker; Joshua Tanenbaum
In this work, we describe several themes that can be useful for designing tangible technology in the context of death and mourning. We explore the effectiveness of physical and digital artifacts in the process honoring a loved one who has passed away. We employ a speculative prototype called Penseive Box to explore the intersection of tangible digital memorialization practices. Using this prototype to elicit reflections on personal memorialization practices, we interviewed several individuals who had recently lost a loved one, and present the results of our initial analysis here.
Embodying Alternate Attitudes: Design Opportunities for Physical Interfaces in Persuasive Gaming Experiences BIBAFull-Text 404-409
  Emily S. Cramer; Brendan B. Matkin; Alissa N. Antle
The ability to view issues through alternate attitudes is an increasingly valuable skill. Persuasive games provide users an opportunity to practice adopting alternate attitudes, but users' pre-existing attitudes can get in the way. Multi-player games can use collaboration to help users overcome their pre-existing attitudes, but techniques for single-player games are lacking. In this paper we suggest that physical interface features (e.g., temperature) could be used to prime alternate attitudes in users. Embodied metaphor theory provides a framework for relating physical characteristics of an interface to more abstract concepts like emotions and beliefs. To empirically validate our design concept, we instantiate it in Thermouse: a temperature-controlled mouse that serves as a research instrument to assess whether interface temperature can help users explore alternate attitudes towards divisive humanitarian issues.
Exploring the Potential of Realtime Haptic Feedback during Social Interactions BIBAFull-Text 410-416
  Ionut Damian; Elisabeth André
We explore the use of haptic feedback to deliver supportive information during social interactions in realtime. In an exploratory user study, we investigated perceptual limitations of vibration patterns during a conversation between peers. The results from this study have then been used to develop a system for providing users with realtime information regarding the quality of their nonverbal behaviour while engaged in a public speech.
Comparing bare-hand-in-air Gesture and Object-in-hand Tangible User Interaction for Navigation of 3D Objects in Modeling BIBAFull-Text 417-421
  Sanmathi Dangeti; Yingjie Victor Chen; Chunhui Zheng
3D modeling is used in Computer Graphics in various fields. Since the growth of gestures, virtual reality and embodied cognition, there have been various new technologies developed to either improve the modeling efficiency, or to provide more nature intuitive experience to the users. In this paper, from the user experience perspective, we try to compare these methods for navigation of 3D objects in the virtual modeling environment including: simple bare hand gestures, tangible user interfaces (TUI) with object in hand, as well as mouse/keyboard as the primary input. Based on embodied cognition theory, we hypothesis that the object-in-hand method might bring better user experience since the interaction between the object and hand can enhance the user's cognition while navigating a model. We present a conceptual design, with two approaches and three design models which demonstrate differences in user interaction with 3D modeling software.
Storytime with Hue: An Innovative Approach to Storytelling Where Storytellers Control a Dynamic Lighting Environment BIBAFull-Text 422-427
  Catherine Downey; Sherin Wafaai Kamel
UPDATED -- December 23, 2015. This paper describes a new way to experience storytime using light. The goal is to enhance the traditional way of storytime by designing a device that a story reader can use to control coloured lighting (Philips Hue lights) that is congruent to the storyline. The effect of the light is meant to engage the children and encourage further reading behaviour. The lighting design was developed as a result of evaluations with story readers and a co-creation workshop with children.
InfoPhys: Direct Manipulation of Information Visualisation through a Force-Feedback Pointing Device BIBAFull-Text 428-433
  Christian Frisson; Bruno Dumas
Information visualisation is the transformation of abstract data into visual, interactive representations. In this paper we present InfoPhys, a device that enables the direct, tangible manipulation of visualisations. InfoPhys makes use of a force-feedback pointing device to simulate haptic feedback while the user explores visualisations projected on top of the device. We present a use case illustrating the trends in ten years of TEI proceedings and how InfoPhys allows users to feel and manipulate these trends. The technical and software aspects of our prototype are presented, and promising improvements and future work opened by InfoPhys are then discussed.
Making Communication Frequency Tangible: How Green Is My Tree? BIBAFull-Text 434-440
  Carolina Fuentes; Iyubanit Rodríguez; Valeria Herskovic
Informal caregivers take care of someone (usually a close family member) who suffers from a chronic illness. In this stressful situation, caregivers have a high risk of depression or loneliness, because their social network is weakened. Most existing proposals focus on helping caregivers fulfill caregiving tasks, instead of providing support for their mental wellbeing (e.g. identifying early stages of social isolation). We present a prototype ambient interface, called EmoTree, that makes communication frequency tangible by using a metaphor of a tree, and investigate user perception and motivation of use. People found Emotree to be interesting and enjoyable (78%), and useful (54%) unless the user does not suffer some type of problem (69%). Our preliminary results show the interface is easy to use and has an adequate representation of communication frequency. Our next step will make a second assessment with informal caregivers in their real context.
Code Bits: An Inexpensive Tangible Computational Thinking Toolkit For K-12 Curriculum BIBAFull-Text 441-447
  Sidhant Goyal; Rohan S. Vijay; Charu Monga; Pratul Kalita
The extensive research in the domain of computational thinking has identified itself as one of the critical skills that needs to be a part of regular K-12 curriculum. However, most of the tangible computational thinking toolkits that are being developed are bulky and expensive to be deployed in classroom environments. In this paper we present Code Bits, a paper based tangible computational thinking toolkit that is inexpensive, portable and scalable. The students create programs using the tangible paper bits on any flat surface and use the Code Bits mobile application to process the code, which runs on any android device with a camera and uses augmented reality based games to improve the computational thinking skills of the students. The toolkit has been designed in way so as to promote collaboration amongst students.
TASK: Introducing The Interactive Audience Sensor Kit BIBAFull-Text 448-454
  Florian Güldenpfennig; Oliver Hödl; Peter Reichl; Christian Löw; Andreas Gartus; Matthew Pelowski
We introduce 'The interactive Audience Sensor Kit' (TASK). This modular system of wirelessly networked sensors facilitates the augmentation of artistic performances, in particular, music events or visual art. It was conceived to enable low-level and low-cost audience interaction by offering a set of tracker-nodes to be arranged across the venue as demanded by the corresponding performance event. In this paper, we present two modules from TASK, which are currently under development, and provide early insights from a field study. (1) TASKswitch reacts to the presence of bodies acting as an on/off switch and thereby can be used to modify particular aspects of a performance. (2) TASKvector, on the other hand, enables more complex input by tracking movement among the audience. For example, as we will show in the paper, we used the modules to create interactive audio-visual experiences for the audience where projections were modulated by TASK.
Toward Thingy Oriented Programming: Recording Marcos With Tangibles BIBAFull-Text 455-461
  Florian Güldenpfennig; Daniel Dudo; Peter Purgathofer
We introduce the concept of Thingy Oriented Programming (TOP), which is an experimental and alternative approach to prototyping simple electronics applications and systems that involve networks of sensors and actuators. TOP enables the users to define or 'program' (wirelessly) connected objects. While this approach allows powerful physical and interactive applications, no professional skills are needed since TOP-programs are defined by recording sequences of tangible interactions (i.e., interaction macros). Our primary target groups are designers who want to augment their physical prototypes with interactivity in little time, as well as end-users who are interested in enhancing specific tasks in their (smart) homes (e.g., creating a switch which turns on/off the lights by clapping twice the hands). A third target group is comprised of children and their educators in computer science and electronics. We describe the TOP concept including use scenarios, demonstrate a proof-of-concept prototype and explain our next intended steps.
Exploring the Use of Shape Change in Home Appliances BIBAFull-Text 462-467
  Frederik Lund Jakobsen; Jacob Albæk Schnedler; Stefan Michael Pedersen; Nikolai Houlberg Øllegaard
Vacuum cleaners are mundane, rigid, and at best manually reconfigurable. This paper investigates the potential of adding value to them by designing shape-changing interfaces. We present the conceptualization and design process of three prototypes that allow real-time reconfiguration of vacuum cleaners. Through discussion and reflection on design implications and experiences of the design process, we conclude that shape-change can contribute to designing engaging, functional, and aesthetic home appliances.
MARCut: Marker-based Laser Cutting for Personal Fabrication on Existing Objects BIBAFull-Text 468-474
  Takashi Kikuchi; Yuichi Hiroi; Ross T. Smith; Bruce H. Thomas; Maki Sugimoto
Typical personal fabrication using a laser cutter allows objects to be created from raw material and the engraving of existing objects. Current methods to precisely align an object with the laser is a difficult process due to indirect manipulations. In this paper, we propose a marker-based system as a novel paradigm for direct interactive laser cutting on existing objects. Our system, MARCut, performs the laser cutting based on tangible markers that are applied directly onto the object to express the design. Two types of markers are available; hand constructed Shape Markers that represent the desired geometry, and Command Markers that indicate the operational parameters such as cut, engrave or material.
UnicrePaint: Digital Painting through Physical Objects for Unique Creative Experiences BIBAFull-Text 475-481
  Mami Kosaka; Kaori Fujinami
Mankind's capacity for creativity is infinite. In the physical world, people create visual artistic works not only with specific tools, such as paintbrushes, but also with various objects, such as dried flowers pressed on paper. In contrast, digital painting has a number of advantages; however, such painting currently requires a specific tool, such as a stylus, which might diminish the pleasurable experience of creation. This paper proposes a digital painting system called UnicrePaint that utilizes daily objects as tools of expression and demonstrates the capabilities of the first prototype system with a pilot user study.
Grasping Cultural Context through Multisensory Interactions BIBAFull-Text 482-487
  Jamie Kwan; Jean Ho Chu; Daniel Harley; Melanie McBride; Ali Mazalek
This paper describes the research and design of three tangible and embodied prototypes that aim to enable users to meaningfully engage with an artifact's historical context and use. Together, these prototypes engage users in a cultural heritage experience that is sensorially embodied through a 'multimodal' ensemble of visual, aural, tactile, and olfactory interactions. A preliminary user test suggests that future work on multisensory interaction should focus on developing accessible design principles and considerations that support a sensorially embodied and tangible understanding of historical artifacts. We suggest that multisensory interactions present significant opportunities for interactive exhibits to expand our access to cultural history and its artifacts.
Exploring SCI as Means of Interaction through the Design Case of Vacuum Cleaning BIBAFull-Text 488-493
  Lasse Legaard; Josephine Raun Thomsen; Christian Hannesbo Lorentzen; Jonas Peter Techen
This paper explores the opportunities for incorporating shape changing properties into everyday home appliances. Throughout a design research approach the vacuum cleaner is used as a design case with the overall aim of enhancing the user experience by transforming the appliance into a sensing object. Three fully functional prototypes were developed in order to illustrate how shape change can fit into the context of our homes. The shape changing functionalities are: 1) a digital power button that supports dynamic affordances, 2) an analog handle that mediates the amount of dust particles through haptic feedback and 3) a body that behaves in a lifelike manner dependent on the user treatment. We report the development and implementation of the functional prototypes as well as technical limitations and initial user reactions on the prototypes.
Four Stories About Feeling Close Over A Distance BIBAFull-Text 494-499
  Eva Lenz; Marc Hassenzahl; Wasili Adamow; Patrick Beedgen; Kirstin Kohler; Thies Schneider
Designing for technology-mediated relatedness (i.e., closeness, togetherness over a distance) is challenging. It requires a wellbeing-driven approach, which focuses on the subtle modulation of everyday practices and the creation of positive and meaningful experiences throughout the day. Based on an ongoing project, we tell four stories. Each is about a family, their particular relationships as well as current practices of feeling close, and our suggestion of how to inject new or improved ways of feeling close into their everyday life through technology. Each suggestion (i.e., concept) is used by the families at the moment.
Click: Using Smart Devices For Physical Collaborative Coding Education BIBAFull-Text 500-505
  Dixon Lo; Austin Lee
In this paper we introduce Click, a physical coding platform that utilizes smart devices as component pieces. Click encourages group learning of coding by turning individual smart devices into code blocks. These code blocks can then be connected to form programs. By contributing more personal devices to the code chain, users are able to increase program complexity. Because code blocks in Click have a physical and virtual component, we designed virtual interactions that encourage physical manipulation of devices. Finally we show example programs that can be built on the system. Code chains are able to use inbuilt and installed smart device hardware and software as inputs/outputs, because of this, the power of resulting programs grow in line with advances in smart device technology.
HandyFeet: Social Bodily Play Via Split Control of a Human Puppet's Limbs BIBAFull-Text 506-511
  Robb Mitchell; Andreas Fender; Florian Floyd Mueller
Players sharing control of each other's bodies offers a promising direction for delivering engaging collaborative experiences in digital physical games. We present HandyFeet -- a movement based game platform in which two players compete to most effectively direct the body of a third player. This third person becomes like a puppet that has two masters. The two directing players take turns making hand signals to guide one of the puppet player's legs. The puppet-person is prevented from seeing both their own legs and the floor, and so is dependent upon the directors' instructions for navigating the physical environment. To further the development of movement based games involving players surrendering or sharing control of their own bodies, we offer five themes that arose from analysing our initial play-tests.
HydroMorph: Shape Changing Water Membrane for Display and Interaction BIBAFull-Text 512-517
  Ken Nakagaki; Pasquale Totaro; Jim Peraino; Thariq Shihipar; Chantine Akiyama; Yin Shuang; Hiroshi Ishii
HydroMorph is an interactive display based on shapes formed by a stream of water. Inspired by the membrane formed when a water stream hits a smooth surface (e.g. a spoon), we developed a system that dynamically controls the shape of a water membrane. This paper describes the design and implementation of our system, explores a design space of interactions around water shapes, and proposes a set of user scenarios in applications across scales, from the faucet to the fountain. Through this work, we look to enrich our interaction with water, an everyday material, with the added dimension of transformation.
Tangible Modeling Methods for Faster Rapid Prototyping BIBAFull-Text 518-523
  Satoshi Nakamaru; Jakob Bak; Dhruv Saxena
In this paper we discuss the development of a novel rapid prototyping method that makes the process of creating tangible electronic artifacts faster and easier. This method makes use of a new paper-like material that can be given any form just by hand or by using other stationary objects. This material changes its stiffness and becomes harder soon after the modeling process. Furthermore, this material can be integrated within electronic circuits using magnetic connectors and silver. The discussed method has been conceptualized using a People-Centered Design approach while its implementation has been led by an engineering approach. Both, the conceptualization process as well as the implementation of the discussed rapid prototyping method have been detailed in this paper along with example scenarios where the said implementation could be useful.
Expressing Intent: An Exploration of Rich Interactions BIBAFull-Text 524-531
  Rachel S. Ng; Raghavendra Kandala; Sarah Marie-Foley; Dixon Lo; Molly Wright Steenson; Austin S. Lee
In this paper, we describe Expressing Intent -- our initial exploration of rich interactions between human actors and three connected objects -- (1) a bookshelf that learns about taste, (2) a radio that determines mood, and (3) a window that augments visual reality. These objects interpret and express 'intent' in a multitude of ways within the context of a shared office space. Objects with intent, or animistic qualities, can evoke diverse reactions from human actors, depending on how they are designed. To investigate the effects of multiple human and non-human actors interacting with self-interest in mind, we deliberately designed each object with distinct needs and values that complement human behavior when placed in a shared office space. The resultant system of interactions involves cascading relations between object-object, human-object and object-human. Further, after our initial prototype, we discover prime areas in interaction design that warrant further exploration. Specifically, the implications of incorporating animism in object design, objects with needs and values independent of their users, and the implications of designing connected heterogeneous ecosystems (i.e. distinct but cooperative objects) vs. homogenous ecosystems (i.e. uniform and cooperative objects).
Interactive Jewellery as Memory Cue: Designing a Sound Locket for Individual Reminiscence BIBAFull-Text 532-538
  Karin Niemantsverdriet; Maarten Versteeg
In this paper we describe the design of Memento: an interactive sound locket for individual reminiscence that triggers a similar sense of intimacy and values as its non-technological predecessor. Jewellery often forms a cue for autobiographical memory. In this work we investigate the role that interactive technologies could play in this relationship. We first explore the way in which people record sound fragments and we present related work in the field of interactive jewellery and sonic memory cueing. The insights are used to inform the design process. The resulting concept, Memento, uses interaction scenarios inspired by the interaction with traditional lockets to activate recording and playback, and to browse through the recorded audio fragments. In order to connect object and content, Memento is a stand-alone single-purpose piece in which physical object and digital content are inseparable.
Designing a Multi-user Interactive Simulation Using AR Glasses BIBAFull-Text 539-544
  Seungjae Oh; Kyudong Park; Soonmo Kwon; Hyo-Jeong So
In this research, we present the design and formative evaluation of an interactive simulation for informal learning environments. The wearable feature of Augmented Reality (AR) glasses enables full-body movement and embodied interactions in digitally augmented physical environments. The interactive simulation was developed to engage and immerse users to understand an abstract scientific concept about the refraction of light. To design playful and meaningful learning experiences, several design features related to social interaction, multi-user interaction, and embodied interaction were unpacked and integrated in the design process. Through the formative evaluation with participants in the laboratory setting, we found several possibilities and challenges about designing an interactive simulation in informal learning contexts using AR glasses.
MoCap Tango: Traces of Complexity BIBAFull-Text 545-550
  Jeroen Peeters; Ambra Trotto; Stoffel Kuenen
In this paper, we report on an ongoing design research project MoCap Tango. Tango is a form of partner dancing in which two bodies sense each other in a dynamic, physical dialogue that is known for its subtle complexities, beauty and intimate experience. In MoCap Tango, we explore how we can use our skills as designers to highlight and unravel these embedded qualities and use them as inspiration in designing interactions. Using an optical Motion Capture System and custom-made passive markers, the movements of two world-class tango dancers are visualized in realtime. We present our motivation for this project, describe the first prototype and conclude with reflections on what this prototype revealed in terms of design opportunities and its relevance for the TEI community.
Functional Interactive Tatting: Bringing Together a Traditional Handicraft and Electronics BIBAFull-Text 551-555
  Alan Poole; Anne Poole
This work in progress presents a new and alternative method of creating electronic functionality within a textile structure enabling soft and deformable textile based interactions. Using cross discipline and cross generation competences we have based our work on the traditional handicraft called tatting whose construction is highly analogous to that of electric circuits. As a mother and son team we combine handicraft skills and knowledge of electronic functionality and textile conductors to create this method of incorporating electronics into tatting. Key elements of creating wires and making electrical connection to components has been proven, as well as the ability to directly "tat" switches. At the event, we will not only show demonstrations, but will also be making simple functional components live. There will also be the opportunity for attendees to learn the basics of tatting and to take their own work home.
Tactile Band: Accessing Gaze Signals from the Sighted in Face-to-Face Communication BIBAFull-Text 556-562
  Shi Qiu; Matthias Rauterberg; Jun Hu
Gaze signals, frequently used by the sighted in social interactions as visual cues, are hardly accessible for low-vision and blind people. A concept is proposed to help the blind people access and react to gaze signals in face-to-face communication. 20 blind and low-vision participants were interviewed to discuss the features of this concept. One feature of the concept is further developed into a prototype, namely Tactile Band, to aim at testing the hypothesis that tactile feedback can enable the blind person to feel attention (gaze signals) from the sighted, enhancing the level of engagement in face-to-face communication. We tested our hypothesis with 30 participants with a face-to-face conversation scenario, in which the blindfolded and the sighted participants talked about a given daily topic. Comments from the participants and the reflection on the experiment provided useful insights for improvements and further research.
E-Gaze Glasses: Simulating Natural Gazes for Blind People BIBAFull-Text 563-569
  Shi Qiu; Siti Aisyah Anas; Hirotaka Osawa; Matthias Rauterberg; Jun Hu
Gaze and eye contact are frequently in social occasions used among sighted people. Gaze is considered as a predictor of attention and engagement between interlocutors in conversations. However, gaze signals from the sighted are not accessible for the blind person in face-to-face communication. In this paper, we present functional work-in-progress prototype, E-Gaze glasses, an assistive device based on an eye tracking system. E-Gaze simulates natural gaze for blind people, especially establishing the "eye contact" between blind and sighted people to enhance their engagement in face-to-face conversations. The gaze behavior is designed based on a turn-taking model, which interprets the corresponding relationship between the conclusive gaze behavior and the interlocutors' conversation flow.
Inner Garden: an Augmented Sandbox Designed for Self-Reflection BIBAFull-Text 570-576
  Joan Sol Roo; Renaud Gervais; Martin Hachet
We present a prototype of an augmented sandbox where the sand is used to create a miniature living world, designed as an ambient display for contemplation and self-reflection. The landscape can be reshaped at any time. Once the sand is left still for a moment, the world starts evolving -- vegetation grows, water flows and creatures move around -- according to the user's internal state. We use a consumer-grade EEG and breathing sensors to reflect on frustration and meditative states of users, which they can monitor by looking at the sandbox.
A Tangible Tool for Visual Impaired Users to Learn Geometry BIBAFull-Text 577-583
  Lisa M. Rühmann; Nuno Otero; Ian Oakley
This paper explores how an Android application used in combination with a tangible appcessory can facilitate learning for visually impaired students of geometry. This paper presents the status of this ongoing project. It describes the application, the physical appcessory as well as early stage user studies. The application enables visually impaired users to explore simple geometric forms displayed on a tablet through sound and vibrotactile feedback. A deformable physical appcessory that can be manipulated to adopt these forms and its shape sensed by the tablet adds an additional tactile layer to the application and experience. Three user engagements with visually impaired serve as early validations of our project and ideas and provide feedback that directs design and development of future work. Current avenues for the future work will include additional interaction modes in the application, e.g. the ability to digitize real world forms, and improving the robustness of the tangible appcessory.
The Speaker's Staff: Supporting Remote Multidisciplinary Team Meetings in Hospitals BIBAFull-Text 591-596
  Bert Vandenberghe; David Geerts
In this paper we present the ongoing work on the Speaker's Staff, a concept for a tangible user interface to support remote multidisciplinary team meetings in hospitals. We describe the design process of the Speaker's Staff and our research-through-design approach, inspired by critical design, to overcome contextual barriers. By introducing the Speaker's Staff: we don't require tight integration with hospital informatics, we maximize flexibility for physicians in this dynamic environment, and we address the lack of mobile devices during these meetings. In four scenarios, we illustrate the possibilities of the Speaker's Staff: tilting to request the floor, hiding to signal absence, striking to thump the table, and tapping to acknowledge. Also, as the hospital can be a rather restrictive environment for HCI researchers, we argue that the Speaker's Staff supports our research in this context because the object makes our research questions tangible towards physicians.
MagnetoWear: A Magnetic Wearable Device to Interact With the Smartphone to Perform Personalized Actions BIBAFull-Text 597-602
  Rohan S. Vijay; Sidhant Goyal
In this paper we present Magneto Wear, a magnetic wearable device in the form of bracelet that could be used to interact physically with the back of the smartphone to perform several personalized actions on the smartphone. The bracelet that we have designed consist of four magnetic points, on the diametrically opposite ends of the bracelet and the back of the smartphone can be used to tap on any one of these points to trigger certain personalized action or activity associated with that point on the smartphone. These actions can be modulated and personalized through a mobile application depending upon the user's needs and context of use. We have illustrated several scenarios wherein such interactions can be leveraged to minimize user's effort and improve their experience while interacting with the smartphone in their daily life.
Present-at-Body Self-Awareness in Equestrians: Exploring Embodied 'Feel' through Tactile Wearables BIBAFull-Text 603-608
  Jillian L. Warren; Brendan B. Matkin; Alissa N. Antle
We are interested in novel interactive uses of pressure sensors and vibration actuators that can augment the role of physicality for embodied human perception and experience. Specifically, we explore how wearable technology can be used to provide more realistic present-at-body self-awareness in equestrians. Self-awareness of a rider's own physical cues (output) and how a horse responds (input) requires practice to attain objective adjustment. In this paper we present a proof of concept prototype aimed at providing ways to bridge the gap between rider output perception and reality. Our prototype couples pressure data gathered at specific points of the body in real-time with non-audiovisual tactile vibration feedback that is also site-specific. Our design is intended to enable an effective way for riders to learn about asymmetries in seat-related pressure by providing a present-at-body self-awareness of pressure points.
Designing Sculpting Light Systems for Information Decoration BIBAFull-Text 609-614
  Jiang Wu; Harm van Essen; Berry Eggen
Innovations in material, information and communication technology enable the application of efficient light sources and shape-changing techniques in our environment and everyday objects of the future. Based on this trend, we propose Sculpting Light Systems (SLS), which combine shape change with light to provide multi-modal displays of light and shape, and which support the tangible manipulation of light. In order to get a primary understanding of how to design a manipulable SLS that could seamlessly merge into the user's context by means of information decoration and tangible interaction, we discuss a framework and two design issues to explore the design space of SLS. In addition, two design cases are developed to demonstrate our framework and to further investigate the potential and challenges of designing SLS with respect to the design issues.
DrawForming: An Interactive Fabrication Method for Vacuum Forming BIBAFull-Text 615-620
  Junichi Yamaoka; Yasuaki Kakehi
We propose DrawForming that is able to mold objects quickly and repeatedly by combining a vacuum forming method with a dynamic transformable surface. This fabrication tool can remake objects of various uneven surfaces repeatedly and quickly, using a mold that changes its form dynamically using motors. Moreover, for directly designing forms, we propose an interactive method that can determine uneven points by drawing on a surface. The mold is transformed based on the drawn figures, the users place the heated soft material onto its mold, and the system fabricates the surface of the object by vacuuming from the bottom. Users could create a 3D topographical model using a camera that detects the contour lines of a map, and combine readymade goods and a dynamic mold. In this paper, we describe the design and implementation of this novel interactive method for fabricating surface objects.
KIP3: Robotic Companion as an External Cue to Students with ADHD BIBAFull-Text 621-626
  Oren Zuckerman; Guy Hoffman; Daphne Kopelman-Rubin; Anat Brunstein Klomek; Noa Shitrit; Yahav Amsalem; Yaron Shlomi
We present the design and initial evaluation of Kip3, a social robotic device for students with ADHD that provides immediate feedback for inattention or impulsivity events. We designed a research platform comprised of a tablet-based Continuous Performance Test (CPT) that is used to assess inattention and impulsivity, and a socially expressive robotic device (Kip3) as feedback. We evaluated our platform with 10 students with ADHD in a within subject user study, and report that 9 out of 10 participants felt that Kip3 helped them regain focus, but wondered if it will be effective over time and how it will identify inattention in more complex situations outside the lab.

Art Exhibition

The BIOdress: A Body-worn Interface for Environmental Embodiment BIBAFull-Text 627-634
  Sara Adhitya; Beck Davis; Raune Frankjaer; Patricia Flanagan; Zoe Mahony
This paper discusses the development of a body-worn interface facilitating the communication between humans and their environment. It seeks to allow the wearer to understand the state of their natural environment through an extended state of embodiment. First, it discusses our motivation for sustainability and the need to change our anthropocentric attitude to a more holistic one that includes the natural environment. Then, it discusses how clothing can be seen as an immediate way of embodiment, and how computational technology and connection to the Internet of Things can contribute to the development of wearable interfaces, which expand our notion of the human body to include our natural environments. It then introduces the BIOdress, a body-worn interface facilitating interspecies communication with a goal to create an expanded network of embodiment. The overall objective is to encourage human empathy beyond the anthropocentric towards more sustainable development.
POEME: A Poetry Engine Powered by Your Movement BIBAFull-Text 635-640
  Shannon Cuykendall; Ethan Soutar-Rau; Thecla Schiphorst
The interactive movement installation, POEME: A Poetry Engine explores the relationship between bodily, mechanical and digital interpretations of movement. The installation grew out of our design of POEME, a mobile website that responds to movement with poetic verse. While the POEME website can be used virtually anywhere, the installation anchors the interaction to a tangible space. We reference the choreographed routines of mass transit by giving participants a virtual ticket which grants them entrance to a private performance space. The participant's movement is conveyed outside of the space in the form of measurements and poetic verse created from words that relate to mechanical theories of movement. In order to understand the relationship between these interpretations and the bodily movement that powers POEME, the audience must experience the interaction for themselves. POEME builds off prior work in body-centric, experiential design. In contrast to systems that seek to identify individual features of movement, we instead attempt to characterize and respond to whole kinesthetic experiences through poetic verse.
Functionality in Wearable Tech: Device, as Jewelry, as Body Mediator BIBAFull-Text 641-646
  Alexandra Ju
Jewelry has long been used to modify one's body and mediate experiences and interactions. Fulfilling a variety of roles, ranging from ritual objects to sentimental tokens to pure adornment, jewelry provides an externalization on the body of inner expression, non-verbally communicating information about the wearer to those she or he encounters. "Functionality in Wearable Tech," a set of three jewelry pieces, seeks to satirize and call attention to wearable technology's transition into the space that jewelry has occupied for thousands of years. Through the use of cheap robotic children's toys, converted into "functional" jewelry, the series of work considers desired and real emotional attachments to technological and jewelry objects, and those objects in between. The documented performance captures an exploration of jewelry with technological media and the ostentatious statement wearing Wearables today makes.
Dividual Plays Experimental Lab: An installation derived from Dividual Plays BIBAFull-Text 647-652
  Keina Konno; Richi Owaki; Yoshito Onishi; Ryo Kanda; A Sheep; Akiko Takeshita; Tsubasa Nishi; Naoko Shiomi; Kyle McDonald; Satoru Higa; Motoi Shimizu; Yosuke Sakai; Yasuaki Kakehi; Kazuhiro Jo; Yoko Ando; Kazunao Abe; Takayuki Ito
"Dividual Plays Experimental Lab" is an extract from the dance piece "Dividual Plays". Dividual Plays was produced as the first research outcome of "Reactor for Awareness in Motion [RAM]", a research project we have been involved since 2010 (http://ram.ycam.jp/en/). Dividual Plays Experimental Lab consists of essential elements of Dividual Plays, virtual environments for dance "scenes", a programming toolkit "RAM Dance Toolkit", and a motion capture system "MOTIONER". With these systems, the lab allows the visitors to explore and create their own body movements correspond with the experience of the dancers in Dividual Plays.
A Flying Pantograph: Interleaving Expressivity of Human and Machine BIBAFull-Text 653-657
  Sang-won Leigh; Harshit Agrawal; Pattie Maes
Drawing as a means of expression has evolved over time, as, and through a means of computation: Since pre-historic time, humankind has been involved in drawing through a myriad forms of mediums that, over many years, have evolved to be increasingly computation-driven. However, they largely continue to remain constrained to human body scale and aesthetics, while computer technology now allows a more synergistic and collaborative expression between human and machine. In our installation, we engage audience with a drone-based drawing system that applies a person's pen drawing at different scales in different styles. The unrestricted and programmable motion of the proxy can institute various artistic distortions in real-time, creating a new dynamic medium of creative expression.
What We Have Lost / What We Have Gained: Tangible Interactions Between Physical and Digital Bodies BIBAFull-Text 658-662
  Matthew Mosher; David Tinapple
This paper explores the use of rear projected fabric panel tangible interfaces for use in music performance, interactive sculpture, and experiential systems. This idea is explored using the piece What We Have Lost / What We Have gained as an example. This paper demonstrates how HCI can be applied to and included within art disciplines to increase engagement with the artworks by transforming viewers into performers, participants, players, and co-creators. It further argues that by including embodied interactions artworks expand their ability to convey meaning to users.
Exploring Bodies, Mediation and Points of View using a Robotic Avatar BIBAFull-Text 663-668
  Paul Strohmeier
Technology mediates the relationship we have with ourselves, others and the world around us. This paper describes an installation that explores minimum conditions for mediation, using a touch sensitive telerobot with an actuated head. People wishing to use the telerobot wear a head-mounted display and a head-tracking device. This enables them to see what the robot sees while the movements of the robot's head are synchronized to those of their own head. Vibration motors are attached to the user's body and vibrate when the robot is touched. This installation allows for playful exploration of mediation as well as adopting other perspectives through technology. When interacting with others through the robot, the installation enables reflection on the role of touch in communication and technology. Used by one's self, the installation allows us to perceive our bodies from a third person perspective.
Tangible Scores BIBAFull-Text 669-674
  Enrique Tomás
In this paper the art installation "Tangible Scores" is presented, laying emphasis on its design decisions, features and constraints. In order to explain the important relationship between physicality and artistic expression, the concept of "performative materiality" is contextualized within the framework of tangible musical interfaces. Then, a hybrid vision of performative interfaces is introduced. Under this hypothesis, and through the creative exploration of their physical affordances and constraints, tangible musical instruments may be interpreted as scores too.
Heart Calligraphy: an Abstract Portrait Inside the Body BIBAFull-Text 675-680
  Bin Yu; Rogier Arents; Jun Hu; Mathias Funk; Loe Feijs
Heart Calligraphy is a biofeedback installation that creates abstract portraits of participants with their heartbeat data using a pen plotter. The real-time heart rate is mapped to the basic parameters of the pen's behaviors, namely speed, position, pressure and pen-down time. Due to the natural variability in heart rate, every portrait becomes personal and unique graphic, which reflects the natural biorhythm inside human body. The installation explores the role of the body as a channel through which physiology manifests itself in a form of beauty.

Graduate Student Consortium

Crafting Tangible Interaction to Prompt Visitors' Engagement in House Museums BIBAFull-Text 681-684
  Caroline Claisse
This research explores design opportunities where tangible interaction enables new ways to engage visitors with the stories and artefacts on display, not in a museum as such, but within a house museum -- a particular type of heritage site where I noticed little attention from the field of interaction design. The work sits between the fields of design (e.g. exhibition design), heritage, and technology (e.g. HCI) and it investigates how the approach to designing for house museums may be different than for conventional museums. This research unfolds through a designerly approach to explore the potential of tangible interaction by means of a series of design interventions where art and design practices (e.g. creation of interpretive object), technology (e.g. tangible technologies embedded within object) and historical content (e.g. evocative narrative) are connected together to prompt visitors' personal, tangible and multi-sensory engagement at a house museum. This research is at an early stage (begun in October 2015), thus this paper presents an initial analysis of literature to frame the research, the motivations and context behind the project, the methods to achieve the goals of the study and future work plans.
Towards Self-Aware Materials BIBAFull-Text 685-688
  Artem Dementyev
We propose a self-aware material in the form-factor of a fabric. This material contains dense sensor nodes on a flexible and stretchable substrate. It is self-configurable and can be manipulated as a traditional craft material, by cutting and joining. The complete shape of this self-sensing material can be tracked by sensing its deformation and stretch. We hope to enable artists and designers to easily make sophisticated sensor networks. This work is a continuation of the SensorTape project, which is a sensor network in the form-factor of a tape.
Exploring the Design Space of Tangible Systems Supported for Early Reading Acquisition in Children with Dyslexia BIBAFull-Text 689-692
  Min Fan; Alissa N. Antle; Emily S. Cramer
Tangible user interfaces have the potential to support children in learning to read. This research explores the design space of school-based tangible learning systems that support early reading acquisition in children, particularly in children with reading difficulties. Informed by theories of the causes and interventions for dyslexia and research on TUIs for learning, we present the design of a tangible reading system that uses the dynamic colour and tactile cues to help children with dyslexia to learn English letter-sound correspondences. We then propose a case study design that investigates how this system can support children with dyslexia aged 7-8 years old in learning letter-sound correspondences in a school context. We conclude by discussing the future work and potential contributions of this research.
Embodied Spatial Thinking in Tangible Computing BIBAFull-Text 693-696
  Brendan Alexander Harmon
Tangible user interfaces are based on the premise that embodied cognition in computing can enhance cognitive processes. However, the ways in which embodied cognition in computing transform spatial thinking have not yet been rigorously studied. I have co-designed Tangible Landscape -- a continuous shape display powered by a geographic information system -- and used it to explore how technology mediates spatial cognition in a rigorous experiment.
   In this terrain modeling experiment I use geospatial analytics to analyze how visual computing with a GUI and tangible computing with a shape display mediate multidimensional spatial performance.
   My initial findings suggest that: 1. digital sculpting via a GUI is unintuitive, 2. shape displays like Tangible Landscape can be intuitive, enhance spatial performance, and enable rapid iteration and ideation, and 3. different analytics encourage significantly different modes of spatial thinking and strategies for modeling.
Performance-Led Design of Computationally Generated Audio for Interactive Applications BIBAFull-Text 697-700
  Christian Heinrichs; Andrew McPherson
Stylized temporal behaviour is difficult to incorporate into computational models of environmental sound, requiring either a specialised algorithm or a potentially large amount of scripted automation. For decades Foley artists have relied on embodied performance to rapidly generate expressive sound effects for the moving image. This research project explores performance-led techniques in the design of computational audio for interactive applications.
Designing for the Mindbody in Technology-Mediated Music-Making BIBAFull-Text 701-704
  Aura Pon
The mind and body have an important joint role to play in how we experience, understand and create music. Our bodily experiences in the world shape how we comprehend music. In turn, our mind's music cognition and intentionality, which are based on our bodily experiences, are mediated through the body when we make music. This mind-body interaction has provided important contributions to the intelligibility, relatability and embodiment of our musical experiences, yet this dynamic is not always intact in today's technology-mediated music-making. Employing practice-based and practice-led methodologies, my research explores the potential of considering the "mindbody" in the design of interactive computer systems for music-making. This paper outlines the motivation, context, research methodology, and completed and future projects of my research towards a Doctor of Philosophy in Music with a specialization in Computational Media Design.
Exploring 3D Printed Interaction BIBAFull-Text 705-708
  Martin Schmitz
3D printing is widely used to physically prototype the look and feel of 3D objects. However, interaction possibilities of these prototypes are often limited to mechanical parts or post-assembled electronics. Moreover, fabricating interactive 3D printed objects is still an expert task. In my dissertation, I therefore explore how to support users in the design of interactive 3D objects and how to automate the generation of adequate sensing structures. Further, I investigate tangible interaction concepts for 3D printed objects. In this paper, I outline my past and future research towards the fabrication of 3D objects in terms of (1) user-friendly design, (2) automation of fabrication, and (3) tangible interaction concepts for the input modalities touch and deformation.
Designing Posture Monitoring Garments to Support Rehabilitation BIBAFull-Text 709-712
  Qi Wang
Posture monitoring and correction technologies can be useful in supporting prevention of musculoskeletal disorders and in supporting physical therapy, e.g., for arm-hand training after stroke or spinal cord injury. My doctoral research is concerned with the design of wearable technologies for posture monitoring and correction. Specifically we focus on smart garments that embed electronics and, in combination with a smartphone application, can give feedback and coaching for sustaining a correct posture. The research aims to contribute new design concepts that will be prototyped and validated both for their clinical relevance, and for their acceptance by patients and health workers. In addition to the prototype garments, we are also interested in developing relevant design knowledge, which we shall try to explicate in terms of reflections, and design patterns, across a range of prototypes.

Student Design Challenge

BrainstORB BIBAFull-Text 713-716
  Conor Byrne; Evan Healy; Nigel Frahill; Rebecca Power
In this paper we go through the entire process we went through for our project. We talk about how artists are currently approaching the subject of going through a creative process and how we are planning on changing that.
   Previous works out there, which are also tackling this issue are looked at and put in relation to what we have done for our project. This helped us to see what angles people are already approaching this topic from and what results they have already come up with.
   Then we look at how the scenario methodology was used, where we place our concept into a scene to see how it would work in theory. Then we go further and do a real world scenario using two methods of going through the creative process, one of which uses our device the BrainstORB.
   The design process for this project is then explored in detail followed by the technical implementation in which we go through what technology is being used in our device. This paper then is concluded with finalizing what the BrainstORB is going to do for the creative world.
Sensole: An Insole-Based Tickle Tactile Interface BIBAFull-Text 717-722
  Eric Geißler; Andreas Mühlenberend; Klaus Harnack
This is Sensole, a tactile interface using the foot especially the plantar as an input channel. It deals with sensory substitution according to the fact, that the feet are highly represented areas in the human brain. The use of solenoids offers an exciting but also more pleasant experience than vibrotactile components.
   Application scenarios of the design could be the recreation of a sense, for example a sense for radioactivity or magnetism as well as complex eyes-free navigation scenarios. Because it is a multi-actuator, it opens the broad field of combinatorics and thus greater accuracy and versatility for the presentation of information which is useful in so far as it allows to be an interface for various smartphone applications. Sensole is a decent interface and can be integrated in every regular shoe.
InflatiBits: A Modular Soft Robotic Construction Kit for Children BIBAFull-Text 723-728
  Christopher Kopic; Kristian Gohlke
InflatiBits is a modular construction kit that enables playful exploration of pneumatically actuated kinematic systems. The kit contains different building blocks based on soft robotics principles such as soft inflatable air-chambers, constraining elements, air-connectors, pressure sources, and sensor modules. The elements can be combined and actuated manually or through an optional Arduino-based control board. The board contains a motorized air-pump, solenoid valves and allows for connecting the sensor module to achieve more complex behaviors and motion patterns. The InflatiBits modules and connectors are compatible with standard Lego parts, enabling children to integrate them into existing playing environments.
Whoosh Gloves: Interactive Tool to Form a Dialog Between Dancer and Choreographer BIBAFull-Text 729-732
  Svetlana Mironcika; Joanne Pek; Jochem Franse; Ya Shu
Whoosh Gloves is a tool for modern dance choreographers and dancers to iteratively develop choreography by involving creativity of both parties. With the help of Whoosh Gloves, the choreographer records sound of his/her movements which then can be freely interpreted by dancers. In this way the gloves facilitate a co-creative reflective process of dance creation where choreographers and dancers can be inspired by each other and build a choreography upon their explorations and findings.
Hulagram: Inspiring Creativity Through Human Movement BIBAFull-Text 733-737
  Megan Dalton Rafferty; Danielle Daly; Anthony O'Brien; Craig Fleming
This paper describes the design process and technical implementation of Hulagram, a hula-hoop that inspires creativity. Taking the aim of using a tool from a creative domain to inspire creativity in others, we explain why the hoop is a creative tool and how bodily movement is important to interaction design, showing how embodied interaction can be fun and how it attracts people, how the product is used and how it works. The Hulagram allows the user to create a unique visual art piece along with a unique musical piece. Through this, the Hulagram can have a lasting effect on the user by giving them a space to be creative in and possibly influencing them in the future.
Tommy Blocks: a modern redesign of the classical children's building blocks BIBAFull-Text 738-742
  Riccardo Rigo; Charlotte Kortbeek; Cristian Grama; Denis Laure
In this paper we present Tommy Blocks, a low-poly (polygon mesh) magnetic construction set. We set out to redesign the classic building blocks, some of the most used (and loved) toys by children of all ages. Tommy Blocks is composed of various types of blocks of different shapes and sizes that can be joined together thanks to magnets on the inside. The blocks have irregular low-poly shapes. This is the main difference between Tommy Blocks and other regular and well-known building blocks sets. Triangular faces invite the player to build completely different constructions than the traditional squares. We also explored how technology can contribute to the creative development of children and added some electronics to the main component of the set to make the game more challenging. Moreover, a small story-telling component is included, giving personality to the actual toy. In this paper we describe the design process and present the latest prototype of Tommy Blocks.
MuSme: A Tangible Skin Suit for Music Creation BIBAFull-Text 743-748
  Amal Tidjani; Eileen Cho; Priscilla Lee
Music is a beautiful medium through which children can artistically communicate and express themselves. The complexity associated with operating traditional instruments, however, often discourages young children from playing music. In an effort to democratize music-making, we propose MuSme, a tangible skin suit that reimagines a user's limbs and organs as metaphoric representations of different instruments. By eliminating the nuanced technicalities associated with music-making, MuSme empowers children so that they may creatively express themselves with their very own bodies. With MuSme, children don't just play music. They become music.

Studio-Workshops

Designing Tangibles for Children: One Day Hands-on Workshop BIBAFull-Text 749-752
  Alissa N. Antle; Jillian L. Warren; Brendan B. Matkin; Min Fan; Emily S. Cramer
This hands-on workshop introduces a foundation for designing tangibles for children. Participants engage in a low-fidelity design challenge using the iPad Osmo system. We focus on how designing tangibles for children is unique from other design problems and processes. We walk participants through an outcome driven design process using the award winning Developmentally Situated Design (DSD) card set -- focusing on cognitive, emotional, physical, and social skills specific to children at different ages. Small groups create solutions for the same design challenge, but focus on the skills and abilities of a specific age group. We facilitate a compare and contrast exercise of their solutions to help synthesize the complexities of, and showcase skills for, designing child-centric tangibles. While not necessary for participation, we encourage participants who have them to bring iPads (v2 or higher) or iPad minis. Participants are also encouraged to review the DSD II cards in advance, available at http://www.antle.iat.sfu.ca/DSD.
Tangible Data, explorations in data physicalization BIBAFull-Text 753-756
  Trevor Hogan; Eva Hornecker; Simon Stusak; Yvonne Jansen; Jason Alexander; Andrew Vande Moere; Uta Hinrichs; Kieran Nolan
Humans have represented data in many forms for thousands of years, yet the main sensory channel we use to perceive these representations today still remains largely exclusive to sight. Recent developments, such as advances in digital fabrication, microcontrollers, actuated tangibles, and shape-changing interfaces offer new opportunities to encode data in physical forms and have stimulated the emergence of 'Data Physicalization' as a research area.
   The aim of this workshop is (1) to create an awareness of the potential of Data Physicalization by providing an overview of state-of-the-art research, practice, and tools and (2) to build a community around this emerging field and start to discuss a shared research agenda. This workshop therefore addresses both experienced researchers and practitioners as well as those who are new to the field but interested in applying Data Physicalization to their own (research) practice. The workshop will provide opportunities for participants to explore Data Physicalization hands-on, by creating their own prototypes. These practical explorations will lead into reflective discussions on the role tangibles and embodiment play in Data Physicalization and the future research challenges for this area.
MeMod: A Modular Hacking and Programming Toolkit For Everyday Objects BIBAFull-Text 757-761
  Austin S. Lee; Dhairya Dand
This proposal presents a modular system design for a set of programmable tools with various form factors inspired by the relations between human body parts and industrial elements. By providing functional forms to sensors and actuators, and tangible methods of programming behaviors to the objects, we propose a more customizable experience in the area of the Internet of Things. We explore the design space through studying motions in everyday elements and introduce applications of digitally enabled modules in form factors such as hinge, joints, zipper etc. Lastly, we investigate physical ways to program these modules that affords playful interactions in the tangible world. The workshop will first focus on using probes, brainstorming toolkits to generate the design ideas related to themes such as super-powers, environments as extension of the body and next generation of ubiquitous computing [5]. By using the resources and tool-kits provided by the workshop organizers, participants will generate proof-of-concept prototype as final deliverables. Participants are required to bring personal laptops.
The Interaction Engine: Tools for Prototyping Connected Devices BIBAFull-Text 762-765
  Nikolas Martelaro; Michael Shiloh; Wendy Ju
In this workshop, we will familiarize participants with the Interaction Engine, a system for prototyping connected, interactive devices using low cost, single-board Linux computers and Arduino microcontrollers. Our main objective is to introduce participants to the basic architecture of connected devices and provide hands-on experience creating networked, physical hardware. The Interaction Engine is a generic framework, not a specialized toolkit. We employ widely available, community-supported tools that can enable web-connected hardware capable of merging tangible interfaces with audio/visual web interfaces. We view low-cost single-board computers as an enabling technology, representing the next step for tangible, embedded, and embodied designs enabling deep interaction between physical and digital worlds. This workshop will be a starting point for participants to begin exploring connected device development and will provide a basic set of tools and skills that participants can use in their own applications.
TEI 2016 Studio: Inflated Curiosity BIBAFull-Text 766-769
  Jifei Ou; Felix Heibeck; Hiroshi Ishii
This studio introduces methods of making and controlling inflatable fabric. We provide materials and simple fabrication processes that enable designers to rapidly prototype inflatables with simple hinging transformations or texture change. Furthermore, we introduce a customized hardware that enables designers to rapidly prototype inflatable fabric. The goal of this studio is to provide hands-on experiences of designing inflatable fabric as shape-changing materials and research on shape-changing artifacts. Basic knowledge of programming in Arduino is required. Participants should bring their own laptop for the studio.
Bodily Sketching With Sensable Stretchables BIBAFull-Text 770-773
  Alan Poole; Robb Mitchell; Katrin Wolf; Rahimullah Sarban
Come and get creatively hands on with the next generation of stretch sensors! This studio will see participants familiarize themselves with, and devise exciting new uses for dielectric elastomer (DE) stretch sensors. Unlike normal stretch sensors, these skin-like sensors are highly durable and reliable. DE sensors can also be customised into nearly any shape or size, whilst being only 0.5mm thin makes them near undetectable to the wearer. After introducing the technology by walking through some easy to adapt examples, participants will be supported to express and test their ideas around stretchable interfaces through a collaborative maker session. Through attaching the sensors to our bodies or by modifying second hand garments, participants will explore the design opportunities of DE sensors. The session will culminate in a design crit of participants' application mock-ups and a discussion of opportunities for future interactive materials, garments, artefacts and environments.
Embodying Soft Wearables Research BIBAFull-Text 774-777
  Oscar Tomico; Danielle Wilde
The value of engaging sensory motor skills in the design and use of smart systems is increasingly recognized. Yet robust and reliable methods for development, reporting and transfer are not fully understood. This workshop investigates the role of embodied design research techniques in the context of soft wearables. Throughout, we will experiment with how embodied design research techniques might be shared, developed, and used as direct and unmediated vehicles for their own reporting. Rather than engage in oral presentations, participants will lead each other through a proven embodied method or approach. Then small groups will create mash-ups of techniques, exploring ways that the new approaches might be coherently reported. By applying such methods to the problem of their reporting, we hope to deepen understanding of how to move towards nuanced and repeatable methods for embodied design and knowledge transfer in the context of soft wearables.
Stereo Haptics: Designing Haptic Interactions using Audio Tools BIBAFull-Text 778-781
  Siyan Zhao; Zachary Schwemler; Adam Fritz; Ali Israr
Our hands-on studio will explore how to create meaningful haptic interactions that engage different areas of the body. Participants will gain an understanding of apparent tactile illusions, a perception of illusory motion between two areas on the body, and apply this knowledge towards generating their own haptic experiences. We will introduce participants to Stereo Haptics, a toolkit used to quickly generate haptic sensations through audio platforms with off the shelf hardware and open source software. The studio begins with an introduction to haptics, haptic technology and the illusions it can help create. Next, participants will begin experimenting with Stereo Haptics and using the toolkit to create dynamic haptic interactions. In the final section, participants will work in groups to design haptic solutions for real-life scenarios. By the end of the studio, participants will have a good understanding of tactile illusions, how to create them, and how they can be applied to enrich tangible and embodied interaction using simple stereo-sound technologies.
Developing Responsive and Interactive Environments with the ROSS Toolkit BIBAFull-Text 782-785
  Andrea Bellucci; Aneesh P. Tarun; Ahmed Sabbir Arif; Ali Mazalek
TEI researchers/designers are often discouraged from building complex interactive environments by the requirement of high technical knowledge. In this studio/workshop, we present the ROSS Toolkit that offers tools to abstract/automate low-level programming of technical details, thereby simplifying the design and programming of interactions between heterogeneous networked devices. Participants will be first introduced to the toolkit functionality to cope with different technical issues. In a second part, they will experiment with the toolkit by developing use cases of increasing complexity that will involve off-the-shelf devices, interactive surfaces, and custom-made tangible artifacts. We expect participants to learn what are the opportunities and challenges for the development of responsive and interactive environments.
GaussStudio: Designing Seamless Tangible Interactions on Portable Displays BIBAFull-Text 786-789
  Rong-Hao Liang; Han-Chih Kuo; Miguel Bruns Alonso; Bing-Yu Chen
The analog Hall-sensor grid, GaussSense, is a thin-form magnetic-field camera technology for designing expressive occlusion-free, near-surface tangible interactions on conventional portable displays. The studio will provide hands-on experiences that combine physical designs and the GaussSense technology. Through a series of brainstorming and making exercises, participants will learn how to exploit natural hand and micro interactions through designing the expressions and affordances of physical objects, and know how to utilize physical constraints to provide additional kinesthetic awareness and haptic feedback. The exercises will be including form-giving, electronic prototyping, and hacking physical toys that are prepared by either the organizers or participants.
Second Workshop on Full-Body and Multisensory Experience BIBAFull-Text 790-793
  Assunta Matassa; Leonardo Angelini; Maurizio Caon; Marianna Obrist; Elena Mugellini
This workshop aims at discussing the rich possibilities that the body offers to experience the external world and the prospects that arise for interaction designers when these often-neglected abilities are taken into account. In particular, the workshop will focus on the rediscovery of the five senses, either alone or in a multimodal combination, and of the perceptual-motor abilities of our body. The one-day workshop is divided in two steps: first, participants will have the possibility to briefly present and discuss with the other attendees their research. Workshop candidates are requested to send a position paper, including a short biography and detailing their research interests and background. Second, participants will have the possibilities to explore and rediscover their sensorimotor abilities through several exercises and games abilities using a critical design approach. Interdisciplinary groups will be challenged to design and develop new interaction experience concepts using our natural 'tools' as prototyping tools.