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TEI Tables of Contents: 07080910111213141516

Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Tangible and Embedded Interaction

Fullname:Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Tangible and Embedded Interaction
Editors:Marcelo Coelho; Jamie Zigelbaum; Hiroshi Ishii; Robert J.K. Jacob; Pattie Maes; Thomas Pederson; Orit Shaer; Ron Wakkary
Location:Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA
Dates:2010-Jan-24 to 2010-Jan-27
Publisher:ACM
Standard No:ISBN: 1-60558-859-8, 978-1-60558-859-9; ACM DL: Table of Contents hcibib: TEI10
Papers:99
Pages:398
Links:Conference Home Page | Conference Series Home Page
  1. Keynote
  2. Bridging the physical and digital worlds
  3. Toolkits and enabling technologies
  4. Physical interaction, perspectives, and design techniques
  5. Materials, garments, and light
  6. Learning through physical interaction
  7. Demonstrations
  8. Posters
  9. Graduate student consortium
  10. Studios
  11. Short studio abstracts
  12. TEI explorations

Keynote

Intelligent physical modelling systems: why? BIBAKFull-Text 1-2
  John Hamilton Frazer
"What did you think you were doing?" Was the question posed by the conference organizers to me as the inventor and constructor of the first working Tangible Interfaces over 40 years ago. I think the question was intended to encourage me to talk about the underlying ideas and intentionality rather than describe an endless sequence of electronic bricks and that is what I shall do in this presentation. In the sixties the prevalent idea for a graphics interface was an analogue with sketching which was to somehow be understood by the computer as three dimensional form. I rebelled against this notion for reasons which I will explain in the presentation and instead came up with tangible physical three dimensional intelligent objects.
   I called these first prototypes "Intelligent Physical Modelling Systems" which is a really dumb name for an obvious concept. I am eternally grateful to Hiroshi Ishii for coining the term "Tangible User Interfaces" -- the same idea but with a much smarter name.
   Another motivator was user involvement in the design process, and that led to the Generator (1979) project with Cedric Price for the world's first intelligent building capable of organizing itself in response to the appetites of the users. The working model of that project is in MoMA. And the same motivation led to a self builders design kit (1980) for Walter Segal which facilitated self-builders to design their own houses.
   And indeed as the organizer's question implied, the motivation and intentionality of these projects developed over the years in step with advancing technology. The speaker will attempt to articulate these changes with medical, psychological and educational examples. Much of this later work indeed stemming from the Media Lab where we are talking.
   Related topics such as "tangible thinking" and "intelligent teacups" will be introduced and the presentation will end with some speculations for the future.
   The presentation will be given against a background of images of early prototypes many of which have never been previously published.
Keywords: architecture, design, tangible user interface
Vik Muniz BIBAKFull-Text 3-4
  Vik Muniz
At his TEI 2010 keynote, Muniz will present a selection of his work since the beginning of his career.
Keywords: art

Bridging the physical and digital worlds

Spatial sketch: bridging between movement & fabrication BIBAKFull-Text 5-12
  Karl D. D. Willis; Juncong Lin; Jun Mitani; Takeo Igarashi
Spatial Sketch is a three-dimensional (3D) sketch application that bridges between physical movement and the fabrication of objects in the real world via cut planar materials. This paper explores the rationale and details behind the development of the Spatial Sketch application, and presents our observations from user testing and a hands-on lamp shade design workshop. Finally we reflect upon the relevance of embodied forms of human computer interaction for use in digital fabrication.
Keywords: 3d interfaces, creativity, design, drawing, embodied interaction, fabrication, rapid prototyping, sketching
Touch & talk: contextualizing remote touch for affective interaction BIBAKFull-Text 13-20
  Rongrong Wang; Francis Quek
Touch is a unique channel in affect conveyance. A significant aspect of this uniqueness is that the relation of touch to affect is immediate, without the need for symbolic encoding and decoding. However, most pioneering research work in developing remote touch technologies, result in the use of touch as a symbolic channel either by design or user decision. We present a review of relevant psychological and sociological literature of touch and propose a model of immediacy of the touch channel for conveyance of affect. We posit that the strategic provision of contextualizing channels will liberate touch to assume its role in affect conveyance. Armed with this analysis, we propose two design guidelines: first, the touch channel needs to be coupled with other communication channels to clarify its meaning; second, encourage the use touch as an immediate channel by not assigning any symbolic meaning to touch interactions. We proceed to describe our haptic interface design based on these guidelines. Our in-lab experiment shows that remote touch reinforces the meaning of a symbolic channel reducing sadness significantly and showing a trend to reduce general negative mood and to reinforce joviality.
Keywords: affective interaction, haptic interface, remote touch
Feeling the beat where it counts: fostering multi-limb rhythm skills with the haptic drum kit BIBAKFull-Text 21-28
  Simon Holland; Anders J. Bouwer; Mathew Dalgelish; Topi M. Hurtig
This paper introduces a tool known as the Haptic Drum Kit, which employs four computer-controlled vibrotactile devices, one attached to each wrist and ankle. In the applications discussed here, haptic pulses are used to guide the playing, on a drum kit, of rhythmic patterns that require multi-limb co-ordination. The immediate aim is to foster rhythm skills and multi-limb coordination. A broader aim is to systematically develop skills in recognizing, identifying, memorizing, retaining, analyzing, reproducing, and composing polyphonic rhythms. We consider the implications of three different theories for this approach: the work of the music educator Dalcroze (1865-1950 [1]; the entrainment theory of human rhythm perception and production [2,3]; and sensory motor contingency theory [4]. In this paper we report on a design study; and identify and discuss a variety of emerging design issues. The study demonstrates that beginning drummers are able to learn intricate drum patterns from haptic stimuli alone.
Keywords: dalcroze, embodied cognition, entrainment, guidance, haptic drum kit, haptic interaction, instruction, multi-limb coordination, polyphonic rhythm, rhythm, sensory motor contingency, temporal patterns, vibrotactile
The peppermill: a human-powered user interface device BIBAKFull-Text 29-32
  Nicolas Villar; Steve Hodges
A human-powered user interface device sources its power from the physical effort required to operate it. This paper describes a technique by which a geared DC motor and a simple circuit can be used to enable interaction-powered rotary input devices. When turned, the circuit provides a temporary power source for an embedded device, and doubles as a sensor that provides information about the direction and rate of input. As a proof of concept, we have developed a general-purpose wireless input device -- called the Peppermill -- and illustrate its capabilities by using it as a remote control for a multimedia-browsing application.
Keywords: human-powered electronics, input devices
SOPHYA: a system for digital management of ordered physical document collections BIBAKFull-Text 33-40
  Matthew G. Jervis; Masood Masoodian
In recent years several systems have been developed to integrate the management of physical and digital documents and artefacts. These systems, which often rely on technologies such as RFID, generally detect the location of a digitally tagged item within a collection, with varying degrees of location sensitivity, ranging from a room to a smaller container such as a filing cabinet or briefcase. Despite their obvious value, such systems are not capable of detecting the precise location and ordering of individual items within the managed collection of items. In this paper we present the second generation of our earlier prototype system, called SOPHYA, which utilises a wired technology to allow management and retrieval of documents and artefacts within ordered collections.
Keywords: ordered document management, physical artefacts, physical documents, physical interfaces, smart filing system, tangible interfaces

Toolkits and enabling technologies

Revealing the invisible: visualizing the location and event flow of distributed physical devices BIBAKFull-Text 41-48
  Nicolai Marquardt; Tom Gross; Sheelagh Carpendale; Saul Greenberg
Distributed physical user interfaces comprise networked sensors, actuators and other devices attached to a variety of computers in different locations. Developing such systems is no easy task. It is hard to track the location and status of component devices, even harder to understand, validate, test and debug how events are transmitted between devices, and hardest yet to see if the overall system behaves correctly. Our Visual Environment Explorer supports developers of these systems by visualizing the location and status of individual and/or aggregate devices. It visualizes the current event flow between devices as they are received and transmitted, as well as the event history. Events are displayable at various levels of detail. The visualization also shows the activity of applications that use these physical devices. The tool is highly interactive: developers can explore system behavior through spatial navigation, zooming, multiple simultaneous views, event filtering, details-on-demand, and time-dependent semantic zooming.
Keywords: distributed systems, event flow visualization, geographical map overlays, physical and tangible interfaces, prototyping
DisplayObjects: prototyping functional physical interfaces on 3d styrofoam, paper or cardboard models BIBAKFull-Text 49-56
  Eric Akaoka; Tim Ginn; Roel Vertegaal
This paper introduces DisplayObjects, a rapid prototyping workbench that allows functional interfaces to be projected onto real 3D physical prototypes. DisplayObjects uses a Vicon motion capture system to track the location of physical models. 3D software renditions of the 3D physical model are then texture-mapped with interactive behavior and projected back onto the physical model to allow real-time interactions with the object. We discuss the implementation of the system, as well as a selection of one and two-handed interaction techniques for DisplayObjects. We conclude with a design case that comments on some of the early design experiences with the system.
Keywords: augmented reality, early prototyping, organic user interfaces, physical user interfaces
Coming to grips with the objects we grasp: detecting interactions with efficient wrist-worn sensors BIBAKFull-Text 57-64
  Eugen Berlin; Jun Liu; Kristof van Laerhoven; Bernt Schiele
The use of a wrist-worn sensor that is able to read nearby RFID tags and the wearer's gestures has been suggested frequently as a way to both detect the objects we interact with and to identify the interaction. Making such a prototype feasible for longer-term deployments is far from solved however, as plenty of challenges remain in the hardware, embedded algorithms, and the overall design of such a bracelet-like device. This paper presents several of the challenges that emerged during the development of a functioning prototype that is able to sense interaction data for several days. We focus in particular on RFID tag reading range optimization, efficient data logging methods, meaningful evaluation techniques, and long-term deployments.
Keywords: gesture detection, wearable interaction, wrist-worn RFID
ChainMail: a configurable multimodal lining to enable sensate surfaces and interactive objects BIBAKFull-Text 65-72
  Behram F. T. Mistree; Joseph A. Paradiso
The ChainMail system is a scalable electronic sensate skin that is designed as a dense sensor network. ChainMail is built from small (1"x1") rigid circuit boards attached to their neighbors with flexible interconnects that allow the skin to be conformally arranged and manipulated. Each board contains an embedded processor together with a suite of thirteen sensors, providing dense, multimodal capture of proximate and contact phenomena. This system forms a sensate lining that can be applied to an object, device, or surface to enable interactivity. Under extended testing, we demonstrate a flexible skin to detect and respond to a variety of stimuli while running quickly and efficiently.
Keywords: dense sensor network, electronic skin., sensate media, sensing fabric
Scanning FTIR: unobtrusive optoelectronic multi-touch sensing through waveguide transmissivity imaging BIBAKFull-Text 73-76
  Jon Moeller; Andruid Kerne
We describe a new method of multi-touch sensing which can be unobtrusively added to existing displays. By coupling individually controlled optoelectronics to the edge of a planar waveguide, our scanning approach overcomes prior disadvantages of optoelectronic multi-touch sensing. Our approach allows for a completely transparent touch surface and easy integration with existing LCD displays.
Keywords: frustrated total internal reflection, input devices, interfaces, multi-touch, tactile, touch
Towards tabletop interaction with everyday artifacts via pressure imaging BIBAKFull-Text 77-84
  Clemens Holzmann; Andreas Hader
Tangible user interfaces enable the interaction with digital information through the physical world. For the binding of physical representations with the underlying digital information, technology-augmented artifacts and environments are used. Characteristic for tangible user interfaces is the use of physical artifacts which are either dedicated to or augmented for the purpose of serving as input devices. However, relying on special artifacts limits the widespread use of tangible user interfaces, as they are not suitable for many everyday situations in which we interact with arbitrary artifacts that are not part of the interface. In this paper, we present a novel prototype of a tabletop tangible user interface which is based on pressure imaging. It identifies physical artifacts that are placed on the table by their weight, shape and size, thus enabling the use of a wide range of technology-free artifacts as input devices. We describe the underlying technologies and methods, and discuss the results of a first experiment which shows the recognition accuracy of the presented tabletop interface. Among the positioning of artifacts, their identification is a prerequisite for further interaction modalities and applications. For the recognition of everyday artifacts, a score-based classifier and a set of shape- and weight-based features have been used. The determination of the position of an artifact is fairly simple, as it can be achieved directly from its pressure footprint.
Keywords: classification, pressure imaging, tabletop interaction, tangible user interface, technology-free everyday artifacts, ubiquitous computing

Physical interaction, perspectives, and design techniques

SKIN: designing aesthetic interactive surfaces BIBAKFull-Text 85-92
  Heekyoung Jung; Youngsuk L. Altieri; Jeffrey Bardzell
In this paper we propose SKIN as an interdisciplinary design approach for sophisticated interactive surfaces, with an emphasis on their meanings and aesthetic qualities. SKIN: Surface Kinetics INterface, aims at integrating concept-driven design process and exploratory critical engagement with forms and materials into current user-centered design approaches in HCI research. The procedures of developing three design concepts and prototyping one of them -- an interactive lampshade -- are described in detail to illustrate the proposed approach. The narrative of the design process is followed by a pilot study and designer reflection, suggesting the broader epistemological and methodological implications of this kind of approach.
Keywords: aesthetics, designerly approach, interactive surfaces, meanings, metaphor from living creatures
Cartouche: conventions for tangibles bridging diverse interactive systems BIBAKFull-Text 93-100
  Brygg Ullmer; Zachary Dever; Rajesh Sankaran; Cornelius, Jr. Toole; Chase Freeman; Brooke Cassady; Cole Wiley; Mohamed Diabi; Alvin, Jr. Wallace; Michael DeLatin; Blake Tregre; Kexi Liu; Srikanth Jandhyala; Robert Kooima; Chris Branton; Rod Parker
We describe an approach for a class of tangible interaction elements that are applicable across a broad variety of interactive systems. These tangibles share certain physical, visual, tagging, and software conventions, while fostering diversity in many aspects of design and function. Building on related techniques using paper and graspable artifacts as interactive embodiments of digital information, we propose several fixed and free parameters, present illustrative examples and applications, and discuss the resulting design space.
Keywords: cartouche tangibles, core tangibles, domain tangibles, reality-based interaction, tangible interfaces, tangible menus
Creative idea exploration within the structure of a guiding framework: the card brainstorming game BIBAKFull-Text 101-108
  Eva Hornecker
I present a card brainstorming exercise that transforms a conceptual tangible interaction framework into a tool for creative dialogue and discuss the experiences made in using it. Ten sessions with this card game demonstrate the frameworks' versatility and utility. Observation and participant feedback highlight the value of a provocative question format and of the metaphor of a card game.
Keywords: analysis, creativity, design, embodied, ideation, tangible
Whack gestures: inexact and inattentive interaction with mobile devices BIBAKFull-Text 109-112
  Scott E. Hudson; Chris Harrison; Beverly L. Harrison; Anthony LaMarca
We introduce Whack Gestures, an inexact and inattentive interaction technique. This approach seeks to provide a simple means to interact with devices with minimal attention from the user -- in particular, without the use of fine motor skills or detailed visual attention (requirements found in nearly all conventional interaction techniques). For mobile devices, this could enable interaction without "getting it out," grasping, or even glancing at the device. This class of techniques is suitable for a small number of simple but common interactions that could be carried out in an extremely lightweight fashion without disrupting other activities. With Whack Gestures, users can interact by striking a device with the open palm or heel of the hand. We briefly discuss the development and use of a preliminary version of this technique and show that implementations with high accuracy and a low false positive rate are feasible.
Keywords: adaptive user interfaces, gesture-based interfaces, lightweight interaction, physical interaction, sensing

Materials, garments, and light

Light bodies: exploring interactions with responsive lights BIBAKFull-Text 113-120
  Susanne Seitinger; Daniel M. Taub; Alex S. Taylor
"Light bodies" are mobile and portable, hand-held lights that respond to audio and vibration input. The motivation to build these devices is grounded in a historical reinterpretation of street lighting. Before fixed infrastructure illuminated cities at night, people carried lanterns with them to make their presence known. Using this as our starting point, we asked how we might engage people in more actively shaping the lightscapes which surround them. We prototyped a first iteration of sound and vibration responsive, LED-based coloured lights that we placed in three different settings including a choreographed dance performance, an outdoor public installation and an audio-visual event. We report on our experiences with these preliminary investigations.
Keywords: ambient displays, interactive installation, physical pixels, responsive lighting
Electronic popables: exploring paper-based computing through an interactive pop-up book BIBAKFull-Text 121-128
  Jie Qi; Leah Buechley
We have developed an interactive pop-up book called Electronic Popables to explore paper-based computing. Our book integrates traditional pop-up mechanisms with thin, flexible, paper-based electronics and the result is an artifact that looks and functions much like an ordinary pop-up, but has added elements of dynamic interactivity. This paper introduces the book and, through it, a library of paper-based sensors and a suite of paper-electronics construction techniques. We also reflect on the unique and under-explored opportunities that arise from combining material experimentation, artistic design, and engineering.
Keywords: arduino, conductive paint, magnetic paper, paper computing, paper electronics, paper-crafts, pop-up book
Captain electric and battery boy: prototypes for wearable power-generating artifacts BIBAKFull-Text 129-136
  Joanna Berzowska; Marc Beaulieu; Vincent Leclerc; Gaia Orain; Catherine Marchand; Catou Cournoyer; Emily Paris; Lois Frankel; Miliana Sesartic
"Captain Electric and Battery Boy" refers to an ongoing research project that aims to develop electronic garments and wearable artifacts that harness power from the body and use that energy to actuate co-located electronic components. This paper will discuss two initial stages of the collaborative design process, which led to concepts and prototypes that seamlessly integrate technical constraints within design aesthetics. The first stage took place during a winter 2008 design course where students were presented with a brief to create an artifact for "Human-Powered Illumination." The second consisted of a two-week intensive workshop with a selection of the original students, held in the summer of 2008 at XS Labs. Finally, we will briefly present the final outcome.
Keywords: electronic garments, human-generated power, wearable technology
Texturing the "material turn" in interaction design BIBAKFull-Text 137-144
  Erica Robles; Mikael Wiberg
Advances in the creation of computational materials are transforming our thinking about relations between the physical and digital. In this paper we characterize this transformation as a "material turn" within the field of interaction design. Central to theorizing tangibility, we advocate supporting this turn by developing a vocabulary capable of articulating strategies for computational material design. By exploring the term texture, a material property signifying relations between surfaces, structures, and forms, we demonstrate how concepts spanning the physical and digital benefit interaction design. We ground texture in case study of the Icehotel, a spectacular frozen edifice. The site demonstrates how a mundane material can be re-imagined as precious and novel. By focusing on the texture of ice, designers craft its extension into the realm of computational materiality. Tracing this process of aligning the physical and digital via the material and social construction of textures speaks back to the broader field of interaction design. It demonstrates how the process of crafting alliances between new and old materials requires both taking seriously the materialities of both, and then organizing their relation in terms of commonalities rather than differences. The result is a way of speaking about computational materials through a more textured lens.
Keywords: architecture, computational material, design theory, icehotel, interaction design, interactive architecture, sweden, tangible interaction, texture

Learning through physical interaction

Action and representation in tangible systems: implications for design of learning interactions BIBAKFull-Text 145-152
  Sara Price; Jennifer G. Sheridan; Taciana Pontual Falcão
In tangible learning systems, the facility to promote physically active engagement highlights the need to understand how different designs impact on action and interaction, and the subsequent implications for learning. This paper draws on studies involving two tangible learning systems to analyse the effect of design choices on the kinds of (inter)actions engendered and how they create, shape and constrain different learning opportunities. Main findings suggest the need to promote and allow for different kinds of opportunities for conceptual reflection within the collective physical interaction; the importance of balancing collective representations and individual action-effect links; and the need to enhance appropriate awareness when dealing with several loci of attention.
Keywords: action, design, interaction, learning opportunities, tangible systems
Tangibles in the balance: a discovery learning task with physical or graphical materials BIBAKFull-Text 153-160
  Paul Marshall; Peter C.-H. Cheng; Rosemary Luckin
An assumption behind much work on the use of tangibles for learning is that there are individual cognitive benefits related to the physical manipulation of materials. However, previous work that has shown learning benefits in using physical materials often hasn't adequately controlled for the covariates of physicality.
   In this paper, we describe a study where we compared the effects on adults' discovery learning on a balance beam task of using either physical or graphical materials and with either control or no control over the design of experiments. No effects were found of either the type of learning material or the level of control over the experimental design.
Keywords: balance beam task, graphical, physical, tangibles
Culturally sensible digital place-making: design of the mediated xicanindio resolana BIBAKFull-Text 161-168
  Christopher Martinez; Randy Kemp; David Birchfield; Ellen Campana; Todd Ingalls; A Gkisedtanamoogk
Mediated XicanIndio Resolana is an interactive rhetorical space where multiple participants engage in three rounds of verbal discourse surrounding a special topic (Figure 1.1). In this space, discourse is coupled with the manipulation of digital media through cultural interaction protocols and symbolic gestures. Our aim is to use this system to conduct social and cultural work in middle and high school classrooms. As a design team that includes Chicano and Native American designers, we seek to express respectful and appropriate design sensibilities that derive from indigenous epistemologies. To achieve this we have sought critical feedback through our cross-cultural partnerships with members of various indigenous communities.
   In this paper, we will present (a) the theoretical foundations and educational needs that govern our design, (b) a design overview of the Mediated XicanIndio Resolana, and (c) the lessons we have learned through community discourse regarding the cultural sensibilities of our work.
Keywords: cultural interface, culturally sensible design, indigenous media, mixed-reality learning, social interaction
Interactions around a contextually embedded system BIBAKFull-Text 169-176
  Eva Hornecker
This paper discusses observations of visitor interactions around a museum installation, focusing on how physical setup and shape of two variants of the installation, a telescope-like viewer and a barrier-free screen, shaped visitor experiences and interactions around and with the system. The analysis investigates contextual embedding, and how the two system variants affected people's ability of sharing the experience and negotiating use.
Keywords: co-experience, context, cscw, embedded, externalization, interactivity, museum, shareability, tangible
An empirical evaluation of touch and tangible interfaces for tabletop displays BIBAKFull-Text 177-184
  Aurélien Lucchi; Patrick Jermann; Guillaume Zufferey; Pierre Dillenbourg
Tabletop systems have become quite popular in recent years, during which there was considerable enthusiasm for the development of new interfaces. In this paper, we establish a comparison between touch and tangible interfaces. We set up an experiment involving several actions like translation and rotation. We recruited 40 participants to take part in a user study and we present our results with a discussion on the design of touch and tangible interfaces. Our contribution is an empirical study showing that overall, the tangible interface is much faster but under certain conditions, the touch interface could gain the upper hand.
Keywords: hci, interface, tabletop, tangible, touch
A general education course in tangible interaction design BIBAKFull-Text 185-188
  Fred G. Martin; Karen E. Roehr
The authors created a general education undergraduate course, Tangible Interaction Design. We describe our learning goals, the course structure, "Tiddles" (in-class exercises that promote creativity), and three student final projects. The paper contributes to the literature on teaching interaction design by describing what's achievable with undergraduates at a public university in a general education context.
Keywords: arts, computing, creativity, sensors, tangible interaction

Demonstrations

Myglobe: a navigation service based on cognitive maps BIBAKFull-Text 189-192
  Takuo Imbe; Fumitaka Ozaki; Shin Kiyasu; Yusuke Mizukami; Shuichi Ishibashi; Masa Inakage; Naohito Okude; Adrian D. Cheok; Masahiko Inami; Maki Sugimoto
Myglobe is a user generated navigation service that enables users to share each cognitive map with one another. Cognitive map is a personalized map, shape of which is emphasized according to user's preference and activity in the city. It facilitates users to look back on their own city and have a new understanding by using an application in smart phones and physically interacting with a globe shaped device. In this paper, we present Myglobe service for users to achieve a new city experience with cognitive maps.
Keywords: cognitive map, interaction design, locative media
TextDraw: a prototype for gestural typesetting BIBAKFull-Text 193-198
  Travis Kirton; Pamela L. Jennings; Hideaki Ogawa
This paper considers a new approach that allows for the creation of typographic works through gestural interaction. It describes a prototype application called TextDraw, which is designed to introduce new techniques for typesetting opened up by gesture and tangible manipulation. Previous work explored the implications of tangible-surface interaction in the context of Surface Games; specifically, how the combination of multi-touch and tangible objects can extend the paradigm of board games in new directions. TextDraw also looks toward tangible-surface interaction and the idea that associating functions to gestures combined with new tangible tools will result in radically new methodologies for design, artistic and poetic expression of typographic works. Furthermore, while artworks created with TextDraw are presented, this paper focuses on the introduction / implication of our prototype.
Keywords: gestural typesetting, interaction, moveable type, multi-touch, tangible, typography
Tangible jukebox: back to palpable music BIBAKFull-Text 199-202
  Daniel Gallardo; Sergi Jordà
Since commercial musical recordings became available about a century ago and until very recently, they had always been distributed by means of a physical support. Nowadays that record companies have ultimately started to distribute music over the Internet, "music" does not use physical space anymore, and we can now store amazingly large music collection in our computers or portable music players. But this etherealness does not come without some drawbacks, such as browsing by the covers or organizing and grouping elements or collections.
   In this paper we propose a system in which files (intangible) become physical objects again, thus recovering part of the mysticism related with vinyls or compact discs, without loosing most of the benefits inherent to digital data, and applying at the same time some advantages that tangible and tabletop interfaces can offer. Complementarily, and from a more agnostic perspective, this paper also starts to explore on the tangible manipulation of sets or collections of items.
Keywords: collection, files, interface, music, player, playlist, tabletop, tangible, user
TessalTable: tile-based creation of patterns and images BIBAKFull-Text 203-204
  Abel Allison; Sean Follmer; Hayes Raffle
In this paper we introduce the TessalTable, a collaborative play system for learning about tessellations and symmetry through augmented pattern blocks. Children use tiles to "pick up" a piece of an image or video. The tiles act as containers for visual content which can be arranged and rearranged anywhere on the application surface. The tile-based controls allow for simultaneous multi-user input. A preliminary study found that children understand and engage with the interface. The ability to arrange and rearrange dynamic images invites users to explore geometric patterns and connected motion.
Keywords: building blocks, children, collaboration, creativity, input device, tangible user interface
Interactive paper devices: end-user design & fabrication BIBAKFull-Text 205-212
  Greg Saul; Cheng Xu; Mark D. Gross
We describe a family of interactive devices made from paper and simple electronics: Paper Robots, Paper Speakers and Paper Lamps. We developed construction techniques for these paper devices and the Paper Factory software with which novice users can create and build their own designs. The process and materials support DIY design and could be used with low-cost production and shipment from an external service.
Keywords: co-creation, evolutionary design, paper computing
valeo: alienation gesture-enhanced tactile pain logging BIBAKFull-Text 213-216
  Matthias Löwe; Omer Yosha; Alexander Krause; Reto Wettach; Nils Krüger
In current healthcare research, pain logs are an important means to measure the impact of medication and to detect pain patterns. However, the entry of textual pain data may be negatively reinforcing, due to its character of direct confrontation with one's pain, potentially leading to a higher pain awareness. This paper introduces valeo, a new form of a tactile pain log, which is based on a vibrotactile, pressure- and tilt-sensitive device. Future iterations will also include body part recognition. By squeezing it close to one's own body, the subjective intensity of a local pain is manifested in the device. Via a shove gesture, it is then transmitted to a docking station. Advantageously, the pain data is covert and conceptually alienated from the patient's body, which may support a possible relief. A proof-of-concept prototype and a user study indicate that our concept is perceived as convenient and reduces negative conditioning.
Keywords: alienation, gestures, log, medical, pain, pressure, psychological effect, relief, rich vibrotactile feedback, tilt
Using gestures on mobile phones to create SMS comics BIBAKFull-Text 217-220
  Vidya Setlur; Agathe Battestini; Timothy Sohn; Hiroshi Horii
SMS messages provide an easy and simple method to communicate with others. These short messages are useful, but can sometimes feel restricted due to the limitations of textual communication. The ability to express subtle nuances and contexts around the message could help add enjoyment and amplify the emotions being expressed by the mobile user. We present SensorComix, a new way of creating comics using SMS messages combined with gestures on mobile phones. Comics are automatically generated from users' SMS messages, and augmented with visual icons based on the performed gestures. We demonstrate that gestures mapped to comics can help influence the expressiveness of messages sent by mobile users.
Keywords: comics, gestures, mobile phones, sms
The peppermill: a human-powered user interface device BIBAKFull-Text 29-32
  Nicolas Villar; Steve Hodges
A human-powered user interface device sources its power from the physical effort required to operate it. This paper describes a technique by which a geared DC motor and a simple circuit can be used to enable interaction-powered rotary input devices. When turned, the circuit provides a temporary power source for an embedded device, and doubles as a sensor that provides information about the direction and rate of input. As a proof of concept, we have developed a general-purpose wireless input device -- called the Peppermill -- and illustrate its capabilities by using it as a remote control for a multimedia-browsing application.
Keywords: human-powered electronics, input devices
Relief: a scalable actuated shape display BIBAKFull-Text 221-222
  Daniel Leithinger; Hiroshi Ishii
Relief is an actuated tabletop display, which is able to render and animate three-dimensional shapes with a malleable surface. It allows users to experience and form digital models like geographical terrain in an intuitive manner. The tabletop surface is actuated by an array of 120 motorized pins, which are controlled with a low-cost, scalable platform built upon open-source hardware and software tools. Each pin can be addressed individually and senses user input like pulling and pushing.
Keywords: haptic display, pin array, relief interface, shape display, tangible input
Hands and fingers: a mobile platform for a person-centric network of computational objects BIBAKFull-Text 223-226
  John Kestner; Henry Holtzman
We describe a practical vision of ubiquitous computing with tangible interfaces, that orbits around an individual and is mediated by his or her personal consumer electronic devices. We illustrate this with a software and hardware platform for creating a personal area network of information accessories, connecting people physically with network-accessible information.
   The toolkit hardware consists of a Bluetooth-connected microcontroller to which input sensors and output actuators are connected. The software component consists of a networking library residing on the microcontroller, and a corresponding application on a handheld consumer electronics device that routes data between the Bluetooth modules and the Internet. This platform is used to create three examples of locally networked consumer objects that expose their inputs and outputs to a wide area network.
Keywords: interaction prototyping platform, mobile computing, ubiquitous computing, wearable computing
An LED-based multitouch sensor for LCD screens BIBAKFull-Text 227-230
  Florian Echtler; Thomas Pototschnig; Gudrun Klinker
In recent years, a large number of multitouch sensor concepts have been presented. Particularly optical sensors are highly popular due to their versatility. However, especially camera-based systems often require a significant amount of space behind the screen and are not well suited to flatscreen-based setups. While integrated sensors for flatscreens have already been presented, they are mostly complex, expensive or both.
   To address these problems, a novel type of multitouch sensor is presented which extends a common LCD monitor with multitouch capabilities without significant depth requirements. The sensor consists of a homogeneous matrix of cheap, mass-produced infrared LEDs. The LCD surface remains unmodified, resulting in a pleasant haptic experience for the user.
Keywords: led sensing, multitouch, optical sensor, sensor hardware
Think globally, build locally: a technological platform for low-cost, open-source, locally-assembled programmable bricks for education BIBAKFull-Text 231-232
  Arnan Sipitakiat; Paulo Blikstein
"Programmable bricks" are microcontroller-based devices that can be used in various educational projects, such as robotic prototypes, environmental sensing, and interactive art. They have been used in educational settings for many years, but particularly in developing countries their penetration has been limited due either to unavailability or prohibitive cost. In this paper, we discuss recent work on the GoGo Board, an open-source, extensible, low-cost programmable brick mainly designed for developing countries. We discuss the board's main design principles, which were based on our extensive fieldwork, as well as implication for learning activities, the use of low-cost materials, and local construction of boards. We use data and observations from studies in several countries such as Brazil, Mexico, and Thailand.
Keywords: appropriate technologies, construction kits, constructionism, educational robotics, open-source, probeware
Physics on display: tangible graphics on hexagonal bezel-less screens BIBAKFull-Text 233-236
  Mike Rooke; Roel Vertegaal
In this paper, we present a tiled display system made out of hexagonal cardboard screens with no visible bezel. Use of a bezel-less hexagonal form factor allows users to build larger multiform displays out of smaller tiles. Individual display tiles can be picked up to allow tangible interactions with physics simulations that are rendered onto the individual tiles. The corners of each hexagon are marked with invisible infrared retro-reflective dots. Computer vision is used to track the 3D location and orientation of these tiles. Our prototype projects back images onto each individual display. This allows for a seamless interaction experience that anticipates wireless Organic LED technology. We discuss a number of applications and interaction techniques for compound cardboard displays, which include tilting, rotating, moving and touching of tiles.
Keywords: augmented reality, organic user interfaces, paper interfaces, tangible user interface
Traditional games meet ICT: a case study on go game augmentation BIBAKFull-Text 237-240
  Takahiro Iwata; Tetsuo Yamabe; Mikko Polojärvi; Tatsuo Nakajima
While pervasive technologies explore new gaming styles, traditional games, such as cards and tabletop games are still appealing and have various irreplaceable flavors. We point out that tangible game objects and spatial interactions amplify emotional impacts in gaming; and the advantage cannot be reproduced in completely digitalized games. Thus we propose the concept of augmented traditional games, which aims at extending game features without losing original look-and-feel. In this paper, we introduce a case study on augmenting the game of Go. Our prototype supports several game modes, for example, a self-training mode for beginners. Based on an experimental study with the prototype, we discuss human factor issues in game design. We also suggest an augmentation framework for a wider range of traditional games as future work.
Keywords: augmented reality, entertainment computing, tangible interaction
FlexiKnobs: bridging the gap between mouse interaction and hardware controllers BIBAKFull-Text 241-244
  Kristian Gohlke; Michael Hlatky; Sebastian Heise; Jörn Loviscach
Parameters in audio or video editing applications can mostly be controlled by a variety of hardware devices such as MIDI controllers. These, however, usually feature only a limited number of physical knobs arranged in a fixed layout. The hundreds of parameters offered by typical editing software across dozens of windows with distinct arrangements of on-screen controls are hard to map to such a fixed physical interface. To improve this, we have built a set of wireless, mouse-like devices enhanced with rotary controllers aiming at integrating the flexibility and transparency of mouse interaction with the benefits of physical controllers. Our software enables the simultaneous use of several of these knobs with a large variety of standard software.
Keywords: a/v editing, multiple cursors, tangible user interfaces
FlyEye: grasp-sensitive surfaces using optical fiber BIBAKFull-Text 245-248
  Raphael Wimmer
This paper presents a method for prototyping grasp-sensitive surfaces using optical fibers. In this system one end of a fiber bundle is attached to an image sensor. The other ends of the individual fibers are attached to distinct points of a surface. Thus the image sensor can detect changes in light reception caused by a hand covering the surface. By emitting infrared light through the surface and measuring the amount of reflected light the system can also recognize touch and proximity. Mapping between pixels on the image sensor and fiber positions on the surface is generated by a relative calibration method. This setup allows to quickly build grasp-sensitive objects without electronics skills.
Keywords: computer vision, grasp recognition, optical fiber, tangible user interface
Shape-changing mobiles: tapering in one-dimensional deformational displays in mobile phones BIBAKFull-Text 249-252
  Fabian Hemmert; Susann Hamann; Matthias Löwe; Anne Wohlauf; Gesche Joost
In this paper, we present a new shape-based display technique for mobile phones: A rotatory deformation of the phone's chassis, resulting in a tapering between the phone's front and back panel. It draws on proprioceptive skills of the human hand, which we hypothesize to be sensitive to paralellism and tapering of two opposing panels.
   We present a number of applications for such an actuation system: Interactive Feedback, User Notification, and Ambient Display. The proposed system is evaluated in a user study, which results point to certain advantages, as well as drawbacks, in comparison to other mobile actuation systems.
   We conclude by discussing areas in which tapering-based deformational displays may be used advantageously, and how the proposed system may be improved in the future.
Keywords: ambient display, feedback, hand, haptic, mobile phone, notification, shape change, tactile, tapering
A 6DoF fiducial tracking method based on topological region adjacency and angle information for tangible interaction BIBAKFull-Text 253-256
  Hiroki Nishino
In this paper, we describe a new method for camera-based fiducial tracking. Our new method is based on the combination of topological region adjacency and angle information, where as related works by Johnston's RAG target [7], Costanza's D-Touch [3], and Kaltenbrunner's reacTIVision [2] are based on the uniqueness of the topological region adjacency structure.
   Such a combination of the topological region adjacency and angle information enables a wider unique ID range, while maintaining the merit of fast and robust fiducial tracking in topology-based approach. Our method makes it possible to obtain the 6 degrees-of-freedom (6DoF). Such problems of a narrow unique ID range and lack of 6DoF information have been the main deficits in most systems based on topological region adjacency approach, when compared to other fiducial tracking methods.
Keywords: computer vision, fiducial tracking, human computer interface, tangible interaction
Constructing with movement: kinematics BIBAKFull-Text 257-260
  Leonhard Oschuetz; Daniel Wessolek; Wolfgang Sattler
This paper describes Kinematics: a novel construction toy for children consisting of both active (shape-changing or rotating) and passive building blocks. In comparison to similar systems, the active components of Kinematics do not require programming or recording. This allows children to focus on reassembly and direct observation of the resulting movement from simple changes made to a constructed structure.
   The gameplay of Kinematics is similar to classic construction games; by re-combining different elements, one can assemble increasingly complex structures. The shape-changing/rotating feature of the active blocks results in movement of the whole structure. The geometric shapes of these blocks are cubes, cuboids, cylinders, and triangular prisms. Plug-and-socket connectors (TRRS jacks) hold the blocks together and are the pivot points for rotating. They also provide data and power lines.
   Through simply rotating a single element, or putting it in a different position within the structure, the child can directly and intuitively manipulate the resulting movement. We propose Kinematics as a playful, intuitive, and haptic way of learning about motion in the physical world.
Keywords: children, digital manipulative, education, learning, modular, programming by demonstration, robotics, tangible interface, toy
g-stalt: a chirocentric, spatiotemporal, and telekinetic gestural interface BIBAKFull-Text 261-264
  Jamie Zigelbaum; Alan Browning; Daniel Leithinger; Olivier Bau; Hiroshi Ishii
In this paper we present g-stalt, a gestural interface for interacting with video. g-stalt is built upon the g-speak spatial operating environment (SOE) from Oblong Industries. The version of g-stalt presented here is realized as a three-dimensional graphical space filled with over 60 cartoons. These cartoons can be viewed and rearranged along with their metadata using a specialized gesture set. g-stalt is designed to be chirocentric, spatiotemporal, and telekinetic.
Keywords: 3d, chirocentric, g-speak, gestural interface, gesture, pinch, spatiotemporal, telekinetic, video
Making digital leaf collages with blow painting! BIBAKFull-Text 265-268
  Yang-Ting Shen; Ellen Yi-Luen Do
We present a novel play interface called Blow Painting that enables people to create leaf collage paintings on a digital canvas by blowing at a toy windmill. The toy windmill detects the blowing action and direction with its embedded microphone and rotation sensor. Four kinds of leaf "stencils" (Red Maple, Sugar Maple, Hickory and White Oak) are embedded in the transparent RFID sheets to be placed under the windmill for the play interaction. We describe the motivation, system components, an informal pilot test, and discuss directions for future work.
Keywords: blowing, collage, daily experience, embodiment, interaction, leaf stencils, painting, play, rfid, tangible object
Liquids, smoke, and soap bubbles: reflections on materials for ephemeral user interfaces BIBAKFull-Text 269-270
  Axel Sylvester; Tanja Döring; Albrecht Schmidt
In this paper we inquire material qualities for tangible user interfaces and introduce the term "ephemeral user interface". We present an example user interface that employs fragile soap bubbles for human-computer interaction: the user has to move or blow bubbles over a dark liquid surface in order to interact with a computer system. Our installation uses liquid, smoke, and soap bubbles as unusual and transient materials that demand a very cautious and calm handling, and furthermore elude the complete control of users, as the bubbles inevitably burst after a short while. Thus, the soap bubble interface provokes thoughts about durability, control, and materiality of tangible user interfaces.
Keywords: ephemeral user interfaces, interactive art installation, materiality, soap bubbles, tangible user interfaces
ToonTastic: a global storytelling network for kids, by kids BIBAKFull-Text 271-274
  Andy Russell
Creativity, collaboration, and cultural understanding are becoming increasingly important in our workplace and society. As educators, we are therefore challenged to create new opportunities for children to express their ideas and share their work in collaboratively playful settings, both locally and online the world over. ToonTastic is a storytelling and animation tool that empowers young children to create their own cartoons and share their stories with other children around the world. The software is designed to be used with custom-built multi-pen interactive displays for arts and technology museums, but can also be used online with a conventional mouse. Our goal is to build an online Global Storytelling Network that will inspire creative collaboration and spread cultural understanding through the power of story.
Keywords: animation, interactive display, multi-pen, storytelling

Posters

Music-touch shoes: vibrotactile interface for hearing impaired dancers BIBAKFull-Text 275-276
  Lining Yao; Yan Shi; Hengfeng Chi; Xiaoyu Ji; Fangtian Ying
The hearing handicapped children show a penchant for dancing and dance plays an essential part in education of deaf children. This paper introduces the Music-touch Shoes, a pair of shoes particularly designed for hearing handicapped dancers: The rhythm and tempo of music can be communicated and perceived through the vibrotactile interaction. The vibrotactile interface is applied to shoes because feet are among the body parts which are most directly involved in performing dancing rhythm. The different sequences, intensity and frequency of vibrations reflect different rhythm and tempo of music. This project sought to explore a way of making up for the shortage of hearing ability through interaction with other senses, such as vibrotactile sense, to fulfill the same dancing entertainment demand of the hearing handicapped people.
Keywords: hearing impaired dancers, music rhythm and tempo, vibrotactile interface
Silent mutations: physical-digital interactions in spaces BIBAKFull-Text 277-278
  Claudia Rébola Winegarden; Nicholas Komor; Scott M. Gilliland
Many installations research efforts today explore how to engage participants with embedded digital content and applications in interactive environments. Yet the interactive design is largely determined by the constraints and requirements of the underlying sensing technologies. Such constrains result in a limited dialog between the user and the interactive installations. Silent Mutations is an interactive installation that is controlled by participants/users moving throughout the space. The installation has been conceived as a material and immaterial reflection of our relationship with physical environments and embedded technologies. The goal of developing the installation was to offer a valid questioning of the current responsiveness of interactive installations and advance a designed interactive environment towards engaging narrative conversations of people with physical spaces. Between analog and digital, using simple hardware systems coupled with sensing technologies, a cognitive space was created with conversational emerging behaviors for human communication.
Keywords: design, interactive environments, sensing technologies, tangible interaction
Anxiety of patients in the waiting room of the emergency department BIBAKFull-Text 279-286
  JungKyoon Yoon; Marieke Sonneveld
This study aims at understanding the patient's experience in the waiting room of the emergency department. The research explores and unveils the context and interactions in the waiting room and the factors that cause anxiety. As a result, a service that helps patients moderate anxiety has been developed.
   For the research, 12 patients and their family members were observed, and an interview with the head of the department was conducted. These methods were used to answer the following research questions: How do people experience the waiting room in the emergency department? How can the negative aspects be relieved?
   The main findings of this study reveal distrust between the patients and staff of the hospital, the patients' consistent focus on their status, and an uncertainty about the waiting time. The focus of this study is on alleviating these negative aspects by enabling patients to acquire sufficient information about the procedure and the waiting time.
Keywords: anxiety, emergency department, hospital, patients, waiting
StitchRV: multi-camera fiducial tracking BIBAKFull-Text 287-290
  Sijie Wang; Allen Bevans; Alissa N. Antle
StitchRV is a fiducial and touch-tracking engine based on the popular reacTIVision fiducial tracking system. StitchRV combines video input from multiple cameras in real time, and can be customized for a wide range of hardware and fiducial tracking applications through the high-performace rapid prototyping environment openFrameworks. The multi-camera approach facilitated by StitchRV also allows greater diversity and flexibility than single-camera systems when designing computer vision based tangible and multitouch prototypes.
Keywords: fiducial markers, multiple camera fiducial tracking, openframeworks, reactivision, tangible interaction, visual marker tracking
Interaction design with building facades BIBAKFull-Text 291-294
  Orkan Telhan; Federico Casalegno; Juhong Park; Sotirios Kotsopoulos; Carl Yu
In this paper, we discuss our early studies with electronically activated variable transmission materials (e.g., electrochromic glasses and PDLC films) for the design of interactive, programmable building facades that exercise environmentally and socially sustainable building behaviors. We articulate on the different applications of these facades, such as automated climate moderation, lighting, view and privacy control, and discuss their aesthetic, social, and cultural implications in light of new interaction paradigms that shape the experience of the space that they are manifested in.
Keywords: interaction design, interactive facade, smart windows
WearAir: expressive t-shirts for air quality sensing BIBAKFull-Text 295-296
  Sunyoung Kim; Eric Paulos; Mark D. Gross
We designed and prototyped WearAir, an expressive T-shirt to sense the wearer's surrounding air quality as indicated by the measured volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and publicly express those levels through visually expressive patterns. Although poor air quality has been shown to affect human health, our daily exposure to such pollutants has been inadequately captured and publicly shared. Our work is designed to accurately measure and publicly express the immediately local air quality. Obtaining information regarding air quality indirectly from others might help people to increase their awareness to air quality.
Keywords: air quality, expressive interface, sensing, wearable
Karma chameleon: bragg fiber jacquard-woven photonic textiles BIBAKFull-Text 297-298
  Joanna Berzowska; Maksim Skorobogatiy
Karma Chameleon refers to a series of textile prototypes woven on a Jacquard loom, using photonic bandgap fibers that have the ability to change color when illuminated with ambient or transmitted white light. The use of double weave structures and complex Jacquard patterns allows us to further modulate the color and patterns on the textile.
Keywords: electronic textiles, jacquard weaving., photonic bandgap fibers, photonic displays

Graduate student consortium

Objects in play: virtual environments and tactile learning BIBAKFull-Text 299-300
  Lillian Spina-Caza
When creating technology environments for children, consideration needs to be given to how touch, gesture, and physical interactions impact on play and learning. This is particularly important for video games or educational software appealing to young people with different learning styles. Children who are tactile learners are frequently left out of the design equation. New approaches to tangible design can address this imbalance. Animal Wrangler, a prototype of a PC-platform videogame the author co-designed for an Experimental Game Design course, demonstrates objects children encounter in the physical world -- everyday playthings -- can also be used to enrich virtual play. The next step is to develop the game prototype for dissertation research and gather data to help identify potential benefits of mixed reality play for learning, development, and children's overall well-being.
Keywords: child-computer interaction, experimental video games, mixed reality, motion detection, play, learning and development
Designing interactive kinetic surfaces for everyday objects and environments BIBAKFull-Text 301-302
  Hyunjung Kim
This research focuses on the topic of interactive surfaces, especially those which embody kinetic interactions. Through the research, I will provide a definition and a theoretical framework for Interactive Kinetic Surfaces. Following a research through design approach, I will explore the design space of the Interactive Kinetic Surfaces and set the guidelines for applying them to our daily lives. In terms of research implementations, I plan to develop Kinetic Tiles and Kinetic Bricks, modular construction units of the Interactive Kinetic Surface. By adopting Interactive Kinetic Surface into the objects and environments, not only designers but also users will be able to facilitate responsive, pliant, and self-evolving surfaces, which can be described as a living interface. The following is a brief summary of the ongoing research.
Keywords: interactive kinetic surface, kinetic organic interface
Swing that thing: moving to move BIBAKFull-Text 303-304
  Danielle Wilde
Swing That Thing... is a practice-based doctoral research project that examines how technology in on and around the body might be used to poeticise experience. Outcomes include a range of body-worn devices that encourage people to explore and move in playful ways. The works have evolved from a common design intent: 'to move the body through real and virtual extension'. By extending the body, mechanically, gesturally and sensorially we can encourage people to move in extra-normal ways, so view and experience their bodies from perhaps hitherto unknown perspectives. This affords insight into how our bodies can move and what this feels like; individual body-centric learning preferences; and the idiosyncratic nature of personal, corporeal expressiveness. The research is leading to a deeper understanding of how thoughtful applications of technology to the body might uncover our expressive and poetic potential, and why this might be of value.
Keywords: body-worn technologies, core-body engagement, extension, physical interaction, poetic
TouchTone: an electronic musical instrument for children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy BIBAKFull-Text 305-306
  Soumitra Bhat
Children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy often lack the physical skills to explore their environment independently, express feelings, communicate, and successfully participate in social activities. Creative music therapy aims to improve this situation by specifically addressing the emotional and social needs of these children. However, to be successful at these levels, the children need to have basic control over the musical instruments used in the therapy sessions. Traditional acoustic musical instruments demand high levels of sensori-motor coordination and precision making them difficult to control -- thus affecting the efficacy of music therapy.
   Executed during the Master Design for Interaction at the faculty of Industrial Design Engineering, TU Delft, TouchTone is an electronic musical instrument designed with a vision to develop musical ability, develop bimanual coordination and increase social participation of children with hemiplegia.
Keywords: cerebral palsy, children, electronic musical instrument, hemiplegia, tangible interaction
The representation and control of time in tangible user interfaces: (summary of PhD research) BIBAKFull-Text 307-308
  Peter Bennett
This paper summarises the author's PhD research on the representation and control of time in tangible user interfaces. The aim of the research is to create a theoretical framework that can aid the design of new temporal-media tangible interfaces.
Keywords: digital musical instruments, interaction design, music, tangible user interfaces, temporal media
Expressive surfaces: a designerly approach for computational objects BIBAKFull-Text 309-310
  Heekyoung Jung
I propose the concept of expressive surfaces as a research theme to investigate and explore aesthetics of computational objects with its emphasis on forms and materials. In this proposal, I describe some of my preliminary studies to illustrate how the concept has been developed to my research theme. Then exploratory examples of expressive surfaces (the sound-sensitive lamp sculpture and the soft-spiky mouse) are introduced as attempts to specify the theme into a research agenda for computational objects in terms of concept development, prototyping and evaluation.
Keywords: aesthetics, computational objects, expressive surfaces, tangible/organic user interfaces
Input devices and mapping techniques for the intuitive control of composition and editing for digital music BIBAKFull-Text 311-312
  Chris Kiefer
This paper describes the work so far on my DPhil research, which falls under the banner of composition and editing interfaces for digital musicians. Three new input devices are presented that share the aim of providing a fluid, intuitive and detailed method of control for musicians. The first system, named Phalanger, uses computer vision algorithms to track hand movement, and uses Artificial Intelligence (AI) techniques to interpret the tracking data. The other two are graspable interfaces that use arrays of sensors and AI techniques to interpret fine grained hand manipulation. Phalanger is currently undergoing evaluation using a longitudinal technique based on Gaver's cultural probe. The next stage in the project is to focus on refining the hardware and mapping techniques and carry out further evaluations.
Keywords: artificial intelligence, gesture, human computer interaction, music, physical computing
Recording inner life BIBAKFull-Text 313-314
  Elisabeth Eichhorn
"Recording Inner Life" is the title of my master's thesis. It is a system to express the "inner life" (feelings, affects, and emotions) and record them on a long-term basis into a computational system. In contrast to a lot of the research in the field of affective computing this project is not dedicated to enable machines to detect human emotions but to allow an adequate input for emotions. It presents "MyInnerLife", a physical input device to express and record emotions non-verbally.
Keywords: diary, emotion, input, non-verbal
Toys keeping in touch: technologies for distance play BIBAKFull-Text 315-316
  Natalie Freed
Collaborative pretend play is significant in the emotional and social development of young children yet traditional remote communication systems do not support this type of interaction. This paper introduces a remote communication system designed to facilitate imaginative play using the novel approach of a tangible interface specifically for character toys. A dollhouse enhanced with tangible electronic objects that allow the toy inhabitants of the house to communicate with the inhabitants of a remote dollhouse was constructed and evaluated in a pilot study.
Keywords: children, remote play, storytelling, tangible interfaces, user interfaces for toys
Tangible visualization BIBAKFull-Text 317-318
  Andy Wu
In this paper, I propose that visualization should escape the traditional constraint of the screen and embrace the physical environment to realize more tangible interactions for manipulating digital information.
Keywords: tangible user interface, visualization
Presenting the cyclotactor project BIBAKFull-Text 319-320
  Staas de Jong
The cyclotactor is a novel platform for finger-based tactile interaction research. The operating principle is to track vertical fingerpad position above a freely approachable surface aperture, while directly projecting a force on the same fingerpad. The projected force can be specified in Newtons, with high temporal resolution. In combination with a relatively low overall latency between tactile input and output, this is used to work towards the ideal of instant programmable haptic feedback. This enables support for output across the continuum between static force levels and vibrotactile feedback, targeting both the kinesthetic and cutaneous senses of touch. The current state of the technology is described, and an overview of the research goals of the cyclotactor project is given.
Keywords: haptic surface component, tactile interaction, tactile interface
A robust and accurate 3d hand posture estimation method for interactive systems BIBAKFull-Text 321-322
  Emi Tamaki
In this paper, a new 3D hand posture estimation system using a single camera and 3 interactive systems are introduced. Existing hand gesture recognition systems estimate hand's 3D models based on image features such as contour or skin texture. However, it was difficult to estimate the wrist rotation because the contour and the texture data do not have enough information to distinguish hand's sides. To solve this problem, we propose a new 3D hand posture estimation system that uses data of nail positions. Nail positions are an important factor to recognize hand's sides. Using nail positions, it becomes possible to detect whether the camera is facing palm or dorsum. In addition, nail areas can be robustly extracted from a skin area by a simple image processing technique. Our Proposed system uses a database consists of data-sets of the hand's contour, the nail positions, and finger joint angles. To estimate the hand posture, the system first extracts the hand's contour and the nail positions from the captured image, and searches for a similar data-set from the database. The system then outputs the finger joint angles of the searched data-set. Our experimental results show high accuracy in the hand posture estimation with the wrist rotation.
Keywords: hand gesture, interaction device, robot, tactile feedback
Move it!: puppetry for creativity BIBAKFull-Text 323-324
  Jasmine M. Williams
This project studied the influence of kinesthetic intelligences on creativity in young children. To understand this relationship preschoolers were observed in their daycare setting during story-time over a period of four sessions. During the sessions observations focused on the children's ability to propose narratives when the teacher used different storytelling methods. The children's responses were videotaped and coded later for analysis. The coding was used to calculate the baseline Ideational Fluency of the children. Total fluency was calculated by adding the number of popular and original responses. Behavior patterns also emerged from the study. Children generated not only more responses, but a greater variation in narratives when they were allowed to interact with tangible characters and act out behaviors. This is part of larger project to design a toy that fosters children's creativity using tangible objects and gestures.
Keywords: children, creativity, gestures, interactive environments for children, storytelling, tangible interfaces

Studios

Experience definition through storyboarding BIBAKFull-Text 325-328
  Sal Cilella; Craighton Berman; Justin Rheinfrank
The "Experience Definition through Storyboarding" studio will offer participants the opportunity to design compelling experiences from a user/audience perspective, using the storyboarding process as the primary ideation tool.
   Studio organizers will present an overview of their methodology, providing examples of their techniques in action and comparing it to other approaches. They will demonstrate how they use storyboarding in their practice, using the same tools and techniques that the studio participants will use. Following the demonstration, participants will form teams and collaboratively design an experience using the storyboarding process. Lastly, studio organizers will facilitate a group critique session and offer closing thoughts on employing this methodology in one's creative TEI practice.
Keywords: contextual, human-centered, product definition, prototype, storyboard, technique, user interface
TEI 2010 studio description: wireless wearables BIBAKFull-Text 329-332
  Kate Hartman; Rob Faludi
This studio will introduce the communication and construction techniques necessary to create wireless wearable devices. Participants will learn how to communicate using XBee radios, including digital, analog, input and output modes along with an overview of other useful features. Participants will also learn how to translate circuits onto fabric by making flexible, durable, and attractive connections between components using conductive textiles and threads. Finally, participants will create a finished garment or accessory that includes a soft sensor and embedded actuator and is able to transmit & receive data wirelessly with a neighboring wearable device.
Keywords: clothing, conductive textiles, fabric, fashion, lilypad, networks, physical computing, radios, soft electronics, wearable computing, wireless, xbee, zigbee
Ambient sites: making tangible the subtle, ephemeral and seemingly silent BIBAKFull-Text 333-336
  Diane Willow
Ambient Sites are proximal. At our fingertips, under the soles of our feet, along the edge of a cheek, they are characterized by the permeability of boundaries, the sudden awareness of movement, texture, or sound. Commonplace sensory minutiae remain so in part because we perceive them to be diminutive, fleeting or indistinct -- mist upon a window, the raised nap of a towel, momentary contact of heel and toe and cool floor. What happens when we amplify and make tangible our perception of the subtle, the ephemeral and the seemingly silent? In this studio we will explore varied modes of attuning to and making tangible aspects of the everyday that are intimate in scale and inconspicuous in presence. We will use open source technology and everyday materials to prototype a participatory installation and to compose sensory and affective experiences that magnify, amplify and re-scale our perceptions of the sonic, the tactile and the intermittently visible.
Keywords: ambient sites, arduino, ephemeral, experimental, prototype, seemlingly silent, sensors, subtle, tangible
Measuring biological signals: concepts and practice BIBAKFull-Text 337-340
  Sean M. Montgomery
Participants will learn the conceptual and practical considerations for measuring biological signals to create dynamic new forms of self awareness, personal expression and interpersonal communication. Using a provided breadboard and off-the-shelf electronics (no soldering required), participants will construct simple circuits and learn the basic concepts required to measure (1) galvanic skin response (GSR), (2) heart rate (EKG), and (3) brain activity (EEG) for implementation in wearable devices, art, industrial applications, and more.
Keywords: biofeedback, biological signals, brain, communication, ecg, eeg, ekg, emotion, expression, galvanic skin response, gsr, heart, heart beat, heart rate, self-awareness, wearable computing, wearables
Advanced prototyping with fritzing BIBAKFull-Text 341-344
  André Knörig; Brendan Howell
This studio will give participants a hands-on introduction to Fritzing, a free software tool for advancing electronic prototyping for researchers and practitioners of tangible, interactive electronics. Participants will bring one of their hand-wired prototypes (or a concrete concept) and in several steps learn to document it properly, share it with the community, and turn it into a professional printed circuit board.
Keywords: interactive electronics, physical computing, prototyping, tangible user interfaces, toolkit, workshop
BodyHack workshop BIBAKFull-Text 345-348
  Daito Manabe; Motoi Ishibashi; Seiichi Saito
In this studio, participants are making their own piece using their own body as IN PUT DEVICE and also as OUT PUT DEVICE which is controlling / controlled by computer. When they use their body as INPUT DEVICE, muscle sensor will be used and when they use their body as OUT PUT DEVICE, electrical stimulation device for skin will be applied.
   As participants try several part of body such as, arm, fingertip, foot and the heart, they can explore their own best way of out put and input system.
   Other experiment in this workshop will be PUBLISH this sensored data which is directly extracted from human being to server on www network. then we can think about other potential of second use of this data and also social problems which is delivered by this system.
Keywords: body, miscellaneous, network, physical computing, sensor
Making textile sensors from scratch BIBAKFull-Text 349-352
  Hannah Perner-Wilson; Leah Buechley
This workshop will explore the use of low-cost materials and tools to build textile-based interfaces. We will introduce a range of methods for handcrafting textile sensors and circuitry. Participants will learn techniques developed by the workshop leaders and will also be encouraged to use our material library to design their own custom sensors. The goal of the workshop is to familiarize participants with available electronic textile materials and introduce them to a variety of sensor and circuitry construction techniques.
Keywords: conductive materials, craft, diy, e-textiles, electronic textiles, handmade, sensors, soft circuitry
Personalizing your pixels BIBAKFull-Text 353-356
  John Sarik; Ioannis Kymissis
Tired of the same old pre-packaged display modules? Does your project need more visual oomph? Then make your own display! In this studio you will learn how to design and build novel, application-specific displays. We will cover the basic operating principles of many popular displays, including electroluminescent displays, liquid crystal displays, vacuum fluorescent displays, and organic light-emitting diode (OLED) displays. We will demonstrate how you can build displays using simple design tools and fabrication techniques. Finally you will design and build your own screen-printed electroluminescent display.
Keywords: electroluminescent, fabrication, liquid crystal, screen printing
Empowering programmability for tangibles BIBAKFull-Text 357-360
  Eric Rosenbaum; Evelyn Eastmond; David Mellis
Programming microcontrollers for tangible interfaces can be easier and more accessible than it is now, empowering a broader audience to participate. The first part of this studio will introduce participants to Scratch for Arduino, a graphical programming language for controlling the Arduino hardware platform. The participants will form small groups to create projects using the Arduino in combination with a kit of input and output devices, and program their creations' behavior using Scratch for Arduino. In the second part of the studio, participants will have a chance to get under the hood of the Scratch for Arduino language and its underlying blocks engine, modifying it or extending it to work with other tangible kits. We will close with a discussion about participants' experiences using and modifying Scratch for Arduino and the blocks engine, comparing them to other environments and considering possibilities for future work and collaborations.
Keywords: arduino, empowerment, graphical programming, scratch
Make cool things with microcontrollers! BIBAKFull-Text 361-364
  Mitch Altman
Anyone can learn how to make cool things with microcontrollers! Even if you've never even sewn a button, you can actually make a fun, intriguing project at this studio. Blink lights, hack your brain, play video games, turn off TVs in public places -- microcontrollers can do it all. This is for all skill and experience levels. Ages 5 to 100. You can even learn to solder! Learn all this and more from Mitch Altman, a maker/hacker with decades of teaching experience.
Keywords: actuators, displays, hardware (e.g., input / interaction, interactive art, sensors
Wiimote hackery studio proposal BIBAKFull-Text 365-368
  Amanda Williams; Daniela K. Rosner
Through reuse, reinvention and modification of materials, people easily prototype tangible interactive systems and redesign their everyday environments. Off-the shelf devices, such as the Nintendo Wii remote, provide one entrance into this world of hackable parts and Do-it-Yourself (DIY) activity. The Wii remote and extension controllers are a family of easily available devices whose hackability is informally supported by online DIY communities. Easy to open and containing joysticks, accelerometers, gyroscopes, Bluetooth and IR cameras, they are excellent tools for the affordable and rapid prototyping of tangible interactive systems. In this studio we hope to build some basic skills to equip participants with the confidence and knowledge to use these devices in their future prototyping and design efforts.
Keywords: diy, hacking, Wii nunchuk, Wii remote
Development strategies for tangible interaction on horizontal surfaces BIBAKFull-Text 369-372
  Sergi Jordà; Seth E. Hunter; Pol Pla i Conesa; Daniel Gallardo; Daniel Leithinger; Henry Kaufman; Carles F. Julià; Martin Kaltenbrunner
Tangible interactions on horizontal surfaces are increasingly relevant for collaborative applications, embodied interaction, musical performance, and interaction with 3D information. This unique studio opportunity introduces approaches to developing applications on four related platforms: the Reactable: a musical tabletop, and its companion fiducial tracking system reacTIVision, Microsoft Surface: a commercial multi-touch table, MemTable: a large interactive tabletop, and Relief: a responsive 3D surface. It will focus on the unique affordances of multi-input and multi-user event handling shared and afforded by each of the four platforms. Participants will work in small groups within some simplified code templates to develop a small applications focused on co-located input by multiple people, combining the use of tangible objects and touch input.
Keywords: collaborative, design, interactive, MemTable, multi-user, music, reactable, reactivision, responsive, social, surface, tabletop, tangible, touch
Introduction to CNC routing for prototyping and manufacturing BIBAKFull-Text 373-374
  Bill Young; Ted Hall; Grant Bailey
This Studio will give an introduction to Subtractive Digital Fabrication, using a ShopBot CNC (Computer Numeric Control) Tool, and explore options for fast local manufacturing of precise project pieces large and small. It will involve both theory and hands-on components that will give people involved in building tangible embedded and embodied interfaces an overview of the processes involved in creating prototypes and manufacturing components using these type of tools.
Keywords: 3d-printing, cad/cam, cnc, digital fabrication, manufacturing subtractive, shopbot

Short studio abstracts

Art-lab-bio-studio (abstract only) BIBAFull-Text 375
  Christina Nguyen Hung
In this studio, the concepts of creativity, interface and interaction are reframed and informed by techniques used to grow, and manipulate microorganisms and visualize biological processes. During the studio, participants experiment with techniques commonly used in basic biology labs to create living "drawings" in 100mm, round petri dishes. The studio is designed to provide a context for critical, generative discussion about biologicall-inspired hardware and software systems and interfaces. Further, it is organized around the premise that when we look to the environment for models, we look through the lens of biology, geology, and other related bioscience disciplines. Thus we must consider the technical and cultural limitations this imposes.
Exertion music workshop (abstract only) BIBAFull-Text 375
  Noah Vawter
This workshop explores design assumptions about technology in music. It suggests a new technique of instrument design which integrates human-powered electrical generators. It is intended to open up for discussion the relationship between contemporary electronic instruments, requiring proximity to a power grid, or a steady supply of batteries, and pre-electronic music culture. To explore these hypotheses, some related works and theory will be briefly introduced. Then, a construction project will be undertaken, in which the group constructs prototypical electronic instruments of exertion to take home.
How to draw yourself with text (abstract only) BIBAFull-Text 375
  Travis Kirton; Hideaki Ogawa; Eva Schindling
We describe a studio proposal wherein participants will draw portraits of themselves with text using gestural typesetting software. TextDraw is an application, recently developed at The Banff Centre, which provides multilinear control over the creation of typographic works through gesture-based interfaces. In this studio, participants will be introduced to the idea of gestural typesetting as a technique that diverges radically from modern practice. Participants will work with and explore the functionality of TextDraw while producing print and screen-based self-portraits drawn using images and text of their choosing. This studio will also engage participants in a creative session that looks at the future possibilities for new forms of typesetting tools.
Integrating old Chinese shadow play-Piying into tangible interaction (abstract only) BIBAFull-Text 375
  Shi Yan; Yao Lining; Ji Xiaoyu; Ying Fangtian
Piying is an old Chinese art form and one of the origins of the modern movie. In Piying, the shadow of fur made characters with delicate carving could be seen by audience in front of the curtain. The artists behind the curtain control the actions of shadows using sticks fastened to the characters.
   The spirit of traditional Piying performance is to express rich stories and emotion through action change controlled by artists. Now, digital forms of Piying characters can be made as a way of retaining cultural legacy. The thing is how people could interact with the digital characters instead of just watching screen animations without the traditional improvising change. It is an exploration of ways of preserving the classic cultural treasure in a natural and novel way. The studio draws a connection between an old Chinese form and modern-day movies and TEI can provide a fun intersection between culture and creation.
Link me up: hypertext journalism for TEI10 (abstract only) BIBAFull-Text 376
  Christian Zoellner; Sascha Bruk; Sabine Fekete
As many papers report, journalism changes through the shift from paper-based publishing to web publishing. As designers and researchers we have to confront ourselves with this topic as well, because the Internet provides new chances, and of course constraints in generating and transmitting knowledge. The Studio workshop, will show ways of explaining, reporting and displaying content in a hyper text way. This means we will encourage participants to make interviews and report from conference talks to present them later on our conference blog site and integrating the TEI10 twitter account.
Slow computing gifts (abstract only) BIBAFull-Text 376
  Winslow Burlson; Camilla Jensen
Slow Computing: is a transdisciplinary paradigm that celebrates the rich history and evolution of HCI and computational thinking experiences with diverse forms of interactive computing to foster democratic innovation. It appreciates Stonehenge and pyramids' tangible and embodied interactions as culturally integrated, social, communal, sustainable ubiquitous computing. Advancing Froebel's and Resnick's gifts for intrinsically motivated constructionist learning, slow computing gifts: Sundials; Towers of Hanoi puzzles; marble rollercoasters; water-play and Rube-Goldberg machines, enable simple and transparent DIY experiences that foster computational thinking (recursion, sequencing, parallel processing, modularity, timing, abstraction, systems thinking, sustainable computing, natural computing, etc.), discovery, exploration, and creativity. Requiring only existing local materials (water, sticks, balls, pebbles, etc.), these slow computing gifts provides powerful computational experiences that are globally accessible at "zero" cost. The studio will engage participants' transdisciplinary expertise to invent, create, deploy, and advance slow computing and slow computing gifts.

TEI explorations

Jamming gear: research on gearwheeled timing playback devices BIBAKFull-Text 377-378
  So Kanno
Jamming Gear is a concept gadget allowing you to control music through the tangible arrangement of gears, wherein each music loop is played in full, within each full rotation of a single gear.
   The system consists of custom-made computer software, five modules and several gears of varying size. The modules comprise of two types, one Mother Module, controlling the rotation direction and speed to the remaining four Gear Modules. Each Gear Module sends its rotation data back to the computer wirelessly, thus controlling the corresponding music loop. Depending on the size of the gear placed on a module, the rotation speed changes and playback of the music loop is altered accordingly. By combining many different sized gears, you are able to layer and control complicated music arrangement, needless to say is also enjoyable to watch.
Keywords: gearwheel, music
Tangible lightscapes BIBAKFull-Text 379-380
  Alice V. Pintus
The aim of my exploration is to design a vocabulary of light states to show people what their devices are doing. This vocabulary consists of light behaviours and gestures that can be applied to a wide range of contexts where devices (speakers, headphones, memory storage devices, cameras, laptops...) are communicating wirelessly. This "device language" gives a concrete representation of the intangible and invisible events that are taking place. It allows users to feel more in control by providing them with a direct interaction with the objects they are using.
   The vocabulary is described though 3 main tools: (1) a map of the light states/gestures matched with the most common activities of wireless devices, (2) a set of prototypes which represent three-dimensionally the vocabulary for demonstration and user testing purposes, (3) two scenarios visualizing the light behaviours as applied to different devices in everyday life situations.
Keywords: light interface, tangible interface
VR/Urban: SMSingshot BIBAKFull-Text 381-382
  Patrick Tobias Fischer; Christian Zöllner; Thilo Hoffmann; Sebastian Piatza
In this paper we describe the concept and design objectives of VR/Urban's media intervention tool SMSlingshot, which was presented at the Riga White Night Arts Festival 2009 [1] for the first time.
Keywords: embodiment, media facade, media intervention, mobile tangible user interface, social technology, urban computing
Twinkle: programming with color BIBAKFull-Text 383-384
  Jay Saul Silver; Eric Rosenbaum
Twinkle allows anyone to program using colors in the real world. Twinkle uses a color sensor to read colors from arrangements of objects, drawings, or collages. Those colors are then mapped to certain outputs, like sounds, graphics, or robotic movements. Color patterns can even be used to control the color sensor itself, closing the loop. The result is that you can program a computer or a robot, or compose a musical score, just by drawing on a piece of paper with crayons. Of course it's not limited to crayons. You could build your program with Lego bricks, arrange your program with the multi colored leaves of early Fall, or think of any collection of objects in the world as a program: from a striped shirt to a handful of M&Ms. In the limit, several interesting new programming concepts emerge from this paradigm: commands are no longer discrete and rigid but mixable and smearable; the program counter becomes visible, handheld, and nondeterministic; and when the color sensor becomes the program counter the application space and the programming space become intertwined.
Keywords: color, sensing, tangible programming, toolkit
Inoribi: emergence of "windows" and "mirrors" BIBAKFull-Text 385-386
  Tatsuma Segawa; Hiroki Ito; Masaya Doi; Machi Miyahara; Hiroya Tanaka
This research integrates two contradicting experiences; inner introspection and the act of connecting to the external world. The device we created called "inoribi" enables the unification of slow, sensitivity required interaction, and the sharing of that experience through the network, creating a tightly interwoven, reciprocal system. By fusing the two elements, the research explores a new enriching information experience, expanding the possibilities of media design.
Keywords: interactive art, media design, networked furniture, reflective interaction
ChameleonBall BIBAKFull-Text 387-388
  Koji Tsukada; Maho Oki
We propose a novel ball-type input/output (I/O) device -- the ChameleonBall -- that allows users to interact with colors in the real world. The ChameleonBall mainly consists of multiple color I/O units in an acrylic ball. It can detect the colors of objects in the real world and emit similar colors. We have developed a prototype system and a few applications using this device.
Keywords: ball, color sensor, i/o device, led
Bio circuit BIBAKFull-Text 389-390
  Holly Schmidt; Dana Ramler
In this paper we describe Bio Circuit, an artist and designer collaborative wearable project. This project stems from our concern for ethical design and the creation of media-based interactions that reveal human interdependence with the environment.
Keywords: art, audio, body, collaboration, design, environment, heart rate, sensors, soft products, wearable computing
Knitted stretch sensors for sound output BIBAKFull-Text 391-392
  Martha Glazzard; Sarah Kettley
Stretch sensors appear to offer the physical computing and wearables communities a solution in their flexibility. This paper introduces an interdisciplinary project in which knit, weave and embroidery specialists were brought together to examine how a carbon rubber sensor might be integrated aesthetically and functionally into different fabric structures. It reports on the drawbacks of the original commercially available sensor, and presents an exciting alternative direction using knit structures to build custom flexible sensors.
Keywords: knit, stretch sensor, textiles, wearables
Project 6453: a multi-touch interactive table in a concept showroom BIBAKFull-Text 393-394
  Ting-Han Chen; Chi-Huang Lu; Chi-Fa Fan
This project realized a multi-touch interactive table designed for 4 people use at the same time, which integrates USB, Bluetooth, and email functionality to serve as an on-site information and social platform in a concept showroom in Taiwan.
Keywords: interactive table, kiosk, multi-touch, showroom
Creating with cobots BIBAKFull-Text 395-396
  Christian D. Cerrito
In the world of interactive art, very few pieces have a permanent, physical outcome. In response to this observation, the author developed two "cobots", or collaborative robots, designed to create physical pieces of art in a direct partnership with their human audience. This concept was refined by examining several of the author's inspirations, including the drawings of artist Sol Lewitt, the Etch-a-Sketch, the robots of artist/technologist Lionel Moura, and the work of Kelly Dobson.
   After many conceptual and technical considerations, two robotic drawing machines, one designed to respond to the shadows cast by its users, the other designed to respond to sounds produced by it's audience, were successfully developed, built, and tested. This project aims to explore both the notion of collaborative relationships between humans and technology, and the practice of collaborative human/machine art making.
Keywords: drawing machines, familiar interfaces, generative art, human-machine collaboration, robotics