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Proceedings of the 2009 International Conference on Persuasive Technology

Fullname:Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Persuasive Technology
Editors:Samir Chatterjee; Parvati Dev
Location:Claremont, California
Dates:2009-Apr-26 to 2009-Apr-29
Publisher:ACM
Standard No:ISBN: 1-60558-376-6, 978-1-60558-376-1; ACM DL: Table of Contents hcibib: Persuasive09
Papers:46
Pages:279
Summary:We are delighted to welcome you to the beautiful campus of Claremont Colleges for PERSUASIVE 2009. We hope you will enjoy the location, the social program and the outstanding technical program that we have assembled for you.
    This is the fourth year for the International Conference on Persuasive Technology. This community studies both the theory and practical applications of how computing technology can alter human behavior and attitudes. In a very short time, this new discipline has garnered attention from technologists, researchers and practitioners world-wide. That is evident from this year's technical program with many papers representing new ideas in design, healthy lifestyle, green technologies, social networking and mobile persuasive gaming solutions.
    From the general Call for Papers, we received 66 paper submissions, 3 tutorial proposals and 3 panel proposals for a total of 72 submissions. Each paper and submission went through a double blind review process. Each paper received at least 2 reviews. The papers were reviewed by our technical program committee but we also had to enlist a number of additional reviewers. The program co-chairs met and carefully went through every review and finally selected 21 papers for full presentation. That makes it an acceptance rate of 31%. In addition to full papers, we accepted 15 excellent papers for presentation at the poster session. All papers and posters appear in their entirety in the conference proceedings.
    This year we are pleased to inform you that ACM will publish the proceedings and make all papers available through their digital library. This will make it easy for researchers to search and access Persuasive 2009 papers.
    Besides the papers and posters, the program includes two exciting keynote lectures, three distinguished lectures by leaders in our field, and three thought-provoking panels. On Sunday, April 26th, 2009, we have arranged two cutting-edge tutorials for which many have registered. We also would like to thank Prof. Matti Rossi for arranging the doctoral consortium.
  1. Keynote lecture 1
  2. Persuasion in practice
  3. Persuasive design techniques
  4. Persuading for healthy lifestyle
  5. Panel
  6. Persuasion and climate/energy change
  7. Influence and trust
  8. Distinguished lecture 1
  9. New metrics for earned engagement
  10. Behavior change applications
  11. Posters
  12. Distinguished lecture 3
  13. Design & evaluation of persuasive systems

Keynote lecture 1

Meeting people where they are BIBAFull-Text 1
  Brenda Laurel
Human-centered design research methods serve two vital purposes in the world of design. The first is educational. At the graduate level, methods and techniques for engaging the world as it is are fundamental to good design pedagogy. The notion of the designer as a Great Man (or Woman) still haunts the ethos of design, even though we have largely passed into an era of collaboration -- primarily because of the increasingly transdisciplinary nature of design work. A degree of humility and a great deal of curiosity are required of today's new designers. Who are these people for and with whom we design? The computer game industry provides an interesting example of how designing for oneself may reach a certain audience, but will be thwarted in its ability to move beyond its own narcissistic gaze until some Other audience -- along with designers willing and able to understand it -- comes into view. Students who comprehend the diversity of human qualities and situated contexts that their work may engage emerge from the educational process with the informed intuition of a good designer and with the means to inquire of the world as they move through their careers. For the working designer, human-centered design research is the principal means of educating oneself about the people for whom one designs and the situated contexts in which one's work will be encountered.

Persuasion in practice

Understanding persuasive software functionality in practice: a field trial of polar FT60 BIBAFull-Text 2
  Marja Harjumaa; Katarina Segerståhl; Harri Oinas-Kukkonen
Many software applications today aim at changing the behaviors and/or attitudes of their users. Some of these persuasive systems are targeted to support healthier lifestyles through motivating exercise. Incorporating persuasive strategies into software functionality may help achieve desired changes. However, as needs for behavior change become more specialized, in-depth knowledge of how the various strategies function is needed. This article describes findings from a three-month-long qualitative field trial, exploring how a training program in a new prototype heart rate monitor promotes proper exercising. A framework for evaluating and designing persuasive systems was used to identify distinct strategies and techniques that were embedded into the system. Users' responses to these strategies were explored. The study contributes to the body of knowledge on persuasive design by: 1) demonstrating how persuasive techniques can be identified in and embedded into system functionality, and 2) adding to the understanding of how persuasive techniques function.
Towards a handy interactive persuasive diary for teenagers with a diagnosis of autism BIBAFull-Text 3
  Anja Meiland Ranfelt; Tony Wigram; Peter Øhrstrøm
The HANDS project is designed for Helping Autism-diagnosed Navigate and Develop Socially (HANDS) and combines studies within the pedagogical and psychological fields with the more technological field of Persuasive Design (PD). Functional deficits in social ability are considered in teenagers with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in relation to underlying structural neurological deficits, and the implications of motivation are discussed. Design-requirement proposals are made for the Handy Interactive Persuasive Diary (HIPD) to customize its functionality to meet the specific needs of this population in order to support the development of their social skills. The main purpose of this paper is to clarify the expected role of the HIPD considered from a psychological perspective.
A persuasive interactive mannequin for shop windows BIBAFull-Text 4
  W. Reitberger; A. Meschtscherjakov; T. Mirlacher; T. Scherndl; H. Huber; M. Tscheligi
In this paper, we present an interactive mannequin for persuading bypassing customers to extend the perceived time they stay in front of a shop window. The mannequin was designed and prototyped to be seamlessly integrated into a real shop window, constituting an ambient persuasion interface. The design concept of our virtual mannequin is based on actual "real world" mannequins. Based on implicit input from the customers, the mannequin reacts on their presence by looking into their direction. We implemented a prototype of the persuasive interactive mannequin (PIM) as a 3D model, visualized on a large LCD screen and deployed it in a retail store within a shopping mall. The results from a three days field study of this deployment are presented and discussed. The study results give insights about the persuasive effect of the mannequin as well as implications for the user centered design of interactive agents in the context of shopping.

Persuasive design techniques

Influencing interaction: development of the design with intent method BIBAFull-Text 5
  Dan Lockton; David Harrison; Tim Holley; Neville A. Stanton
Persuasive Technology has the potential to influence user behavior for social benefit, e.g. to reduce environmental impact, but designers are lacking guidance choosing among design techniques for influencing interaction.
   The Design with Intent Method, a 'suggestion tool' addressing this problem, is introduced in this paper, and applied to the briefs of reducing unnecessary household lighting use, and improving the efficiency of printing, primarily to evaluate the method's usability and guide the direction of its development. The trial demonstrates that the DwI Method is quick to apply and leads to a range of relevant design concepts. With development, the DwI Method could be a useful tool for designers working on influencing user behavior.
Design methods for ethical persuasive computing BIBAFull-Text 6
  Janet Davis
Value Sensitive Design and Participatory Design are two methodological frameworks that account for ethical issues throughout the process of technology design. Through analysis and case studies, this paper argues that such methods should be applied to persuasive technology -- computer systems that are intended to change behaviors and attitudes.
Designing empathic computers: the effect of multimodal empathic feedback using animated agent BIBAFull-Text 7
  Hien Nguyen; Judith Masthoff
Experiencing emotional distress is the number one reason why people who are undergoing behaviour modification (e.g. quitting smoking, dieting) suffer from relapses. Providing emotional support is an effective way to help them overcome the unpleasant effects of negative affect and adhere to their regimen. Building computers with such ability has grabbed the attention of the HCI community in recent years. Early research has shown some promising results when adopting strategies of how we comfort others, but many questions on how to build such systems remain unanswered. This paper presents the results of a 2 (modality: animated vs. no visual) by 3 (intervention: non-empathy vs. empathy vs. empathy and expressivity) between-subjects study that investigates the impact of two important factors and their interaction in the design of such systems: (1) different ways of expressing empathy, and (2) the modality of delivering such content. Findings and implications for the design of empathic computer systems are discussed and directions for future research are suggested.

Persuading for healthy lifestyle

Goal-setting considerations for persuasive technologies that encourage physical activity BIBAFull-Text 8
  Sunny Consolvo; Predrag Klasnja; David W. McDonald; James A. Landay
Goal-setting has been shown to be an effective strategy for changing behavior; therefore employing goal-setting in persuasive technologies could be an effective way to encourage behavior change. In our work, we are developing persuasive technologies to encourage individuals to live healthy lifestyles with a focus on being physically active. As part of our investigations, we have explored individuals' reactions to goal-setting, specifically goal sources (i.e., who should set the individual's goal) and goal timeframes (i.e., over what time period should an individual have to achieve the goal). In this paper, we present our findings related to various approaches for implementing goal-setting in a persuasive technology to encourage physical activity.
Understanding user cognitions to guide the tailoring of persuasive technology-based physical activity interventions BIBAFull-Text 9
  Joyca Lacroix; Privender Saini; Annelies Goris
The growing number of people with an inactive lifestyle emphasizes the need for highly persuasive physical activity interventions. Modern technological developments bring great promise for the realization of such large-scale persuasive behavior change interventions because they allow for user tailored interaction. For the effective tailoring of technology-based interventions, a profound understanding of the main variables underlying physical activity behavior is required. In this paper, we focus on three cognitive variables that have shown to be crucial for the adoption and maintenance of health behaviors: behavioral regulation, types of motives, and self-efficacy. In particular, we explore the relationship of these cognitive variables with actual levels of daily-life physical activity. Our study differs from related studies in two important ways. First, we consider the entire range of physical activities performed throughout the day while many studies focused on sports and or dedicated exercise. Second, we employ a wearable device for the objective measurement of daily physical activity levels rather than rely on self-report measures. Our results show that active individuals feel higher levels of self-determined behavioral regulation, experience stronger motives to be active (in particular for health and well-being related motives), and have higher levels of self-efficacy for daily-life physical activity than inactive individuals. We argue that tailored technology-based activity interventions should accommodate these cognitive variables and for inactive individuals, aim to gradually induce and internalize the cognitions already experienced by active individuals.
Hallym Jikimi 3rd system: web-based monitoring for u-health care service BIBAFull-Text 10
  Yong-Joong Kim; Kyung-Kwon Jung; Seon-Woo Lee; Gyu Moon; Dong-Sik Shin; Ho-Youl Kang
This paper describes a remote monitoring system about behavioral patterns of elders who live alone. The developed system is composed of an in-house sensing system and a server system. The in-house sensing system is a set of wireless sensor nodes which has pyroelectric infrared (PIR) sensor to detect a motion of elder, emergency button, and magnetic sensor to detect when a door is opened. Each sensing module sends its detection packet to a home gateway via wireless link. The home gateway stores the received packets into a remote database. The server system is composed of a database server and a web server, which provides web-based monitoring system to caregivers. It makes the cost-effective intelligent care service. We have evaluated the monitoring system from continuous operation. It has been three years since the experiment started in Hallym u-health Educational Test-bed (HuET). The result of experiment shows the promising possibilities to estimate the behavioral patterns and the current status of elder even though the simplicity of sensing capability.

Panel

Designing for persuasion: mobile services for health behavior change BIBAFull-Text 11
  Sunny Consolvo; Kendra Markle; Kevin Patrick; Kara Chanasyk
There is a pressing need for an effective means of transforming health behaviors. Obesity, anxiety and other behavior-generated health conditions result in billions of dollars of healthcare costs and a great deal of human suffering. Technology innovations are rapidly presenting new delivery mechanisms that can be harnessed to influence health behaviors.
   The mobile platform is a uniquely persuasive delivery medium with ever increasing reach. Mobile phones are intimate, responsive, and serve as our constant companions and guides. The ability to reach people whenever and wherever they are provides a capability to persuade and influence behavioral decisions in real time that never existed before.
   Effective health interventions must be built on a foundation of persuasive design principles and behavior change theory. Important traditional factors for effective behavior change include setting clear goals, tracking progress, getting reminders and social support, among others.
   In this panel, we'll explore the use of mobile technology for reminders, repetition and reinforcement and how context-awareness contributes to effectiveness. We'll discuss goal-setting theory and how the mobile platform contributes to creating and engaging in intentions. We'll look at how location-awareness creates unique opportunities for social support of new behaviors, providing more subtle influences on frequent decisive moments. We'll describe mobile tools for tracking and logging behavior and how they provide awareness and insight. Lastly, we'll discuss the near future and our predictions for this incredible platform to create impact and make positive change in our collective health.

Persuasion and climate/energy change

Using negative and positive social feedback from a robotic agent to save energy BIBAFull-Text 12
  Cees Midden; Jaap Ham
In this paper we explore the persuasive effects of social feedback, as provided by an embodied agent, on behavioral change. In a lab setting, two experiments were conducted in which participants had the opportunity to conserve energy while carrying out washing tasks with a simulated washing machine. The experiments tested the effect of positive and negative social feedback and compared these effects to more widely used factual feedback. Results of both studies indicate that social feedback has stronger persuasive effects than factual feedback (Experiment 1) and factual-evaluative feedback (Experiment 2). In addition, an effect of feedback valence was found, demonstrating more conservation actions following negative feedback (social or factual) as compared to positive feedback. Interestingly, especially negative social feedback had the strongest persuasive effects. The predicted perceived agency effect could not be demonstrated. These findings have several implications for theory and design of persuasive robotic agents.
Using individual, social and economic persuasion techniques to reduce CO2 emissions in a family setting BIBAFull-Text 13
  Miyuki Shiraishi; Yasuyuki Washio; Chihiro Takayama; Vili Lehdonvirta; Hiroaki Kimura; Tatsuo Nakajima
This paper presents EcoIsland, which is a system persuading individuals and families to change their lifestyle patterns to reduce CO2 emissions. EcoIsland visualizes the user's current eco-friendly behavior as an island shared by his/her family members. Several persuasive techniques developed in behaviorism, social psychology, and economy are used to offer incentives to him/her to encourage eco-friendly behavior. We examine and compare the implementation and effectiveness of different types of persuasive techniques in several user studies.
Climate persuasive services: changing behavior towards low-carbon lifestyles BIBAFull-Text 14
  Jorge Luis Zapico; Marko Turpeinen; Nils Brandt
ICT has reshaped our society, and with the current accelerating development of technology, and its wider distribution throughout the globe, they will continue doing so even more. These changes in society are important for sustainability. They affect the physical way the society and the environment interact, but they also affect the way people think, learn and behave.
   We suggest that the persuasive power of ICT can be oriented towards climate change. For this purpose we define the concept of "climate persuasive services" as ICT applications that change personal attitudes regarding climate change and/or change behavior towards reducing greenhouse gases emissions. We consider mobile phones, pervasive sensors and social media as three key technological drivers for the development of climate persuasion applications.
   We have analyzed the use of persuasion principles in existing web and mobile applications forming three clusters: tracking carbon footprints, sharing goals and making green behavior easier. Based on this analysis, we suggest a more planned use of persuasive principles, and propose six different opportunities for improvement.

Influence and trust

Does it make a difference who tells you what to do?: exploring the effect of social agency on psychological reactance BIBAFull-Text 15
  Maaike Roubroeks; Cees Midden; Jaap Ham
Nowadays, many advertising campaigns attempt to persuade people to perform a specific behavior. In response to such messages, people can comply and adapt their behavior in the proposed direction. However, people can also experience psychological reactance, which may lead to the complete opposite of the target behavior. In the present study, we were interested in the social nature of psychological reactance. According to Social Agency Theory [12], more social cues lead to more social interaction. We suggest that this also holds for psychological reactance. We argue that there is a positive relation between the level of social agency of the source of a message and the level of psychological reactance that this message can arouse. In an online study, participants received low-controlling or high-controlling advice about energy conservation. This advice was delivered either solely as text, as text with a still picture of a robotic agent, or as text with a brief film clip of the same robotic agent. Results showed that a high-controlling advisory message resulted in more reactance than a low-controlling advisory message. Confirming our expectancies, stronger social agency of the messenger led to more psychological reactance. Implications are discussed.
Subtle persuasion: the unobtrusive effect of website-banner congruence on trust BIBAFull-Text 16
  Peter de Vries; Thomas J. L. van Rompay
This paper focuses on congruence among associations with banner advertisements and their host websites. Based on processing fluency theory we argued that congruence, as opposed to incongruence, increases processing fluency, which subsequently influences trust in the organization behind the banner. To test this prediction, an experimental study was conducted in which participants were asked to evaluate a mobile website, in which the product class of a banner advertisement and its host website were manipulated to be either congruent or incongruent. In conformance with expectations, congruence proved to affect trust behind the banner, and this effect was mediated by the ease with which they were able to reconcile banner and website (i.e., processing fluency). Alternative ways in which congruence may affect trust are discussed.
Communication-based influence components model BIBAFull-Text 17
  Brian Cugelman; Mike Thelwall; Phil Dawes
This paper discusses problems faced by planners of real-world online behavioural change interventions who must select behavioural change frameworks from a variety of competing theories and taxonomies. As a solution, this paper examines approaches that isolate the components of behavioural influence and shows how these components can be placed within an adapted communication framework to aid the design and analysis of online behavioural change interventions. Finally, using this framework, a summary of behavioural change factors are presented from an analysis of 32 online interventions.

Distinguished lecture 1

Three possible futures for persuasive technology BIBAFull-Text 18
  BJ Fogg
I will share three possible paths that persuasive technologies might take in the coming years: MixMasters, Swishers, and MegaMonkeys. These speculative futures may help us reevaluate our methods for research and design. Even if my three scenarios never happen, what seems certain is that our current practices, in both industry and academics, will inevitably change as we develop better tools for creating, distributing, and measuring persuasive technologies. I believe these changes will come sooner than most expect.

New metrics for earned engagement

New metrics for liquid media BIBFull-Text 19
  Martha G. Russell
Buzz, fuzz and numbers that really matter BIBFull-Text 20
  Blaine Baggett
The screen consumption quotient BIBFull-Text 21
  Neal M. Burns
The power score BIBFull-Text 22
  Maury Giles
Lifestyle mapping BIBFull-Text 23
  Louis-David Mangin
The community health index BIBFull-Text 24
  Michael Wu

Behavior change applications

Persuading users through counseling dialogue with a conversational agent BIBAFull-Text 25
  Daniel Schulman; Timothy Bickmore
We present an empirical study of the effect of a computer agent designed to engage a user in a persuasive counseling dialogue on attitudes towards regular exercise. We used two manipulations: (1) how closely the agent simulated human conversation, using either an embodied conversational agent (ECA) or a text-only agent, and (2) whether the agent attempted to build a user-agent relationship through social dialogue. Participants demonstrated a significant increase in positive attitudes (persuasion) following the persuasive dialogue; however, this change was significantly smaller when the agent used social dialogue. Participants' perceptions of the dialogue were most positive for an ECA with social dialogue, or a text-only agent without.
"show-me": water consumption at a glance to promote water conservation in the shower BIBAFull-Text 26
  Karin Kappel; Thomas Grechenig
Water is a scarce resource worldwide. Yet, we have many opportunities to conserve it. One particular opportunity for water conservation is the shower, because depending on the shower head and shower habits, an individual can save many liters of fresh water each day. Feedback proved to be an effective method to promote sustainable behavior. Therefore, in this paper we suggest to promote water conservation by providing feedback in form of an ambient display that can easily be integrated in current shower types. We built a prototype to study the potential of such a feedback device. These shower water meter (show-me) display the amount of water, that is used during one shower in form of LEDs assembled on a stick. Thus, an increasing water level is visualized. The user study revealed two groups. The subjects who considered themselves as ecologically conscious changed their behavior and turned the water down or off while soaping. Also, they are willing to pursue this behavior. Other subjects who did not have the goal to act more sustainable, were surprised about their water consumption and tried to reduce it. However, after the removal of the show-me device they did not maintain their behavior and fell back into their previous habit.
The persuasive qualities of maps BIBAFull-Text 27
  Louise Nørgaard Glud; Anders Albrechtslund; Henrik Harder
In this article we explore the persuasive qualities of maps that connect people's behavior and emotions to location. We introduce Actor-Network Theory (ANT) [Latour 2005] to grasp the many actors involved in persuasive design processes. We argue that these many types of actors should be integrated into the design process, and we suggest the idea of 'persuasive platforms' to do this. These new insights are employed in connection with an empirical study at Aalborg Zoo, Denmark.

Posters

Organizational transformation: a new application of persuasive technology BIBAFull-Text 28
  William Seidman; Michael McCauley
This paper presents the application of persuasive technology to organizational change. The persuasive technology described here is the foundation of a methodology that draws on four areas of research to guide people and organizations into positive, predictable transformational experiences. It has been used in a wide variety of organizations such as the largest semi-conductor manufacturer in the world and a large fast food chain to produce faster, more predictable and more complete change than has previously been thought possible.
Can ambient persuasive technology persuade unconsciously?: using subliminal feedback to influence energy consumption ratings of household appliances BIBAFull-Text 29
  Jaap Ham; Cees Midden; Femke Beute
In this paper we explore a fundamental characteristic of Ambient Persuasive Technology: Can it persuade the user without receiving the user's conscious attention? In a task consisting of 90 trials, participants had to indicate which of three household appliances uses the lowest average amount of energy. After each choice, participants in the supraliminal feedback condition received feedback about the correctness of their choice through presentation of a smiling or a sad face for 150 ms. Participants in the subliminal feedback condition received identical feedback, but the faces were presented only for 25 ms, which prohibited conscious perception of these stimuli. The final third of the participants received no feedback. In the next task, participants rated the energy consumption of all presented appliances. Results indicated that supraliminal feedback and subliminal feedback both led to more correct energy consumption ratings as compared to receiving no feedback. Implications are discussed.
Persuasive system design: state of the art and future directions BIBAFull-Text 30
  Kristian Torning; Harri Oinas-Kukkonen
This paper provides an overview of the current state of the art in persuasive systems design. All peer-reviewed full papers published at the first three International Conferences on Persuasive Technology were analyzed employing a literature review framework. Results from this analysis are discussed and directions for future research are suggested. Most research papers so far have been experimental. Five out of six of these papers (84.4%) have addressed behavioral change rather than an attitude change. Tailoring, tunneling, reduction and social comparison have been the most studied methods for persuasion. Quite, surprisingly ethical considerations have remained largely unaddressed in these papers. In general, many of the research papers seem to describe the investigated persuasive systems in a relatively vague manner leaving room for some improvement.
GuideView: a system for developing structured, multimodal, multi-platform persuasive applications BIBAFull-Text 31
  M. Sriram Iyengar; Jose F. Florez-Arango; Carlos A. Garcia
Persuasive technologies for healthcare have great potential to beneficially impact the well-being of individuals with chronic disease, support self-care, and encourage adherence to correct treatment guidelines by non-physician care providers such as medics and community health workers. However healthcare poses special challenges with respect to design and development of persuasive applications. We describe GuideView, a system now undergoing beta testing, that enables interactive, structured, multi-modal delivery of clinical advice and the authoring of such content. Information and advice is presented simultaneously using voice, pictures, video, and animation. GuideView is multi-platform, executing on desktops, over the web, on Pocket PCs, and on Windows Mobile cell-phones.
ePsychology: a pilot study on how to enhance social support and adherence in digital interventions by characteristics from social networking sites BIBAFull-Text 32
  Elin Olsen; Pål Kraft
We know much too little about how to design effective digital interventions to support sustained behaviour change and improved well-being. The purpose of the present study is to explore whether characteristics and features from social network sites like Facebook, Twitter and MySpace can be used to facilitate digital interventions for Health Behaviour Change in order to enhance social support and adherence to interventions using qualitative methods.
Self-setting of physical activity goals and effects on perceived difficulty, importance and competence BIBAFull-Text 33
  Privender Saini; Joyca Lacroix
Goal setting can be a powerful method for persuading individuals to adopt an active lifestyle. In order for this to be the case, it is important to set concrete and challenging goals, and to strongly commit to them. In this study, we explored how people set goals for physical activity and how these goals were reflected in self-regulatory mechanisms to drive goal attainment. Our approach is novel in two ways: first, we used an unobtrusive wearable sensor to accurately measure physical activity throughout the day rather than rely on self-report, and second, we provided individuals with feedback about the contribution of their common daily activities (e.g., household activities) to their physical activity level. Our results showed that on the basis of this feedback, participants were able to indicate to what degree they intended to change their behavior. Nevertheless, they failed to set concrete goals that matched their intentions precisely. In particular, we observed that overall the set goals were in accordance with intentions (i.e., goals were set in the desired direction), but we saw a strong tendency to focus on enhancing vigorous activity at the cost of moderate intensity activity. This suggests that many individuals have intentions to change and goal setting support is needed to compose goals that accurately reflect these intentions. Technology-mediated interventions might be ideal to support individuals along that path.
Geocaching in a persuasive perspective BIBAFull-Text 34
  Lasse Burri Gram-Hansen
Geocaching is the global game of GPS treasure hunting with more than half a million geocaches currently hidden all over the globe. In this paper it is argued that the computing technologies involved in the activity, such as websites, desktop applications, GPS units and mobile software, together constitute a persuasive environment along with the physical artefacts that are central to the activity of Geocaching. It is possible to implement a persuasive strategy corresponding to various intentions and reach a number of users through Geocaching, and the mobility of the GPS technology facilitates that the information is given at the right time and place.
Factors that persuade continued use of Facebook among new members BIBAFull-Text 35
  Susan Shepherd Ferebee; James Wayne Davis
This research examines whether there are any behavioral determinants of new members' continued participation in Facebook. The behaviors observed were use of the Facebook interaction points: posting a profile picture, posting to the wall, status posting, joining a group, using applications, posting additional photos, and receiving communication from others. In addition, the factor of gender was examined, as was the question of whether relationships existed between a new member's continued Facebook participation and the use of specific interaction points. From the results, it is clear there are a number of significant relationships, and it is these relationships that are reported in this paper. Finally, the question of what useful investigations might follow this study is discussed.
The portal monitor: a privacy-enhanced event-driven system for elder care BIBAFull-Text 36
  John Duncan; L. Jean Camp; William R. Hazelwood
We describe an innovative monitoring system designed for elder care. This system is an example of privacy-aware design that addresses specific risks based on gerontology literature and confirmed by focus groups with representations of the target group. The design emphasizes data transparency, minimizes data collection and storage, and balances elder control with elder risks. By being event-driven, this monitor enables a caregiver to react more efficiently than with passive monitoring technologies such as traditional security cameras. By reducing cognitive load, the system empowers caregivers, and allows them to provide a higher quality of care -- thus allowing the elder to remain in their home as long as possible. We make innovative use of arguably the most pervasive communications infrastructure -- the cellular network -- to enhance elder autonomy without sacrificing their privacy.
Designing games to motivate physical activity BIBAFull-Text 37
  Shlomo Berkovsky; Dipak Bhandari; Stephen Kimani; Nathalie Colineau; Cécile Paris
Engagement with computer games causes children and adolescent users to spend a substantial amount of time at sedentary game playing activity. We hypothesise that this engagement can be leveraged to motivate users to increase their amount of physical activity. In this paper, we present a novel approach for designing computer games, according to which the users' physical activity reinforces their game character. This way the users are seamlessly motivated to perform physical activity while maintaining their enjoyment of playing the game.
10 uses of texting to improve health BIBAFull-Text 38
  BJ Fogg; Enrique Allen
Most people use text messaging to stay in touch with friends. But the options for texting go beyond individual communication. In this paper we present 10 ways for texting to improve health behavior. Our hope is that health professionals can see new ways that texting can help achieve their health care goals.
Designing for video engagement on social networks: a video marketing case study BIBAFull-Text 39
  Nikki Serapio; BJ Fogg
In this case study, we describe the design and execution of a video marketing campaign on Facebook. We present concrete recommendations for effective video persuasion design, focusing on a new kind of video player presentation, as well as one specific environment in which video content can be placed, seeded, and distributed. We present a number of findings that support our design recommendations. Finally, we acknowledge and discuss the limitations in our case study approach.
A behavior model for persuasive design BIBAFull-Text 40
  BJ Fogg
This paper presents a new model for understanding human behavior. In this model (FBM), behavior is a product of three factors: motivation, ability, and triggers, each of which has subcomponents. The FBM asserts that for a person to perform a target behavior, he or she must (1) be sufficiently motivated, (2) have the ability to perform the behavior, and (3) be triggered to perform the behavior. These three factors must occur at the same moment, else the behavior will not happen. The FBM is useful in analysis and design of persuasive technologies. The FBM also helps teams work together efficiently because this model gives people a shared way of thinking about behavior change.
Generating a sense of community in a graduate educational setting through persuasive technology BIBAFull-Text 41
  Daniel Firpo; Sumonta Kasemvilas; Peter Ractham; Xuesong Zhang
This study posits Blogs and Podcasts can be used to persuade students in one school to have more sense of community among their group. We designed and developed the WordPress MU based artifact, SISATSpace, to extend students' conversations and foster academic and friendly relationships. SISATSpace might be consider as a persuasive tool, medium, and social actor. The results from this study show that the system can change the attitude and behavior of the community at SISAT into one that fostered a psychological sense of community amongst its members.
The Behavior Grid: 35 ways behavior can change BIBAFull-Text 42
  BJ Fogg
This paper presents a new way of categorizing behavior change in a framework called the Behavior Grid. This preliminary work shows 35 types of behavior along two categorical dimensions. To demonstrate the analytical potential for the Behavior Grid, this paper maps behavior goals from Facebook onto the framework, revealing potential patterns of intent. To show the potential for designers of persuasive technology, this paper uses the Behavior Grid to show what types of behavior change might most easily be achieved through mobile technology. The Behavior Grid needs further development, but this early version can still be useful for designers and researchers in thinking more clearly about behavior change and persuasive technology.

Distinguished lecture 3

The role of individualization in ePsychology interventions BIBAFull-Text 43
  P. Kraft
Digital media (internet, mobile phones, etc.) are becoming increasingly important means of sustaining the health of people worldwide, whether by providing access to a wealth of information, by linking geographically dispersed communities of peers and professionals, or by supporting self-management of health and illness. Digital interventions can provide new forms of access to self-care, video and audio delivery for those with reading difficulties and anonymous social support for those who are unable or unwilling to consult health professionals in person. A high number of randomized controlled trials have provided support for the effectiveness of ePsychology interventions in the health promotion area. But how and why can digital interventions be effective in promoting sustained behaviour change? In Gunther Eysenbach's definition of the '10 E's' integral to e-health, three of the key ingredients are encouragement of a new relationship with the patient which focuses on empowering and educating them. However, a key problem identified in the literature is the finding that high attrition rates seem to pose a potential short-coming of ePsychology interventions. Clearly, we need research into how digital interventions can best be designed to hold the interest of the user. This may be increased by offering the client relevant, individually tailored materials, therapies and progress reports, which has been shown to increase program use and engagement.

Design & evaluation of persuasive systems

Creating persuasive technologies: an eight-step design process BIBAFull-Text 44
  BJ Fogg
This paper outlines eight steps to follow as best practices in the early stages of persuasive technology design. The eight-step process, drawn from demonstrated successes in industry practice, begins with defining the persuasion goal to match a target audience with an appropriate technology channel. Subsequent steps include imitating successful examples of persuasive design, performing rapid trials, measuring behavioral outcomes, and building on small successes.
A theory-based framework for evaluating exergames as persuasive technology BIBAFull-Text 45
  Marc A. Adams; Simon J. Marshall; Lindsay Dillon; Susan Caparosa; Ernesto Ramirez; Justin Phillips; Greg J. Norman
Exergames are video games that use exertion-based interfaces to promote physical activity, fitness, and gross motor skill development. The purpose of this paper is to describe the development of an organizing framework based on principles of learning theory to classify and rank exergames according to embedded behavior change principles. Behavioral contingencies represent a key theory-based game design principle that can be objectively measured, evaluated, and manipulated to help explain and change the frequency and duration of game play. Case examples are presented that demonstrate how to code dimensions of behavior, consequences of behavior, and antecedents of behavior. Our framework may be used to identify game principles which, in the future, might be used to predict which games are most likely to promote adoption and maintenance of leisure time physical activity.
Social influence of a persuasive agent: the role of agent embodiment and evaluative feedback BIBAFull-Text 46
  Suzanne Vossen; Jaap Ham; Cees Midden
Feedback can serve as an intervention aimed at reducing household energy consumption. The present study focused on the effects of agent embodiment on behavioral change through feedback. The effects of agent embodiment were studied for female vs. male users. Also factual feedback was compared to evaluative feedback. An experiment was conducted in which 76 participants used a virtual washing machine to clean laundry. They received interactive feedback about their energy consumption, from an embodied agent or from a computer. This feedback indicated the consumption level (factual feedback) or good or bad performance (evaluative feedback). The results showed that evaluative feedback, especially when it was negative, was more effective than factual feedback in reducing energy consumption, independent of the source of the feedback. Overall, for men it did not matter whether the feedback was given by a computer or by an embodied agent, but for women it did: women who interacted with the embodied agent used less energy than women who interacted with the computer.