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PDC Tables of Contents: 020406081012-112-214-114-2

Proceedings of the 2010 Conference on Participatory Design

Fullname:Proceedings of the 11th Biennial Participatory Design Conference
Note:Participation :: the challenge
Editors:Toni Robertson; Keld Bødker; Tone Bratteteig; Daria Loi
Location:Sydney, Australia
Dates:2010-Nov-29 to 2010-Dec-03
Publisher:ACM
Standard No:ISBN: 978-1-4503-0131-2; ACM DL: Table of Contents; hcibib: PDC10
Papers:61
Pages:299
Links:Conference Website
Summary:Participatory Design is a diverse collection of principles and practices aimed at making technologies, tools, environments, businesses, and social institutions more responsive to human needs. A central tenet of Participatory Design is the direct involvement of people in the co-design of things and technologies they use.
    Participatory Design Conferences have been held every two years since 1990 and have formed an important venue for international discussion of the collaborative, social, and political dimensions of technology innovation and use. The conferences started as a dialogue about user involvement in IT systems development between, on the one hand, Scandinavian scholars and promoters and, on the other hand, Europeans and Americans interested in how the Scandinavian experience could be adopted and extended. Since then, the conference agendas have broadened to address participatory approaches in a variety of other arenas, including communications, computer supported cooperative work (CSCW), healthcare, new media, architecture, the arts, and others.
    PDCs bring together a multidisciplinary and international group of software developers, researchers, social scientists, managers, designers, practitioners, users, cultural workers, activists and citizens who both advocate and adopt distinctively participatory approaches in the development of information and communication artefacts, systems, services and technology. A central concern has always been to understand how collaborative design processes can be driven by the participation of the people affected by the technology designed.
  1. Research papers: different environments
  2. Research papers: new developments
  3. Research papers: reaching out
  4. Research papers: values
  5. Research papers: participation
  6. Exploratory papers: health
  7. Exploratory papers: tools
  8. Exploratory papers: frameworks
  9. Exploratory papers: empowerment
  10. Exploratory papers: fields
  11. Exploratory papers: mediation
  12. Exploratory papers: public
  13. Exploratory papers: innovation
  14. Posters and demonstrations
  15. Workshops and tutorials
  16. Industry cases
  17. Panel

Research papers: different environments

Being participated: a community approach BIBAFull-Text 1-10
  Heike Winschiers-Theophilus; Shilumbe Chivuno-Kuria; Gereon Koch Kapuire; Nicola J. Bidwell; Edwin Blake
In this paper, we explore the concept of participatory design from a different viewpoint by drawing on an African philosophy of humanness -Ubuntu-, and African rural community practices. The situational dynamics of participatory interaction become obvious throughout the design experiences within our community project. Supported by a theoretical framework we reflect upon current participatory design practices. We intend to inspire and refine participatory design concepts and methods beyond the particular context of our own experiences.
What community?: facilitating awareness of 'community' through playful triggers BIBAFull-Text 11-20
  Yoko Akama; Tania Ivanka
Notions of 'community' are still taken-for-granted in Participatory Design discourse, omitting critical examination of how people participate in projects to achieve and evaluate community-based participation and outcomes. This paper critically reflects on challenges and obstacles faced when using participatory design methods in engaging a 'community' on bushfire risk awareness. Bushfires are a critical and continuous threat to residents living in regional areas of Australia. Through this project, we identified a critical communication problem in bushfire awareness and preparation caused by 'fragmented' networks among a 'community of place'. This fragmentation contributes to significant communication obstacles in community-level preparation for bushfires. This research explored participatory design 'scaffolds' to capture, share and visualise locally relevant knowledge vital in mitigating bushfire risks. These methods facilitated awareness and revealed tacit knowledge on who and what community is. Critical reflection of the project examines how such methods have the potential to facilitate the creation of sub-groups gathered around a common cause. And has also built understanding to avoid 'imagined' notions of a community that can hide social heterogeneity.
Challenges of participation in large-scale public projects BIBAFull-Text 21-30
  Peter Dalsgaard
This paper examines challenges of participation in large-scale public projects. Taking its offset in a case-study, the development of a new public multimedia library, the paper discusses methods and values of Participatory Design in the face of the challenges that a project of this scale entails. These challenges concern how to address and manage a heterogeneous group of stakeholders and end-users, how to inform stakeholders and establish participation as a relevant activity, the development of new techniques and technologies to scaffold participation, and the interplay between iterative development and institutional transformation.

Research papers: new developments

Social technologies: challenges and opportunities for participation BIBAFull-Text 31-40
  Penny Hagen; Toni Robertson
This paper is about new forms of participation that are enabled as a result of social technologies. The premise is that social technologies simultaneously create and demand an engagement with the dynamic relations of design and use and that this gives rise to new forms of participation 'in the wild'. Our aim is to contribute to understandings and practices of participatory design in this emerging context. Underpinning our research is a question of how the understandings of, and commitment to, participation represented by Participatory Design intersect with the notion of participation as a broader cultural phenomenon. Using examples from recent practice-led research we reflect on the potential conditions for participation in early design that social technologies represent, the role of social technologies in enabling these experiences, and the challenges we have faced in embracing such participatory approaches in commercial contexts.
Participatory design and "democratizing innovation" BIBAFull-Text 41-50
  Erling Björgvinsson; Pelle Ehn; Per-Anders Hillgren
Participatory design has become increasingly engaged in public spheres and everyday life and is no longer solely concerned with the workplace. This is not only a shift from work oriented productive activities to leisure and pleasurable engagements, but also a new milieu for production and innovation and entails a reorientation from "democracy at work" to "democratic innovation". What democratic innovation entails is currently defined by management and innovation research, which claims that innovation has been democratized through easy access to production tools and lead-users as the new experts driving innovation. We sketch an alternative "democratizing innovation" practice more in line with the original visions of participatory design based on our experience of running Malmö Living Labs -- an open innovation milieu where new constellations, issues and ideas evolve from bottom-up long-term collaborations amongst diverse stakeholders. Two cases and controversial matters of concern are discussed. The fruitfulness of the concepts "Things" (as opposed to objects), "infrastructuring" (as opposed to projects) and "agonistic public spaces" (as opposed to consensual decision-making) are explored in relation to participatory innovation practices and democracy.
Spaces for participatory creativity BIBAFull-Text 51-60
  Tone Bratteteig; Ina Wagner
This paper compares participatory workshops with novel mixed reality tools in three different urban projects. It discusses differences of site and project, the role of representations, and of the participating stakeholders as crucial in shaping the space for design ideas; and draws conclusions as to the salient aspects of creative, explorative and imaginative exploration.

Research papers: reaching out

Effects-driven IT development: an instrument for supporting sustained participatory design BIBAFull-Text 61-70
  Morten Hertzum; Jesper Simonsen
We present effects-driven IT development as an instrument for pursuing and reinforcing Participatory Design (PD) when it is applied in commercial information technology (IT) projects. Effects-driven IT development supports the management of a sustained PD process throughout design and organizational implementation. The focus is on the effects to be achieved by users through their adoption and use of a system. The overall idea is to (a) specify the purpose of a system as effects that are both measurable and meaningful to the users, and (b) evaluate the absence or presence of these effects during real use of the system. Effects are formulated in a user-oriented terminology, and they can be evaluated and revised with users in an iterative and incremental systems-development process that involves pilot implementations. In this paper we investigate the design, pilot implementation, and effects assessment of an electronic patient record. Effects concerning, among other things, clinicians' mental workload were specified and measured, but apart from the planned changes associated with these effects the pilot implementation also gave rise to emergent, opportunity-based, and curtailed changes. We discuss our experiences regarding conditions for making the specification of effects and their real-use evaluation central activities in IT projects.
Taking transition into account: designing with pre-users of medical devices BIBAFull-Text 71-80
  Janet Kelly; Ben Matthews
Participation in design has typically focused on involving those who use, will use, or who represent the users of the products in development. In this paper we discuss our experiences designing with 'pre-users' -- people who have a relationship to the technology other than as a user or potential user of the product. We present a case study that documents how we worked with pre-users of two different types of medical technologies: hearing aids and insulin injection devices. Pre-users are people who do not currently use these products, but who are in a life situation for which these technologies may be prescribed sometime in the future, judging by their current medical condition. This paper distinguishes pre-users from other types of users commonly involved in participatory design. We exemplify how they can contribute to design activities through the case. We discuss relevant methods for their involvement and list some of their contributions to design, concluding with a discussion of how the objectives of participation might need adjustment when involving pre-users in design processes.
Enhancing citizenship: the role of in-between infrastructures BIBAFull-Text 81-90
  Andrea Botero; Joanna Saad-Sulonen
In this paper, we draw on material from a participatory design project that focused on the practices, infrastructures, and technologies used for creating and sharing information about the urban environment. The research strategy that we followed includes the collaborative design of a prototype environment and service called Urban Mediator (UM), as well as its subsequent deployment and appropriation in use through several cases. We examine some of the challenges and opportunities that exist in designing in-between infrastructures that can both address a more fluid and active notion of citizenship and understand it as practiced, rather than as a given role. Our research demonstrates that in-between infrastructures can have a role in encouraging a variety of stakeholders, including city officials and citizens, to experiment with and understand some of the complex aspects of participation. Following this argument, we also suggest some ways in which Participatory Design contributes to supporting continuous and iterative design-in-use.

Research papers: values

Rekindling values in participatory design BIBAFull-Text 91-100
  Ole Sejer Iversen; Kim Halskov; Tuck Wah Leong
Drawing from our PD projects, this paper shows how designers enact their appreciative judgment of values by engaging in a dynamic and dialogical process of cultivating the emergence of values, developing them, and supporting their grounding. The widespread of Participatory Design (PD), have meant that different approaches and conceptualization exist in this field today. We argue that one fruitful approach is to rekindle a concern for values in PD. This requires focusing upon values as the engine that drives our activities in PD.
Bringing in communicative rationality into design participation: a lesson from inclusive design BIBAFull-Text 101-110
  Kwok Leung; Denny Ho; Jin Ma; Peter C. K. Chuah; Yanki Lee
This article is an attempt to examine the extent to which Bourdieu's concepts of field, communicative rationality and rational deliberation is useful in designing game-like activities in design participation. We attempt to advocate the idea that changing the nature of the game is crucial in our understanding of the nature of design participation. In order to do this, we should design activities which could firstly reveal the nature and rules of the design games, and sensitize participants and designers to be aware of the constraining factors that would undermine the possibility of achieving 'the interest in disinterest' -- a sentiment that would reduce the harmful effects of systematic distortion which comes from our socialization, social positions and collective learning. We also suggest that the study of body techniques to explore new domains of experience through which social inclusion is more likely to be realized. The study of the experience of two Inclusive Design workshops supports this suggestion.
Entanglements of participation, gender, power and knowledge in IT design BIBAFull-Text 111-120
  Johanna Sefyrin
In this paper I discuss how participation in IT design depends on how actors and IT design is defined. The argument is that participation is intertwined with gender, power and knowledge. The empirical basis for the paper is an ethnographic study of a business process analysis in an IT design project in a Swedish government agency. The frame of reference is constituted by ideas from PD and theories from feminist technoscience, and a central concept is sociomaterial practices. The empirical material is analysed with the help of agential realism. Based on the analysis I discuss how participation in IT design in various ways is intertwined with gender, power and knowledge. One major conclusion is that the women who were the central knowers in the business process analysis became visible as participants. This is related to the debate about women's participation in IT design.

Research papers: participation

Threads -- a mobile sewing circle: making private matters public in temporary assemblies BIBAFull-Text 121-130
  Kristina Lindström; Åsa Ståhl
In this paper we propose temporary assemblies where the sharing of stories and concerns are facilitated. Possible challenges and characteristics of such temporary assemblies will be discussed through the project Threads -- a Mobile Sewing Circle, which is designed in order to support conversations in relation to everyday use of ICT as well as in relation to other means of communication. The participants do not necessarily belong to an already existing community and do not need to reach a consensus. The discussion in this paper will focus on how the design of Threads allows and encourages the participants to bring past lived experiences to the table, as well as how the act of participating in the sewing circle brings out new concerns. Despite the transient character of this assembly we will also look at how the things produced in the sewing circle might support longer-lasting, future conversations.
Children imitate!: appreciating recycling in participatory design with children BIBAFull-Text 131-140
  Leena Kuure; Eija Halkola; Netta Iivari; Marianne Kinnula; Tonja Molin-Juustila
The cooperative design practices as well as the participatory research tradition and contextual design have inspired the researchers of a relatively new and challenging design context, i.e. design with children for children. An ample literature base of its own has been generated on the subject already. However, the phenomenon of children imitating each other's work in the design sessions has been largely disregarded in current research. This article sheds light on the practices of 'recycling', originally characterised as 'imitation', in the drawings produced by children during participatory design workshops in a school setting. The article suggests that instead of ignoring the issue of imitation and recycling, practitioners might start to appreciate it; both when planning design sessions as well as when making interpretations and judgments on the basis of the results produced by children. Implications for practice and future research are discussed.
User gains and PD aims: assessment from a participatory design project BIBAFull-Text 141-150
  Claus Bossen; Christian Dindler; Ole Sejer Iversen
We present a study of user gains from their participation in a participatory design (PD) project at Danish primary schools. We explore user experiences and reported gains from the project in relation to the multiple aims of PD, based on a series of interviews with pupils, teachers, administrators, and consultants, conducted approximately three years after the end of the project. In particular, we reflect on how the PD initiatives were sustained after the project had ended. We propose that not only are ideas and initiatives disseminated directly within the organization, but also through networked relationships among people, stretching across organizations and project groups. Moreover, we demonstrate how users' gains related to their acting within these networks. These results suggest a heightened focus on the indirect and distributed channels through which the long-term impact of PD emerges.

Exploratory papers: health

The participatory patient BIBAFull-Text 151-154
  Tariq Andersen
This paper introduces the concept of the "participatory patient" as a vehicle to promote attention to patients' dual enactment of participation on participatory design (PD) projects in healthcare. By an empirical case-story from an ongoing PD project in healthcare, I illustrate the relationship between a patient's work on the project as a co-designer and his work of being a patient using a prototype. I conclude by arguing for the importance of being aware of the ways in which patients inscribe patient work and non-work and thinking of what kind of working or non-working patients it implies.
Participatory healthcare service design and innovation BIBAFull-Text 155-158
  Simon Bowen; Andy Dearden; Peter Wright; Daniel Wolstenholme; Mark Cobb
This paper describes the use of Experience Based Design (EBD), a participatory methodology for healthcare service design, to improve the outpatient service for older people at Sheffield Teaching Hospitals. The challenges in moving from stories to designing improvements, co-designing for wicked problems, and the effects of participants' limited scopes of action are discussed. It concludes by proposing that such problems are common to participatory service design in large institutions and recommends that future versions of EBD incorporate more tools to promote divergent thinking.
Segmentation of users in PD for healthcare BIBAFull-Text 159-162
  Troels Mønsted; Balder Onarheim
Participatory Design (PD) attracts great attention from designers working within healthcare, but also faces important challenges. In this paper we describe how the high complexity and heterogeneity in healthcare creates conceptual and pragmatic barriers for user participation. We study the notion of 'users' in traditional PD and argue that PD can benefit from exploring ways to segment users that goes beyond the existing approaches. We put forth the question 'can users in PD be involved in any other meaningful way, than as one group of representatives for the multiplicity of user needs?', and look to two other traditions, marketing and innovation studies, to explore how the understanding of segmentation in these traditions can contribute to the development of guidelines for user segmentation in PD. Guidelines not solely based on representativeness, but on skills, personal preferences and/or perceptions.
The patient as service co-creator BIBAFull-Text 163-166
  Jonas Moll
This paper reports on insights from designing support for patients as participants in their own treatment and care. Informed by the notion of service, the paper illustrates how the new design reconfigures the role of patients to stage a more participatory and co-created practice of care. By conceptualizing the patient as service co-creator, the paper then explores the consequences and opportunities of this reconfigured role.

Exploratory papers: tools

Shared artefacts as participatory Babel fish BIBAFull-Text 167-170
  Sonja Pedell; Frank Vetere; Steve Howard; Tim Miller; Leon Sterling
We propose an interwoven set of shared artefacts for stakeholder participation for designing domestic technology for intergenerational fun. Our toolkit includes technology probes, associated fieldwork, and conceptual goal models. We used the high-level goal models, derived from Agent-Oriented Software Engineering (AOSE), as a template to analyse rich field data collected via three technology probes with grandparents and grandchildren. The goal models combined with technology probes and field data, provided a uniquely inclusive set of artefacts for the participation of stakeholders in the design process.
Carthographic mappings: participative methods BIBAFull-Text 171-174
  Pirjo Elovaara; Christina Mörtberg
In this paper we discuss and reflect on participative methods used in a research project conducted in a southeastern part of Sweden. With participatory design and feminist science and technology studies as the frame of reference we explore diverse and multiple experiences and knowledge created in work practices. We conclude the article by telling about the method we worked with, which we chose to call cartographies and how the method made visible everyday performances and practices in a municipal administrative office.
Exploring the roles in a photo elicitation dialogue BIBAFull-Text 175-178
  Benedicte Rex Fleron; Camilla Pedersen
This paper begins to delineate the different roles in a participatory research setting with a focus of using photography as a medium for an elicitation dialogue. We investigate how others have used photography and we include our own experiences of using photography explaining how it established a communication bridge between participants and researchers. Based upon a concluded case, we illustrate how the photographs encourage and contribute to a lively dialogue among the participants. Furthermore, we describe our reflections and considerations of the roles of the photos, the participants, and the researchers. The paper concludes on our reflections of using this approach.
Seamless integration of collaborative creativity techniques into group process modelling BIBAFull-Text 179-182
  Angela Carell; Alexander Nolte
Facing a growing pressure of industrial competition, companies acquire crucial competitive advantage by installing innovative work-processes. Therefore, it is most important to support the development of creative ideas forming innovative processes under modelling. Our hypothesis is that under the condition of collaborative modelling creative thinking is constrained whereas a modelling thinking style is forced. To overcome this, we present a solution based on a seamless integration and demand-oriented switch of both styles of thinking. We use the STWT method as an example to demonstrate our solution.

Exploratory papers: frameworks

The unit of analysis in understanding the politics of participatory practice BIBAFull-Text 183-186
  Ann Light
There is little reporting of micro-dynamics in design research, even though it is an acknowledged part of inspiring participation. This paper focuses particularly on the rising research interest in community and social engagement, looking at the scales over which interaction takes place and the relations between these, and arguing for more attention to be given to the way that methods and facilitator interact. It situates this discussion in a wider context of participation, ownership and power, by regarding interventions as both personal and structural.
Phenomenology, a framework for participatory design BIBAFull-Text 187-190
  Christopher Frauenberger; Judith Good; Wendy Keay-Bright
The philosophical discipline of phenomenology provides the designer with a framework for studying user experience by affording an intrinsically contextual view of the way we interact with things around us. In this paper we argue that phenomenology also plays a critical role in participatory design when it is undertaken as an interpretive and generative process, mindful of end user experience rather than directed toward the specification of outcomes. We will illustrate this notion through our participatory design work for ECHOES -- a multi-disciplinary research project that aims to create technologically enhanced learning environments for typically developing children and children with high-functioning Autism or Asperger's. We will demonstrate how phenomenological thinking has assisted in the co-creation of ECHOES and has provided a mechanism for interpreting the emergent, creative input from our target population.
Five enunciations of empowerment in participatory design BIBAFull-Text 191-194
  Marie Ertner; Anne Mie Kragelund; Lone Malmborg
Participatory design has been defined as having 'user's democratic participation and empowerment at its core' (Correia and Yusop, 2008). The PD discourse has a strong moral and rhetorical claim by its emphasis on users' empowerment. This paper is a result of a student project, guided by a curiosity about how empowerment is enunciated in the PD field today. In a literature-review of academic papers from the proceedings of PDC 2008 we found that empowerment is enunciated in five different ways which can be translated into 5 categories: 1) Specific user groups 2) Direct democracy 3) The users' position 4) Researchers' practice 5) Reflexive practice. These categories exist conjointly in the literature and suggest that empowerment is not just a moral and politically correct design goal, but a challenged and complex activity.
A framework for organizing the tools and techniques of participatory design BIBAFull-Text 195-198
  Elizabeth B.-N. Sanders; Eva Brandt; Thomas Binder
The field of Participatory Design (PD) has grown rapidly over the last 20 to 30 years. For more than two decades non-designers have been increasingly involved in various design activities through a large number of participatory design projects all over the world. The project aims in PD have developed from being mainly about ICT development to today include, for instance, space design, product development, industrial design, architecture, service- and transformation design. As every project is unique, it is necessary to decide which design approach(es), methods, tools and techniques to use in a specific project. Thus many practices for how to involve people in designing have been used and developed during the years. There is some confusion as to which tools and techniques to use, when, and for what purpose. Therefore we are proposing a framework to help organize the proliferation of tools, techniques and methods in hopes that the PD community will benefit by discussing relevant applications and identifying potential areas for further exploration.

Exploratory papers: empowerment

Designing for participation in local social ridesharing networks: grass roots prototyping of IT systems BIBAFull-Text 199-202
  Margot Brereton; Sunil Ghelawat
This paper explores the possibility of a grass roots approach to engaging people in community change initiatives by designing simple interactive exploratory prototypes for use by communities over time that support shared action. The prototype is gradually evolved in response to community use, fragments of data gathered through the prototype, and participant feedback with the goal of building participation in community change initiatives. A case study of a system to support ridesharing is discussed. The approach is compared and contrasted to a traditional IT systems procurement approach.
'Teaching the teachers' investigating new inclusive design experience to enable secondary school students to think creatively BIBAFull-Text 203-206
  Yanki Lee; Kwok Leung Denny Ho
A new funded public engagement project that aims to introduce principles and tools of inclusive design to secondary school teachers and enable them to teach their students to think creatively. The research team is a multi-disciplinary one with common belief in inclusive design. Team members include engineers, design researchers, ergonomists and a pedagogy researcher. This paper explains the background and rationale of the project. More important, we found three tensions among these different academic and practical disciplines that were identified in the first planning meeting of this 18-month project. We also found their implications to participatory design and for reflections at the later stage of the project.
A participatory approach to the inclusion of indigenous Australians in information technology BIBAFull-Text 207-210
  Stephen Grant; Laurel Evelyn Dyson; Toni Robertson
Improving Indigenous access to university education has been a major focus in Australia over the last four decades. However, despite success in several areas of recognised priority to the Indigenous community, participation in Information Technology (IT) degree programs remained very low throughout the 1980s and '90s.
   The University of Technology, Sydney began a project to address this very issue in 2001. The Indigenous Participation in IT Project was initiated by the Faculty of Information Technology in collaboration with Indigenous Australians and members of staff of the Faculty. This project culminated in the design of a participatory IT program that has successfully seen the numbers of Indigenous students and staff in the Faculty increase.
   A number of factors were identified as contributing to this success. These included an improvement to recruitment processes, the building of a personalised approach to student support and the growing acceptance of the program as part of the academic culture of the faculty. Additionally, of great importance has been the development of the program as a collaboration between Indigenous staff and students and non-Indigenous staff at all levels of decision making and implementation.

Exploratory papers: fields

Outcomes we didn't expect: participant's shifting investment in graphic design BIBAFull-Text 211-214
  Simone Taffe; Carolyn Barnes
A criticism of graphic design is that designers work intuitively, without knowing their audience. We report on a study in which childcare workers and designers jointly developed strategies to encourage low-chemical cleaning in childcare. The workers' inclusion in design sought to address the barriers and triggers to effective communication of cleaning principles to childcare workers across the sector. Participatory design (PD) is rarely used in graphic design. Indeed, we speculate that PD poses a specific challenge in graphic design since participation exposes prospective audience members to the messages to be communicated. In our study, designing immersed the childcare workers in the information for dissemination, prompting them to see designs targeting them as irrelevant and to nominate an audience of relief workers, children and parents as the target for design. Employing case study method, we explore the complex contextual and human factors that lead the childcare workers to no longer represent themselves in the PD process.
Textiles as tangible working materials in participatory design processes: potentials and challenges BIBAFull-Text 215-218
  Elisabeth Heimdal; Tanja Rosenqvist
Participatory design (PD) methods are currently of little use in the textile industry, even though the need for multiple stakeholder involvement in the industry is growing. In this paper, we argue that PD represents a potential for innovation in the textile industry, due to PD's collaborative nature facilitating dialogue between different stakeholders and its ability to move stakeholder participation to the early stages of the design process. We have explored PD tools in a design process engaging architects and textile designers in designing textile products for Danish hospitals. From this we have realized a potential in dividing the materials into three types with different attributes, which should consequently be staged differently in a PD process. We have thereby seen that exploring PD in a textile design process improves the understanding of the role of tangible working materials in PD processes. We believe that the application of PD to the textile industry will enrich the theoretical foundations of PD in general.

Exploratory papers: mediation

Embedding participatory design processes into everyday work activities: the case of video consultation services for paraplegics BIBAFull-Text 219-222
  Julia Klammer; Fred van den Anker; Monique Janneck
We faced several challenges integrating participatory design methods within our current project that revolves around the implementation of video consultation services for paraplegics. Due to the high complexity in the care of paraplegics and interdependency between many different stakeholders being involved, knowledge and time are distributed resources, the latter additionally of scarce nature. In this paper we examine how a diary-like self-documentation method, including an online platform, was applied in this distributed setting to enrich classical Participatory Design (PD) methods and account for users' capacities, skills and motivation. The preliminary findings are promising in this regard. However, embedding such a-synchronous, distributed PD methods into healthcare professionals' lives strongly depends on the researcher's effort in monitoring and integrating the user input, both on the platform and face to face.
Teaching participatory design: a participatory approach BIBAFull-Text 223-226
  Vincenzo D'Andrea; Maurizio Teli
In this paper we describe our experience in teaching Participatory Design during a period of student activism. The paper begins with an introduction to the general contexts, characterised by widespread university budget cuts and student activism, and our positioning as course instructors. Drawing upon different conceptualisations of participation, from innovation to motivation, we describe and analyse our experience in teaching a course as it was a Participatory Design project, discussing with students not only some side elements but the whole course details and structure. In conclusions, we show under which conditions this approach is able to re-frame the power balance between teachers and students.
Fostering self-direction in participatory process design BIBAFull-Text 227-230
  Michael Prilla; Alexander Nolte
In this paper, we describe an approach in integrating means of self-direction into workshop-centered methods of PD. The approach aims at diminishing idle times of participants, improving their motivation to contribute and thus at improving the quality of outcomes. Although the work presented here is ongoing research, preliminary results show its benefit and potential contribution to PD.
Intercalating the social and the technical: socially robust and enduring computing BIBAFull-Text 231-234
  David Hakken; Maurizio Teli; Vincenzo D'Andrea
This short paper presents our research agenda for a more socially oriented software production, drawing upon the empirical evidences of failure of software organisation in providing enduring software. Constructing a socio-technical perspective on the basis of social sciences research on technology, we outline a research program aimed at building software that could be more reliable and be useful longer. Our guiding principles are the symmetry between the social and the technical, and their intercalation in the development process, and Participatory Design is one of our foundational disciplines.

Exploratory papers: public

Engaging people in the public space: ANIMATO a design intervention BIBAFull-Text 235-238
  Sandra Viña
The paper is based on an ongoing research that aims at studying the forms of design interventions for engaging the public in the context of revitalizing urban public places. First, it introduces briefly the notion of the production of urban places, and designing for a humane-scale perspective, tackling issues of narratives and experience for encouraging participation. Then, the design intervention -- Animato is introduced; it illustrates the design elements selected and the actual participation by people. Finally, the paper briefly presents the interrelation of design elements employed in the intervention to four levels of participation; motivational, physical, intellectual, and emotional.
Boosting web-based public participation in urban planning with a group of key stakeholders BIBAFull-Text 239-242
  Johanna Nuojua; Leena Soudunsaari; Helka-Liisa Hentilä
Today, communication between planners and different stakeholders should be an integral part of participatory urban planning. In many cases, technologies supporting participation have been developed for the wider public separately from the existing ways of involvement, and even outside the planning context. In this paper, we report on three planning experiments that revealed a close connection between Web-based public participation and a group of key stakeholders involved in the planning. The results discussed in the paper give rise to hypothesize that the challenges of developing Web-based participation for the wider public can be overcome by tighter links between the technology development and actions of the key stakeholders.
Situations and interactions: digital café squatting and participatory design BIBAFull-Text 243-246
  Joan Greenbaum
This study begins an exploration into the temporary nesting or squatting experience of people using cafes as physical workspaces. I argue that the way people appropriate -- and thereby design--temporary work environments in public places, will be of interest to both interior and interactive designers. The focus on what I call 'squatting' is one that takes into account the fact that we physically navigate urban environments; stopping to do digitally mediated activities along the way. While this activity is often solitary in nature it is done in collaboration with the sounds and activities of others. This is an important premise for using participatory research methods that can lead to, and follow participatory design.
Scenarios to foster user participation in the design of small scale agricultural and food processing equipment in sub-Saharan Africa countries BIBAFull-Text 247-250
  Thierry Godjo
In order to improve consideration of need and use in Benin, scenario concept developed and used in the design of IT systems was transformed for the specific context of local design of small scale agricultural and food processing equipment. Four scenarios were proposed. They aim to create interaction between designers and users in order to foster a shared understanding of both the problem and the solutions. The proposed scenarios are objects that act as user interfaces.

Exploratory papers: innovation

Crossing intentions in participatory innovation BIBAFull-Text 251-254
  Jacob Buur; Henry Larsen
In this paper we explore the role of 'crossing intentions' among participants involved in innovation processes with users. We use improvised theatre to investigate what happens in industrial (and other) organizations that embark on participatory activities, and to explore the barriers that hinder such activities. We propose that people who meet each other with different and conflicting intentions relevant to the theme together can create new insight (understood as movement of thought and action) that may become a driver of innovation. However, such meetings in which crossing intentions come to the surface are experienced as risky to participate in. We examine four examples of such meetings with the intent to disclose conceptual themes that show high potential for developing participatory innovation.
Foresight and forecasts: participation in a welfare technology innovation project BIBAFull-Text 255-258
  Kyle Kilbourn; Marie Bay
In predicting areas of growth, public innovation projects may rely on optimistic visions of technology still in development as a way of ensuring novelty for funding. This paper explores what happens when forecasts of robotic technology meets the practice of sterile supply in a preliminary stage of an ongoing project. We examine the nature of participation in design on three levels: in the sterilization ward, this particular project and society in general. From our case, we suggest that while innovation projects proceeding from a certain technological perspective can succeed at building excitement, the most sustainable innovation stems from the dialogical interaction between practitioner foresight and societal forecasting, requiring continued development of participatory design as it moves into new contexts.
Experimenting introductory tools for innovation and participatory design BIBAFull-Text 259-262
  Loïc Marois; Jean-Emmanuel Viallet; Franck Poirier; Christine Chauvin
Innovation often starts with a trigger: a new element made available that leads to new ideas, products and activities. A participatory approach is presented, to exploit such triggers and find possible new uses and interactions. The paper focuses on tools to introduce these new elements to participants with an experiment of several workshops. We discuss the variety of results obtained with different tools presented as the starting point for this approach.
Participation in the design of endoscopic operating theatres in the Netherlands BIBAFull-Text 263-266
  Julia A. Garde; Mascha C. van der Voort
Specialised medical workplaces such as dedicated endoscopy operating theatres are complex and so is the design process. Our goal is to deliver guidance for the design of dedicated endoscopic operating rooms by means of a participatory design approach. Currently, in the Netherlands, the design process of these workplaces is done by teams of stakeholders, supported by construction companies and vendors. Unfortunately, disappointment regarding the final design outcome is common. We conducted a number of interviews with stakeholders and a workshop to investigate the reasons for the disappointment. First studies indicate that the main reasons are (1) an absence of a future vision in the hospital, (2) a lack of genuine participation in the design process, (3) limited insight of stakeholders who participate in a planning team into the consequences of decisions and (4) limited use of the knowledge and information in hospitals available.

Posters and demonstrations

Participatory design for technological disruption within the agricultural sector BIBAFull-Text 267-268
  Carl Behrendorff; Sam Bucolo
Agricultural adoption of innovation has traditionally been described as slow to diffuse. This paper therefore describes a case study grounded in PD to address a disruptive technology/system within the livestock industry. Results of the process were positive, as active engagement of stakeholders returned rich data. The contribution of the work is also presented as grounds for further design research in the livestock industry.
PD 3.1 to the rescue: challenges for participatory design in a health care context BIBAFull-Text 269-270
  Lina Nilsson; Christel Borg; Malin Hofflander; Sara Eriksén
A National Strategy for E-health has been introduced in Swedish county councils. The strategy indicates that health care needs to become more accessible. To generate usable and sustainable e-Health solutions in Swedish health care, Participatory Design (PD) was introduced as a working method in an e-Health project in the south of Sweden. The project has met with opposition; e-health solutions are not exactly what Swedish health care wanted at the same time as different arenas within the health care organization have difficulties understanding each other. The aim of this study is to find work methods that result in applicable, usable, and sustainable ICT- solutions in every day work within Swedish health care. The study suggests that a modification of third generation of PD may be one way to the challenges PD has come across in the health care context.
The OWL bodyprops fitting sessions BIBAFull-Text 271-272
  Kristina Andersen; Danielle Wilde
We propose a bite-sized version of the OWL interview processes for the PDC poster/demo session. The OWL Bodyprop devices were developed and tested in the initial cycle of the ongoing OWL project. Opening up the process for scrutiny to the PDC community will allow us to question and extend our thinking as the project continues to evolve.
The Baobab as a shared canvas BIBAFull-Text 273-274
  Beate Zorn; Naska Winschiers; Elia Theophilus
The Baobab tree, indigenous to Africa and Australia, represents principle values of Participatory Design through its usage. In Africa, participative community meetings are held under the umbrella of this tree, as well as many interior and exterior decors of the tree emerged. Worldwide trees have been etched, leaving messages for others to come. In our project, we have merged the current African practice of participatory community meetings with a global practice of tree engraving. An African hand crafted, wired, baobab is placed at the conference site, while participants are provided with clay to contribute to an overall shared design space on the trunk of the tree. The joint effort results in a colourful, aesthetic, lasting masterpiece unique through the participants.

Workshops and tutorials

Participatory design and the 'health and social care institution': an interactive workshop at the 2010 PDC conference BIBAFull-Text 275-276
  Daniel Wolstenholme; Mark Cobb; Peter Wright; Simon Bowen; Andy Dearden; Fazilatur Rahman; Lone Malmborg; Thomas Binder; Eva Brandt
The theme of this conference is participation: the challenge. We argue that nowhere is this challenge felt more clearly than in healthcare. The aim of this workshop is to reflect on the global health challenge and draw from participants' experiences in participatory design. This workshop will be an opportunity to share our experience and identify common themes and differences in applying participatory design activities across different health systems, particularly addressing the issues of the Participatory designers engagement with health and social cares large complex institutions.
Participatory innovation in SMEs BIBAFull-Text 277-278
  Christine De Lille; Jacob Buur
Several case studies in literature and handbooks about participatory design (PD) suggest that the use of emerging methods to generate user information is common practice. However, these authors address practices in academia or in leading companies and not necessarily the practice of the majority of product development companies. The mentioned companies like for example Microsoft (Sanders, 2004) are in a privileged position, having the possibilities to spend time, manpower and budget on extensive user studies and explore participatory design projects. But how does the Small-to-Medium sized Enterprise (SME) fare in this respect?
Prototyping (in) healthcare BIBAFull-Text 279-280
  Tariq Andersen; Jonas Moll; Troels Mønsted
As Participatory Design (PD) moves into healthcare distinct practical issues emerge. We argue that PD researchers need to respond to these new challenges by establishing an ongoing dialogue on the practicalities of e.g. prototyping in healthcare. With this workshop we intend to start such reflections by focusing on practical issues of prototyping, such as 'how to organize PD prototyping in healthcare?' and 'how to run and manage prototypes in everyday medical practice?'. During the workshop the results of participants' work on problems and solutions will collaboratively be turned into a booklet.
Innovation in participatory design BIBAFull-Text 281-282
  Peter Dalsgaard; Kim Halskov
The theme of the workshop is the real life nature of processes of innovation as part of participatory design of interactive systems. Innovation and creativity can occur throughout an interaction design process, from the initial ideation phase through creative mock-up sessions to iterative refinements based on evaluation of prototypes. In order to clarify the terminology, creativity broadly refers to the generation of novel approaches or ideas; innovation refers to the application of ideas in a specific context, often in the development of a specific product or service, and as such creativity is a pre-requisite for innovation, although it is not in itself a sufficient condition for it (Amabile et al., 1996). In this workshop, we are interested in exploring the question of how creative insights can inform the design process and shape the product of participatory design projects, thus becoming innovation.
Take Part: participatory methods in art and design BIBAFull-Text 283-284
  Lizzie Muller; Lian Loke
The Take Part workshop explores the philosophical, ethical, political and methodological crossovers that exist between artists and designers working with participatory processes. The workshop brings together artists and designers who have developed innovative and compelling methods for collaborating with audiences and end-users. It aims to actively develop shared possibilities for collaborative research between these two communities of practice. The workshop raises the following questions: What opportunities and challenges might be revealed by the comparative examination of participatory art and design practices? How are questions of aesthetics, utility and impact deployed in the evaluative structures of these two fields, and how might the discourses of each shed light upon the other? What might these two communities of practitioners learn from each other in terms of methodologies and strategies of engagement?
Action methods for cross-boundary participation BIBAFull-Text 285-286
  Ann Light; Valerie Holland
Short focussed group exercises make a great complement to discussion of goals and desires in design work, helping set themes, encourage contributions and support decision-making. They are also excellent for changing the balance of power in a group. Some groupwork techniques are in use already as an integral part of design work involving multiple participants, but some, which would help to manage more elusive aspects of group dynamics, are less well known though equally useful.

Industry cases

Design thinking for creation of micro insurance solutions for mobile phones BIBAFull-Text 287-288
  Isabel K. Adler
This paper describes the process and learning of an innovation project conducted by MJV -- a Brazilian Consultancy -- for an insurance client. It was conducted in a very short time frame and depended on intense exchange between the consultancy team and the insurance professionals. Therefore tools and methods for knowledge exchange and decision making are presented.
Lifecycle framework for cross-functional participatory design: case study BIBAFull-Text 289-291
  Delia Grenville
Power is the speed with which you can come up with a new idea, enroll others in taking it on and implement it/have it be part of the culture. e.g. if you come up with a new idea for a product and it takes you 10 years to implement we would not say there is much power there. If you can invent a new idea, enroll others and implement it in a matter of months then we would say you/your team/your department have real power. McRobb, Insigniam Performance Participatory design methods can be used to drive a powerful idea that will resonate throughout the organization or community to create change. In this case study, we learned that employing participatory design together with a process and communication framework 1) reduced decision making time and 2) the time needed to create a common understanding of future software architectural goals. We started the process by employing our understanding, derived from a rich body of consumer-centred research, of what consumers wanted in the future of the television experiences -- in the living room, their homes, and beyond. Then, we incorporated our understanding of consumers' needs with our desire to optimize our software architecture and technology integration engagements. Through a modified participatory approach, we created a rich foundation for future software development and the delivery of product experiences that would match consumer's expectations and optimize our engagement with partners and stakeholders.
Capturing and sharing stories in virtual and interactive web environments: a cross-organizational case study BIBAFull-Text 292-293
  Patricia Wall; Jonas Karlsson; Johannes Koomen; Tong Sun; Eric Bier; Margaret Szymanski
This case study describes the collaboration between Xerox Research and The Henry Ford Museum to explore ways to enable museum staff and visitors to interact with artifacts and each other in online environments. Building on the premise that stories are an integral part of the museum experience, the team developed prototype technologies, initially for use by the museum staff, to create stories around collection elements and enable story sharing and collaboration in 3D immersive environments. Ongoing feedback and evaluations by the museum staff guided prototype revisions. Suggestions by the museum staff for use of the prototypes in museum and educational contexts are also discussed.
Mapping and visualizing service provider and client interactions: the case for participation BIBAFull-Text 294-296
  Jeanette Blomberg; Melissa Cefkin; Yolanda Rankin
The interactions between service providers and their clients (touchpoints) define the service experience for clients and providers alike. In the context of IT outsourcing services, where one company contracts with another for IT services, these interactions are frequent and occur across an increasingly globally distributed delivery organization. The scope and complexity of these interactions provide a challenge for managing the service experience in that it is difficult for members of the delivery team to be aware of the wide range of interactions taking place with clients. This project is focused on designing ways to enable delivery teams to create awareness of their touchpoints with clients and to make changes to improve the overall client experience.
Reduce your footprint, testing the release early, release often mantra BIBAFull-Text 297
  David Gravina; Diana Mounter
Our recent Reduce your Footprint project for three Sydney councils allowed us an opportunity to incorporate a number of different methods from our Considered Design toolkit into the one project. We employed mobile diaries, co-design workshops and an iterative approach to the design and development of the project's web site resulting in a design that has benefited from a significant amount of user design, testing and feedback. We will share the lessons learnt from this unusual project.
A Strategic Framework for Participatory Design in Gov 2.0 BIBAKFull-Text 298
  Mark Elliott
A feedback loop of innovation in social processes and online tools has presented a new possibility, and in fact, a new reality: complex tasks such as writing an encyclopedia or a city plan are now being crowdsourced. The use of Web-based collaborative communities and tools can use labour, intelligence and interest to develop policy collaboratively, allowing the interests of the public to be better represented and engaged.
   However, while the tools for such work now exist, there is no developed body of knowledge on how to purposefully engineer such collaborative communities. What are the right processes to use and what are their differences? What online tools can best support these processes? How do we ensure that if we build it, they will come? If they do come, how do we ensure they achieve the right objectives?
   This presentation will showcase Collabforge's development of such a body of knowledge -- a strategic framework for participatory design, specifically with regard to the intersection of government and Web 2.0, increasingly referred to as Gov 2.0. The presentation will be supported by case studies including our work on Future Melbourne, the world's first collaborative city plan, as well as EPA Victoria with whom we are developing an organisation wide Web 2.0 adoption and innovation framework.
   Key learnings from these projects will be covered with a focus on the ethical and practical needs for approaches to collaborative design. Specifically, the need for collaborative participation on part of agency staff and stakeholders in the design and development of Gov 2.0 projects and programs will be addressed.
Keywords: Web 2.0, Gov 2.0, government, Internet, consultation, collaboration

Panel

Participation frameworks in service design and delivery BIBAFull-Text 299
  Jeanette Blomberg
Participatory design has its roots in the design of technology systems and artifacts. Over the years the focus of PD has expanded to include the design of physical environments, technology infrastructures, community networks and services, including e-government, medical, and educational services. The particular interest in service design in part is a reflection of the relatively rapid rise in the global service economy. Today nearly two thirds of all economic activity in the developed countries derives from the service sector (e.g., healthcare, education, travel, entertainment) and employment in service industries is growing throughout the world. As products commoditize, businesses expand their service offerings to attract new customers. Organizations, be they commercial, non-profit or governmental, have realized that their success is tied to the ability to design and deliver services that are valued by their clients be they citizens, patients, students or customers.