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Proceedings of OZCHI'98, the CHISIG Annual Conference on Human-Computer Interaction

Fullname:Proceedings of OZCHI'98, the CHISIG Annual Conference
Note:Designing the future
Location:Adelaide, Australia
Dates:1998-Nov-30 to 1998-Nov-04
Publisher:IEEE Computer Society
Standard No:ISBN 0-8186-9206-5 (paper), 0-8186-9208-1 (microfiche); ACM DL: Table of Contents hcibib: OZCHI98
Papers:58
Pages:348
Links:Conference Series Home Page | Scanned Proceedings PDF 74 Mb
Designing Effective Navigation for Photo-Realistic VR Environments BIBAKFull-Text 4
  Andre Plante; Shoji Tanaka; Yuichi Iwadate
In interactive pictures, or VR scenes where no explicit buttons exist, users may be overwhelmed by the number of possible and perfectly logical locations in which hot spots might be embedded. In any particular scene, the users are too often left to their own devices in order to find hot spots (portals, gates, links). This problem becomes even more acute in photo-realistic environments since control over which object appears in the final image may be limited. In this paper, we propose a version of our toolbox aimed at helping designers identify and enhance hot spots image regions so that they become more apparent and attractive or, in other words, get the user's attention. This computer tool performs an evaluation of images based on their physical features (Hue, Saturation, Lightness, Size, Contrast and more recently: Texture, Shape and Edge Orientation) and graphically shows which regions are more likely to attract a user's gaze.
Keywords: Hot Spots, VR, User Interface, Navigation, Image Processing
Integrating Speech and Two-Dimensional Gesture Input -- A Study of Redundancy between Modes BIBAKFull-Text 6
  Karen McKenzie Mills; James L. Alty
It is widely recognized that multiple modes of input give higher recognition rates than single modes. The use of multiple modes, such as speech and gesture, can allow for more natural human-computer interaction. Opportunities for error and ambiguity resolution also occur, as the same information may be available from more than one source, providing redundant or repeated information. This paper presents a study of the redundant integration of speech and two-dimensional gesture input in a relatively simple, inexpensive multimodal input system. Empirical results about multimodal recognition rates at particular levels of redundancy are presented and implications for the integration of multiple modes are discussed.
Keywords: Speech, Gesture, Multimodal, Input, Integration
Supporting 3D Warping Visual Feedback for Virtual Reality BIBAKFull-Text 14
  Bruce H. Thomas
Cartoon animation techniques have previously been used to enhance the illusion of direct manipulation in 2D graphical user interfaces. In particular, animation can convey a feeling of substance in the objects being manipulated by the user. This paper presents the expansion of this concept to 3D graphical objects manipulated in a virtual reality domain. Three effects using 3D warping are presented to provide visual feedback of objects interacting in virtual reality applications. These include squashing of an object when pressed against a wall, stretching of an object to show frictional forces, and finally, a pinning effect when multiple users manipulate a common object in a collaborative environment. This paper goes on to discuss a set of important implementation issues for building systems with 3D cartoon animation feedback.
Keywords: animation, direct manipulation, multimedia, virtual realities, warp transformation, 3D graphics
Authoring Communicating Agents in Virtual Environments BIBAKFull-Text 22
  Christian Geiger; Wolfgang Mueller; Georg Lehrenfeld
3D-graphics popularity has steadily increased in a number of areas such as entertainment, scientific visualization, simulation, and virtual reality. Despite this rapid growth the authoring of animated 3D objects in virtual environments is still by no means trivial. This article presents new concepts of the animated 3D programming language SAM (Solid Agents in Motion) and its programming environment. In SAM, the main syntactic objects like agents, rules, and messages are represented as 3D objects. The design of a SAM program is supported by a dedicated 3D structure editor. The editor allows the definition and spatial arrangement of SAM agents in a 3D scene by direct manipulation. The paper gives a number of SAM examples, demonstrating the authoring of simple animated virtual 3D scenarios.
Keywords: 3D animation, visual language, authoring
Cooperative Agents and Recognition Systems (CARS) for Drivers and Passengers BIBAKFull-Text 32
  Luc E. Julia; Adam J. Cheyer
In this paper we present SRI's vision of the human-machine interface for a car environment. This interface leverages our work in human-computer interaction, speech, speaker and gesture recognition, natural language understanding, and intelligent agents architecture. We propose a natural interface that allows the driver to interact with the navigation system, control electronic devices, and communicate with the rest of the world much as would be possible in the office environment. Passengers would be able to use the system to watch TV or play games in their private spaces. The final prototype will be fully configurable (languages, voice output, and so forth), and will include speaker recognition technology for resetting preferences and/or for security.
Keywords: Multimodal Interfaces, Speech and Speaker Recognition, Gesture Recognition, Natural Language Understanding, Cooperative Agents
Will World Wide Web User Interfaces be Usable? BIBAKFull-Text 39
  Craig Burton; Lorraine Johnston
A usability study was carried out to verify that a moderately complex interaction task could be supported adequately by a straightforward Web interface. The application chosen for study was NEST, an examination authoring tool mounted on the Web. The interface for NEST is of non-trivial complexity and provides a relevant case study. We report on heuristic evaluations of the system, which validated many of our design decisions. In particular, we find that a user's expectation for interface performance and layout must be balanced against the client footprint size and the volume of the interaction with the server.
Keywords: World Wide Web, multi-media, usability testing, implementation and management issues
Teamwork Constructs in Architectural Design BIBAKFull-Text 45
  Bharat Dave
Architectural design is fundamentally collaborative in nature due to the large number and diversity of participants that are involved in most design projects. Using architectural design as the domain of interest, the paper motivates the need for articulating concepts at an appropriate degree of detail for developing future CSCW systems. The paper draws upon the studies of the architectural practice and empirical observations of students to propose a set of constructs that characterize design teams. These constructs, termed PRATOE, include projects, roles, actions, tools, outcomes and work environments.
Keywords: Architectural design, teamwork, CSCW, organisational constructs, referential perspectives
Sharing Human-Computer Interaction and Software Engineering Design Artifacts BIBAFull-Text 53
  Judy Brown; Stuart Marshall
Software Engineering (SE) and Human Computer Interaction (HCI) disciplines typically have separate processes and design artifacts. This paper describes a co-evolutionary design process, which incorporates both SE and HCI processes, and indicates how design artifacts can be usefully shared throughout the development of an interactive product. We show how scenarios in particular can serve as a bridge between the two disciplines. We present a tool called ScenicVista that is a prototype for a development environment of linked SE and HCI design artifacts. The design artifacts in ScenicVista are: task-hierarchies, textual scenarios, Unified Modelling Language (UML) sequence diagrams, and ClockWorks user-interface architectures.
Designing CSCW Tools to Support Cooperative Research BIBAFull-Text 61
  Gitte Lindgaard
This study applied Participatory Design (PD) techniques to design the system architecture as well as to establish user-specific social conventions for research-related interactions using Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW) tools. The tools comprised an interactive communication module, a distributed visualization module, and a large international data repository. The paper explores the extent to which the PD concept which is usually employed in user interface design, may be effective for addressing these other, related issues as well. Results were confirmatory suggesting that PD techniques can be adapted effectively to address issues other than those involved in user interface design. Findings also suggested that these topics should be dealt with in special sessions separate from those aiming to design the user interface.
Aesthetic Measures for Screen Design BIBAKFull-Text 64
  David Chek; Ling Ngo; John G. Byrne
One way to enhance the usability of a computer system is to improve the appearance (beauty) of the user interface. The research reported here concerns making computers easier to learn and use by improving interface aesthetics through the use of aesthetic measures for evaluating screen layouts. We introduce five aesthetic measures: balance, equilibrium, symmetry, sequence, and order and complexity. The results of our informal study of the aesthetic measures demonstrate close relationships between the essence of artists' insights and the measures.
Keywords: Interface aesthetics, aesthetic measure, screen design
Visual Recognition of Windows: Effects of Size Variation and Presentation Styles BIBAKFull-Text 72
  T. Miah; J. L. Alty
One of the problems of windowing systems today is that the desktop quickly becomes cluttered with the number of windows in use. This can hinder the user during task performance. Users become overwhelmed and disorientated by the number of windows. They quickly lose track of documents and spend much of their time locating the document by manipulating the windowing environment rather than working on the task at hand. We propose a Vanishing Windows approach that will reduce the window manipulation required by the user and aid the user in search activities. This technique gradually reduces the screen real-estate requirements for an inactive window. The reduction of inactive window size progressively increases the overall visibility of windows on the desktop (less overlap). However, the visibility of individual window content will also reduce progressively. This paper develops techniques for maximising the visual cues available for individual windows, even at small screen sizes. These techniques are empirical tested.
Keywords: Screen Clutter, Vanishing Windows, Cognitive Overload, and Adaptive Window Manager
The Effects of Graph Layout BIBAFull-Text 80
  Helen C. Purchase
Information visualisation systems which generate diagrams representing discrete relational information must consider potential users if they are to be effective. Many algorithms which render an abstract graph structure as a diagram are valued for their conformance to aesthetic criteria, or for computational efficiency. They are not usually judged on their ability to produce diagrams that maximise human performance. This paper presents the results of experiments investigating the relative worth (from an HCI point of view) of graph drawing aesthetics and algorithms using a single graph. The results indicate that while some individual aesthetics affect human performance, it is difficult to say that one algorithm is 'better' than another from a relational understanding point of view.
User Experiences and a Usability Inspection of an Electronic Services Environment for Students BIBAKFull-Text 87
  Mark A. Toleman; Jessica M. Toleman
In 1997 the Information Technology Services section of the University of Southern Queensland introduced USQconnect, an integrated graphical computing environment that allowed students to access electronic mail, USENET newsgroups and the Internet. The system was based on the Netscape suite of products and replaced similar text-based UNIX utilities and software. As a consequence of the change, many students perceived that several vital services were lost and there was much debate about the imposed change.
   In this paper we examine the debate and conduct a simple usability inspection of the new service. Issues raised underpin the need for a user-centred approach, and consideration of usability and Web design principles for the development of new systems.
Keywords: user-centred design, usability inspection
How Useful is On-line Help?: An Observational Study BIBAKFull-Text 94
  Usman G. Abdullahi; James L. Alty
This paper reports results from an empirical study on On-line help usage conducted with a group of computer users who are professionals in their own areas, with variable experience in the applications examined. The study reveals that even experienced users find some aspects of existing On-line Help Systems difficult to use, and current versions are not well received. We identify three problems with On-line help -- Ontology, Compartmentalisation, and the lack of an Integrated Base, and suggest possible solutions.
Keywords: Ontology, Hypertext, On-line Help, User Manuals, Expert, Intermediate, Novice
Designing the Client User Interface for a Methodology Independent OO Case Tool BIBAFull-Text 106
  Chris Phillips; Steven Adams; David Page; Daniela Mehandjiska
MOOT (Meta Object Oriented Tool) is an intelligent methodology independent customisable OO CASE tool. One of the major goals of MOOT is to provide flexible support for the description of the semantics and notations of arbitrary methodologies. This is provided through the employment of two distinct specification languages. This paper describes the design of the client user interface for MOOT. Both functional and non-functional requirements of the interface are defined, and design issues relating to the look and feel of the interface are discussed. Details of an instantiation for the Coad and Yourdon OOA/OOD methodology are presented and discussed.
Usability Requirements in a Tender Process BIBFull-Text 114
  S. Lauesen
Applying the Locales Framework to Understanding and Designing BIBAKFull-Text 122
  Geraldine Fitzpatrick; Simon Kaplan; Tim Mansfield
This paper presents another iteration in the ongoing CSCW dialogue between the understanding of work and the design of systems to support work. We overview the Locales Framework (and its five aspects of locale foundations, individual views, civic structures, interaction trajectory, and mutuality) as a shared abstraction for both understanding and designing. We describe the use of the framework in a telehealth case study and discuss the implications of the framework for the design of generic toolkit environments, as interpreted in the prototype system called Orbit. We conclude with a critique of the framework and suggestions for further iterations in the dialogue.
Keywords: Computer-supported cooperative work, locales framework, ethnography, CSCW, collaborative systems, prototyping, multiple-view locales
Information Portrayal Design: Applying the Proximity-Compatibility Principle BIBFull-Text 130
  W. B. L. Wong; P. J. Sallis; D. O'Hare
Principles for a Usability-Oriented Pattern Language BIBAKFull-Text 132
  Michael J. Mahemoff; Lorraine J. Johnston
High-level usability principles (e.g. "Familiarity") are difficult to apply to specific projects, and style guides providing more detailed instructions are often misinterpreted and inaccessible. An approach to usability based on design patterns enables designers to learn how certain recurring problems can be solved according to high-level principles. This paper summarises a review of the desirable properties advocated by five popular style guides, and discusses how this list has been modified to provide an underlying philosophy which is appropriate for a usability-oriented pattern language. A sample pattern which exemplifies this philosophy, involving iteration through selectable objects, is described.
Keywords: Usability engineering, Design techniques, Style guides
See-Through Hand BIBAKFull-Text 142
  Tsutomu Miyasato
This paper proposes a new concept of a user-interface device in VR environments. In a virtual environment, it is very important for users to directly manipulate the virtual objects. However, we do not have to introduce the negative features of real environments. We propose a new user-interface device called the See-through Hand. The See-through Hand is a palm-coupled display system in which a small display is attached to the back of the user's hand. The See-through Hand makes the user's real hand partially transparent and helps the user to intuitively manipulate virtual objects in a VR space.
Keywords: Virtual reality, palmtop display, user interface, glove-like device, direct manipulation, see-through
The Ecological Approach to Interface Design: Applying the Abstraction Hierarchy to Intentional Domains BIBFull-Text 144
  W. B. L. Wong; P. J. Sallis; D. O'Hare
Visualizations of Parallel Algorithms for Reconfigurable Torus Computers BIBAFull-Text 152
  Judy Brown; Paul Martin; Neil Paku; Gavin Turner
Program visualization can help make an algorithm understandable. Program visualization is especially challenging in the area of parallel computations where many processors are executing simultaneously. Algorithms for parallel machines take advantage of the simultaneous activity of processors to perform operations very quickly. As a result, these algorithms can be difficult to understand. In this paper we describe a visualization tool developed specifically for explaining algorithms written for single-instruction, multiple-data (SIMD) computers called torus computers. This tool helps its users to visualize the patterns of activities of the processors in the process of a computation.
Capturing User Requirements and Priorities for Innovative Interactive Systems BIBAFull-Text 160
  Andy Dearden; Steve Howard
In this paper, we present a new method for capturing requirements and priorities that can be used in the development of highly innovative interactive systems. We are concerned with the development of interactive systems that cannot be treated simply as incremental improvements over existing products. In such cases, it is not possible to identify user requirements on the basis of empirical techniques, as there are no instances of use of the product (or products of a similar type) from which to collect data. Consequently, the developers of innovative products must proceed by envisioning the use of the proposed product and examining hypothetical interactions with potential or surrogate users. Our proposed approach provides structure to this process of envisioning and analysing hypothetical use. The method combines techniques drawn from the soft systems methodology, scenario based design, and from Quality Function Deployment (QFD). We illustrate the approach through application to a communications tool to support distributed collaborative software development.
Declarative Interaction with Geographical Information Systems BIBAKFull-Text 168
  Conn Copas; Ernest Edmonds
This paper analyses some approaches to enhancing user interaction with high-functionality systems such as geographical information systems. Graphical approaches derived from the direct manipulation tradition are compared and contrasted with intelligent systems approaches. An implementation of one particular approach, based upon AI planning, is presented, and alternative user interfaces to that system are analysed. The benefits of a quite novel form of goal-based or declarative interaction are described.
Keywords: intelligent user interfaces, user interface management systems, planning, geographical information systems, declarative interaction, goal description languages, direct manipulation, visual programming
Improvements to a Pen-Based Musical Input System BIBAKFull-Text 178
  Elizabeth Ng; Tim Bell; Andy Cockburn
This paper describes an improved design for pen input of music into a computer system. A usability analysis of an existing system is performed, and improvements based on the analysis are implemented and tested. New capabilities are also added. The resulting system is tested for both usability and speed of input, with good results in both areas.
Keywords: Music input, Pen-based computing, Gestural input, User-centered design, Iterative refinement
Towards an Approach for Novel Design BIBAKFull-Text 186
  Nadine Ozkan; Cécile Paris; Bill Simpson-Young
In this paper, we contrast the design of traditional technology with the design of new technology. Gathering from our experience, we argue that traditional HCI design techniques are not directly applicable to the design of new technology. We review some of these techniques and show how they should be adapted to be used in the context of novel design. As part of this discussion, we show that user input in the process of novel design should come at a much later stage than for traditional design. Lastly, we suggest a process for novel design where these techniques are applied and re-interpreted.
Keywords: Novel design, prototyping, user requirements, user-centred design
Mediface: Anticipative Data Entry Interface for General Practitioners BIBAKFull-Text 192
  James R. Warren; Alex Davidovic; Susan Spenceley; Patrick Bolton
This paper describes an effort to make computer interfaces more intelligent in facilitating the coding of clinical information. We believe the interface should be sufficiently efficient and easy-to-use that a physician can code information during the consultation without detracting from doctor-patient interaction. In this way, the benefits of a "clinical workstation" setting, such as best practices guidance and drug interaction detection, are maximised. We pursue the strategy of applying machine learning to existing databases of electronic medical records to develop probabilistic models of general practice. Based on this model, we have simulated and prototyped data entry interfaces with "hot lists" (short pick-list menus of relevant items) and dynamic graphical depictions of contextually-likely clinical data.
Keywords: adaptive interface, electronic patient record, intelligent split menu, machine learning
Integrating Metric Visualization into a Commercial User-Interface Builder BIBAKFull-Text 200
  James Noble
Interactive Metric Visualization gives interface designers information about the usability of their designs, by overlaying usability information into their designs. To date, visualizations have been provided by special-purpose prototype software. We describe how visualizations can be integrated into a commercial interface design tool, VisualWorks Smalltalk. This integration provides the benefits of metric visualization to the users of the tool, illustrates the effort required to support visualization in similar tools, and will support further experiments with metrics visualization techniques.
Keywords: Interactive Metric Visualization, Software Visualization, Object-Oriented, User Interface Design, Smalltalk
The Pros and Cons of Using FACET for Analysing Qualitative Data BIBAKFull-Text 208
  Elizabeth A. Kemp; David I. Gray
In this paper, the FACET approach to analysing qualitative data for the purposes of interface evaluation is described. The reliability and validity issues that arise from basing an interface evaluation on qualitative data are discussed. The practicability of carrying out an interface evaluation using FACET is then considered with particular reference to the cost, time and expertise required.
Keywords: interface evaluation, qualitative data
Introduction to Symposium on Cognitive Work Analysis BIBFull-Text 218
  P. M. Sanderson
Cognitive Work Analysis and the Analysis, Design, and Evaluation of Human-Computer Interactive Systems BIBAKFull-Text 220
  Penelope Sanderson
This paper provides a short conceptual and visual introduction to some of the basic principles of Cognitive Work Analysis (CWA). CWA is an approach to the analysis, design, and evaluation of human-computer interactive systems-particularly of complex, high-technology sociotechnical systems. The paper also introduces the following five symposium papers, which provide detailed examples of CWA being used in research at the Swinburne Computer-Human Interaction Laboratory (SCHIL), at University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC), and at Defence Science and Technology Organisation (DSTO AMRL).
Keywords: Cognitive engineering, cognitive work analysis, human-computer interaction, interactive system design
Work Domain Analysis for the Evaluation of Human Interaction with Anaesthesia Alarm Systems BIBAKFull-Text 228
  Marcus Watson; Penelope Sanderson
In this paper we apply some aspects of Cognitive Work Analysis to the anaesthesia domain-in particular, the design of equipment used in the operating theatre for monitoring oxygen saturation in arterial blood (pulse oximetry). Work Domain Analysis (WDA) provides us with initial models of the work domain of anaesthesia, of the subdomain of pulse oximetry, and of the human body, and Activity Analysis (AA) helps us understand human interaction with alarms systems. These conceptual tools give us a useful framework for speculating about the most effective design of monitoring equipment and alarm systems for anaesthesia.
Keywords: Cognitive engineering, cognitive work analysis, anaesthesia, human-computer interaction
Extending Cognitive Work Analysis to Manufacturing Scheduling BIBAKFull-Text 236
  Peter G. Higgins
This paper discusses the challenges of applying tools associated with Cognitive Work Analysis to a domain that is quite different from the process control domain in which Cognitive Work Analysis was developed. The context of the paper is the design of a decision support system to aid scheduling of tasks within a manufacturing domain typical of job shops. The constraints in the supervisory control of a discrete manufacturing system are more intentional than physical. The paper explores the problems that arise with an intentional system and discusses how they might be overcome.
Keywords: cognitive work analysis, work domain analysis, decision-making, production scheduling
Towards a Dynamic Model of Adaptation to Technological Change BIBAKFull-Text 244
  Peter Josef Benda; Penelope M. Sanderson
In this paper, the authors examine an approach to predictively modelling the impact of technological change on work practice. Taking a cognitive engineering perspective, an approach is discussed within which one can analyse a work domain and various stakeholder perspectives and then use this as a 'field' upon which to trace the impact of design changes. While building upon Cognitive Work Analysis, the authors also discuss a few criticisms of the abstraction hierarchy and point to possible theoretical directions which may resolve some of the problems and simultaneously provide practical and predictive analytical tools. An example is discussed in the context of an elevator firm and related stakeholders, showing the form that such a predictive model may take.
Keywords: Cognitive engineering, cognitive work analysis, technological change, ecological psychology
Cognitive Work Analysis for Training System Design BIBAKFull-Text 252
  Gavan Lintern; Neelam Naikar
Training needs analysis is critical to the orderly development of training systems and the procurement of simulators for training. The standard methods of Instructional System Development have been neglected in part because they fail to take full account of cognitive skills and because the extensive detail generated by these methods has made it onerous to manipulate the knowledge representation. A contrasting concern is that many of the newer methods of Cognitive Task Analysis de-emphasise non-cognitive skills. Training needs analysis for complex weapons platforms must take account of all aspects of skill. A new project to develop a training system for an advanced fighter aircraft will identify Discrete Operational Tasks at a behavioural level but will extend that effort into a complete Cognitive Work Analysis as outlined by Rasmussen, Petjersen, and Goodstein [1]. In addition, the scope of the Cognitive Work Analysis will be expanded to include issues unique to training and instruction.
Keywords: Task Analysis, Training, Cognitive Engineering
Supporting Cognitive Work Analysis with the Work Domain Analysis Workbench (WDAW) BIBAKFull-Text 260
  Walter Skilton; Stuart Cameron; Penelope Sanderson
Conceptual development in a new area of investigation can be slowed by the absence of appropriate instruments, or speeded by their presence. In this paper we argue that supporting software tools are needed if cognitive work analysis (CWA) is to become a viable approach to the design of interactive systems and interfaces. We present work in progress on the Work Domain Analysis Workbench (WDAW) and discuss conceptual issues that have emerged during development. WDAW is designed to support work domain analysis which provides the foundation for CWA.
Keywords: Cognitive work analysis, work domain analysis, methodology
Cognitive Aging and Human Computer Interface Design BIBFull-Text 270
  D. Hawthorn
Psychophysical Aging and Human Computer Interface Design BIBFull-Text 281
  D. Hawthorn
Interactive Visualization of Similarity Structures BIBFull-Text 292
  M. D. Lee
Variables which Affect the Ability to Cope with Changes in IT BIBFull-Text 300
  L. A. Solberg
Primitive Interface Structures in Browsing the Web BIBAKFull-Text 304
  Y. Rho; Td Gedeon
Browsing WWW documents is interactive. Not only their layout but also their interaction structures should be organised well to be effective to the reader and to get engineering benefits by composition. We define four primitive logical browsing structures. These are the sequential, go-to, nested, and iterative structures.. To support these primitive browsing structures, five groups of interface structures are proposed in this paper. These are the sequential, go-to, nested, loop, and evolutionary interface structures.
Keywords: Browsing, Primitive structures, Web User Interfaces Composition
KIISS: A System for Visual Specification of Model-based User Interfaces BIBAFull-Text 306
  Francisco Saiz; Roberto Moriyon; Javier Contreras
The appearance of model-based techniques for interface development has simplified the design of complex interactive applications. But this approach still requires from the designer a high knowledge level about the textual specification required. This paper presents a system, KIISS, which allows the designer of an application to interactively define the model of its interface through visual specifications on an application example. Thus, the system enhances the model by allowing its use by designers who are not quite familiar with the textual specifications required for a user interface development. Moreover, reusability is preserved, since parts of existing applications can be interactively both exchanged and modified.
Computer Screen Cursor Trajectories as Controlled by an Accupoint: A Kinematic Analysis BIBAKFull-Text 314
  J. G. Phillips; T. J. Triggs; M. Bellgrove
The kinematic efficiency of the Accupoint (isometric joystick) was addressed. Twelve participants used an Accupoint to position a cursor 10 times for each of 12 possible targets situated in various directions (leftwards, above, rightwards), and requiring different levels of movement precision (large, small targets), over different movement amplitudes (near, far). Changes in cursor coordinates were sampled at 200 Hz. Relative to a mouse, the Accupoint acquired movement precision at a slower rate, and was less force efficient. While only 56% the efficiency of the mouse, the cursor trajectories are more reliable in near space (but less reliable in far space).
Keywords: Cursor, Accupoint, Kinematics, Movement
Vixels, CreateThroughs, DragThroughs and Attachment Regions in BuildByWire BIBAKFull-Text 320
  W. B. Mugridge; J. G. Hosking; J. C. Grundy
BuildByWire is a direct-manipulation meta-editor for composing sophisticated visual notations and their editors from JavaBean components. It in turn generates JavaBeans, which can be plugged into other tools. BuildByWire has been used to generate editors for a variety of visual languages and notations. We describe new features that eliminate several previous limitations of BuildByWire and its generated editors. The designer of a notation now has more control over the tools that are provided in the generated editor. Composition of notational elements using layout managers has been improved. Connectors between notational elements have been made more general and flexible.
Keywords: user-interface, visual notation, meta-editor, JavaBeans
HCI Performance Evaluation of Horizontal and Vertical List Controls BIBAFull-Text 328
  Scott Wallace; Derek Weber; James R. Warren
Microsoft Windows 95 uses both vertical arrangements of items in lists as well as horizontal groupings of smaller vertical lists. This paper reports the results of an experiment to evaluate selection times using horizontal and vertical lists. Two GOMS models were developed to predict differences. There was no significant difference in times, but results showed interesting trends in learning behavior.
Validating a 3D Layout for Memorable Graphs BIBFull-Text 334
  B. Regan
An Approach to Automatic Layout of Dynamic Windows BIBAKFull-Text 335
  Nihar Trivedi; Jim Millar; Wei Lai
This poster presents a unique Shadow Propagation for Overlap Removal and Display Area Compaction (SPORDAC) method for overlap free automatic layout of windows depending upon the user interaction. The SPRODAC algorithm is integrated with the simulated annealing algorithm for improving display area utilization.
Keywords: Display Layout, Compact, Optimization
Meeting Customer Needs Using Participatory Techniques BIBFull-Text 336
  C. Wood
Multimedia Evaluation: Lessons from Learners BIBAKFull-Text 337
  Elizabeth A. Kemp; Raymond H. Kemp
In order to make progress towards developing a taxonomy for the evaluation of interactive multimedia systems, it was decided to investigate what could be learned from the experiences of postgraduate students who were studying a paper on HCI. They were required to build educational multimedia systems and then to evaluate those produced by their colleagues. This experience, together with lectures and access to general material on the topic enabled them to provide valuable insights into important issues.
Keywords: interface evaluation, multimedia
Mixed Initiative in Design Space Exploration BIBAKFull-Text 338
  Sambit Datta; Andrew L. Burrow; Robert F. Woodbury
One interaction model by which computers might support design tasks is design space exploration. A Design space explorer provides an interactive environment in which designers can engage in model construction guided by a formal generative process. In our system, the machinery for formal generation is provided by an incremental, non-deterministic constraint resolution technique, Pi-resolution over a domain of typed feature structures. In this paper we describe a mixed initiative environment for resolving exploration non-determinism during the unfolding of a design space description.
Keywords: Mixed initiative, Generative design, Design Space Exploration
The Impact of Cultural Diversity on Digital Publishing BIBFull-Text 339
  S. Gwynn; S. Jones; D. Y. Lees; P. J. Thomas
Exploiting the Statechart in Interactive Learning Systems Authoring BIBAKFull-Text 340
  Pak-Wah Fung; Raymond H. Kemp; Elizabeth A. Kemp
A visual formalism, namely the statechart (Harel, 1987) is proposed as a specification tool, and for the interface of a generic authoring system for learning to use interactive devices. The statechart is employed as a unified abstraction of both the device model and the tutor-student dialogue model to improve the authoring process.
Keywords: authoring systems, intelligent tutoring systems, interaction modelling, human-computer-dialogue, statechart
Towards Intelligent Search Interfaces: Visualizing Query Results by Relating Meta-Data to User-Relevance BIBFull-Text 341
  M. D. Lee; G. M. Roberts; F. Sollich; C. J. Woodruff
Planning a Trip to Assisi BIBFull-Text 342
  D. Lanari; L. Bertoldi; S. Brunacci; G. Cellupica; M. Pallotta; S. Roccetti
Human Performance Modelling in Tactical Environments BIBFull-Text 343
  Z. H. Qureshi
Signposts, Footprints and Maps BIBAKFull-Text 344
  Jeni Paay
The purpose of this poster is to demonstrate my current work in the area of discovering what constitutes an effective visual cue in web screen design. The screen designer should provide for user orientation and ease of navigation within the network of hyper-linked information which constitutes the web-based computer assisted learning environment.
   It is my intention to analyse the effectiveness of the different elements of the visual screen layout which can contribute to the user's sense of where they are and where they can go, and within the scope of this poster to explore the qualities of a screen element which give it the functionality of a signpost, footprint or map in orienting users in hyperspace. This will include the analysis of the applicability of the use of physical environment metaphors as visual cues in interface design, and the human factors involved in the interpretation of visual cues.
Keywords: Visual Cue, Screen Design, User Orientation, Hypermedia
Technological Support for Older Driver Testing BIBAFull-Text 345
  Mike Hull; Steve Howard; Ying Leung; Peter Cairney
Older driver testing in Australia, and around the world, is misguided. It relies on the opinion of health professionals rather than the capacity to drive safely. This paper examines the relationship between traffic tickets issued and a range of vision tests and concludes that the nature of the relationship suggests that tests of cognitive capacity might be more appropriate.
A Speech Training Tool for People with Motor Speech Impairment BIBAFull-Text 348
  David. J. Calder
This prototype is a multimedia system for use by speech therapists to assist in the rehabilitation of motor impaired patients. These may be stroke victims who have to relearn the ability to communicate effectively. The process is laborious and usually conducted in a one-to-one situation where interaction between therapist and client depends on visual and audio cues. Instead of the usual paper-based prompts used by the therapist, this new system offers screen prompts together with high quality digitised speech. The result is a reduced work load for the therapist. Cardiovascular accidents are the third largest killer in Australia after heart disease and cancer. Those that survive this trauma usually have need for rehabilitation. Motor impairment of the speech organ is a common occurrence. There is a worldwide shortage of speech training services to accommodate the clients who require speech therapy. This paper describes a multimedia system which replaces the chart and paper-based cues found in most speech therapy units. The aim is to assist speech therapists by decreasing the time spent in direct contact with patients. The system is currently undergoing enhancement and has been acknowledged by the Institute of Electrical Engineers in London. A Stroke or Cerebrovascular accident (C.V.A) occurs when the oxygen supply to the brain is blocked or when an artery in the brain is ruptured. The former is the result of a clot travelling to the brain and occluding blood flow in a cerebral artery. Once the oxygen supply has ceased, hydrogen ions propagate within the brain cells and damage these cells. The concept of a system to assist in speech therapy resulted from consultation with speech therapists in Australia and in the United Kingdom. This computer-based system aims to relieve constant therapist/patient supervision., particularly where time consuming repetitive tasks are involved.. Therapists no longer have to organise cue cards or sort through hundreds of icons and drawings. These were seldom in colour whereas the computer-based system augments these traditional methods by using colour and animation. Consequently the therapy process can run more smoothly and effectively as all cues are presented on the screen and/or produced by the high quality stored speech system.
   There are a number of other benefits which particularly relate to patients and have been highlighted during beta testing. It has been found that the system could be used at home as well as in the conventional environment of the speech therapy unit. Where a client is left with the computer and removed from the clinical surroundings, the stress of embarrassment is removed. This is particularly evident when an older client has to "relearn how to speak" in the presence and under the direction of a young speech therapist. The system is based on a standard IBM PC or compatible and could even be run from a portable computer mounted to a wheelchair. Other members of the family could be involved in the rehabilitation and the clinical sessions at the hospital. It could be used for the monitoring of progress and not be associated with intrusion into the privacy of the patient Communication within the family is an important part of rehabilitation and this system could certainly help in promoting this. The high cost of therapy is relieved but not replaced by this augmentative system Since it saves clinician time, it may also help relieve the shortage of speech therapy services. If the amount of time spent with each client is reduced, the clinician could then take on a greater case load. A computer-based system, "doesn't have to see another patient in an hours' time".