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DUXU Tables of Contents: 11-111-213-113-213-313-414-114-214-314-415-115-215-3

DUXU 2013: 2nd International Conference on Design, User Experience, and Usability, Part I: Design Philosophy, Methods, and Tools

Fullname:DUXU 2013: Second International Conference on Design, User Experience, and Usability, Part I: Design Philosophy, Methods, and Tools
Note:Volume 9 of HCI International 2013
Editors:Aaron Marcus
Location:Las Vegas, Nevada
Dates:2013-Jul-21 to 2013-Jul-26
Volume:1
Publisher:Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Series:Lecture Notes in Computer Science 8012
Standard No:DOI: 10.1007/978-3-642-39229-0 hcibib: DUXU13-1; ISBN: 978-3-642-39228-3 (print), 978-3-642-39229-0 (online)
Papers:67
Pages:646
Links:Online Proceedings | Conference Webpage
  1. DUXU 2013-07-21 Volume 1
    1. Design Philosophy
    2. Usability Methods and Tools
    3. Design Processes, Methods and Tools

DUXU 2013-07-21 Volume 1

Design Philosophy

Reframed Contexts: Design Thinking for Agile User Experience Design BIBAKFull-Text 3-12
  Sisira Adikari; Craig McDonald; John Campbell
The effectiveness of user experience design is dependent on many factors including complete and accurate contextual information, design approaches, and methods followed. The recent HCI literature clearly shows that there is a growing research interest on integration of User Experience (UX) design and agile software development. A framework based on design thinking is proposed that enhances the current user experience design by integration of three design approaches -- design thinking, designing for user experience and agile software development. These three different design approaches of the framework complement each other to benefit effective derivation of contextual requirements that include functionality of the system as well as aspects of total user experience based on the shared understanding gained from stakeholders in the context. Implications of each design approach on stakeholders and the context are discussed in detail to show the significance and value of the proposed framework on the whole design and design process. It is expected that the proposed framework is capable of enhancing the design quality and user experience of products, systems, and services created through agile software development approaches.
Keywords: user experience; agile software development; human-centered design; human-computer interaction; design thinking
An Individual Differences Approach to Design Fixation: Comparing Laboratory and Field Research BIBAKFull-Text 13-21
  Brooke G. Bellows; Jordan F. Higgins; Robert J. Youmans
The current study investigates the effects of environmental disruptions and individual differences in working memory capacity on design performance in controlled laboratory and field settings. In the laboratory, we measured participants' working memory capacity, asked them to view a poster design, then asked them to design their own poster in either a silent or distracting environment. The results of the study revealed a main effect of working memory capacity on design behavior, but no effect of environment. In the field, we asked practicing designers to take an online working memory capacity test, then to describe their distractibility and ideal work environment while designing. The results suggest that working memory capacity may influence perceived distractibility.
Keywords: Design fixation; creativity; design; working memory capacity; interruptions
Techno-imagination and Implicit Knowledge BIBAKFull-Text 22-28
  Jirí Bystrický
Techno-imagination is the ability to encode and decode images created by devices. This technological shift has caused a departure from images towards an alphanumeric codification of knowledge. This has led to the disconnection between thinking and speaking, caused by new computer codes. The paper discusses the effects of this paradigm shift on the mental processing of vision data and on the relation between concepts and images. We conclude our exploration with a strategy to define a concept of media to allow for both of its features: mediality and transparency.
Keywords: image; mediality; transparency; art; imaging; instrumentality
Context as a System, Product as a Component, and the Relationship as Experience BIBAKFull-Text 29-37
  WonJoon Chung; Sara Fortier
Currently, User Experience Design (UXD) is spotlighted as one of the most topical areas in design. It is an umbrella term that explains all aspects of a user's experience with a given context, including the interface, graphic design, industrial design, and interaction (Merholz P., 2007). Particularly, the notion of UXD is rooted in human factors and ergonomics that focus on physical, cognitive and emotional interaction between human users, machines and a contextual environment. In the industrial design field, the idea of UXD is not a new but an ancient concept that has been discussed in different terms such as ergonomics, anthropometrics, and affordance, etc., and whose main focus is a positive and rich experience. The current development of SNS (Social Networking Services) and smartphone technology, however, has created possibilities for new types of user experience design. Sander (Sanders, 2002) mentions this possibility as new design space where "designers will transform from being designers of "stuff" (e.g., products, communication pieces, etc.) to being the builders of scaffolds for experiencing.", and where industrial designers will now confront different challenges to discover and develop new types of products with different interface designs for novel user experience. For example, tablet computers like the Apple iPad already have changed the activity of computing from a static environment to almost everywhere. Based on the theoretical framework that "a context as a system, a product as a component, and the relationship between them as an experience", we propose three main research questions. These questions are 1) how a current professional UX designer in practice has redefined UX design themselves, 2) what specific actions are performed and 3) what supports they provide for their client. Through careful in-depth interviews with seven professional UX designers in experience-centric design firms, including IDEO and Adaptive Path etc., in US and Canada, we propose several critical notions and foundational references for UX designers.
Keywords: User ExpUser Experience Design (UXD); total experience; empathy; systemic thinking
On the Poetry of Design BIBAKFull-Text 38-47
  Arash Faroughi; Roozbeh Faroughi
This paper seeks to answer the questions why the original design concept was invented and what disciplines were responsible for its development. Therefore, significant works from the Classical Antiquity and Renaissance are selected for analyzing the invention of the original design. The paper comes to the conclusion that design was created from the disciplines poetry, music, philosophy, rhetoric, painting, sculpture and architecture. Especially, poetry was of particular importance for design. Finally, the paper describes how the poetry of design is related to interaction design.
Keywords: Disegno; Design theory; Renaissance; Poetry
Future Fashion -- At the Interface BIBAKFull-Text 48-57
  Patricia J. Flanagan; Katia Fabiola Canepa Vega
Imagining the future, we create sci-fi predictions visualized through telematic imagery, involving stage sets and costumes. Looking back at sci-fi's imagination we find it depicts the ideologies of the period in history when it was created far more accurately than it manages to predict future materials or functions. This article focuses on the body, but goes beyond the traditional perspectives of fashion, to consider wearables as an interface between the body and the world. Two key concepts will be presented in order to interpret future fashion, they are: 'fungibility' and 'empathy', which will be discussed through examples of clothing as a means for expressing data. User interfaces of the future will acknowledge the relationship between people, places and things as emergent spaces that generate meaning through everyday activity and therefore ones in which users themselves act as co-designers.
Keywords: Wearables; Fungibility; Empathy; Blinklifier; Snoothood Surreal; Snoothood Chinoiserie; Blinklifier; Reverse Predictive Practices; Sleep Disorders; Snoring; Humanistic Computing; Technogenesis; Interface Aesthetics; Interface Culture
Haptic Interface Aesthetics -- 'Feedback Loops, Live Coding and How to Harness the Potential of Embodied Estrangement in Artistic Practices and Aesthetic Theories within Interface Culture' BIBAKFull-Text 58-67
  Patricia J. Flanagan
This article describes interface aesthetics from a trans-disciplinary perspective and reports on the findings of research into haptic interfaces through discussion of a series of prototypes and their potential as 'critical' design as opposed to 'affirmative design'. The article begins with analysis of the body-machine relationship positing human technogenesis as the framework for further discussion into humanistic computing; the use of feedback loops and live coding as artistic medium; and discusses outcome potentials such as reverse predictive practices and the notion of estrangement to stimulate thought and debate.
Keywords: Haptic Interface; Feedback Loops; Live Coding; Estrangement; Wearables Lab; Interface Aesthetics; Interface Culture; Wearables; Reverse Predictive Practices; Embodied Estrangement; User Interface; Human Computer Interaction; Human Technogenesis; Trans-disciplinary Research; Critical Design; Bamboo Whisper; Blinklifier; Snoothoods; Pulse Swarm
Is Reality Real? Thoughts and Conjectures about Culture, Self, Intersubjectivity and Parallel Worlds in Digital Technologies BIBAKFull-Text 68-73
  Ana Carol Pontes de França; Marcelo Márcio Soares; Luciano Rogério de Lemos Meira
This article makes a brief foray into state-of-the-art in Virtual Reality technologies and into semiotic studies in the field of Human-Computer Interaction in order to invite the reader to think about human's current situation. From this perspective, we shall seek to raise new questions about the forms of communication and interaction mediated by digital technologies. These forms deal with the fact of fiction and non-fiction going hand-in-hand, taking shape in images which, and in virtual beings who, co-inhabit both our imagination and the scenarios which comprise the parallel worlds of virtual environments. This thinking is indispensable for us to understand, for example, the implications of these changes on children and young people development and how we conceive education in today's world. Therefore, this article is based on: 1) studies that led to the dissertation entitled Digital Self: exploring the "I" construction on the Internet, submitted to the Post graduate Program in Cognitive Psychology at the Federal University of Pernambuco, 2) discussions kindled at the Laboratory of Interactional Analysis and Videography, which is linked to the Post graduate Program in Cognitive Psychology, and 3) discussions and projects developed in partnership between the Center for Informatics, Department of Design and Human Factors Researchers at Federal University of Pernambuco.
Keywords: Virtual Reality (VR); Human-Computer Interaction; Semiotics; Sense of Self
The Lack of Subjective Experience in Hybrid Intelligent Agents in Interactive Storytelling BIBAFull-Text 74-83
  Olivier Guy; Ronan Champagnat
We need a model for non-player characters (NPCs) in interactive storytelling, and recent advances in neurocognitive science have not brought to a close the controversies of the subjective and objective experience being both verses of the same coin. The NPCs are still made desperately from a 'third party' point f view, the exact opposite of the subjective experience, while we want to show that this method only produces weaker user experience. This is a hard problem, described by David Chalmers in the philosophy of the mind: we know what it is to be ourselves, we know what the outside world looks like from our point of view, but we have no idea what it is to be something, or even more difficult, someone else. Our goal as in Crawford is to reach the meaningful interaction with the NPC and we want to prove that this may not be attained through third party cognitive models. As a prospective we invite the developers to work on psychodynamic psychology. Moreover, French psychodynamics are a valuable intercultural tool spread in the entire Latin world and can be powerful to describe, heal, and treat human features, while Fodor's followers have exclusive theoretical access to our game models. It is a good way to introduce diversity in our community.
Towards Determinants of User-Intuitive Web Interface Signs BIBAKFull-Text 84-93
  Muhammad Nazrul Islam
User interfaces of web applications encompass a number of objects like navigation links, buttons, icons, labels, thumbnails, symbols, etc. which are defined in this paper as interface signs. Designing interface signs to be intuitive to the users is widely accepted to have a significant effect on enhancing web usability. Interface signs design principles are semiotics by nature, as semiotics is the doctrine of signs. Thus, the fundamental objective of this study is to reveal the determinants of user-intuitive interface signs for enhancing web usability from a semiotics perspective. To attain this research objective, an extensive user study was conducted with twenty six participants following a semi-structured interview approach. The preliminary results provide a number of determinants and their attributes to interpret properly the meaning of interface signs.
Keywords: Semiotics; interface sign; web usability; user interface design; web sign ontology
Sci-Fi Movies and the Pessimistic View for the Future Controlled Society of Totalitarianism BIBAKFull-Text 94-99
  Masaaki Kurosu
The author proposes a view that most science-fiction movies that described not just the future technological development but the life in the future social organization are pessimistic and depict dystopian, rather than utopian societies. They can provide useful guidance to increase our awareness of what technology might bring to the user experience and of how we should take care for not falling into such a social organization.
Keywords: Sci-Fi movie; future society; dystopia; utopia; totalitarianism
Interactive Design and the Human Experience: What Can Industrial Design Teach Us BIBAKFull-Text 100-106
  Neil Matthiessen
With more than a third of PC users, 37 percent are now turning to Smartphones and Tablets to surf the Internet and access entertainment. With this dynamic shift, the use of the wide-open Web has migrated to a semi-closed platform, or Apps, that uses the Internet for data transportation, something once performed by a browser. Users are accessing data all at the same time these devices are becoming integrated into every aspect of modern life. User interfaces and experiences are changing and designers and developers have to become aware of addressing these changes.
Keywords: User Experience; Industrial Design; Design; Mobile Computing
Location, Location, Location: About Home Networking Devices Location and Features BIBAKFull-Text 107-114
  Abbas Moallem
A home. It is where people spend most of their family time. It is a place to gather friends. It is somewhere to escape the world in the comfort of someplace that is our own. And it is a location that is filled with a variety of big and small appliances and devices. The number of appliances, their size, shape, and their features change over and over again, and based on the advancement in technology, there are changes in the needs of consumers alongside a certain expectation of comfort and productivity. One of the properties of a device in a home is the location in which people place it. Where to place the device depends, among other things, on its use and the features that the device offers as well as its aesthetics. This study investigates the location of home networking devices, also known as routers, in modern houses. It also looks at how router features accommodate users based on the location where people keep the devices and how their needs have evolved.
   For this study, 95 participants were surveyed about the location of their home networking devices (routers) location then, 43 locations were evaluated from houses located in Silicon Valley, California. The results provide the data on the rooms where people keep their routers, their physical location, and certain idiosyncrasies of their usage. In light of this study we have extracted some results and hypothesized some guidelines for future designs of routers in the consumer market.
Keywords: Home Networking; Network Device Location; Device Location versus Features; Router Location
Metacommunication and Semiotic Engineering: Insights from a Study with Mediated HCI BIBAKFull-Text 115-124
  Ingrid Teixeira Monteiro; Clarisse Sieckenius de Souza; Carla Faria Leitão
Semiotic perspectives on HCI take human-computer interaction as a special case of computer-mediated human communication. Through the interface, systems designers communicate to users their design vision as well as how the system can or should be used for a variety of purposes. To date, there hasn't been enough empirical research in HCI exploring this complex phenomenon. This paper reports an empirical research about metacommunication in HCI and discusses how and why semiotically-inspired research can contribute to advance knowledge in this field. The aim of the discussion is to motivate and justify more research projects in this interdisciplinary territory and to present semiotic engineering concepts and tools that can be used to carry them out.
Keywords: Semiotic engineering; computer-mediated human communication; end-user development; mediated web navigation
Hypertext in Mutation: The Mapping of a Mythos BIBAKFull-Text 125-133
  Tara Ogaick; WonJoon Chung
Currently, hypertext exists in its earlier state as webpage, connected to various other nodes of relevant information or advertising online, in interactive narratives such as Geoff Ryman's 253, as hyperlinks housed within static documents like PDF's or Word files, or hyperlinks shelved between layers of blogging data and Facebook walls (to name a few social media outlets). Hypertext is understood as operating between poles -- as a means of electronic or digital freedom granted to the reader, or as the opposite, the illusion of freedom granted by a controlled system set up by the author. This paper explores the third space for hypertext by making use of the process of using hypertext; the space wherein a user or participant is directly interacting with hypertext and thus influences the reader-author relationship by creating a subjective reading (and therefore a subjective document) of a series of nodes and proposes that appropriate interface can create design synthesis.
Keywords: hypertext; design synthesis; interaction styles; interface
Social Movement Information Design and a Curriculum of Proper Knowledge Consumption BIBAFull-Text 134-143
  Gabriel Y. Schaffzin
Narrowing in on two contemporary social movements as a case study, this analysis will use a mainstay of information design, Edward Tufte, as well as a lesser-known pioneer in the field, Otto Neurath, to consider the ways in which the infographics associated with those movements can be looked at critically. Using Tufte's popularity and commercial success as an indication of his strong influence on this field, questions about the appreciation of efficiency or validity of message at the expense of craft, nuance, and meaning making will be raised, eventually concluding that a new approach to the consumption of information design is necessary.
Shifting the Focus: An Objective Look at Design Fixation BIBAKFull-Text 144-151
  Melissa A. B. Smith; Robert J. Youmans; Brooke G. Bellows; Matthew S. Peterson
Design fixation is a robust phenomenon that has been shown to affect amateurs, experts, and groups of designers across a variety of design domains. An area of confusion concerning the concept of design fixation is whether it is a conscious decision made by a designer or an unconscious action that occurs without awareness. The current research addresses this issue by utilizing eye tracking as an objective measure, in conjunction with subjective feedback, and design performance data to gain insight into the underlying processes of design fixation. It was found that there are major discrepancies in what people remember looking at, what people actually looked at, and what features designers fixated on. These findings inspire a fount of new research questions, as well as a possible rethinking of current design processes.
Keywords: Design fixation; eye tracking; creativity; design
Semiotics of Void and Information Representation BIBAKFull-Text 152-161
  Kumiko Tanaka-Ishii
The objective of this article is to present a semiotic analysis of void -- which in this article is the spacio-temporal empty space existing in any representation -- in order to consider the representation of quality and to show how this is essential in human representation yet difficult to process computationally. First, a summary of reference to void is presented through a comparison between Western and Eastern cultural approaches to void. A semiotic model of void is then developed by applying both Saussurian and Peircian frameworks and explaining how the two frameworks become equivalent when applied to void, as well as how void is essentially a structural entity. After analysis of various semiotic kinds of void, the article examines the difficulty of computational handling of void and suggests possible paths towards a more human-oriented form of information representation.
Keywords: semiotics; information representation; void; structure; index; icon; design
Of Hoverboards and Hypertext BIBAFull-Text 162-170
  Daniel Yule; Jamie Blustein
In 1968, Doug Englebart and his team at the Stanford Research Institute amazed the world with their oN-Line System (NLS), giving what has since been dubbed the "Mother of all Demos." The NLS system, later renamed Augment, was the first Graphical User Interface, the first Word Processor, the first Wiki, the first Hypertext system, essentially the first of many applications we think of as modern. Much of the progress in software of the last forty-five years can be seen as attempting to realize the vision first articulated by Englebart at the '68 Fall Joint Computer Conference.
   However, it has only been recently, with the advent of HTML5 and related standards, that the entirety of the NLS/Augment system can be implemented in the browser in a standardized fashion. This article examines what has changed to finally allow the realization of a half-century old vision and investigates why it took so long.
   We ask: where are we going next? More importantly, where should we be going?
User-Mobile Phone Interactions: A Postphenomenology Analysis BIBAKFull-Text 171-180
  Bin Zhang; Hua Dong
User-artefact interactions, to a great extent, are defined by their relations. On the other hand, different relations emerge from different interactions. In order to get a better understanding of this phenomenon, we start and focus on the relation studies. Based on the four human-artefact relations in postphenomenology, a framework was developed. Through applying the framework to a case analysis, we describe the dynamic user-mobile interactions in the use process. This paper provides a new perspective of the interactions between the user and the product. Theoretically, the framework offers a comprehensive picture of user-product relations; practically, designers can be inspired to think about the different kinds of relations from the very beginning of their design process and design for specific relations.
Keywords: interactions; relations; postphenomenology; framework; Village Phone Programme

Usability Methods and Tools

Assessing Designs of Interactive Voice Response Systems for Better Usability BIBAKFull-Text 183-192
  Siddhartha Asthana; Pushpendra Singh; Amarjeet Singh
Interactive Voice Response Systems (IVR) have emerged as a popular medium to access information over phones. Despite the low usability of IVR systems, they are widely used by commercial organizations due to high reach of phones. Several studies have focused on improving the usability and design of IVR systems. An IVR can be designed in several ways which can have one or more features like touch-tone, speech recognition, content searching etc. However, selecting an appropriate design requires comparison of different designs. In this paper, we propose an information space with three dimensions to study the usability of IVR design as an Information System. We study two different IVR designs -- real world deployment and controlled experiment. We further compare these with the traditional IVR design over the proposed dimensions of Information space.
Keywords: IVR; Information space; usability
User Interaction Forensics BIBAFull-Text 193-202
  Kai Breiner
The foundation of self-adaptive systems is sound elicitation of the input for the adaptation algorithm. If the input of the adaptation is not reliable, the resulting adaptation will not be reliable either. Especially if the aim is to adapt to the user, the information probably stems from unobtrusive measures but still needs to be reliable. Thus, this paper describes a controlled experiment conducted to investigate in four hypotheses how to make miscellaneous interaction information (which is available anyway) interpretable. These four hypotheses concern three aspects: precision of the interaction step, bias according to right-/left-handedness, and bias of the interaction element. A total of 33 participants were involved. All four hypotheses could be strengthened at a high level of significance.
The Conjunction Fallacy and Its Impacts in the User's Data Acquisition Process BIBAKFull-Text 203-211
  Fábio Campos; Dino Lincoln; Maria Neves; Walter Correia; Marcelo Soares
There are moments within the process of creating an artifact, for instance at the initial requirements gathering or in the assessment phase, that users input data is collected. There may be an impact directly on the results of the analysis of this data if, for some reason, this data input is not accurate. This paper will focus on a specific phenomenon, known as the Conjunction Fallacy, which may lead users to commit errors of judgment that would impact directly in the accuracy of their evaluation of alternatives. In order to exemplify this issue, this paper presents experiments where, during the evaluation phase of the design of a product, it was verified the presence of the conjunction fallacy. It also presents a possible strategy to minimize the errors of judgment caused by the fallacy.
Keywords: evaluation of artifacts; conjunction fallacy; ergonomic assessment; usability evaluation
Remote Usability Evaluation Using Eye Tracking Enhanced with Intelligent Data Analysis BIBAKFull-Text 212-221
  Piotr Chynal; Janusz Sobecki; Jerzy M. Szymanski
In this paper we present a new cost-effective method for usability evaluation using eye tracking enhanced with intelligent data analysis. In this method we propose application of a low-cost infrared camera and free Ogama software. Moreover we present how the standard data analysis, which is usually made manually by experts, may be enhanced by application of intelligent data analysis. We applied well known expert system, which is using fuzzy reasoning. To build such a system we should first define a model of "desired" eye tracking record for a given poster, or more general web page or the whole application.
Keywords: Usability; Eye Tracking; Human Computer-Interaction; Fuzzy Expert Systems
Beyond Satisfaction Questionnaires: "Hacking" the Online Survey BIBAFull-Text 222-231
  Andrea L. Evans
This paper presents a practical method of using online survey tools to gather formative user feedback on UI designs and interactions. It describes how online survey tools have been used to administer both unmoderated cognitive walkthroughs and progressive comparisons among colors in screen mockups. It also details the process by which an online survey tool has been used to allow the off-label ability to gather rich clickstream data: number, location and chronological order of clicks.
A Component-Based Evaluation Protocol for Clinical Decision Support Interfaces BIBAKFull-Text 232-241
  Alessandro Febretti; Karen Dunn Lopez; Janet Stifter; Andrew E. Johnson; Gail M. Keenan; Diana J. Wilkie
In this paper we present our experience in designing and applying an evaluation protocol for assessing usability of a clinical decision support (CDS) system. The protocol is based on component-based usability testing, cognitive interviewing, and a rigorous coding scheme cross-referenced to a component library. We applied this protocol to evaluate alternate designs of a CDS interface for a nursing plan of care tool. The protocol allowed us to aggregate and analyze usability data at various granularity levels, supporting both validation of existing components and providing guidance for targeted redesign.
Keywords: component-based testing; cognitive interviewing; user-centric design; healthcare interfaces
Human in the Loop: A Model to Integrate Interaction Issues in Complex Simulations BIBAKFull-Text 242-251
  Stefano Filippi; Daniela Barattin; Francesco Ferrise; Monica Bordegoni; Umberto Cugini
Several activities of the product development process as for example ergonomic analyses, usability testing, and what is defined as User Experience -- UX- design in general require humans to be involved as testers. In order to achieve a good effectiveness degree, these tests must be performed on prototypes as much as possible similar to the final product, and this is costly and sometimes difficult to obtain during the development process. This is especially true at the earliest stages of the process. Functional mock-up -- FMU -- methods and tools can be of great help, because they allow technological aspects of the products, as electronics, hydraulics, mechanics, etc. to be represented and managed in a simple and effective way. Mathematical equations allow product behavior to be determined, due to input values representing the application environment of the product. At the moment, an FMU model is great in simulating product behavior from the technological point of view, but concerns about user interaction issues are left apart. The research described in this paper aims at widening the coverage of FMU to user-product interaction issues. The goal aims at evaluating the possibility of substituting real users with a characterization of them, and to model and simulate interaction in a homogeneous way together with all the other product aspects. All of this makes the research activities very challenging, and the result is a sort of FMU-assisted interaction modeling. As an evolution of what is generally recognized as hardware and software-in-the-loop, this methodology will be referred as human-in-the-loop.
Keywords: Functional Mock-Up; Interaction; User Experience
Towards a Holistic Tool for the Selection and Validation of Usability Method Sets Supporting Human-Centered Design BIBAKFull-Text 252-261
  Holger Fischer; Benjamin Strenge; Karsten Nebe
The establishment of human-centered design within system development processes is still a challenge. Numerous usability methods exist that aim to increase usability and user experience of a system. Nevertheless, the selection of appropriate methods remains to be difficult, as there exist many different factors that have a significant influence on the appropriateness of the methods in their context of use. This paper presents a new concept for the selection of usability methods. It focuses on a) the selection of appropriate usability methods with regard to their applicability in the various stages of system development and b) accounting for interdependencies between multiple methods by balancing them with respect to the usability dimensions effectiveness, efficiency and satisfaction.
Keywords: Human-Centered Design; Usability Engineering; Method Selection; Method Set Validation; ISO/TR 16982
VMUXE BIBAKFull-Text 262-272
  Bianca Gockel; Holger Graf; Alfonsina Pagano; Sofia Pescarin; Joakim Eriksson
This paper presents a new approach for the evaluation of User Experience (UX) aspects applied to virtual museums (VM) -- VMUXE. A wide percentage of projects and applications for VMs are often "born and buried" in digital labs, without having been experimented and monitored with people. These "prototypes" are the result of experts, technicians, curators, combined together to give birth for multidisciplinary and avant-garde outputs. Earlier attempts to evaluate VM installations failed due to the lack of strategy facing the multidimensional complexity in studying and comparing digital applications in different installations using different devices and metaphors offering different UXs. As a conclusion "communicating" culture through the aid of advanced technology was not a technological issue, but an epistemological one. Setting up a good process of evaluation and analysis is therefore important for establishing next generation virtual museums (NGVM) aiming to reach certain goals such as knowledge exchange, cognitive improvement and heritage communication.
Keywords: User Experience Evaluation; Virtual Museums; (Non-) Instrumental Qualities; Digital Cultural Heritage
Customer Recruitment: Ethical, Legal and Practical Issues BIBAKFull-Text 273-282
  Kristyn Greenwood; Angela Johnston
An often overlooked aspect of usability testing methodology is participant recruitment. Traditionally, test participants have either been independent users recruited by usability programs irrespective of their employer or they have been company representatives provided by product management or a sales team. However, there are drawbacks associated with these types of recruitment programs, which led our organizations at Oracle to create a standardized program of customer recruitment, instead. In this paper we describe the problems that we encountered when using the traditional methods of recruitment, how a new legal document and a customer recruiting process solved those problems, and what ethical considerations need to be made when recruiting customers.
Keywords: Participant recruitment; user research; customer recruitment; usability testing
Novel Method of Evaluating GUI Design from the Viewpoint of Worker Experience BIBAKFull-Text 283-293
  Daiki Hama; Mai Kurioka; Mariko Kato; Ken Imamura; Miwa Nakanishi
In this study, the value of different experiences obtained from operations was defined as worker experience. From this viewpoint, we have developed a novel method to evaluate graphical user interfaces (GUI) for next-generation control systems for social infrastructure. Beyond the traditional concept of ease of use, this method aims to introduce a sense of worth gained by operations and instill some sense of motivation to work through the GUI design, which will provide GUI designers a new viewpoint. In this paper, this method was adapted to application software to use it more practically, and the GUIs of two different systems are evaluated.
Keywords: worker experience; GUI; design evaluation
Understand System's Relative Effectiveness Using Adapted Confusion Matrix BIBAKFull-Text 294-302
  Nan Jiang; Haibin Liu
The effectiveness of a system refers to the accuracy and completeness with which users achieve specified goals. These two aspects are interpreted as errors and completion in the context of usability testing. However, a holistic view of effectiveness is not straight forward to establish in a comparative test because the two measures focus on different aspects of user outputs. In this paper, we propose a predictive method to measure a system's relative effectiveness based on its own performance prediction. We achieve it by using an adapted confusion matrix to establish a correlation model between the two measures. A real-world use case is provided to demonstrate the usefulness of our method in a comparative study of the two websites.
Keywords: Accuracy; completeness; errors; completion; confusion matrix
Development of a General Internet Attitude Scale BIBAKFull-Text 303-311
  Mary Joyce; Jurek Kirakowski
This paper presents findings on the recently developed General Internet Attitude Scale (GIAS). Fundamental aspects of attitude in Social Psychological literature outlining appropriate definitions and theoretical frameworks are first presented. Previous issues in Internet attitude research are then reviewed with a focus on the validity of such proposed scales as measurement of attitude. The consideration of such issues in the development of the new attitude scale is then outlined, and the development process of the GIAS is summarized. Although studies with GIAS found difference between age groups, the effect sizes for differences between the genders were extremely small.
Keywords: Internet; Attitude; Measurement; Validity; Scale development; Gender differences; Age factors
The Usability Perception Scale (UPscale): A Measure for Evaluating Feedback Displays BIBAKFull-Text 312-321
  Beth Karlin; Rebecca Ford
This paper proposes and tests the Usability Perception Scale (UPscale), developed to evaluate the perceived usability of eco-feedback. This tool builds on previous system usability scales and includes sub-scales for ease of use and engagement. The scale was tested via an online survey of 1103 US residents. Factor analysis supported a two-factor solution, supporting subscales for ease of use and engagement. Reliability tests revealed high levels of internal consistency for the overall scale and both subscales. A test of criterion validity with behavioral intention found significant correlations with both subscales, suggesting that usability is a key mediator for behavior change. Finally, ANOVA results found differences between randomly assigned images, suggesting the scale has sufficient sensitivity for use in experimental research. Future research is suggested to test abbreviated versions as well as to further assess this scale with actual behavioral pilot studies.
Keywords: evaluation; scale; energy; feedback; usability; user experience
System for Evaluating Usability and User Experience by Analyzing Repeated Patterns BIBAKFull-Text 322-329
  Young Bin Kim; Shin Jin Kang; Chang Hun Kim
In this paper, a new system for evaluating interface usability through the analysis of repeated patterns is proposed. The system can be a valuable tool for verifying interfaces and in evaluating their usability by users, both of which are necessary stages in the development and operation of software. This paper concentrates on the repeated patterns that occur when users use an interface. Extracting these repeated patterns and analyzing them could enhance the development and usability of interfaces. Through experiments that applied the proposed system to several kinds of software, it was confirmed that problems with interfaces can be understood, and usability can be improved without requiring complicated analyses of user logs.
Keywords: Usability Methods and Tools; Analyzing Repeated Patterns
A Color Model in the Usability of Computer Interface Applied to Users with Low Vision BIBAKFull-Text 330-339
  Cínthia Costa Kulpa; Fábio Gonçalves Teixeira; Régio Pierre da Silva
This paper presents the results of a research on the usability of computer interfaces through colors for Low Vision users. It describes the methodology used, the 3 web interfaces tested for usability with the users in question, showing the results for the development of a prototype interface with colors as the main aspect. The prototype developed is presented with the usability test carried out with it. As a result of the work, a proposed color model is presented that includes Low Vision users in the construction and upgrading of computer interfaces, aimed at the usability of web interfaces.
Keywords: Color; Usability; Low Vision
Usability of Virtual Worlds BIBAKFull-Text 340-348
  Haind Lu; Tobias Brockmann; Stefan Stieglitz
In recent years virtual worlds left their origins driven by new technologies. As a consequence 3D-based environments moved into business related domains and are used e.g. to support virtual meetings or product presentations. However, enterprises have to consider that a large share of companies' employees still fits to the definition of so-called digital immigrants. While younger employees are familiar with the usage of 3D-based environments, navigating in virtual rooms might be challenging for digital immigrants. This could limit the usage of virtual worlds for business related contexts. We therefore conducted usability tests with digital immigrants in virtual worlds and analyzed their experiences. Our results show that in fact digital immigrants face problems when using virtual worlds. Based upon our study we discuss how to improve the usability of virtual worlds for this group of users.
Keywords: Virtual worlds; usability; digital immigrants
Assessing Perceived Experience with Magnitude Estimation BIBAKFull-Text 349-358
  Mick McGee; Misha Vaughan; Joseph Dumas
Professionals who develop and evaluate the interaction between people and systems have broadened their interests beyond ease of use and learning to higher-order concepts, such as "user experience." "Excellence," "delight" and other emotion-driven experiences are becoming more central to product and company success. In three case studies, we explore and demonstrate how the psychophysical Magnitude Estimation Technique (MET) can be used to quantify complex subjective experiences. We hypothesize that MET can be used to assess any user experience that can be defined. We describe studies that apply MET to three different contexts and perceived experience definitions: (1) the riding experience in a public transit system, (2) the effectiveness of a sales presentation, presented online vs. live, and (3) the safety and usability of cancer radiation equipment. In all three situations, participants were able to comprehend the definitions of and assign numeric values to the intensity of their experience. Those judgments were used in combination with other measures to assess the strengths and weaknesses of the overarching user experiences.
Keywords: user experience; usability; magnitude estimation; measurement
SINGRAR Usability Study BIBAKFull-Text 359-368
  Isabel L. Nunes; Mário Simões-Marques
Usability is a very important issue that affects the effectiveness and success of systems. Such importance becomes particularly critical when systems are complex, and when the accuracy and timeliness of operation is decisive to the system outputs. Naturally, the usability of decision support systems used for emergency management is of utmost relevance. The present paper addresses a usability study performed to the Portuguese Navy SINGRAR system.
Keywords: emergency management system; usability study; SINGRAR
Development and Validation of an Instrument to Measure the Usability of Educational Artifacts Created with Web 2.0 Applications BIBAKFull-Text 369-378
  Tihomir Orehovacki; Nikolina Zajdela Hrustek
The emergence of Web 2.0 applications has provided new opportunities for all participants in the educational process. Students are encouraged to create and share educational artifacts and thereby actively contribute to the development of knowledge repository. On the other hand, teachers are enabled to publish lecture resources, communicate with students, comment on shared and integrated artifacts, and evaluate completed educational e-activities. Considering that usability represents a necessary condition for an effective learning, it affects the adoption and use of created artifacts in e-learning settings. Although Web 2.0 applications are widely used for educational purposes, a consolidated methodology for the assessment of artifacts resulting from their use is still not available. The work presented in this paper is the first step towards a comprehensive framework for evaluating the usability of educational artifacts created with Web 2.0 applications. Following the standard procedure for instrument development, we conducted an empirical study during which specific pedagogical and technical attributes that capture certain usability facets of educational artifacts created with Web 2.0 applications were identified.
Keywords: Web 2.0; Usability Evaluation; Educational Artifacts; Study Results
Ergonomic Evaluation of Usability with Users -- Application of the Technique of Cooperative Evaluation BIBAKFull-Text 379-388
  Marcelo Penha; Walter Correia; Marcelo Soares; Fábio Campos; Marina Barros
This paper presents the application of a cooperative evaluation, technical evaluation performed ergonomic usability with users in the Learning Management Systems (LMS) used at the Instituto Federal de Pernambuco (IFPE). The data collected in the assessments were analyzed with users from Nielsen usability heuristics. The results showed that the environment has evaluated a large number of usability problems.
Keywords: Cooperative evaluation; usability; Learning Management Systems
Using Eye-Tracking to Test and Improve Website Design BIBAKFull-Text 389-398
  Anna Prisacari; Thomas Holme
In developing a website, it is essential to test its design. For example, users may look at a certain image or text paragraph without paying attention to what designers may consider being the most essential information or the users may erroneously interpret its design and get confused. If users don't interact with the website as designers anticipate, the design of website becomes dubious. In our eye-tracking study we invited 11 undergraduate students from an introductory chemistry course to test the usability of newly developed website on climate change. The results show that animated features draw more attention regardless of strength of relationship to content. Based on quantitative and qualitative data, we present possible recommendations how to improve the design of the website and how to enhance user's overall experience.
Keywords: eye-tracking; usability; web site design
The Dimensions of Positive and Negative User Experiences with Interactive Products BIBAKFull-Text 399-408
  Gabrielle Provost; Jean-Marc Robert
This study aims to identify and define the dimensions of User Experience (UX) with interactive products, measure the frequency of their presence and their strength. We conducted an empirical study with 25 subjects who were asked to describe a positive and a negative experience with an interactive product, and explain why it was positive or negative. Then, they had to complete an evaluation grid about the dimensions. Three judges listened to the UX stories in order to extract the dimensions and point out those that were the most important. Results show that 10 dimensions can account for any UX. The psychological, functional and usability dimensions are present in a large number of UXs (90%, 88%, 88%), followed by the cognitive, informational and perceptual dimensions (74%, 70%, 66%). Results also show that the same dimensions can be used to describe positive and negative UXs and that positive UXs include a larger number of dimensions than the negative UXs.
Keywords: User Experience; Interactive products; UX Dimensions; UX Evaluation
Participatory Design and Usability: A Behavioral Approach of Workers' Attitudes in the Work Environment BIBAKFull-Text 409-416
  Dierci Marcio Cunha da Silveira
The present exploratory study on design and usability was developed to understand the user's participation in the design process, the concept of attitude and its outcomes (as a result of a participative process) and positioned in a contextual framework. The main focus was to explore the link between workers' participation and attitudes when design improvements are introduced in the workplace. Participants in the study were 15 oil drillers working in offshore drilling rigs and engaged in oil and gas exploration and production (E&P). They completed a set of tools covering the nine attitude dimensions, and five scales of satisfaction. The results showed a low level of participation within the two groups involved and attitude toward their participation and the outcomes of the engineering design intervention.
Keywords: participatory design; usability; behavior; attitude; oil industry
Merging Methodologies: Combining Individual and Group Card Sorting BIBAKFull-Text 417-426
  Robert L. Thomas; Ian Johnson
This paper presents a case study detailing how we combined individual card sorts with focus groups and group card sorting to improve the content hierarchy and organization of www.libertymutual.com, the personal insurance website of Liberty Mutual, which customers can visit to get an insurance quote, service their insurance policies, or find insurance-related information. We analyzed quantitative and qualitative data from 26 participants, on which we based our recommendations for a new hierarchy and site structure. Our paper will show how the results from the individual and group sorts differed, how the individual exercise informed the group exercise, and how the group exercise informed the recommendations. We believe this combination of individual sorting, group sorting, and focus group discussion makes this methodology unique.
Keywords: Card sorting; design methodology; information architecture; usability testing; user-based testing; content hierarchy; content organization
Engaging Citizens with UX Design BIBAKFull-Text 427-436
  Kate Walser
This paper addresses the user experience (UX) design of open government initiatives. It provides an overview, definitions, and examples of open government, or government 2.0, that countries hope will engage citizens in democratic processes. The paper outlines different user experience design perspectives and describes design elements that agencies should consider to engage citizens. The paper concludes with examples of open government initiatives that apply these design elements.
Keywords: usability; user experience; government; open government; gov 2.0; web 2.0; social media; mobile; UX; design; participatory; citizen-centric; crowdsourcing; democracy; plain language; Challenge.gov; Iceland; Constitution; ImproveSF

Design Processes, Methods and Tools

Eliciting User Requirements and Acceptance for Customizing Mobile Device System Architecture BIBAKFull-Text 439-448
  Katrin Arning; Bianka Trevisan; Martina Ziefle; Eva-Maria Jakobs
Mass customization is a popular approach in product design and manufacturing, where customers can configure standard products according to their individual preferences. Applied to the technical customization of mobile device system architecture (e.g. smartphones), an empirical multi-method approach was applied in order to elicit user requirements and acceptance. First, in a text mining analysis with n=80.995 blog comments relevant components and properties of cell phones were identified. Second, an online-survey with n=48 participants was conducted, which quantified user requirements and acceptance of the customization approach. The consecutive combination of text mining and survey provided valuable insights into user perceptions and acceptance. Customization was perceived positively, although the willingness to pay was low. Customizable technical characteristics in mobile device system design such as battery life, speech quality, memory capacity and connection quality as well as user profiles were identified.
Keywords: mass customization; acceptance; user requirements; survey; textmining
User Experience Starts at the Keystroke Level: The Model of User Experience (MUX) BIBAKFull-Text 449-458
  Stefan Brandenburg; Marlene Vogel; Uwe Drewitz
In the last years the emotional impact of artifacts became more and more interesting to the field of human-computer interaction research. Despite many models that describe factors of user experience (UX), most of them are of a descriptive nature. In contrast, we propose a theoretical approach, the model of user experience (MUX) that offers an explanation for the emergence of UX starting from the very first interaction steps. Additionally, we present empirical results that support these assumptions of our theoretical approach that were under investigation. In detail we found that affordances as well as standard signals foster users performance on a small time scale (up to 3 sec.). However, these small changes affected peoples UX. Hence we conclude that it is a fruitful approach to start investigating UX on a keystroke level.
Keywords: user experience; theoretical model of user experience; user experience design
Designing iDTV Applications from Participatory Use of Patterns BIBAKFull-Text 459-468
  Samuel B. Buchdid; Roberto Pereira; M. Cecília C. Baranauskas
Interactive Digital TV (iDTV) is an emerging technology in Brazil, with inherent characteristics that must be addressed and which demand technical resources and references to support the design and development of interactive applications. This paper presents a design activity that reports and discusses the use of specific design patterns combined with prototyping tools and techniques inspired by Participatory Design in the design of applications for iDTV. Results are presented and discussed focusing on: the advantages of using design patterns in a participatory design, the main difficulties the groups had during the design activities, the importance of tools to support the design of iDTV applications.
Keywords: Interactive Digital TV; Design Patterns; Participatory Design; HCI
Design Process and Knowledge Searching Model Based on User Creativity BIBAKFull-Text 469-478
  Chia-Ling Chang; Ding-Bang Luh
With the rising of the open innovation notion, satisfying user's creative needs of has become a focus in new product development. Products that facilitate user's creativity can be regarded as a kind of creative platform. Extending the concept of user innovation, this study explored two issues based on "user creativity orientation". First, a design process based on user's creativity platform (UCP) is proposed for designers and enterprises, which includes eight steps: (1) explore user's creativity needs, (2) classify functionality of the product, (3) develop primary and secondary components, (4) design a creativity-friendly interface, (5) prototype components, (6) examine UCP product features, (7) evaluate user's creation experience, and (8) assess the potential creativity of the user's outcomes. Through the process, a set of school-aged toy allowing user successive design are developed for children. The proposed model is feasible and effective and can elevate the idea of design from the level of pure product design to a creative platform and experience design, assist industries in developing platform products and meeting the users' needs for self-accomplishment. Additionally, in order to explore the user's search behavior for design knowledge in self-design activity, this study proposes a methodology and tools and takes the highly-involved LEGO players as the subjects to construct a "model of user's search behavior for design knowledge". With the proposed method, the users can be categorized by length of involvement and breadth of experience content into four kinds of status types of users, and nine essential knowledge attributes and eight key search approaches can be gained. According to the constructed model, the enterprise's role as enabler and users' role as designer can be further explored in design research and marketing strategy of products. The design knowledge and skills of highly-involved users will advance form a few individual hobby to a creative experience industry. It is also anticipated to offer enterprises with effective applications of users' design resources and create new energy on knowledge economy.
Keywords: User Creativity-Oriented; User Involved Design; Design Knowledge; Search Behavior
Activity-Based Context-Aware Model BIBAKFull-Text 479-487
  Yuanyuan Chen; Zhengjie Liu; Juhani Vainio
Context awareness is an important part of mobile and ubiquitous computing research. Most of the existing studies have concentrated on technical implementations. There is a considerable gap between systems context-aware actions and human expectations. We made an Activity-based Context-Aware Model based on Activity Theory and human situation awareness theories. Activity-based Context-Aware Model based on Activity Theory describes human context awareness within activities, which could offer more accurate understanding of human context awareness and help the development of context-aware technology. This paper defines the Activity-based Context-Aware Model based on Activity Theory, and presents a case study of shopping activity, which initially verifies the validity of the model.
Keywords: Context-aware; Activity Theory; Situation awareness; Activity-based Context Awareness Model
Satisfying Consumers' Needs through Systematic Empathic Design Model BIBAKFull-Text 488-497
  Ming-Hsuan Hsieh; Ding-Bang Luh; Cheng-Yong Huang; Chia-Hsiang Ma
Customer-oriented customized design has become the key success factor in the process of product development. However, designers are typically unable to identify the actual demands of consumers to conduct customized designs because of numerous limitations. These limitations include consumers' lack of expressive abilities to clearly highlight their demands and designers' lack of measures and methods to effectively integrate consumer opinions. Thus, based on the proposed systematic empathic design model, the primary purpose of this study is to identify consumer demands. These demands can be identified by initially conducting participant observations to describe phenomena and applying the laddering method to obtain information. Then, the implication matrix was employed to facilitate analysis and the hierarchical value map was used to ensure the formulation and setting of the guidelines for demand. Finally, mind mapping was used to develop conceptual prototypes of the products. Through this combined process, customer satisfaction is achieved. This study contributes to the design industry by providing designers with a closely coordinated and clearly visible set of procedures for the initial stages of design process. This study endeavors to effectively satisfy the implicit demands of consumers and develop prototypes of customized products.
Keywords: Systematic Empathic Design Model; Customization; Consumer Demand; Concept Prototype
How to Observe, Share and Apply in Design Process? BIBAKFull-Text 498-505
  Namgyu Kang; Hidetsugu Suto
These days, many people in design field make a great point of observing a user with regard to the user's circumstances. From the background, there are many researches in User Centered Design field about the role and value of the observing in design process. However, there have been a few researches about how to observe users and how to share and apply the observed results to design process more effectively. The purpose of this research is to clarify the following hypothesis: 'Observing "Physical factor", "Kansei factor" and "Cultural factor" from different viewpoints, and visualizing and sharing the observed results does not helps only to understand users' needs but also to apply the observation results to design process.' Therefore, in this research, we discuss 1) the role of observing from different viewpoints, 2) the validity of the following three factors, Physical factor, Emotion factor and Culture factor as the subjects of observation and 3) the reconfirming "TTS method" to visualize and share the observed results, based on several international design workshops as a case study. As the results, the observation from different viewpoints is effective to find out users' needs including a potential needs which is difficult to be found out through the questionnaire survey. And the method to observe Physical factor, Kansei factor and Cultural factor helps to understand users' situation and needs. Moreover, sharing the visualized observation results with TTS method becomes easy to understand others' thinking, and easy to apply the observed results to design process.
Keywords: Observation; Culture; Sharing; Design process
Modelling User Behaviour and Experience -- The R2D2 Networks Approach BIBAKFull-Text 506-515
  Amela Karahasanovic; Asbjørn Følstad
The rapidly increasing importance of multimedia services delivered over telecommunication networks has heightened the need for technologies that adapt efficiently to users' needs. It is of particular interest to understand users of such services. This paper proposes a unified approach to modelling users' behaviour and experiences in the context of new multimedia services. Static information on users' behaviour is integrated with users' real-time feedback about their experiences. A unified user profile is used for implementation of a media-aware, user-dependent, self-adaptive network resource manager. Our first experience shows that such a unified approach might be beneficial for network and service providers. The tool for gathering real-time user experience, we propose, might also be useful in other contexts, such as personalised content recommender systems.
Keywords: Quality of Experience; User Experience; User Profiles; Multimedia Services; User Feedback
Community Participation Support Using an ICF-Based Community Map BIBAKFull-Text 516-524
  Satoru Kitamura; Koji Kitamura; Yoshifumi Nishida; Ken-Ichiro Sakae; Junko Yasuda; Hiroshi Mizoguchi
Social participation is essential for health promotion, but it requires that participation is designed considering each individual's health status, capabilities, and desires, which vary greatly. In particular, a person with a disability may require a detailed individualized plan. In this study, we present a system for supporting the rehabilitation of patients through promoting their community participation. The system has a function for using a smartphone to create a community map based on the codes designed by the World Health Organization -- International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (WHO-ICF) [1]. It also has a function that recommends walking routes that take into consideration the patients' physical function and how they wish to participate in their communities. This study describes our practice at Nagata, Kobe, Japan and assesses the effectiveness of this system.
Keywords: Social participation; International Classification of Functioning; Disability; and Health (ICF); person with disability
Pragmatic Approach to Cost Benefit Analysis of User Centered Design BIBAKFull-Text 525-534
  Izumi Kohno; Hiroko Yasu; Satoshi Sugawara; Masahiro Nishikawa
User-centered design (UCD) is an effective method for understanding users' needs and improving usability. Introducing UCD to the existing development process increases new development activities, so it is important to analyze the cost benefits of UCD, but it is not clear how to measure the effectiveness of these benefits for actual projects in companies. It is not clear which analysis is more appropriate, quantitative or qualitative. We propose a pragmatic approach to analyzing the cost benefits of UCD. We analyzed the effectiveness of 22 projects in our company using this approach.
Keywords: UCD; cost benefit; quantitative analysis; qualitative analysis
Innovative Behavioral Intention and Creativity Achievement in Design: Test of an Integrated Model BIBAKFull-Text 535-544
  Chia-Chen Lu; Ding-Bang Luh
Accumulating creative achievements is a way to represent design ability and competitiveness for design students. This study proposes to employ the theory of planned behavior to predict creative achievements and augments it with personal intrinsic and extrinsic relative benefits, significant others' expectation and evaluation, self-efficacy, and facilitating conditions that are believed to influence students' innovative behavioral intention. The hypothesized model was validated empirically using data for 277 students from industrial and visual designs. The results confirmed that both innovative behavioral intention and perceived behavioral control affect student's creative achievements significantly. Subjective norms and perceived behavioral control were significantly related to the intention to exhibit innovative behavior, but attitude was not. Additionally, self-efficacy exerts its influence on students' perceived behavioral control more significantly than other antecedent variables. This paper presents an integrated model that provides a direction to help design students to increase their creative achievements accumulation in a school environment.
Keywords: Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB); Innovative Behavioral Intention; Creative Achievements
A Design Process for New Concept Development BIBAKFull-Text 545-553
  Ding-Bang Luh; Frank (Ming-Hung) Chen; Vincent (I-Hsun) Ku
A rise in service industry has allowed the service provider to realize the importance of service innovation. However, there are different sequences of design method which can generate a different result. Service innovation approaching from having the "least" complains within a service, may still result in customers' dissatisfaction. This research developed a new service design method approaching from satisfying the customers' "wish" instead of complains. This design method can generate an innovative solution that can be beyond customers' expectation, which create a higher impact on overall value that the customer may perceive. This service design method will be named as "wish-guided" service design method. It will transform the information gathered from service process, from complains to wishes. By knowing customers' wishes, the "value" of the design problem can be increased greatly.
Keywords: wish; expectation; service innovation; design method; value
How to Create a User Experience Story BIBAKFull-Text 554-563
  Ioanna Michailidou; Constantin von Saucken; Udo Lindemann
Narratives are a tool used in many disciplines. In the area of User Experience Design (UXD), in particular, a storytelling approach can be applied during the whole design process to improve the quality of developed concepts regarding user experience (UX). Furthermore stories support designers in exploring and communicating their new concept ideas. However, the guidelines on how to create a story are either too abstract or do not focus on the experience elements of the interaction. This paper aims at systemizing the storytelling approach in the context of UXD in a ten-step-methodology for story creation. The proposed approach emphasizes on experience-related elements of interaction. The UX story is written by and aims at designers with the scope to communicate UX and reinforce it in product implementation. Further, the approach is systemized in a ten-steps-description with additional form sheets in order to support the application by designers from various backgrounds. In future projects a systematic evaluation of the tools introduced would validate the observed positive outcomes of applying storytelling in UX projects.
Keywords: storytelling; narrative methods; DUXU processes; emotional design
Prototyping with Experience Workshop BIBAKFull-Text 564-572
  Jussi Mikkonen; Yi-Ta Hsieh
In order to investigate deformable user interfaces (DUIs) on mobile devices, an experience workshop was developed to encounter the new interaction style. The design of the workshop strives to bridge form factors and use cases with genuine interaction, which was made possible through prototyping. Prior to the workshop, an explorative experiment was designed to study the role of form in DUI design. Based on the result, several shapes were 3D-printed for further investigation in the workshop. During the workshop, experts in design and engineering experienced a whole design process in which various prototypes were built and the interaction was practiced. The participants were encouraged to practice the imagined scenario with prototypes in real life setting. The result of the workshop became valuable input for building a working prototype.
Keywords: organic user interface; deformable user interface; prototyping; participatory workshop
Keeping User Centred Design (UCD) Alive and Well in Your Organisation: Taking an Agile Approach BIBAKFull-Text 573-582
  Colette Raison; Snezna Schmidt
Using the analogy of user centred design (UCD) as a garden, we explore how to establish, grow and cultivate it to maturity in an organisation. We consider the importance of: having a clear and agreed intent and scope at the start; understanding the environment and culture; planning for success; focusing on the expected outcomes at each iteration; dealing with barriers and risks as they occur; implementing quickly in a scalable manner (according to the Agile methodology); conducting regular 'health checks'; reporting progress; and celebrating achievements along the way.
Keywords: Agile methods; Scrum; Usability; User Centred Design
Design Thinking Methodology for the Design of Interactive Real-Time Applications BIBAKFull-Text 583-592
  Diego Sandino; Luis M. Matey; Gorka Vélez
In recent years, many interactive real-time applications that simulate real situations have appeared. As with every product, good design is an important aspect in meeting the needs of the majority of users. Interactive real-time applications are no exception; they too must fit users while at the same time simulating reality, creating as perfect a mirror of the real world as possible. Design Thinking establishes a methodology for the development of every project, whether a product or a service, based on the conjunction of user needs, the technologies available and the requirements of the entities that request the project. We in the Design Area at Tecnun, the University of Navarra's School of Engineering, asked ourselves how well Design Thinking would help in the design of interactive real-time applications.
Keywords: design thinking; interactive real-time applications; design process
User Involvement in Idea Brainstorming of Design Process: Finding the Effective Strategy in Social Network Service BIBAKFull-Text 593-598
  Shu-Chuan Chiu; Kiyoshi Tomimatsu
The growth of Social Network Service (SNS) has created a new potential in marketing. The role of SNS has changed the common private and public aspects of life. Many methods have been developed for engaging users in design process. This paper reviews the process of service design development, the area of idea brainstorming innovation though SNS. Specifically, it describes that User Generated Design (UGD) methods for user involvement apply to the development of idea brainstorming and the influence on imagination stimulation. The evolution in design research from a UGD approach to involve users in social innovations is changing the roles of the designer in idea brainstorming process. The results show that the SNS assists the innovation process during the first phases of the new service development process and helps develop innovation ideas. Suggestions for further work are included that include aspects of SNS tangibility, usage areas and UGD innovation.
Keywords: Casual Data; Idea Brainstorming; User Generated Design; Social Network Service; Service Design
Understanding the UX Designer's Role within Agile Teams BIBAKFull-Text 599-609
  Tiago Silva da Silva; Milene Selbach Silveira; Claudia de O. Melo; Luiz Claudio Parzianello
User-Centered Design spends a considerable effort on research and analysis before development begins. On the other hand, Agile methods strive to deliver small sets of software features to customers as fast as possible in short iterations. Whereas the two methodologies have tensions regarding requirements gathering and upfront design, they also share similarities. For instance, both approaches are iterative and customer focused. However, there is little guidance on how to integrate these two perspectives and a lack of understanding with respect to the User Experience (UX) Designer's role in an agile environment. Based on four ethnographically-informed studies in two large companies, we aim at providing a better understanding of the integration of Agile development and UX Design by describing the different roles that a UX Designer plays within an Agile environment.
Keywords: Agile; User Experience; Designer; Roles; Stages
Designing for Resonance by Evocative Objects: An Experiential Interaction Design Method BIBAKFull-Text 610-619
  Chih-Sheng Su; Rung-Huei Liang
This paper presents a design method that enriches the quality of experiential interaction design. The purpose is to encourage designers to use their own experiences to create. In this paper, we describe how to use an evocative object as a starting point, bringing up a journey of memory, behavior, family relationships, and self-identity, and then translate the inspiration into core elements in an experiential interaction design. This method has six key features: (1) The choice of a designer's own evocative object, (2) The creation of narratives, (3) The creation of visual representations, (4) The search and transformation of the key emotion, (5) The creation of the physical interaction context, and (6) The public exhibition and the final meaning-making process. We claim that this method can establish a dialogue between the designer, the project, and the audiences. It can also enhance the meaning and the quality of the experiential interaction design.
Keywords: Resonance; Evocative Objects; Personal Experience; Dialogical Critique; Interaction Design
Usagame -- A New Methodology to Support User Centered Design of Touchscreen Applications BIBAKFull-Text 620-629
  Pedro Vinagre; Isabel L. Nunes
Touchscreen mobile devices growth resulted in an explosion of the mobile applications. Focusing on touch mobile game applications this study aims to fulfill a research gap, creating appropriate usability guidelines for these applications. Concerns about usability, touch technologies, mobile devices and game testing, provided the background needs for this study. Initial game application tests allowed for the creation and implementation of such proposed usability guidelines into a support checklist (UsaGame), designed to help applications developers. An evaluation test was performed with 20 users in order to assess the validity of the proposed guidelines. Results from the test of the two builds from the same game application allowed comparisons that led to the assessment of the importance of some of the guidelines implemented into the application. Results suggested a usability improvement on the game application implemented with the guidelines. Furthermore results allowed commenting on all proposed usability guidelines.
Keywords: Usability Touch guidelines; Mobile Applications; Usability Checklist; Touch Mobile Devices
A Method for Teaching Affordance for User Experience Design in Interactive Media Design Education BIBAKFull-Text 630-638
  Asim Evren Yantaç
Today we are living in a world where boundaries among spatial design, object design and interactive media design (IMD) or human-computer interaction field are disappearing. Technological advances widen the abilities of interactive technologies day by day. We are on the verge of leaving the desktop metaphor behind while more natural and real life like interaction with interactive technologies is already on its way. As mentioned above, this is more about spatially interacting with new interaction modes such as gestures/touch/bio-feedback and new modes of showing content such as seamless/screen-free interfaces projected onto the eye or on different types of surfaces. These facts are highly related with the "user experience" subject. As put forth by Norman (1995), user experience paradigm aims to shift the focus from a more engineering approach to the emotions, behaviors of the human within his surrounding while interacting with the information. Today's designers are to design the user's whole experience, which means that traditional interaction design education concentrating on the media and computer is not enough. With this point of view, one of the aspects that is getting even more important now is ergonomics, thus affordance. This paper is about a method we are using in our interactive media design curriculum to study affordance and trigger the creativity of interaction design students.
Keywords: Interactive Media; Education; Affordance; User Experience; Curriculum; Natural User Interfaces