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DL Tables of Contents: 9697989900010203040506070809101112131415

DL'00: Proceedings of the 5th ACM International Conference on Digital Libraries

Fullname:5th ACM International Conference on Digital Libraries
Location:San Antonio, Texas, USA
Dates:2000-Jun-02 to 2000-Jun-07
Publisher:ACM
Standard No:ACM ISBN 1-58113-231-X; ACM Order Number 606001; ACM DL: Table of Contents hcibib: DL00
Papers:47
Pages:277
  1. Full Papers
  2. Short Papers
  3. Keynote
  4. Panels

Full Papers

The Psychology of Multimedia Databases BIBAKPDF 1-9
  Mark G. L. M. van Doorn; Arjen P. de Vries
Multimedia information retrieval in digital libraries is a difficult task for computers in general. Humans on the other hand are experts in perception, concept representation, knowledge organization and memory retrieval. Cognitive psychology and science describe how cognition works in humans, but can offer valuable clues to information retrieval researchers as well. Cognitive psychologists view the human mind as a general-purpose symbol-processing system that interacts with the world. A multimedia information retrieval system can also be regarded as a symbol-processing system that interacts with the environment. Its underlying information retrieval model can be seen as a cognitive framework that describes how the describe the design and implementation of a combined text/image retrieval system (as an example of a multimedia retrieval system) that is inspired by cognitive theories such as Paivio's dual coding theory and Marr's theory of perception. User interaction and an automatically created thesaurus that maps text concepts and internal image concept representations, generated by various feature extraction algorithms, improve the query formulation process of the image retrieval system. Unlike most "multimedia databases" found in literature, this image retrieval system uses the functionality provided by an extensible multimedia DBMS that itself is part of an open distributed environment.
Keywords: Information Systems -Information Storage and Retrieval - Digital Libraries (H.3.7); Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - Multimedia Information Systems (H.5.1); Information Systems -Database Management - Database Applications (H.2.8); Information Systems -Models and Principles - User/Machine Systems (H.1.2); Information Systems -Information Storage and Retrieval - Information Search and Retrieval (H.3.3); Design, Documentation, Human Factors, Management, Performance, Theory; Marr's theory of perception, Paivio's dual coding theory, cognitive psychology and information retrieval, user and domain knowledge in query formulation
Browsing the Structure of Multimedia Stories BIBAKPDF 11-18
  Robert B. Allen; Jane Acheson
Stories may be analyzed as sequences of causally-related events and reactions to those events by the characters. We employ a notation of plot elements, similar to one developed by Lehnert, and we extend that by forming higher level "story threads"
   Stories may be analyzed as sequences of causally-related events and reactions to those events by the characters. We employ a notation of plot elements, similar to one developed by Lehnert, and we extend that by forming higher level "story threads". We apply the browser to Corduroy, a children's short feature which was analyzed in detail. We provide additional illustrations with analysis of Kiss of Death, a Film Noir classic. Effectively, the browser provides a framework for interactive summaries, video of the narrative.
Keywords: Information Systems -Information Storage and Retrieval - Digital Libraries (H.3.7); Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - Multimedia Information Systems (H.5.1); Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - User Interfaces (H.5.2): Interaction styles; Design, Documentation, Human Factors, Management, Performance, Theory; browsing, hypermedia, multimedia, narratives, plot, structure, summaries
Effects of Annotations on Student Readers and Writers BIBAKPDF 19-26
  Joanna L. Wolfe
Recent research on annotations has focused on how readers annotate texts, ignoring the question of how reading annotations might affect subsequent readers of a text. This paper reports on a study of persuasive essays written by 123 undergraduates receiving primary source materials annotated in various ways. Findings indicate that annotations improve Findings indicate that annotations improve recall of emphasized items, influence how specific arguments in the source materials are perceived, decrease students' tendencies to unnecessarily summarize. Of particular interest is that students' perceptions of the annotator appeared to greatly influence how they responded to the annotated material. Using this study as a basis, I discuss implications for the design and implementation of digitally annotated materials.
Keywords: Information Systems -Models and Principles - User/Machine Systems (H.1.2); Information Systems -Information Storage and Retrieval - Digital Libraries (H.3.7); Information Systems -Information Storage and Retrieval - Content Analysis and Indexing (H.3.1); Design, Documentation, Human Factors, Measurement, Management, Performance, Theory; annotation, annotation systems design, composition instruction, note-making, paper, reading
Beyond 2D Images: Effective 3D Imaging for Library Materials BIBAKPDF 27-36
  Michael S. Brown; W. Brent Seales
Recent research on annotations has focused on how readers annotate texts, ignoring the question of how reading annotations might affect subsequent readers of a text. This paper reports on a study of persuasive essays written by 123 undergraduates receiving primary source materials annotated in various ways. Findings indicate that annotations improve recall of emphasized items, influence how specific arguments in the source materials are perceived, decrease students' tendencies to unnecessarily summarize. Of particular interest is that students' perceptions of the annotator appeared to greatly influence how they responded to the annotated material. Using this study as a basis, I discuss implications for the design and implementation of digitally annotated materials.
Keywords: Information Systems -Information Storage and Retrieval - Library Automation (H.3.6); Information Systems -Information Storage and Retrieval - Digital Libraries (H.3.7); Computing Methodologies -Document and Text Processing - Document Capture (I.7.5): Scanning; Computing Methodologies -Image Processing And Computer Vision - General (I.4.0); Design, Documentation, Human Factors, Management, Performance, Theory; 3D scanning, acquisition, digital libraries, digitization, document acquisition, historic preservation, preservation
Server Selection on the World Wide Web BIBAKPDF 37-46
  Nick Craswell; Peter Bailey; David Hawking
Significant efforts are being made to digitize rare and valuable library materials, with the goal of providing patrons and historians digital facsimiles that capture the "look and feel" of the original materials. This is often done by digitally photographing the materials and making high resolution 2D images available. The underlying assumption is that the objects are flat. However, older materials may not be flat in practice, being warped and crinkled due to decay, neglect, accident and the passing of time. In such cases, 2D imaging is insufficient to capture the "look and feel" of the original. For these materials, 3D acquisition is necessary to create a realistic facsimile. This paper outlines a technique for capturing an accurate 3D representation of library materials which can be integrated directly into current digitization setups. This will allow digitization efforts to provide patrons with more realistic digital facsimile of library materials.
Keywords: Information Systems -Information Storage and Retrieval - Digital Libraries (H.3.7); Information Systems -Information Storage and Retrieval - Online Information Services (H.3.5): Web-based services; Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - Group and Organization Interfaces (H.5.3): Web-based interaction; Information Systems -Database Management - Systems (H.2.4): Distributed databases; Information Systems -Information Storage and Retrieval - Systems and Software (H.3.4): Distributed systems; Design, Documentation, Experimentation, Human Factors, Measurement, Management, Performance, Theory; World Wide Web, distributed information retrieval, effectiveness evaluation, server selection
Compus: Visualization and Analysis of Structured Documents for Understanding Social Life in the 16th Century BIBAKPDF 47-55
  Jean-Daniel Fekete; Nicole Dufournaud
This article describes the Compus visualization system that assists in the exploration and analysis of structured document corpora encoded in XML. Compus has been developed for and applied to a corpus of 100 French manuscript letters of the 16th century, transcribed and encoded for scholarly analysis using the recommendations of the Text Encoding Initiative. By providing a synoptic visualization of a corpus and allowing for dynamic queries and structural transformations, Compus assists researchers in finding regularities or discrepancies, leading to a higher level analysis of historic source. Compus can be used with other richly encoded text corpora as well.
Keywords: Information Systems -Information Storage and Retrieval - Digital Libraries (H.3.7); Information Systems -Models and Principles - User/Machine Systems (H.1.2); Computing Methodologies -Document and Text Processing - Document Preparation (I.7.2); Computer Applications - Arts and Humanities (J.5); Computing Methodologies -Computer Graphics - Applications (I.3.8); Information Systems -Database Management - Database Applications (H.2.8): Data mining; Design, Documentation, Human Factors, Languages, Measurement, Management, Performance, Reliability, Theory; SGML, TEI, XML, XSL, computers and the humanities, history, information visualization, structured documents, visual data mining
Visualizing Digital Library Search Results with Categorical and Hierarchical Axes BIBAKPDF 57-66
  Ben Shneiderman; David Feldman; Anne Rose; Xavier Ferre Grau
Digital library search results are usually shown as a textual list, with 10-20 items per page. Viewing several thousand search results at once on a two-dimensional display with continuous variables is a promising alternative. Since these displays can overwhelm some users, we created a simplified two-dimensional display that uses categorical and hierarchical axes, called hieraxes. Users appreciate the meaningful and limited number of terms on each hieraxis. At each grid point of the display we show a cluster of color-coded dots or a bar chart. Users see the entire result set and can then click on labels to move down a level in the hierarchy. Handling broad hierarchies and arranging for imposed hierarchies led to additional design innovations. We applied hieraxes to a digital video library of science topics used by middle school teachers, a legal information system, and a technical library using the ACM Computing Classification System. Feedback from usability testing with 32 subjects revealed strengths and weaknesses.
Keywords: Information Systems -Information Storage and Retrieval - Digital Libraries (H.3.7); Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - User Interfaces (H.5.2): Graphical user interfaces (GUI); Computing Methodologies -Computer Graphics - Applications (I.3.8); Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - User Interfaces (H.5.2): Interaction styles; Design, Documentation, Human Factors, Management, Performance, Theory; categorical axes, digital libraries, graphical user interfaces, hierarchy, hieraxes, information visualization
Re-Engineering Structures from Web Documents BIBAKPDF 67-76
  Chuang-Hue Moh; Ee-Peng Lim; Wee-Keong Ng
To realize a wide range of applications (including digital libraries) on the Web, a more structured way of accessing the Web is required and such requirement can be facilitated by the use of XML standard. In this paper, we propose a general framework for reverse engineering (or re-engineering) the underlying structures i.e., the DTD from a collection of similarly structured XML documents when they share some common but unknown DTDs. The essential data structures and algorithms for the DTD generation have been developed and experiments on real Web collections have been conducted to demonstrate their feasibilty. In addition, we also proposed a method of imposing a constraint on the repetitiveness on the element in a DTD rule to further simplify the generated DTD without compromising their correctness.
Keywords: Information Systems -Information Storage and Retrieval - Digital Libraries (H.3.7); Information Systems -Information Storage and Retrieval - Online Information Services (H.3.5): Web-based services; Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - Group and Organization Interfaces (H.5.3): Web-based interaction; Software -Software Engineering - Distribution, Maintenance, and Enhancement (D.2.7): Restructuring, reverse engineering, and reengineering; Computing Methodologies -Artificial Intelligence - Problem Solving, Control Methods, and Search (I.2.8): Heuristic methods; Computing Methodologies -Document and Text Processing - Document Preparation (I.7.2): XML; Algorithms, Design, Documentation, Human Factors, Languages, Management, Performance, Theory; Web information discovery, XML
Knowledge-Based Metadata Extraction from PostScript Files BIBAKPDF 77-84
  Giovanni Giuffrida; Eddie C. Shek; Jihoon Yang
The automatic document metadata extraction process is an important task in a world where thousands of documents are just one "click" away. Thus, powerful indices are necessary to support effective retrieval. The upcoming XML standard represents an important step in this direction as its semistructured representation conveys document metadata together with the text of the document. For example, retrieval of scientific papers by authors or affiliations would be a straightforward tasks if papers were stored in XML. Unfortunately, today, the largest majority of documents on the web are available in forms that do not carry additional semantics. Converting existing documents to a semistructured representation is time consuming and no automatic process can be easily applied. In this paper we discuss a system, based on a novel spatial/visual knowledge principle, for extracting metadata from scientific papers stored as PostScript files. Our system embeds the general knowledge about the graphical layout of a scientific paper to guide the metadata extraction process. Our system can effectively assist the automatic index creation for digital libraries.
Keywords: Information Systems -Information Storage and Retrieval - Digital Libraries (H.3.7); Software -Programming Languages - Language Classifications (D.3.2): PostScript; Information Systems -Information Storage and Retrieval - Information Search and Retrieval (H.3.3): Retrieval models; Information Systems -Information Storage and Retrieval - Content Analysis and Indexing (H.3.1): Indexing methods; Design, Documentation, Human Factors, Languages, Measurement, Management, Performance, Theory
Snowball: Extracting Relations from Large Plain-Text Collections BIBAKPDF 85-94
  Eugene Agichtein; Luis Gravano
Text documents often contain valuable structured data that is hidden in regular English sentences. This data is best exploited if available as a relational table that we could use for answering precise queries or running data mining tasks. We explore a technique for extracting such tables from document collections that requires only a handful of training examples from users. These examples are used to generate extraction patterns, that in turn result in new tuples being extracted from the document collection. We build on this idea and present our Snowball system. Snowball introduces novel strategies for generating patterns and extracting tuples from plain-text documents. At each iteration of the extraction process, Snowball evaluates the quality of these patterns and tuples without human intervention, and keeps only the most reliable ones for the next iteration. In this paper we also develop a scalable evaluation methodology and metrics for our task, and present a thorough experimental evaluation of Snowball and comparable techniques over a collection of more than 300,000 newspaper documents.
Keywords: Information Systems -Information Storage and Retrieval - Digital Libraries (H.3.7); Information Systems -Information Storage and Retrieval - Information Search and Retrieval (H.3.3): Retrieval models; Algorithms, Design, Documentation, Experimentation, Human Factors, Measurement, Management, Performance, Theory
Live from the Stacks: User Feedback on Mobile Computers and Wireless Tools for Library Patrons BIBAKPDF 95-102
  Michael L. W. Jones; Robert H. Rieger; Paul Treadwell; Geri K. Gay
Digital library research is made more robust and effective when end-user opinions and viewpoints inform the research, design and development process. A rich understanding of user tasks and contexts is especially necessary when investigating the use of mobile computers in traditional and digital library environments, since the nature and scope of the research questions at hand remain relatively undefined. This paper outlines findings from a library technologies user survey and on-site mobile library access prototype testing, and presents future research directions that can be derived from the results of these two studies.
Keywords: Information Systems -Information Storage and Retrieval - Digital Libraries (H.3.7); Information Systems -Models and Principles - User/Machine Systems (H.1.2); Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - User Interfaces (H.5.2); Computer Systems Organization -Computer System Implementation - Microcomputers (C.5.3): Portable devices (e.g., laptops, personal digital assistants); Information Systems -Information Storage and Retrieval - Library Automation (H.3.6); Design, Documentation, Human Factors, Measurement, Management, Performance, Theory; DL case studies, evaluation, human-computer interaction, mobile and ubiquitous computing
A Study of User Behavior in an Immersive Virtual Environment for Digital Libraries BIBAKPDF 103-111
  Fernando A. Das Neves; Edward A. Fox
In this paper we present a 2x3 factorial design study evaluating the limits and differences on the behavior of 10 users when searching in a virtual reality representation that mimics the arrangement of a traditional library. The focus of this study was the effect of clustering techniques and query highlighting on search strategy users develop in the virtual environment, and whether position or spatial arrangement influenced user behavior. We found several particularities that can be attributed to the differences in the VR environment. This study's results identify: 1) the need of co-designing both spatial arrangement and interaction method; 2) a difficulty novice users faced when using clusters to identify common topics; 3) the influence of position and distance on users' selection of collection items to inspect; and 4) that users did not search until found the best match, but only until they found a satisfactory match.
Keywords: Information Systems -Information Storage and Retrieval - Digital Libraries (H.3.7); Information Systems -Models and Principles - User/Machine Systems (H.1.2); Computing Methodologies -Computer Graphics - Three-Dimensional Graphics and Realism (I.3.7): Virtual reality; Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - Multimedia Information Systems (H.5.1): Artificial, augmented, and virtual realities; Computing Methodologies -Pattern Recognition - Clustering (I.5.3); Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - User Interfaces (H.5.2); Information Systems -Information Storage and Retrieval - Information Search and Retrieval (H.3.3): Search process; Design, Documentation, Human Factors, Measurement, Management, Performance, Theory; clustering, interaction design, query coloring, virtual environments
Greenstone: A Comprehensive Open-Source Digital Library Software System BIBAKPDF 113-121
  Ian H. Witten; Stefan J. Boddie; David Bainbridge; Rodger J. McNab
This paper describes the Greenstone digital library software, a comprehensive, open-source system for the construction and presentation of information collections. Collections built with Greenstone offer effective full-text searching and metadata-based browsing facilities that are attractive and easy to use. Moreover, they are easily maintainable and can be augmented and rebuilt entirely automatically. The system is extensible: software "plugins" accommodate different document and metadata types.
Keywords: Information Systems -Information Storage and Retrieval - Digital Libraries (H.3.7); Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - User Interfaces (H.5.2): Interaction styles; Design, Documentation, Human Factors, Management, Performance, Theory
A Mediation Infrastructure for Digital Library Services BIBAKPDF 123-132
  Sergey Melnik; Hector Garcia-Molina; Andreas Paepcke
Digital library mediators allow interoperation between diverse information services. In this paper we describe a flexible and dynamic mediator infrastructure that allows mediators to be composed from a set of modules ("blades"). Each module implements a particular mediation function, such as protocol translation, query translation, or result merging. All the information used by the mediator, including the mediator logic itself, is represented by an RDF graph. We illustrate our approach using a mediation scenario involving a Dienst and a Z39.50 server, and we discuss the potential advantages and weaknesses of our framework.
Keywords: Information Systems -Information Storage and Retrieval - Digital Libraries (H.3.7); Software -Software Engineering - Interoperability (D.2.12); Information Systems -Information Storage and Retrieval - Systems and Software (H.3.4); Software -Software Engineering - Requirements/Specifications (D.2.1); Design, Documentation, Human Factors, Languages, Management, Performance, Theory; component design, interoperability, mediator, wrapper
Asynchronous Information Space Analysis Architecture using Content and Structure-Based Service Brokering BIBAKPDF 133-142
  Ke-Thia Yao; In-Young Ko; Ragy Eleish; Robert Neches
Our project focuses on rapid formation and utilization of custom collections of information for groups focused on high-paced tasks. Assembling such collections, as well as organizing and analyzing the documents within them, is a complex and sophisticated task. It requires understanding what information management services and tools are provided by the system, when they appropriate to use, and how those services can be composed together to perform more complex analyses. This paper describes the architecture of a prototype implementation of the information analysis management system that we have developed. The architecture uses metadata to describe collections of documents both in term of their content and structure. This metadata allows the system to dynamically and in a content-sensitive manner to determine the set of appropriate analysis services. To facilitate the invocation of those services, the architecture also provides an asynchronous and transparent service access mechanism.
Keywords: Information Systems -Information Storage and Retrieval - Digital Libraries (H.3.7); Information Systems -Information Storage and Retrieval - Systems and Software (H.3.4); Design, Documentation, Human Factors, Management, Performance, Theory; asynchronous service access, component architecture, content and structure, data-driven brokering, information analysis, information management, metadata
Developing Services for Open Eprint Archives: Globalisation, Integration and the Impact of Links BIBAKPDF 143-151
  Steve Hitchcock; Les Carr; Zhuoan Jiao; Donna Bergmark; Wendy Hall; Carl Lagoze; Stevan Harnad
The rapid growth of scholarly information resources available in electronic form and their organisation by digital libraries is proving fertile ground for the development of sophisticated new services, of which citation linking will be one indispensable example. Many new projects, partnerships and commercial agreements have been announced to build citation linking applications. This paper describes the Open Citation (OpCit) project, which will focus on linking papers held in freely accessible eprint archives such as the Los Alamos physics archives and other distributed archives, and which will build on the work of the Open Archives initiative to make the data held in such archives available to compliant services. The paper emphasises the work of the project in the context of emerging digital library information environments, explores how a range of new linking tools might be combined and identifies ways in which different linking applications might converge. Some early results of linked pages from the OpCit project are reported.
Keywords: Information Systems -Information Storage and Retrieval - Digital Libraries (H.3.7); Computing Methodologies -Document and Text Processing - Electronic Publishing (I.7.4); Information Systems -Information Storage and Retrieval - Online Information Services (H.3.5): Web-based services; Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - Group and Organization Interfaces (H.5.3): Web-based interaction; Information Systems -Information Storage and Retrieval - Library Automation (H.3.6); Design, Documentation, Human Factors, Management, Performance, Theory; Open Archives, digital library information architectures, distributed collections, electronic publishing, eprint archives, open archives, reference linking
Patron-Augmented Digital Libraries BIBAKPDF 153-163
  Dion Goh; John Leggett
Digital library research is mostly focused on the generation of large collections of multimedia resources and state-of-the-art tools for their indexing and retrieval. However, digital libraries should provide more than advanced collection maintenance and retrieval services since the ultimate goal of any (academic) library is to serve the scholarly needs of its users. This paper begins by presenting a case for digital scholarship in which patrons perform all scholarly work electronically. A proposal is then made for patron-augmented digital libraries (PADLs), a class of digital libraries that supports the digital scholarship of its patrons. Finally, a prototype PADL (called Synchrony) providing access to video segments and associated textual transcripts is described. Synchrony allows patrons to search the library for artifacts, create annotations/original compositions, integrate these artifacts to form synchronized mixed text and video presentations and, after suitable review, publish these presentations into the digital library if desired. A study to evaluate the PADL concept and the usability of Synchrony is also discussed. The study revealed that participants were able to use Synchrony for the authoring and publishing of presentations and that attitudes toward PADLs were generally positive.
Keywords: Information Systems -Information Storage and Retrieval - Digital Libraries (H.3.7); Information Systems -Models and Principles - User/Machine Systems (H.1.2); Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - Multimedia Information Systems (H.5.1); Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - User Interfaces (H.5.2); Computer Applications - Computers in Other Systems (J.7): Publishing; Design, Documentation, Human Factors, Management, Performance, Theory; digital scholarship, patron-augmented digital libraries, publishing, user interfaces
A Speech Interface for Building Musical Score Collections BIBAKPDF 165-173
  Lloyd A. Smith; Eline F. Chiu; Brian L. Scott
Building machine readable collections of musical scores is a tedious and time consuming task. The most common interface for performing music data entry is a mouse and toolbar system; using the mouse, the user selects a rhythm (note shape) from a toolbar, then drags the note to the correct position on the staff. We compare the usability of a hybrid speech and mouse-driven interface to a traditional mouse-driven one. The speech-enhanced interface allows users to enter note rhythms by voice, while still using the mouse to indicate pitches. While task completion time is nearly the same, users (N=13) significantly preferred the speech-augmented interface. A second study using the first two authors of this paper (N=2) indicates that experienced users can enter music 11% faster with the speech interface. Many users expressed a desire to enter pitches, as well as rhythms, by speech. A third study, however, shows that the recognizer is unable to reliably distinguish among A, B, C, D, E, F and G (N=10).
Keywords: Information Systems -Information Storage and Retrieval - Digital Libraries (H.3.7); Computing Methodologies -Artificial Intelligence - Natural Language Processing (I.2.7); Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - Sound and Music Computing (H.5.5); Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - User Interfaces (H.5.2): Natural language; Computing Methodologies -Artificial Intelligence - Applications and Expert Systems (I.2.1): Natural language interfaces; Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - User Interfaces (H.5.2): Interaction styles; Design, Documentation, Experimentation, Human Factors, Measurement, Management, Performance, Theory; music digital libraries, music notation editors, speech recognition, user interfaces
Preserving Digital Information Forever BIBAKPDF 175-184
  Andrew Waugh; Ross Wilkinson; Brendan Hills; Jon Dell'oro
Well within our lifetime we can expect to see most information being created, stored and used digitally. Despite the growing importance of digital data, the wider community pays almost no attention to the problems of preserving this digital information for the future. Even within the archival and library communities most work on digital preservation has been theoretical, not practical, and highlights the problems rather than giving solutions. Physical libraries have to preserve information for long periods and this is no less true of their digital equivalents. This paper describes the preservation approach adopted in the Victorian Electronic Record Strategy (VERS) which is currently being trialed within the Victorian government, one of the states of Australia. We review the various preservation approaches that have been suggested and describe in detail encapsulation, the approach which underlies the VERS format. A key difference between the VERS project and previous digital preservation projects is the focus within VERS on the construction of actual systems to test and implement the proposed technology. VERS is not a theoretical study in preservation.
Keywords: Information Systems -Information Storage and Retrieval - Digital Libraries (H.3.7); Information Systems -Information Storage and Retrieval - Library Automation (H.3.6); Design, Documentation, Human Factors, Management, Performance, Reliability, Standardization, Theory; archiving, digital preservation
Revolutionizing Name Authority Control BIBAKPDF 185-194
  M. M. M. Snyman; M. Jansen van Rensburg
A new model has been developed for the standardization of names in bibliographic databases. This paper describes the model and its implementation and also compares it with an existing model. The results show that the new model will revolutionize name authority control and will also improve on the existing NACO model. A prototype that was developed also indicates the technical feasibility of the model's implementation.
Keywords: Information Systems -Information Storage and Retrieval - Digital Libraries (H.3.7); Information Systems -Database Management - Database Administration (H.2.7); Design, Documentation, Human Factors, Measurement, Management, Performance, Security, Standardization, Theory, Verification; authority files, library catalogue management
Content-Based Book Recommending using Learning for Text Categorization BIBAKPDF 195-204
  Raymond J. Mooney; Loriene Roy
Recommender systems improve access to relevant products and information by making personalized suggestions based on previous examples of a user's likes and dislikes. Most existing recommender systems use collaborative filtering methods that base recommendations on other users' preferences. By contrast, content-based methods use information about an item itself to make suggestions. This approach has the advantage of being able to recommend previously unrated items to users with unique interests and to provide explanations for its recommendations. We describe a content-based book recommending system that utilizes information extraction and a machine-learning algorithm for text categorization. Initial experimental results demonstrate that this approach can produce accurate recommendations.
Keywords: Information Systems -Information Storage and Retrieval - Digital Libraries (H.3.7); Information Systems -Information Storage and Retrieval - Information Search and Retrieval (H.3.3): Information filtering; Computing Methodologies -Artificial Intelligence - Learning (I.2.6); Information Systems -Database Management - Database Applications (H.2.8); Algorithms, Design, Documentation, Experimentation, Human Factors, Measurement, Management, Performance, Theory; information filtering, machine learning, recommender systems, text categorization
Acrophile: An Automated Acronym Extractor and Server BIBAKPDF 205-214
  Leah S. Larkey; Paul Ogilvie; M. Andrew Price; Brenden Tamilio
We implemented a web server for acronym and abbreviation lookup, containing a collection of acronyms and their expansions gathered from a large number of web pages by a heuristic extraction process. Several different extraction algorithms were evaluated and compared. The corpus resulting from the best algorithm is comparable to a high-quality hand-crafted site, but has the potential to be much more inclusive as data from more web pages are processed.
Keywords: Information Systems -Information Storage and Retrieval - Digital Libraries (H.3.7); Information Systems -Information Storage and Retrieval - Information Search and Retrieval (H.3.3): Retrieval models; Computing Methodologies -Artificial Intelligence - Problem Solving, Control Methods, and Search (I.2.8): Heuristic methods; Information Systems -Information Storage and Retrieval - Content Analysis and Indexing (H.3.1); Algorithms, Design, Documentation, Human Factors, Measurement, Management, Performance, Theory; acronyms, information extraction
Scalable Browsing for Large Collections: A Case Study BIBAKPDF 215-223
  Gordon W. Paynter; Ian H. Witten; Sally Jo Cunningham; George Buchanan
Phrase browsing techniques use phrases extracted automatically from a large information collection as a basis for browsing and accessing it. This paper describes a case study that uses an automatically constructed phrase hierarchy to facilitate browsing of an ordinary large Web site. Phrases are extracted from the full text using a novel combination of rudimentary syntactic processing and sequential grammar induction techniques. The interface is simple, robust and easy to use.
   To convey a feeling for the quality of the phrases that are generated automatically, a thesaurus used by the organization responsible for the Web site is studied and its degree of overlap with the phrases in the hierarchy is analyzed. Our ultimate goal is to amalgamate hierarchical phrase browsing and hierarchical thesaurus browsing: the latter provides an authoritative domain vocabulary and the former augments coverage in areas the thesaurus does not reach.
Keywords: Information Systems -Information Storage and Retrieval - Digital Libraries (H.3.7); Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - User Interfaces (H.5.2): Interaction styles; Information Systems -Information Storage and Retrieval - Information Search and Retrieval (H.3.3): Retrieval models; Information Systems -Information Storage and Retrieval - Content Analysis and Indexing (H.3.1): Thesauruses; Design, Documentation, Human Factors, Measurement, Management, Performance, Theory

Short Papers

Document Overlap Detection System for Distributed Digital Libraries BIBAKPDF 226-227
  Krisztian Monostori; Arkdy Zaslavsky; Heinz Schmidt
In this paper we introduce the MatchDetectReveal (MDR) system, which is capable of identifying overlapping and plagiarised documents. Each component of the system is briefly described. The matching-engine component uses a modified suffix tree representation, which is able to identify the exact overlapping chunks and its performance is also presented.
Keywords: Information Systems -Information Storage and Retrieval - Digital Libraries (H.3.7); Information Systems -Information Storage and Retrieval - Systems and Software (H.3.4): Distributed systems; Information Systems -Information Storage and Retrieval - Information Search and Retrieval (H.3.3): Search process; Algorithms, Design, Documentation, Human Factors, Measurement, Management, Performance, Theory; distributed system, overlap detection, string-matching, suffix tree
Building Quality into a Digital Library BIBAKPDF 228-229
  Hussein Suleman; Edward A. Fox; Marc Abrams
The Web Characterization Repository contains a collection of internet log files used by researchers to analyze and improve on the architecture of the Web. This repository improves on prior collections by thoroughly testing the log files for format to assure a degree of data quality. Instituting quality control into the digital library addressed many complex issues including technical support for quality assessment, the definition of a workflow to achieve quality control, the assignment of tasks to different people and the definition and automation of quality assessment for log files. By reaching realistic compromises on these issues it was possible to build quality control as an integral part of the digital library.
Keywords: Information Systems -Information Storage and Retrieval - Digital Libraries (H.3.7); Computing Methodologies -Document and Text Processing - Document Preparation (I.7.2): XML; Computing Milieux -The Computing Profession - Testing, Certification, and Licensing (K.7.3); Design, Documentation, Human Factors, Languages, Management, Performance, Theory, Verification; XML, certification, quality, repository
Automatic Title Generation for EM BIBAKPDF 230-231
  Paul E. Kennedy; Alexander G. Hauptmann
Our prototype automatic title generation system inspired by statistical machine-translation approaches [1] treats the document title like a translation of the document. Titles can be generated without extracting words from the document. A large corpus of documents with human-assigned titles is required for training title "translation" models. On an f1 evaluation score our approach outperformed another approach based on Bayesian probability estimates [7].
Keywords: Information Systems -Information Storage and Retrieval - Digital Libraries (H.3.7); Computing Methodologies -Artificial Intelligence - Natural Language Processing (I.2.7): Machine translation; Design, Documentation, Experimentation, Human Factors, Measurement, Management, Performance, Theory; document summarization, title assignment
MiBiblio: Personal Spaces in a Digital Library Universe BIBAKPDF 232-233
  Lourdes Fernandez; J. Alfredo Sanchez; Alberto Garcia
This paper describes MiBiblio, a highly personalizable interface to large collections in digital libraries. MiBiblio allows users to create virtual places we term personal spaces. As users find useful items in the repositories, they organize these items and keep them handy in their personal spaces for future use. Personal spaces may also be updated by user agents.
Keywords: Information Systems -Information Storage and Retrieval - Digital Libraries (H.3.7); Information Systems -Models and Principles - User/Machine Systems (H.1.2); Computing Methodologies -Artificial Intelligence - Distributed Artificial Intelligence (I.2.11); Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - User Interfaces (H.5.2); Design, Documentation, Human Factors, Management, Performance, Theory; agents, personal spaces, personalization, user interfaces
Extracting and Visualizing Semantic Structures in Retrieval Results for Browsing BIBAKPDF 234-235
  Katy Borner
The paper introduces an approach that organizes retrieval results semantically and displays them spatially for browsing. Latent Semantic Analysis as well as cluster techniques are applied for semantic data analysis. A modified Boltzman algorithm is used to layout documents in a two-dimensional space for interactive exploration. The approach was implemented to visualize retrieval results from two different databases: the Science Citation Index Expanded and the Dido Image Bank.
Keywords: Information Systems -Information Storage and Retrieval - Digital Libraries (H.3.7); Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - User Interfaces (H.5.2): Interaction styles; Computing Methodologies -Pattern Recognition - Clustering (I.5.3); Information Systems -Information Storage and Retrieval - Information Search and Retrieval (H.3.3): Retrieval models; Algorithms, Design, Documentation, Human Factors, Management, Performance, Theory; Boltzman algorithm, LSA, browsing, conceptual clustering, digital libraries, information visualization
Learning the Shape of Information: A Longitudinal Study of Web-News Reading BIBAKPDF 236-237
  Misha W. Vaughan; Andrew Dillon
A concept called shape is proposed to experimentally examine the development of users' mental representations of information spaces over time. Twenty five novice users are exposed to two differently designed news web sites over five sessions. The longitudinal impacts on users' comprehension, usability, and navigation are examined.
Keywords: Information Systems -Information Storage and Retrieval - Digital Libraries (H.3.7); Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - Group and Organization Interfaces (H.5.3): Web-based interaction; Information Systems -Information Storage and Retrieval - Online Information Services (H.3.5): Web-based services; Information Systems -Models and Principles - User/Machine Systems (H.1.2); Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - Hypertext/Hypermedia (H.5.4); Design, Documentation, Experimentation, Human Factors, Management, Performance, Theory; World Wide Web, digital documents, genre, hypertext, information spaces, longitudinal, usability, world wide web
Purpose and Usability of Digital Libraries BIBAKPDF 238-239
  Yin Leng Theng; Norliza Mohd-Nasir; Harold Thimbleby
A preliminary study was conducted to help understand the purpose of digital libraries (DLs) and to investigate whether meaningful results could be obtained from small user studies of digital libraries. Results stress the importance of mental models, and of "traditional" library support.
Keywords: Information Systems -Information Storage and Retrieval - Digital Libraries (H.3.7); Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - User Interfaces (H.5.2); Information Systems -Models and Principles - User/Machine Systems (H.1.2); Design, Documentation, Experimentation, Human Factors, Measurement, Management, Performance, Theory; "lost in hyperspace", usability, used models
Automatic Hypermedia Generation for Ad Hoc Queries on Semi-Structured Data BIBAKPDF 240-241
  Geert-Jan Houben; Paul De Bra
This paper describes research on the automatic generation of hypermedia or Web-based presentations for semi-structured data resulting from ad-hoc queries. We identify how different aspects of adaptation, such as personalization and customization, influence the generation process. We address important aspects of the software that facilitates the generation process.
Keywords: Information Systems -Information Storage and Retrieval - Digital Libraries (H.3.7); Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - Multimedia Information Systems (H.5.1); Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - Hypertext/Hypermedia (H.5.4); Design, Documentation, Human Factors, Management, Performance, Theory; ad-hoc queries, adaptation, customization, hypermedia generation, personalization, semi-structured data
KeyLinking: Dynamic Hypertext in a Digital Library BIBAKPDF 242-243
  Bob Pritchett
This paper describes KeyLinking, a framework for dynamic resolution of soft and implied hypertext links to the most appropriate available resource at the time of usage.
Keywords: Information Systems -Information Storage and Retrieval - Digital Libraries (H.3.7); Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - Hypertext/Hypermedia (H.5.4); Design, Documentation, Human Factors, Management, Performance, Theory; dynamic linking, hypertext
Digital Library Access for Chinese Visually Impaired BIBAKPDF 244-245
  Robert Luk; Daniel Yeung; Qin Lu; Eric Leung; S. Y. Li; Fred Leung
This paper describes our effort to make digital libraries (on the World Wide Web or in CD-ROMs) accessible to the Chinese visually impaired via a (Web) browser. The interface has an electromagnetic braille display for touch reading, as well as a bilingual English-Chinese text-to-speech system. The interface for navigating through the Web and the web pages is presented. Apart from web navigation, Chinese data entry is difficult even for the sighted users, due to the large Chinese character set. An advanced input method designed for the Chinese visually impaired is discussed. It enables the visually impaired to formulate both Boolean-type and natural language queries.
Keywords: Information Systems -Information Storage and Retrieval - Digital Libraries (H.3.7); Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - User Interfaces (H.5.2); Information Systems -Models and Principles - User/Machine Systems (H.1.2); Computing Milieux -Computers and Society - Social Issues (K.4.2): Assistive technologies for persons with disabilities; Design, Documentation, Human Factors, Management, Performance, Theory; accessibility, assistive technology, browsing, digital library, the visually impaired, user interface design
User Effort in Query Construction and Interface Selection BIBAKPDF 246-247
  Paul Gerwe; Charles L. Viles
This study was designed to examine user beliefs and behavior on the selection and use of search features and search interfaces. Five weeks of user logs were taken from a user-targeted collection and surveys were administered immediately before and after this time period. Survey results indicate a significant correlation between a user's level of effort and their perceived benefit from that effort. Reported search feature use increased by more than 35% over the five weeks. This raises the question of how the behavior of an Internet user changes over time. Results from the log files were inconclusive but suggest a reluctance to use the advanced search interface.
Keywords: Information Systems -Information Storage and Retrieval - Digital Libraries (H.3.7); Information Systems -Models and Principles - User/Machine Systems (H.1.2); Information Systems -Information Storage and Retrieval - Information Search and Retrieval (H.3.3): Search process; Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - User Interfaces (H.5.2); Information Systems -Information Storage and Retrieval - Information Search and Retrieval (H.3.3): Query formulation; Design, Documentation, Human Factors, Measurement, Management, Performance, Theory
Evaluating the Use of a Geographic Digital Library in Undergraduate Classrooms: ADEPT BIBAKPDF 248-249
  Gregory H. Leazer; Anne J. Gilliland-Swetland; Christine L. Borgman
The evaluation plan for the Alexandria Digital Earth Prototype (ADEPT) centers on two investigations: a study of classroom use of the system by faculty and students and lab-based usability studies. The classroom-based study is primarily an investigation of the digital library's impact on student learning, using multiple research methods. The five-year work plan includes investigations of the use of ADEPT in non-geography classes.
Keywords: Information Systems -Information Storage and Retrieval - Digital Libraries (H.3.7); Information Systems -Models and Principles - User/Machine Systems (H.1.2); Computing Milieux -Computers and Education - General (K.3.0); Information Systems -Database Management - Database Applications (H.2.8): Spatial databases and GIS; Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - User Interfaces (H.5.2): Evaluation/methodology; Design, Documentation, Human Factors, Management, Performance, Theory; end-user evaluation, student learning, usability study
Generating and Reintegrating Geospatial Data BIBAKPDF 250-251
  Robert F. Chavez
The process of building a geospatial component to access existing materials in the Perseus Digital Library has raised interesting questions about the interaction between historical and geospatial data. The traditional methods of describing geographic features' names and locations do not provide a complete solution for historical data such as that in the Perseus Digital Library. Very often data sources for a spatial database must be created from the historical materials themselves.
Keywords: Information Systems -Information Storage and Retrieval - Digital Libraries (H.3.7); Information Systems -Database Management - Database Applications (H.2.8): Spatial databases and GIS; Information Systems -Database Management - Logical Design (H.2.1): Schema and subschema; Design, Documentation, Human Factors, Management, Performance, Theory; GIS, geography, geospatial integration
New Technology and New Roles: The Need for "Corpus Editors" BIBAKPDF 252-253
  Gregory Crane; Jeffrey A. Rydberg-Cox
Digital libraries challenge humanists and other academics to rethink the relationship between technology and their work. At the Perseus Project, we have seen the rise of a new combination of skills. The "Corpus Editor" manages a collection of materials that are thematically coherent and focused but are too large to be managed solely with the labor-intensive techniques of traditional editing. The corpus editor must possess a degree of domain specific knowledge and technical expertise that virtually no established graduate training provides. This new position poses a challenge to humanists as they train and support members of the field pursuing new, but necessary tasks.
Keywords: Information Systems -Information Storage and Retrieval - Digital Libraries (H.3.7); Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - Hypertext/Hypermedia (H.5.4); Design, Documentation, Human Factors, Management, Performance, Theory; corpus linguistics, editing, hypertext
Relationship Among Copyright Holders for Use and Reuse of Digital Contents BIBAKPDF 254-255
  Masayuki Kumazawa; Hironori Kamada; Atsushi Yamada; Hiroshi Hoshino; Yahiko Kambayashi; Mukesh Mohania
Modification and reuse of digital contents, particularly web data, has become easy due to advancement in computer technology. The work created by a person (or a group of persons) can be reused by another person (or group) for different purpose. Thus, there can be multiple copyright holders for the same information. In such scenario, it is important to define the relationship among the copyright holders. There have been some attempts at designing the Electronic Copyright Management System (ECMS) [6,7]. However, this system is used for defining and registering the information of one copyright holder. Another attempt to develop copyright management systems is reported in [indecs]. The key feature of this system is that they have an RDF expression for copyright metadata. When multiple creators take part in creating one content or when contents are created reusing existing contents, it is vital to define the relationship among copyright holders. This relationship should be clarified in order to make proper allocation of profits and protect rights of all the copyright holders. Therefore, a framework is required where the relationship among copyright holders and profit allocations are described. In this paper we outline the main points of such framework. We refer the readers to see [tr-wmu] for a detailed description. The proposed framework also represents copyright processing for multiple rights holders, it gives a framework for realizing transaction systems where reuse for creating new contents is promoted. In this paper we also outline the conceptual model designed for describing copyright information, examining the relationship among rights holders, and modeling charge rules.
Keywords: Information Systems -Information Storage and Retrieval - Digital Libraries (H.3.7); Computing Milieux -Legal Aspects of Computing - Hardware/Software Protection (K.5.1): Copyrights; Computing Methodologies -Simulation and Modeling - Applications (I.6.3); Design, Documentation, Human Factors, Legal Aspects, Management, Performance, Theory
A Licensing Model for Scholarly Textbases BIBAKPDF 256-257
  Julia Flanders; Elli Mylonas
Smaller scholarly projects represent a sector of the digital library which makes an important contribution to research on specialized text encoding, retrieval, and interface design for scholarly audiences. Such projects, however, face funding and publication challenges which threaten their long-term survival. The Women Writers Project is using an unusual tier-based licensing model to make the transition from grant-funded research project to independent financial viability.
Keywords: Information Systems -Information Storage and Retrieval - Digital Libraries (H.3.7); Computing Methodologies -Document and Text Processing - Document Preparation (I.7.2); Computer Applications - Administrative Data Processing (J.1): Education; Computer Applications - Administrative Data Processing (J.1): Business; Computing Methodologies -Simulation and Modeling - Applications (I.6.3); Design, Documentation, Human Factors, Languages, Management, Performance, Theory; DL, SGML, Women Writers Project, Women WritersProject, business model, licensing, online distribution
The Open Video Project: Research-Oriented Digital Video Repository BIBAKPDF 258-259
  Gary Geisler; Gary Marchionini
A future with widespread access to large digital libraries of video is nearing reality. Anticipating this future, a great deal of research is focused on methods of browsing and retrieving digital video, developing algorithms for creating surrogates for video content, and creating interfaces that display result sets from multimedia queries. Research in these areas requires that each investigator acquire and digitize video for their studies since the multimedia information retrieval community does not yet have a standard collection of video to be used for research purposes. The primary goal of the Open Video Project is to create and maintain a shared digital video repository and test collection to meet these research needs.
Keywords: Information Systems -Information Storage and Retrieval - Digital Libraries (H.3.7); Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - Multimedia Information Systems (H.5.1): Video (e.g., tape, disk, DVI); Information Systems -Information Storage and Retrieval - Information Search and Retrieval (H.3.3): Retrieval models; Design, Documentation, Human Factors, Measurement, Management, Performance, Theory; digital video, metadata, multimedia
A Digital Museum of Taiwanese Butterflies BIBAKPDF 260-261
  Jen-Shin Hong; Herng-Yow Chen; Jieh Hsiang
Taiwan is renowned for its great variety of butterflies. There are about 400 species, a number of which unique to Taiwan, over its 36,500 sq km land. Last year we built a comprehensive digital collection of Taiwan's butterflies to provide a modern research environment on butterflies for academic institutions, as well as an interactive butterfly educational environment for the general public. Our digital museum emphasizes on the ease to use, and provides a number of innovative features to help the user fully utilize the information provided by the system. The digital museum is accessible through the Web at http://digimuse.nmns.edu.tw.
Keywords: Information Systems -Information Storage and Retrieval - Digital Libraries (H.3.7); Computer Applications - Life and Medical Sciences (J.3): Biology and genetics; Computing Milieux -Computers and Education - General (K.3.0); Information Systems -Information Storage and Retrieval - Information Search and Retrieval (H.3.3): Retrieval models; Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - Multimedia Information Systems (H.5.1); Design, Documentation, Human Factors, Management, Performance, Theory; FAQ, butterflies, content-based retrieval, courseware, digital museum
Experience in Implementing a Document Delivery Service BIBAKPDF 262-263
  Francesco Gennai; Laura Abba; Marina Buzzi; Maria G. Balestri; Silvana Mangiaracina
In this paper we propose an integration between electronic mail and web services for people such as library operators who need to send large files to Internet users. The proposed solution permits libraries to continue using the e-mail service to send large documents, but at the same time overcomes problems that users can encounter downloading large size files with e-mail agents. The library operator sends the document as an attachment to the destination address, on fly the e-mail server extracts and saves the attachments in a web-server disk file and substitutes them with a new message part that includes the URL pointing to the saved document. The receiver can download these large objects using a user-friendly browser.
Keywords: Information Systems -Information Storage and Retrieval - Digital Libraries (H.3.7); Information Systems -Information Storage and Retrieval - Online Information Services (H.3.5): Web-based services; Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - Group and Organization Interfaces (H.5.3): Web-based interaction; Information Systems -Information Systems Applications - Communications Applications (H.4.3): Electronic mail; Design, Documentation, Human Factors, Management, Performance, Theory; Internet document delivery service, MIME, Web, e-mail, library, web
Growth and Server Availability of the NCSTRL Digital Library BIBAKPDF 264-265
  Allison L. Powell; James C. French
This paper reports on measurements of the NCSTRL digital library taken over a two-year period. We report the growth of the system along two dimensions: number of participating institutions and number of documents indexed by the system. We also report an aspect of reliability for this distributed digital library system.
Keywords: Information Systems -Information Storage and Retrieval - Digital Libraries (H.3.7); Computer Systems Organization -Computer System Implementation - Servers (C.5.5); Computer Systems Organization - Performance of Systems (C.4); Computing Milieux -Management of Computing and Information Systems - Installation Management (K.6.2): Performance and usage measurement; Design, Documentation, Human Factors, Measurement, Management, Performance, Reliability, Theory
Designing a Children's Digital Library With and For Children BIBAKPDF 266-267
  Yin Leng Theng; Norliza Mohd-Nasir; Harold Thimbleby; George Buchanan; Matthew Jones
This paper describes preliminary work carried out to design a children's digital library of stories and poems with and for children aged 11-14 years old. We describe our experience in engaging children as design partners, and propose a digital library environment and design features to provide an engaging, successful learning experience for children using it for collaborative writing.
Keywords: Information Systems -Information Storage and Retrieval - Digital Libraries (H.3.7); Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - User Interfaces (H.5.2); Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - Group and Organization Interfaces (H.5.3); Design, Documentation, Human Factors, Management, Performance, Theory; collaborative writing environment, design partners, digital library

Keynote

"It's Infrastructure All the Way Down" BIBAPDF 271
  Susan Leigh Star
What is infrastructure and how shall we know it? As libraries move partly to desktops, one of the challenges facing the digital library community becomes designing for distributed use across many kinds of local circumstance. These circumstances vary widely in terms of people, resources, support, and technical configurations. Designing for this variety means reconceptualizing "user meets screen" as "user meets infrastructure." This requires scaling up traditional design and evaluation methods, as well as a richer knowledge of the organizational and historical contexts of use. This talk addresses some of the methodological challenges involved in such work.

Panels

Implementing Digital Libraries BIBAPDF 275
  Rebecca Wesley; Dan Greenstein; David Millman; Margery Tibbetts; Gregory Zick
This panel will address some of the practical issues of implementing digital libraries. Everyone seems to agree that digital libraries are in their infancy. Many of us watch in amazement as new developments occur. In the year 2000 building a production digital library means analyzing tradeoffs between stability, innovation, and costs/benefits. In this panel we will address some of the more interesting issues of digital library implementation.
   One of the critical challenges is the economics of digital libraries. Institutions are forming consortia out of necessity and this raises issues of trust, cooperation and commitment.
   In order for institutions to deliver web-based resources effectively sophisticated cross-organizational access management tools are needed to authenticate and authorize.
   Institutions are developing new tools and exporting them from research departments into libraries. How well does this collaboration work?
   The above issues are only a sampling of the challenges this panel will explore.
Digital Library Use: Social Practice in Design and Evaluation BIBAKPDF 276-277
  Ann P. Bishop; Clifford Lynch; Christine L. Borgmen; Catherine C. Marshall; Susan Leigh Star; Geoffrey C. Bowker
Digital Libraries (DLs) are social as well as technological entities. Their purpose is to help people do knowledge work, to carry knowledge processes across space and time. DLs are designed, used, and evaluated in a context of work and community. And DLs interact with this context, changing and being changed by it. Effective DLs must be designed and evaluated with a sensitivity to how knowledge is created and understood, and work is done, in a context of knowledge communities, which share practices and tools. DL use is a socially-embedded process. DL development is likewise a complex social process. This panel grows out of a book on social approaches to DL design and evaluation -- currently in press -- to which the moderator and each panelist has contributed a chapter. The purpose of the panel is to present socially grounded approaches to understanding DLs; to identify and discuss major issues that arise from these approaches and, more generally, from the social nature of DLs; and to consider implications for the design and evaluation of DLs.
Keywords: Information Systems -Information Storage and Retrieval - Digital Libraries (H.3.7); Information Systems -Models and Principles - User/Machine Systems (H.1.2); Computing Milieux -Management of Computing and Information Systems - Installation Management (K.6.2): Performance and usage measurement; Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - User Interfaces (H.5.2); Design, Documentation, Human Factors, Management, Performance, Theory; design, evaluation, social context
Note: panel session