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DIS Tables of Contents: 95970002040608101214-114-2

Proceedings of DIS'97: Designing Interactive Systems 1997-08-18

Fullname:Symposium on Designing Interactive Systems: Processes, Practices, Methods, & Techniques
Editors:Gerrit van der Veer; Austin Henderson; Susan Coles
Location:Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Dates:1997-Aug-18 to 1997-Aug-20
Publisher:ACM
Standard No:ISBN 0-89791-863-0 ACM Order Number 608971; ACM DL: Table of Contents hcibib: DIS97
Papers:49
Pages:426
Enhancing Communication, Facilitating Shared Understanding, and Creating Better Artifacts by Integrating Physical and Computational Media for Design BIBAKPDF 1-12
  Ernesto Arias; Hal Eden; Gerhard Fischer
Frequently, the design of interactive systems focuses exclusively on the capabilities provided by the dynamic nature of computational media. Yet our have provided many examples in which physical models provide certain strengths not found in computational models. Rather than viewing this as a dichotomy -- where one must choose between one or the other -- we are exploring the creation of computational environments that build on the strengths of combined physical and virtual approaches.
   Over the last decade, we have developed different design environments to support stakeholders engaged in design processes by enhancing communication, facilitating shared understanding, and creating better artifacts. Until a few years ago, our work explored physical and computational media separately.
   In this paper we present our efforts to develop integrated design environments linking physical and computational dimensions to attain the complementary synergies that these two worlds offer. Our purpose behind this integration is the development of systems that can enhance the movement from conceptual thinking to concrete representations using face-to-face interaction to promote the negotiation of meaning, the direct interaction with artifacts, and the possibility that diverse stakeholders can participate fully in the process of design. To this end, we analyze the strengths, affordances, weaknesses, and limitations of the two media used separately and illustrate with our most recent work the value added by integrating these environments.
Keywords: New design methods, Integration of different design media, Participatory design, Symmetry of ignorance, Domain-oriented design environments, Shared understanding
Mahler, Mondriaan, and Bauhaus: Using Artistic Ideas to Improve Application Usability BIBAKPDF 13-21
  Jonathan Seth Arnowitz; Ruurd Priester; Eric Willems; Laura Faber
This paper addresses a strategy designed to handle the increasing and broadening interactivity demands in software. This paper specifically looks into using other interdisciplinary areas of art and music as an inspiration material for creating new forms of user/computer communications. The projects looked at are a project for the Dutch Social Security System, a work-flow driven administrative application and ending with an in-depth look at the Uniface 7 4GL interface which uses the Bauhaus as the jumping point for creating a new image-language.
Keywords: GUI, Art, Design, Iteration, Interface design, Bauhaus, Strategy, Methods
Sound Design for Brain Opera's Mind Forest: Audio for a Complex Interactive System BIBAKPDF 23-25
  Maribeth J. Back
Sound design for large interactive systems poses unique challenges, many of which are illustrated in the complex set of instruments and games that were built for the interactive installation/performance Brain Opera. Three design and differentiation processes for these interactive artifacts are described: conceptual design, system design, and acoustic implementation.
Keywords: Audio, Sound design, Interactive music, Interactive audio, Hyperinstruments, Brain Opera
A Teleradiology System Design Case BIBAKPDF 27-30
  Erik Boralv; Bengt Goransson
This paper describes the teleradiology application CHILI from the graphical user interface point of view. We present the most important design decisions taken during the construction of the system and discuss different methods and techniques that affected the design process.
   Some non-standard design principles are presented, and the reasons behind them. Several of the basic GUI constructions used in the CHILI application are somewhat similar to those seen in Sun's HotJava Views [3]; the application lacks the traditional connection to the desktop metaphor and has instead a work task oriented approach.
Keywords: Design criteria, GUI, Teleradiology, Work task, Patterns
Active Design Documents BIBAKPDF 31-36
  Guy A. Boy
Technical documents are created, modified and used during the life cycle of an artifact. They can be more or less formal, ranging from normative knowledge-based representations to natural language. They are also tools that support dialogue between designers, manufacturers, trainers, legislators and users. Active design documents (ADDs) are a new generation of support for cooperative work of design teams. ADDs include interaction descriptions (Ids) that provide the way the artifact should be used, interface objects (IOs) that provide an interactive prototype of the artifact, and contextual links (CLs) that enable the storage of evaluations and explanations of the distance between IDs and IOs. Incremental ADD design and evaluation contribute to instantiate a participatory design process and a formal trace of the design rationale as a function of usability criteria. An application in the aeronautics domain is presented.
Keywords: Active documents, Hypertext, Participatory design, Evaluation
Designing More Deeper: Integrating Task Analysis, Process Simulation, & Object Definition BIBAKPDF 37-54
  Keith A. Butler; Chris Exposito; Dan Klawitter
Our objective was to demonstrate how software methods for information systems can function as an integral part of advanced methods for re-engineering and continuously improving business processes.
   We report the feasibility of version 0.3 of the tools for a User-Centered Development Environment with Distributed Application Services. Our approach was to derive BOC definitions from a discrete event model of the business process, and then convert the BOC definitions into Object Modeling Technique notation for requirements to drive the detailed software design, The software design included distributed execution to capitalize on relevant portions of legacy systems. The last part of the trial was to demonstrate how the BOCs could be implemented over MVS, Unix, and PC platforms, and then integrated quickly as a flexible application. Our evaluation indicates that modeling technology and techniques will soon be ready for deployment, as will visual programming. More technology development is needed for the integration of heterogeneous data.
Keywords: Object modeling, Business oriented components, User-centered design, Task modeling, Process modeling
Requirements Development: Stages of Opportunity for Collaborative Needs Discovery BIBAKPDF 55-64
  John M. Carroll; Mary Beth Rosson; George Chin; Jurgen Koenemann
We consider the process of requirements development in participatory design through discussion of a design case study. In our project, a group of teachers and system designers initially set out to create a virtual physics laboratory. Through the course of a series of participatory design activities, the nature of our project requirements has evolved. We reflect upon this process this both from the standpoint of understanding requirements development and of managing requirement development work activity.
Keywords: Participatory design, Scenario-based design, Requirements engineering, Requirements development
Design as Interaction with Computer Based Materials BIBAKPDF 65-71
  Soren Christensen; Jens Baek Jorgensen; Kim Halskov Madsen
Professional practice of designers as traditionally portrayed in academic text books and scientific papers only remotely resembles the concrete phenomenology of real life activities. Design is not primarily governed by instrumental rationality, scientific theory, and techniques applied to specific problems defined at the outset. Rather than that -- as illustrated in this paper by a case study of protocol designers -- the professional practice of design is a reflective interaction with computer based materials. The practice of the protocol engineer is very similar to the practices of other professionals, but the analysis also reveals some characteristics specific to the particular design case. When the protocol engineer was experimenting with a specific aspect of his design at different stages in the design process, he was careful not to manipulate the model in a way that would violate other aspects of the model currently not in his focus. Some moves intended to solve one problem produced unintended effects leading to new problems to solve. The design formalism and the design tool 1) made it ease work with different and coherent design representations in the same computerized media, 2) provided the opportunity to study the behavior of the model at a slower speed than in the built world, 3) made it easy to set up a large number of experiments, 4) and to create and explore aspects of the model which would be extremely expensive to explore in the built world.
Keywords: Design practice, Instrumental rationality, Coloured Petri Nets, Protocol design
The Application of Process Models of Information Seeking During Conceptual Design: The Case of an Intranet Resource for the Re-Use of Multimedia Training Material in the Motor Industry BIBAKPDF 73-81
  Martin Colbert; Christof Peltason; Rolf Fricke; Mariana Sanderson
Process models of information seeking are widely held in the Human-Computer Interaction research community. This paper reports a project which applied such models to the design of an intranet resource for the re-use of multimedia training material in the motor industry. The models were found to help identify inherent limitations of an initial prototype, and to support the import of design ideas from other Web sites. However, the process models did not help to identify the information objects that information seekers may need to access and manipulate (documents, tables of contents, item summaries, indexes, lists of linked items etc). To better support design, it is suggested that process models of information seeking be expanded to include such objects. Also, designers may wish to regard process models as usable and useful, but incomplete.
Keywords: Process models, Information seeking, Conceptual design, Multimedia, Training, Library, World Wide Web, Motor industry
Designing the OpenDoc Human Interface BIBAKPDF 83-95
  Dave Curbow; Elizabeth Dykstra-Erickson
This paper tells the story of the development of the human interface for OpenDoc, a large-scale, complex, cross-platform commercial development project at Apple Computer. OpenDoc was an ambitious four year design and development effort by Apple with IBM and other partners.
   The OpenDoc HI is a departure from traditional applications. This historical review highlights how we designed OpenDoc and the lessons we learned.
Keywords: OpenDoc, Design process, User-centered design, Human interface specification, Collaboration
User Involvement in Concept Creation BIBAKPDF 97-99
  Peter Dixon; Ben H. M. Vaske; Paul C. Neervoort
A brief report is made on the case study of early user involvement in the Product Creation Process (PCP) of a user interface for a consumer electronics product at Philips. In this approach we tried to train end users to become "expert users". The method comprised of a condensed product creation process and combined several creative methods in a series of workshops. It was found that although the creative value of the workshops was not high, they did provide clear directions for further development of the user interface concept. For example the reduction of keys on the remote control, or at least the desire to keep the remote control simple.
Keywords: User involvement, Consumer electronics, User interface, Product creation
A Comparison of Usability Techniques for Evaluating Design BIBAKPDF 101-110
  Ann Doubleday; Michele Ryan; Mark Springett; Alistair Sutcliffe
We report on a series of experiments designed to compare usability testing methods in a novel information retrieval interface. The purpose of this ongoing work is to investigate the problems people encounter while performing information retrieval tasks, and to assess evaluation methods by looking at the problem focus, the quality of the results and the cost effectiveness of each method. This first communication compares expert evaluation using heuristics [15] with end user testing [24].
Keywords: Usability, Evaluation, Heuristic evaluation, Information retrieval, User interface design
The Role of User Studies in the Design of OpenDoc BIBAKPDF 111-120
  Elizabeth Dykstra-Erickson; Dave Curbow
This paper reviews a number of design decisions that have been made in the development of OpenDoc, CI Lab's component software technology platform, as a result of ten user tests conducted over the life of the project. We take as a specific example the history of the design decisions surrounding the activation/selection model of OpenDoc, from its conceptual beginning to its eventual release as a component of end-user products.
Keywords: OpenDoc, Component software, Objects, Object technology, Conceptual model, Usability, Learnability, Design
Design @ Carnegie Mellon: A Web Story BIBAKPDF 121-124
  Shannon Ford; Dan Boyarski
This paper describes the process of designing a web site for the Design Department at Carnegie Mellon University. The design process considers the client's intent, the audience's needs, and issues specific to web sites. Iterative techniques were used to design the structure and look and feel of the site. Issues raised include visually pleasing design for low bandwidths, tool and resource constraints, and the web's role in an overall communications strategy.
Keywords: Design process, Web design, Communications strategy
Triangles: Design of a Physical/Digital Construction Kit BIBAKPDF 125-128
  Matthew G. Gorbet; Maggie Orth
This paper describes the design process and philosophy behind Triangles, a new physical computer interface in the form of a construction kit of identical, flat, plastic triangles. The triangles connect together both mechanically and electrically with magnetic, conducting connectors. When the pieces contact one another, information about the specific connection is passed through the conducting connectors to the computer. In this way, users can create both two and three-dimensional objects whose exact configuration is known by the computer. The physical connection of any two Triangles can trigger specific events in the computer, creating a simple but powerful means for physically interacting with digital information. This paper will describe the Triangles system, its advantages and applications. It will also highlight the importance of multi-disciplinarian design teams in the creation of objects that bridge electrical engineering, industrial design, and software design -- objects like the Triangles.
Keywords: Interface design, Physical interface, Collaboration, Digital connector, Connections
Using Organizational Learning Techniques to Develop Context-Specific Usability Guidelines BIBAKPDF 129-136
  Scott Henninger; Charisse Lu; Candace Faith
Usability guidelines are becoming increasingly popular with organizations that develop software with significant user interface components. But most guidelines fall short of the goal to put the accumulated knowledge of user-centered design at the fingertips of everyday developers, often becoming a static document read only by human factors specialists. This paper describes a process and technology designed to turn usability guidelines into a proactive development resource that can be applied throughout the development process. The process ensures conformance with established guidelines, but has the flexibility to meet the diverse needs of user interface design requirements, and use project experiences to evolve the guidelines to meet the dynamic needs of organizations. Case-based and organizational learning technology is used to support this process and integrates emerging interface design experiences with established guidelines to create a context-specific body of knowledge about usability practices.
Keywords: Usability guidelines, Organizational learning, Style guides, Design, Design context
Involving Remote Users in Continuous Design of Web Content BIBAKPDF 137-145
  William C. Hill; Loren G. Terveen
PHOAKS is a system that automatically recognizes URLs recommended in Usenet messages and continuously updates a large web site that summarizes the recommendation data. We view the automatically generated pages as "rough drafts" that users help to refine. We report here on the mechanisms that allow users to do this, our rationale for these mechanisms, and the issues raised by involving thousands of remote anonymous users in the continuous design of web content.
Keywords: Human-computer interaction, Human interface, Computer-supported cooperative work, Organizational computing, Social filtering, Collaborative filtering, Resource discovery, World Wide Web, Usenet, Participatory design, Remote evaluation, End user modification
Designing with Ethnography: A Presentation Framework for Design BIBAPDF 147-158
  John A. Hughes; Jon O'Brien; Tom Rodden; Mark Rouncefield; Steve Blythin
Despite the growing number of ethnographic studies of work their use in design remains a matter of some debate. Acknowledging the problems designers face in utilising ethnographies, and ethnographers face in meeting commercial demands, this paper outlines a 'framework' for the presentation of field studies organised around three main dimensions; 'distributed coordination', 'plans and procedures' and 'awareness of work'; thereby facilitating effective communication and collaboration between designers and ethnographers.
Quick But Not So Dirty Web Design: Applying Empirical Conceptual Clustering Techniques to Organise Hypertext Content BIBAKPDF 159-162
  Charles M. Hymes; Gary M. Olson
When the purpose of a web site is to communicate a body of information, the most common and significant problem for the user is understanding how content is organised within the site. The Rapid Empirical Clustering Approach (RECAp) was developed from cognitive science work on concept structure to help the designer represent the "modal mental model" of the users' conception of web site content. RECAp has been performed under tight time and resource constraints. None the less RECAp has been observed to substantially improve web site structure, while helping design teams maintain focus on users and usability.
Keywords: Fast, WWW design, Hypertext structure, Conceptual structure
IBIS -- Convincing Concept ... But a Lousy Instrument? BIBAKPDF 163-172
  Severin Isenmann; Wolf D. Reuter
IBIS is a useful concept for dealing with problems in the field of planning and design. However striking is that there seems to be hardly any real world application of IBIS-like systems.
   In several projects we employed HyperIBIS, a hypertext-based implementation of IBIS. We experienced several difficulties, which can be categorized into three classes. First, disagreement with the discourse model as underlying theory; second, misdirected expectations about the objectives of the method; third, problems caused by methodological requirements during operation. We show that most of these difficulties are caused by the nature of planning and design problems and cannot be addressed by further improvement of computer support. However, awareness of these difficulties can help in handling them and thus increase acceptance of IBIS-like systems.
Keywords: Planning, Design, Argumentative problem solving, Computer-supported cooperative work, IBIS, HyperIBIS, Hypertext, Applications of IBIS, Experiences with IBIS
Designing Support for Remote Intensive-Care Telehealth Using the Locales Framework BIBAKPDF 173-184
  Simon M. Kaplan; Geraldine Fitzpatrick
We put forward the locales framework as a model for the principled understanding and analysis of systems support for cooperative work situations. By using the locales framework to identify problems and issues with existing practice and focus discussion on possible solutions, we can articulate requirements for systems design. This is illustrated through a study of inter- and intra-ICU consultation practice across three hospital intensive care units (ICUs). By applying the framework to the analysis of existing local and remote work practices, we evolve a family of requirements for a telecommunications-based remote consultation facility sketch its high-level design and discuss the current status of the project.
Keywords: Systems design, CSCW, Locales framework, Social worlds Telemedicine, Intensive care
Bridging the Analysis of Work Practice and System Redesign in Cooperative Workshops BIBAKPDF 185-195
  Helena Karasti
This paper addresses the issue of bridging the analysis of work practice and systems design. It describes a case study of organising cooperative workshops in connection with an experimental teleradiology project. In planning for the workshops the issues of participation and the shared object of collaborative activities were carefully considered. Participation is reflected in terms of the participants' situated views of work practice and their distribution between the perspectives of practice, research and design. The idea of grounding the cooperative activities on the analysis of work practice makes it the shared object of interest in the workshops. Hence, it needs to be carefully considered what kind of work practice is to be used in the analysis and how it is to be represented in the workshops. The cooperative activities of analysis, comparison, evaluation, envisioning and redesign that took place in the workshops are elaborated. Further research issues are suggested.
Keywords: Analysis of work practice, System design, Ethnography, Participatory design, Workshops
Expected Usability and Product Preference BIBAKPDF 197-204
  Turkka Keinonen
The design of smart products involves undesirable, yet frequent, cases when compromises between the quality of appearance, functionality, price and usability are required. Usability has lately been considered increasingly important for product competitiveness, but perceiving how usable a product might be prior to actual use is difficult. This paper considers the way people perceive and weight usability related product attributes in a decision making situation.
   The dimensions of usability are analysed from consumer attitude formation point of view. A model of evaluation criteria related to expected usability is presented. It includes consumers' beliefs concerning product characteristics, benefits and an overall emotional response. Scales to measure the dimensions are developed.
   The scales are applied in a case study with 91 subjects evaluating six different heart rate monitors. The results suggest that the dimensions of usability are highly interrelated in consumers' evaluation and have only a limited potential to explain product preferences.
Keywords: Usability, Attribute importance, Smart product
On the Inevitable Intertwining of Analysis and Design: Developing Systems for Complex Cooperations BIBAKPDF 205-213
  Anita Krabbel; Ingrid Wetzel; Heinz Zullighoven
Developing interactive software systems requires the well known tasks of analysis, design and construction. In the context of work settings with complex cooperations these tasks and their relationship undergo drastic changes. Analysis and design have to be accomplished at different levels of complexity, the heterogeneity of users involved needs to be handled and the presentation of anticipated changes incorporating the organizational context goes beyond proven (object-oriented) techniques like prototyping.
   The article claims that complex cooperations require a close intertwining of analysis and design. It is accomplishable by application-oriented documents usable in different stages of the development process. Based on a document-driven evolutionary approach examples of such document types -- like Cooperation Pictures and Purpose Tables -- are given. They are discussed based on experiences from projects in different application domains.
Keywords: Cooperative work, Evolutionary analysis and design, Participation, Object-oriented design
Network Design: Tasks & Tools BIBAKPDF 215-222
  Kyle S. Kuczun; Mark D. Gross
Designers often draw to produce artifacts for thinking and communicating about their designs. These artifacts (drawings) provide the designer with various levels of abstraction to conceptually frame the design problem. Because network designers traditionally make drawings throughout the design process, we propose that the computational environment should facilitate and capitalize on this activity. We describe a suite of computer based network design tools that employ freehand drawing as an interface.
Keywords: Local area networks, Domain oriented design environments, Freehand drawing environment, Computer human interaction, Levels of abstraction
HCI, Natural Science and Design: A Framework for Triangulation Across Disciplines BIBAKPDF 223-234
  Wendy E. Mackay; Anne-Laure Fayard
Human-computer interaction is multidisciplinary, drawing paradigms and techniques from both the natural sciences and the design disciplines. HCI cannot be considered a pure natural science because it studies the interaction between people and artificially-created artifacts, rather than naturally-occurring phenomena, which violates several basic assumptions of natural science. Similarly, HCI cannot be considered a pure design discipline because it strives to independently verify design decisions and processes, and borrows many values from scientists.
   The purpose of this paper is to provide a simple framework that describes how the research and design models underlying HCI can be integrated. We explore the relationships among these approaches in the context of a particular research site, CENA, the Centre d'Etudes de la Navigation Aerienne, and illustrate how the various disciplines can contribute to a complex design problem: improving the interface to the French air traffic control system.
   The framework provides one perspective for understanding the various research approaches, and, more importantly, suggests new research directions. The resulting cross-disciplinary triangulation can increase the effectiveness of the individual research and design approaches.
Keywords: CSCW, Design, Theory, Augmented reality
Experiences with Adding New Input Modalities to PC Desktop Computing BIBAKPDF 235-238
  Rainer Malkewitz; Bernhard Ristow
In this paper, we describe the development of a new, non-haptic user Interface for IBM-compatible PCs. The results of development itself have been demonstrated at a computer graphics conference [3]. The advanced user interface consists of a combination of spoken commands and head movements. It translates spatial and symbolic input into the traditional mouse, keyboard, and system events.
Keywords: New input devices, Speech, Gestures, User interface design
Better or Just Different? On the Benefits of Designing Interactive Systems in Terms of Critical Parameters BIBAKPDF 239-245
  William M. Newman
Critical parameters are quantitative measures of performance that may be used to determine the overall ability of a design to serve its purpose. Although critical parameters figure in almost every field of design where there is a demand for progressive improvement, they do not appear to figure significantly in the design of interactive systems. As a result, systems are designed that are recognizably different from other systems but not necessarily better at doing the job intended. This paper discusses the role of critical parameters in design, and illustrates their lack of use in interactive system design by presenting a number of examples drawn from the HCI literature. It identifies a consequent need for research to establish critical parameters for applications and to build models of the performance of designs against these parameters. Some ideas are presented on how critical parameters might be established for specific applications, and the paper concludes by summarising some of the benefits that might be gained from moving in this direction.
Keywords: Design, Critical parameters, Performance measurement
Interactive Systems in Domestic Environments BIBAKPDF 247-259
  Jon O'Brien; Tom Rodden
This paper considers the nature of interactive systems design for domestic environments. As part of this work it highlights the methodological issues faced in the design of systems for the home. The shortage of detailed knowledge of activities in the home is highlighted. A series of studies of domestic environments is presented alongside the design challenges they raise.
Keywords: Ethnography, Methods, Requirements, Domestic environments, Interactive systems design
The Singing Tree: Design of an Interactive Musical Interface BIBAKPDF 261-264
  William Oliver; John Yu; Eric Metois
This paper describes the design of the Singing Tree, a novel interactive musical interface which responds to vocal input with real-time aural and visual feedback. A participant interacts with the Singing Tree by singing into a microphone. The participant's voice is analyzed for several characteristic parameters. These parameters are then interpreted and drive a music generation engine and a video stream which are played back in real-time.
   Several design specifications and constraints dictated the development of the Singing Tree. The Singing Tree is used both as a personal interactive experience and, at the same time, as part of a larger coordinated interactive experience called the Brain Opera. The aural and visual feedback is used actively to lead the participant to an established goal, providing a reward-oriented relationship between the sounds one makes and the synthesized music one hears. It is an interesting musical interaction experience for both amateur and professional singers. The system software is flexible, allowing new goals, new music, or new video to be incorporated easily.
   The Singing Tree has been a particularly successful interactive experience at exhibitions with the Brain Opera in New York, U.S.A.; Linz, Austria; Copenhagen, Denmark; Tokyo, Japan, and West Palm Beach, U.S.A. This paper will outline our thoughts on the artistic and technical design methodology of the Singing Tree.
Keywords: Musical interface design, Voice analysis, Reward-oriented feedback systems, Music synthesis, Aural/visual feedback
Interface to Architecture: Integrating Technology into the Environment in the Brain Opera BIBAKPDF 265-275
  Maggie Orth
This paper concretely presents the design processes and results of Composer Tod Machover's Brain Opera, an interactive, multi-media, traveling opera. It will present the importance of successful collaboration between artists and scientists at the functional intersection of their research -- design. It will discuss the opposing design strategies necessary for integrating technology into the physical environment at various levels of scale, from architecture to interface. At the level of architecture flexibility in design is stressed. In interface design, the needs for specificity and detail, new materials and manufacturing processes are presented. The paper will demonstrate how the aesthetic goals of the Brain Opera's visual designers, creating an organic, humorous and unexpected technology environment, influenced audience interaction. The conflict between artistic control and interactivity will also be examined through the specific results of acoustic design in the project. The influences of quickly changing technology and funding on the design of the Brain Opera are also revealed. The prominence of the proscenium arch stage in existing music venues and its influence on new media projects is presented. Successful and unsuccessful models for audience participation are also presented. Concrete interface examples are used to counter the notion of intuitive interface design. Finally, the Brain Opera is presented as a design model for an interactive research laboratory.
Keywords: Design, Environment, Interface, Furniture, Physical interface, Theater, Sensor, Collaboration, Architecture, Opera
Design in the POLITeam Project: Evaluating User Needs in Real Work Practice BIBAKPDF 277-287
  Uta Pankoke-Babatz; Gloria Mark; Konrad Klockner
We report on a unique design approach used in the POLITeam project, which introduces groupware into a German ministry. An existing groupware system was adapted to user and organizational needs, with the plan to improve and expand the system to a large-scale. We integrated new approaches of user advocacy and direct designer-user interaction, with an evolutionary cycling process. We focus in particular on the role of user advocacy in evaluating the users' needs during actual system use. We explain the design process, and discuss the system requirements that emerged as a result of using this method. We also report the results of interviews with the users and design team and reflect on the impact that the design process had on them.
Keywords: Participatory design, User advocacy, Evolutionary cycling, Groupware, CSCW, Shared workspace
Collaborative Design for Virtual Team Collaboration: A Case Study of Jostling on the Web BIBAKPDF 289-300
  U. Patel; M. J. D'Cruz; C. Holtham
Virtual action teams are temporary goal directed work groups which never meet face-to-face. Technology exits to support distributed teams, however groupware is not always flexible or accessible, so there has been a wholesale adoption of World Wide Web standards. We analyse the groupware requirements of virtual teams and conclude that collaborative design is necessary to reflect the balance between structure and flexibility which characterise effective team work. A framework for asynchronous, distributed, collaborative design is presented. This consists of activities and resources. The activities follow a double iteration cycle and encapsulate requirements for structure, flexibility, monitoring and role specification. Rapid development is supported by reusable Perl CGI modules. The framework is used to develop Web software to support an international virtual action team -- the process and product are described. Preliminary comments on the utility of the framework and conclusions are reported.
Keywords: Collaborative design, Asynchronous distributed design, User involvement, Virtual teams, Internet, World Wide Web, Computer supported collaborative work
Design Case: Building Community in a Design Effort in a Decentralized, Individualistic Setting BIBAKPDF 301-304
  Judith Ramey; David Farkas
WebFeat is a web development effort by about 40 students, faculty, and staff in the College of Engineering at the University of Washington. The University is a decentralized organization with diverse goals and constituencies; the culture emphasizes individual autonomy, individual initiative, and individual responsibility. In this design environment, the challenges of building community among the members of the design team are substantial. We devised a suite of numerous tools and processes designed to foster a sense of community and participation in the current development process, as well as to lay the groundwork for participatory maintenance of the site in the future. Developers in other similar organizations may find this suite useful.
Keywords: World Wide Web, Participatory design, Collaborative design, Inductive data analysis
The AVANTI Project: Prototyping and Evaluation with a Cognitive Walkthrough Based on the Norman's Model of Action BIBAKPDF 305-309
  Antonio Rizzo; Enrica Marchigiani; Alessandro Andreadis
In this paper, we present a contribution to the way in which two design issues encountered by the AVANTI project in designing a Web service supporting the mobility of disabled people can be faced. The design issues are: the problems deriving from distribution of the teams collaborating to the project in several cities (sometimes different European countries); and the need to face high-level interaction problems in the evaluation process. One important action taken to face these issues was the development of a variation of the Cognitive Walkthrough based on the Norman's model of action.
Keywords: Cognitive walkthrough, Norman's model of action, Prototyping evaluation, Web services
Technology Design and Mimicry BIBAKPDF 311-313
  Duncan Sanderson
Mimicry is proposed as an analytical and empirical concept which can be used in the investigation of a relatively unexplored dimension of design work. The concept is illustrated through the presentation of observations from two case studies, one in the field of software design, the other in mechanical engineering. Implications of the concept are discussed in the conclusion.
Keywords: Technology design, Case study, Mimicry
Designing as the World Turns BIBAKPDF 315-321
  Paulo J. Santos; Esin O. Kiris; Cheryl L. Coyle
Designers of interactive systems often work in environments that are continuously changing. External, uncontrollable change is rapidly becoming a daily impediment in many designers' lives. In this age of rapid technological progression and heightened competition, systems designers must be able to prepare for, cope with, and even perform better because of inevitable change. Because the nature of user interface design is to make complicated technology usable, user interface designers are especially affected by design changes. This paper is a chronicle of the adventures of three user interface designers while working on the design of an interactive system within a changing domain. We describe the kinds of changes that affect design, the impact of change on the design process, how a designer can prepare for change, and finally, how to respond to change. By sharing our experiences on a project fraught with change, we hope to help other designers learn to work well within a changing design environment.
Keywords: User interface design, Human factors, Technology, Technology change, Process changes, Interactive design, Design reuse
Designing User-Adapted Interfaces: The Unified Design Method for Transformable Interactions BIBAKPDF 323-334
  A. Savidis; A. Paramythis; D. Akoumianakis; C. Stephanidis
In the interface design process, diverse user requirements and characteristics lead to alternative dialogue patterns. User-adapted interfaces, capable of self-adapting to individual end-user requirements, should encompass alternative dialogue components into a single implementation form. The process of designing user-adapted interactive applications necessarily engages the manipulation of alternative design artifacts, while for the implementation process a single design is needed, as opposed to alternative design versions. The unified design method is targeted towards the organization of alternative design artifacts into a single representation structure. Relationships among alternative artifacts in user-adapted design, such as exclusion, compatibility, augmentation and substitution, need to be explicitly represented.
Keywords: Artifact-oriented design methodologies, User-adapted interaction, User interfaces for all, Polymorphic task hierarchies, Task-oriented design
A New Approach to Human-Computer Interaction -- Synchronous Modelling in Real and Virtual Spaces BIBAKPDF 335-344
  Kai Schafer; Volker Brauer; Willi Bruns
Three-dimensional computer-aided modelling of dynamic processes supported by virtual reality techniques like 3D-stereo vision does not reach the usability (ease, concreteness, intuitiveness, directness) we experience in modelling with real physical objects. We propose an interface that aims at coupling two previously separated model worlds -- the real space of physical objects and the virtual space of signs and images. The basic issues of this Real Reality concept are discussed and some applications are presented.
Keywords: Real reality, Data glove, Graspable user interfaces, Grasp recognition, Modelling and simulation, Programming by demonstration
Design of a One to Many Collaborative Product BIBAKPDF 345-348
  Jean C. Scholtz
This work describes the design of ProShare Presenter, a product that the author worked on in the Personal Conferencing Division at Intel. ProShare Presenter is an add-on to the ProShare Conferencing product and allows broadcasting of audio, video and presentation materials from one person to many over a LAN or WAN. This product is an interesting case study for several reasons. First, several usability issues arose during in-house testing that human factors engineers had not been able to anticipate during user requirements gathering and prototyping. Secondly, product testing with large groups of users uncovered usability problems that did not arise with small groups of users. Finally, usability problems arose during alpha testing because some basic user requirements were not addressed during design. We conclude that many usability problems in large-scale collaborative projects will not be discovered until large group testing can be conducted.
Keywords: Design, Usability testing, User requirements, Personal conferencing, Video conferencing
Comparing Interaction Design Techniques: A Method for Objective Comparison to Find the Conceptual Basis for Interaction Design BIBAKPDF 349-357
  Mark van Setten; Gerrit C. van der Veer; Sjaak Brinkkemper
Part of designing the User Virtual Machine is designing the interaction between the user(s) and the system. There already exist several techniques for designing the interaction, but, once applied in practical situations, all have problems. The use of a formal comparison method combined with experience in interaction design shows that there exists a conceptual basis for interaction design. The method to find this basis is a structured approach which describes each technique objectively, compares the concepts, relations, purposes, and places in the design method. Based on this comparison the conceptual basis for interaction design can be created, which is adaptable to the design situation at hand.
Keywords: Interaction design techniques, Comparison of techniques, Method engineering, Situational methods
The Flower Model for Multidisciplinary Teamwork on a New Product-Market Combination -- In This Case E-Mail-on-TV BIBAKPDF 359-363
  Marc Steen
A multidisciplinary team at Philips Sound and Vision's TV Lab developed an E-mail-on-TV functionality. Their objective is to offer the benefits of E-mail to people in their living environment without having to use a PC. Developing such a product-market combination requires working on the product-side and on the market-side in parallel. In order to guide that process the team developed and applied the Flower Model. This model is a framework to create synergy between the disciplines within the team, and to integrate the findings of early consumer research into the development process. The article describes the successive steps of the process, and how the Flower Model helped to work as a team and to develop and test product-market combinations.
Keywords: Product-market combination, Multidisciplinary teamwork, User interface demo, Early consumer research, E-mail, TV
How to Make Software Softer -- Designing Tailorable Applications BIBAKPDF 365-376
  Oliver Stiemerling; Helge Kahler; Volker Wulf
The design of tailorable systems is an important issue for fields of application which are characterized by differentiation and dynamics. We show how tailorability can he combined with approaches of evolutionary and participative software-engineering and discuss some conceptual problems arising from this approach. Moreover, we present two case studies on how to design tailorable functionality in a groupware development project.
Keywords: Tailorability, Groupware, Participatory design, Design cases
A Case Study in Interactive Narrative Design BIBAKPDF 377-380
  Carol Strohecker
This paper includes lessons learned about the design of a form for interactive narrative. The lessons are based on an initial prototype and have ramifications for both a next-step implementation and for broader understanding of the form. Key lessons pertain to pacing, narrative structure, giving feedback through the interface, and contexts for use.
Keywords: Narrative structure, Multimedia, Interface design
A Designer's Nightmare: Designing a Reusable Information Retrieval Class Library in a Multinational Consortium BIBAKPDF 381-383
  Alistair Sutcliffe
In this design case we describe the experience of designing a resuable class library for information retrieval user interfaces. The design process is described with reflections on how the process was organised and the impact of the design problem on the process.
Keywords: Information retrieval, Reuse, Multinational design teams, Design process
Simple, But Cumbersome BIBAKPDF 385-394
  Kari Thoresen
What does it mean that a system is simple, but cumbersome? Through an empirical study of users' opinions of a system for material administration in a large telecommunications company, two elements of design, -- navigation and flexibility, are identified as particularly relevant in order to explain what cumbersome means. Using grounded theory, a conceptual framework is developed to clarify the various properties of navigation and flexibility. Users differ in their opinions regarding the qualities of the systems, and ways of categorizing users are explored in order to explain these differences. Conventional categories of user classification were inadequate for this purpose. However, the combination of job trajectory and work organization provided some explanatory power, and also helped in clarifying what "simple, but cumbersome" may mean.
Keywords: Use, Work practice, Navigation, Flexibility, Grounded theory
Searching Requirements for a System to Support Cooperative Concept Design in Product Development BIBAKPDF 395-403
  Tuomo Tuikka
This paper addresses a systems design problem of what kind of support for cooperative concept design could be incorporated into a virtual reality prototyping system. We have studied and analysed how cooperative concept design is conducted in a series of multidisciplinary design meetings. This paper collects the analysis of that material and three interviews conducted simultaneously in industrial setting. The efforts of multidisciplinary designers in search toward a common understanding of the product concept during design process are reported. Thus, work done on the product concept and on coupling different interdisciplinary perspectives are studied. It is shown, e.g., that the concept can deviate very much in the early stages of concurrent engineering process. A lot of work is also required to manage the complexity of design and differing opinions of the goal. An understanding of how cooperation in these meetings was organized is presented with implications to further research with requirements of virtual reality prototyping systems.
Keywords: Computer supported cooperative work, Concept design, Product development, Virtual prototyping
Capturing What is Needed in Multi-User System Design: Observations from the Design of Three Healthcare Systems BIBAKPDF 405-415
  Catherine G. Wolf; John Karat
The design of large-scale collaborative multi-user systems requires both a detailed understanding of the work of many individuals and an understanding of how the individual pieces fit together in the larger organizational context. In order to manage the complexity of the design task, designers develop and use various representations of work practices which selectively include some details, but omit others. This paper presents some heuristics based on our experience in the design of three healthcare systems that can help designers in determining what information needs to be included in representations for the design of multi-user systems. We present eight questions which can be used to capture important work practice information. We include a retrospective analysis of several design examples and suggest how the use of these questions can be integrated into design practice.
Keywords: System design, Collaboration, Representations, Design rationale, Healthcare
A Framework for Assessing Group Memory Approaches for Software Design Projects BIBAKPDF 417-426
  Beatrix Zimmermann; Albert M. Selvin
While the need for group memory systems in a software development project has been argued by various researchers and practitioners, a comprehensive evaluation methodology for these systems has not been defined. The deployment of group memory systems into various software development projects at NYNEX Science & Technology has highlighted the need for a framework which can be used by software development groups to determine which system(s) would be most useful for their specific project.
   In this paper we describe a framework for assessing group memory systems. This framework examines the costs and benefits of these systems in the context of the assumptions and requirements of the project. It does not attempt to denounce one system as less useful than another devoid of the context of a software development project. We also define a group profile which is used to define features of a group, which can then be compared with the assumptions and requirements of the group memory system.
Keywords: Group memory, Design rationale, Organizational memory, Corporate memory