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DIS Tables of Contents: 95970002040608101214-114-2

Proceedings of DIS'02: Designing Interactive Systems 2002-06-25

Fullname:Symposium on Designing Interactive Systems: Processes, Practices, Methods, & Techniques
Editors:Wendy Mackay; Jonathan Arnowitz; William Gaver
Location:London, England
Dates:2002-Jun-25 to 2002-Jun-28
Publisher:ACM
Standard No:ISBN 0-58113-515-7 ACM Order Number 608022; ACM DL: Table of Contents hcibib: DIS02
Papers:58
Pages:417
Links:Conference Home Page
  1. Section 01: augmented education
  2. Section 02: perspectives
  3. Section 03: tools
  4. Section 04: reflecting on practice
  5. Section 05: home and neighbourhood
  6. Section 06: objects in space
  7. Exhibits
  8. Tutorials
  9. Workshops
Interviews with interaction designers BIBFull-Text 7-8
  Bill Moggridge
The Placebo project BIBFull-Text 9-12
  Anthony Dunne; Fiona Raby
Everyday adaptive design BIBFull-Text 13-14
  Thomas P. Moran
Some recent thoughts on digital media BIBFull-Text 15-18
  John Maeda
Neither Bauhausler nor nerd educating the interaction designer BIBFull-Text 19-23
  Pelle Ehn
Who will design the cathedrals of information technology? BIBFull-Text 24-25
  Gillian Crampton Smith
Can we learn anything about the process of UI design? BIBFull-Text 26-31
  S. Joy Mountford
Investigating exhibits BIBFull-Text 32-36
  Ben Fry

Section 01: augmented education

"...a load of ould boxology!" BIBAFull-Text 41-49
  Kieran Ferris; Liam Bannon
This paper documents the design process for an augmented children's play environment centred on that most ubiquitous and simple of objects, the cardboard box. The purpose of the exercise is to show how computer technology can be used in innovative ways to stimulate discovery, play and adventure among children. Our starting point was a dissatisfaction with current computer technology as it is presented to children, which, all to often in our view, focuses inappropriately on the computer per se as a fetishized object. Shifting the focus of attention from the Graphical User Interface (GUI) to familiar objects, and children's interactions around and through these augmented objects, results in the computer becoming a facilitator of exploration and learning. The paper documents the journey from initial design concept, through a number of prototype implementations, to the final implementation. Each design iteration was triggered by observation of use of the prototypes, and reflection on that use, and on new design possibilities. By augmenting an everyday artefact, namely the standard cardboard box, we have created a simple yet powerful interactive environment that, judging from the experience of our "users", has achieved its goal of stirring children's imagination.
Design of an interactive system for group learning support BIBAFull-Text 50-55
  Masanori Sugimoto; Fusako Kusunoki; Hiromichi Hashizume
In this paper we describe our project to design a system that can be used as a teaching aid to support group learning in elementary school education. The system enhances the learning outcome for pupils who have studied environmental problems using a textbook, by allowing them to construct a town in a physical space and to assess the construction through computer simulations. The system was designed in collaboration with teachers and their pupils in elementary schools. Lessons learned from the collaborative design processes are described.
A group game played in interactive virtual space: design and evaluation BIBAFull-Text 56-63
  Hanna Stromberg; Antti Vaatanen; Veli-Pekka Raty
We have designed and evaluated Nautilus -- a group game played in interactive virtual space. This was a study about new kinds of computer games with new types of user interfaces. Our aim was to reduce the boundaries between the surrounding physical space and the virtual space designed to appeal to users' senses. We utilized the iterative Human-Centred Design (HCD) approach in the study. We created a new way to experience and play computer games, where players use their natural body movements and interact with each other. We have received information on the use of bodily and spatial user interfaces for location-based entertainment (LBE) solutions.
Design of a 3D interactive math learning environment BIBAFull-Text 64-74
  Jason Elliott; Amy Bruckman
Can 3D graphics help high-school students learn advanced mathematics? Can we create a sufficiently compelling application such that students would choose to play with advanced math concepts for fun? What usability problems does this technology pose for novice users? AquaMOOSE 3D is a desktop 3D environment designed to help students learn about the behavior of parametric equations. AquaMOOSE is based on an educational philosophy called constructionism, which advocates learning through design and construction activities [14]. Students use mathematics to design interesting graphical forms and also create mathematical challenges to share with others. In this paper, we present our iterative design process and the results from a formative evaluation with 105 high-school students in a six-week honors summer math program. We analyse their experiences through log-file analysis, a questionnaire, and interviews. A more detailed case study of one student's positive experiences shows the potential of the system. We conclude that students find the aesthetic qualities of the environment motivating, but usability still poses problems. Opportunities and challenges in leveraging 3D graphics for math learning are discussed. Trade-offs are presented between designing for learner's immediate needs versus leveraging technology to create fundamentally new learning opportunities.
Community design of community simulations BIBAFull-Text 75-83
  Mary Beth Rosson; John M. Carroll; Cheryl D. Seals; Tracy L. Lewis
We report on a participatory design workshop in which residents of a community collaborated in learning about and designing projects for a visual simulation environment. Nine participants (five middle school teachers, four senior citizens) first conducted a participatory evaluation of a tutorial developed for the Stagecast Creator simulation tool. They then worked in pairs to brainstorm ideas for Creator simulation projects that would help raise and promote discussion of issues relevant to their community. After sharing these ideas, each pair chose 2-3 simulation ideas to refine as a specification for subsequent implementation. We discuss the participants' learning and design activities, as well as their contributions to our long term goal of supporting cross-generational collaboration and learning through community simulation projects.

Section 02: perspectives

The enigmatics of affect BIBAFull-Text 87-98
  Phoebe Sengers; Rainer Liesendahi; Werner Magar; Christoph Seibert; Boris Muller; Thorsten Joachims; Weidong Geng; Pia Martensson; Kristina Höök
Affective computation generally focuses on the informatics of affect: structuring, formalizing, and representing emotion as informational units. We propose instead an enigmatics of affect, a critical technical practice that respects the rich and undefinable complexities of human affective experience. Our interactive installation, the Influencing Machine, allows users to explore a dynamic landscape of emotionally expressive sound and child-like drawings, using a tangible, intuitive input device that supports open-ended engagement. The Influencing Machine bridges the subjective experience of the user and the necessary objective rationality of the underlying code. It functions as a cultural probe, reflecting and challenging users to reflect on the cultural meaning of affective computation.
From user to character: an investigation into user-descriptions in scenarios BIBFull-Text 99-104
  Lene Nielsen
Abstract information appliances: methodological exercises in conceptual design of computational things BIBAFull-Text 105-116
  Lars Hallnas; Johan Redstrom
The decisions we make when designing computational things cannot all be reduced to questions about functionality, usability testing, user requirements, etc. In HCI-related research and design, other fundamental aspects of design, such as the basic aesthetical choices involved, have a tendency to be hidden and seemingly forgotten. To support awareness and understanding of such basic aesthetical choices, we propose two methodological exercises that take the expressions of computational things in use as their starting points: i) to discover functionality in given expressions; and ii) to rediscover "expressionals" in given appliances. The aim with i) is to encourage reflection on the way in which functionality explains the expressions of things. With ii), the aim is to expose the more or less hidden aesthetical choices by means of re-interpreting them in given appliances. We present examples of the exercises and discuss more general issues, such as the central role of temporal gestalts and the art of using computational things.
Form is function BIBAFull-Text 117-124
  Bo Westerlund
It's said that the Finnish architect Alvar Aalto designed a concert hall foyer in such a way that people when walking across the foyer towards the concert hall would not have to interrupt the conversations they were involved in. They would not need to find and interpret signs or difficult room forms in order to find their way. Aalto put a light shaft at the end of the foyer. People walked towards the light and having done that found themselves just above the stairs to the concert hall. [Ejhed, personal communication] So one function of the foyer is that it does not interrupt ongoing conversations. This function is not visible in itself but it depends on the real, visible forms. Form as function. What is interesting in this example is that the environment supports human behaviour. We can act without paying that much attention to what we do.
How does the design community think about design? BIBAFull-Text 125-132
  Michael E. Atwood; Katherine W. McCain; Jodi C. Williams
Design is a term that brings many people together. Collectively, we distinguish ourselves from others by the fact that we are designers and members of a design community. But, design is also a term that pushes people apart. The design that some value in the new fashions in the boutiques in Milan is not seen by everyone as design. While some are impressed with the design of a new telephone, not everyone sees this as design. As a community, we believe design is important. But, as a community, we do not have a common definition of what it is. Many views of design have been proposed. Several classifications of design have been proposed. In this paper, we also seek to classify views on design. Unlike earlier efforts, however, we want to find the classification that the global community of designers uses. To this end, we examine the patterns of citations to key authors' works (Author Co-citation Analysis) to uncover this classification and identify seven key author clusters representing identifiable theory groups or schools of thought/practice in design.

Section 03: tools

Cubby+: exploring interaction BIBFull-Text 135-140
  J. W. Frens; J. P. Djajadiningrat; C. J. Overbeeke
Forming interactivity: a tool for rapid prototyping of physical interactive products BIBAFull-Text 141-146
  Daniel Avrahami; Scott E. Hudson
The current practice used in the design of physical interactive products (such as handheld devices), often suffers from a divide between exploration of form and exploration of interactivity. This can be attributed, in part, to the fact that working prototypes are typically expensive, take a long time to manufacture, and require specialized skills and tools not commonly available in design studios. We have designed a prototyping tool that, we believe, can significantly reduce this divide. The tool allows designers to rapidly create functioning, interactive, physical prototypes early in the design process using a collection of wireless input components (buttons, sliders, etc.) and a sketch of form. The input components communicate with Macromedia Director to enable interactivity. We believe that this tool can improve the design practice by: a) Improving the designer's ability to explore both the form and interactivity of the product early in the design process, b) Improving the designer's ability to detect problems that emerge from the combination of the form and the interactivity, c) Improving users' ability to communicate their ideas, needs, frustrations and desires, and d) Improving the client's understanding of the proposed design, resulting in greater involvement and support for the design.
Designing for serendipity: supporting end-user configuration of ubiquitous computing environments BIBAFull-Text 147-156
  Mark W. Newman; Jana Z. Sedivy; Christine M. Neuwirth; W. Keith Edwards; Jason I. Hong; Shahram Izadi; Karen Marcelo; Trevor F. Smith; Jana Sedivy; Mark Newman
The future world of ubiquitous computing is one in which we will be surrounded by an ever-richer set of networked devices and services. In such a world, we cannot expect to have available to us specific applications that allow us to accomplish every conceivable combination of devices that we might wish. Instead, we believe that many of our interactions will be through highly generic tools that allow enduser discovery, configuration, interconnection, and control of the devices around us. This paper presents a design study of such an environment, intended to support serendipitous, opportunistic use of discovered network resources. We present an examination of a generic browser-style application built on top of an infrastructure developed to support arbitrary recombination of devices and services, as well as a number of challenges we believe to be inherent in such settings.
Simplifying video editing using metadata BIBAFull-Text 157-166
  Juan Casares; A. Chris Long; Brad A. Myers; Rishi Bhatnagar; Scott M. Stevens; Laura Dabbish; Dan Yocum; Albert Corbett
Digital video is becoming increasingly ubiquitous. However, editing video remains difficult for several reasons: it is a time-based medium, it has dual tracks of audio and video, and current tools force users to work at the smallest level of detail. Based on interviews with professional video editors, we developed a video editor, called Silver, that uses metadata to make digital video editing more accessible to novices. To help users visualize video, Silver provides multiple views with different semantic content and at different levels of abstraction, including storyboard, editable transcript, and timeline views. Silver offers smart editing operations that help users resolve the inconsistencies that arise because of the different boundaries in audio and video. We conducted a preliminary user study to investigate the effectiveness of the Silver smart editing. Participants successfully edited video after only a short tutorial, both with and without smart editing assistance. Our research suggests several ways in which video editing tools could use metadata to assist users in the reuse and composition of video.
Virtual video prototyping of pervasive healthcare systems BIBAFull-Text 167-177
  Jakob Bardram; Claus Bossen; Andreas Lykke-Olesen; Rune Nielsen; Kim Halskov Madsen
Virtual studio technology enables the mixing of physical and digital 3D objects and thus expands the way of representing design ideas in terms of virtual video prototypes, which offers new possibilities for designers by combining elements of prototypes, mock-ups, scenarios, and conventional video. In this article we report our initial experience in the domain of pervasive healthcare with producing virtual video prototypes and using them in a design workshop. Our experience has been predominantly favourable. The production of a virtual video prototype forces the designers to decide very concrete design issues, since one cannot avoid paying attention to the physical, real-world constraints and to details in the usage-interaction between users and technology. From the users' perspective, during our evaluation of the virtual video prototype, we experienced how it enabled users to relate to the practicalities and context of applied technology. One of the main limitations experienced in the creation of the virtual video prototypes is the lack of user-involvement.

Section 04: reflecting on practice

Innovation in extremis: evolving an application for the critical work of email and information management BIBAFull-Text 181-192
  Victoria Bellotti; Nicolas Ducheneaut; Mark Howard; Ian Smith; Christine Neuwirth
We describe our experience of trying to develop a novel application that transforms information management (both coordination-based and personal) from stand-alone resources into resources deeply embedded in email. We explored two models for accomplishing this goal; these were to embed these resources in the email channel and to embed them in the client. Our exploration of the first model was intensive, in-depth and ultimately unsuccessful in large part due to our design process. We adopted Extreme Programming (XP) as a means to explore our second model more efficiently. This paper describes our motivations and experiences while exploring our first model before XP and then the advantages and disadvantages of turning to XP in the exploration of our second model.
The roads not taken: detours and dead ends on the design path of speeder reader BIBAFull-Text 193-199
  Maribeth Back; Steve Harrison
Speeder Reader is an experimental reading device that combines dynamic typography for speed reading (using RSVP, or Rapid Serial Visual Presentation) with the driving controls used in videogame speed racing. It was designed as one of eleven innovative reading experiences in "XFR: Experiments in the Future of Reading," a museum exhibit examining the intersections of reading and technology. We highlight the design arc of this particular exhibit, Speeder Reader, against the development of the rest of the show as an example of the impact of the iterating overall design ideology on each piece. This paper discusses the genesis, development context, and design pathway of the Speeder Reader exhibit, including both ideological and practical constraints.
User purposes and information-seeking behaviors in web-based media: a user-centered approach to information design on websites BIBAFull-Text 201-212
  Napawan Sawasdichai; Sharon Poggenpohl
In the effort to specify and evaluate the designing of web-based media to improve users' satisfaction, design principles are established for general use. These principles might be developed holistically, or they can be analyzed and formulated from extensive user research. Since information on websites is traditionally structured and presented based on the websites' goals and contents, it may or may not match with users' purposes and their search behaviors. This leads to users' struggle and frustration. As a result, this paper presents a relatively new area of user research in web-based media, offering a user-centered perspective with the consideration of users' purposes, users' modes of searching and their search behaviors. The information on web-based media should not be designed only to serve websites' goals and contents, but should also match with purposes and search patterns of the intended audience in order to improve their satisfaction and help accomplish their goals.
Improving the design of business and interactive system concepts in a digital business consultancy BIBAFull-Text 213-223
  Richard I. Anderson; Jennifer Crakow; Jay Joichi
Often, the multidisciplinary design of business and interactive system concepts is not particularly collaborative nor nearly as "user-centered" as the organization doing the design claims. This paper describes efforts at changing that within a high speed and low resource environment by involving all disciplines in early user research and in the synthesis of the findings and their application to design activities. The focus is on two high-profile design projects, one involving personal media management and the other involving organizational knowledge management. We describe what we did and why, and how well what we did worked, with particular attention to the affects of organizational culture and politics on success.
Technology choice as a first step in design: the interplay of procedural and sensemaking processes BIBAFull-Text 224-234
  Mark Bergman; Gloria Mark
Project design involves an initial selection of technologies, which has strong consequences for later stages of design. In this paper we describe an ethnographic-based field work study of a complex organization, and how it addressed the issue of front-end project and technology selection. Formal procedures were designed for the organization to perform repeatable, definable, and measurable actions. Yet, formal procedures obscured much about the processes actually being applied in selecting technologies and projects. In actuality, the formal procedures were interwoven with sensemaking activities so that technologies could be understood, compared, and a decision consensus could be reached. We expect that the insights from this study can benefit design teams in complex organizations facing similar selection and requirements issues.

Section 05: home and neighbourhood

Pools and satellites: intimacy in the city BIBAFull-Text 237-245
  Katja Battarbee; Nik Baerten; Martijn Hinfelaar; Paul Irvine; Susanne Loeber; Alan Munro; Thomas Pederson
This paper addresses the issue of mediating intimacy in order to support city communities. What is intimacy and how can it be mediated through the introduction of new technology in a community? It illustrates the discussion by describing two explorative information and communication technology concepts and scenarios.
Of maps and guidebooks: designing geographical technologies BIBAFull-Text 246-254
  Barry Brown; Mark Perry
Researchers and designers are increasingly making use of geographic location in designing context-aware computer systems. However, there has been little conceptual work on how geography interacts with technology. In this paper, we use the concepts of "place and space" to explore how technologies are used geographically and how they impact on, and are used in, the physical environment. Fieldwork with tourists using maps and guidebooks shows how technology brings space and place together in activity. This discussion is used to look at how technologies might better span place and space.
Practical strategies for integrating a conversation analyst in an iterative design process BIBAFull-Text 255-264
  Allison Woodruff; Margaret H. Szymanski; Rebecca E. Grinter; Paul M. Aoki
We present a case study of an iterative design process that includes a conversation analyst. We discuss potential benefits of conversation analysis for design, and we describe our strategies for integrating the conversation analyst in the design process. Since the analyst on our team had no previous exposure to design or engineering, and none of the other members of our team had any experience with conversation analysis, we needed to build a foundation for our interaction. One of our key strategies was to pair the conversation analyst with a designer in a highly interactive collaboration. Our tactics have been effective on our project, leading to valuable results that we believe we could not have obtained using another method. We hope that this paper can serve as a practical guide to those interested in establishing a productive and efficient working relationship between a conversation analyst and the other members of a design team.
Pattern-based support for interactive design in domestic settings BIBAFull-Text 265-276
  Andy Crabtree; Terry Hemmings; Tom Rodden
Designing for future domestic environments offers a challenge for everyone involved in the design of new technologies. The move from the office, and working environments in general, has highlighted the need for new techniques for understanding the home and conveying findings to technology developers. This paper presents a pattern-based approach informing the design of technology for future domestic settings. The approach is based on the original work of Alexander and seeks to support the on-going process of design, rather than the structuring of a corpus of previous work. The paper presents an adapted pattern language framework for structuring and presenting ethnographic fieldwork and considers the broad implications of patterns for the development of new technologies for domestic settings.
Notes towards an ethnography of domestic technology BIBAFull-Text 277-281
  Mark Blythe; Andrew Monk
This paper reports the key findings of an ethnographic study of domestic technology in the home. The issues addressed include: the gendered division of domestic labour and gendered product design; the privatisation of domestic space through entertainment technologies; and the necessity of making mundane housework more enjoyable. The paper briefly describes the technology biography procedure that was used to gather data, outlines key design implications, and presents illustrative product suggestions, which are intended to inspire or provoke designers.

Section 06: objects in space

But how, Donald, tell us how?: on the creation of meaning in interaction design through feedforward and inherent feedback BIBFull-Text 285-291
  Tom Djajadiningrat; Kees Overbeeke; Stephan Wensveen
Wear, point, and tilt: designing support for mobile service and maintenance in industrial settings BIBAFull-Text 293-302
  Daniel Fallman
Through theoretical influences, particularly drawing on the phenomenological notion of embodiment, and through the findings of an ethnographic study of the work practice of service technicians at two industrial assembly manufacturing units, we present the philosophy behind and practice in designing a mobile support system for real-life application. In this particular setting, we have come to question both the usefulness of the currently available and applied styles of interaction, and the role such a system should play in the everyday activities of service and maintenance. In this paper, we introduce the findings of the field study and explain how these findings have been interpreted to constitute design incentives. We especially focus on three aspects of the design of the prototype system: the functionality it encompasses; the interaction style with which the user performs input to the device; and the mobile prototype's graphical user interface.
MessyDesk and MessyBoard: two designs inspired by the goal of improving human memory BIBAFull-Text 303-311
  Adam Fass; Jodi Forlizzi; Randy Pausch
MessyDesk is a replacement desktop that invites free-form decoration. MessyBoard is a large, projected, shared bulletin board that is decorated collaboratively by a small group of users. We built these programs with the goal of helping people remember more of the content that they access through a computer. Our approach is to embed content within distinct contexts. For instance, a computer with multiple projection screens could surround the user with panoramic vistas that correspond to projects that the user is working on. Since few people are willing to create their own context, we created MessyDesk and MessyBoard in order to entice people to decorate. Though we have not yet evaluated the impact of either program on users' memories, we have observed people using these programs over a several week period. From anecdotal evidence, we believe that MessyDesk may be a good tool for decoration and information management. MessyBoard became popular when we projected the board on the wall in our lab. We have seen that different research groups use it differently. One group uses it mostly for jokes and games, and another group uses it for long design discussions. It is good for scheduling, and supports factual as well as emotional communication among group members.
ComTouch: design of a vibrotactile communication device BIBAFull-Text 312-320
  Angela Chang; Sile O'Modhrain; Rob Jacob; Eric Gunther; Hiroshi Ishii
We describe the design of ComTouch, a device that augments remote voice communication with touch, by converting hand pressure into vibrational intensity between users in real-time. The goal of this work is to enrich inter-personal communication by complementing voice with a tactile channel. We present preliminary user studies performed on 24 people to observe possible uses of the tactile channel when used in conjunction with audio. By recording and examining both audio and tactile data, we found strong relationships between the two communication channels. Our studies show that users developed an encoding system similar to that of Morse code, as well as three original uses: emphasis, mimicry, and turn-taking. We demonstrate the potential of the tactile channel to enhance the existing voice communication channel.
All robots are not created equal: the design and perception of humanoid robot heads BIBAFull-Text 321-326
  Carl F. DiSalvo; Francine Gemperle; Jodi Forlizzi; Sara Kiesler
This paper presents design research conducted as part of a larger project on human-robot interaction. The primary goal of this study was to come to an initial understanding of what features and dimensions of a humanoid robot's face most dramatically contribute to people's perception of its humanness. To answer this question we analyzed 48 robots and conducted surveys to measure people's perception of each robot's humanness. Through our research we found that the presence of certain features, the dimensions of the head, and the total number of facial features heavily influence the perception of humanness in robot heads. This paper presents our findings and initial guidelines for the design of humanoid robot heads.

Exhibits

Location-sensitive services: it's now ready for prime time on cellular phones! BIBAFull-Text 331-334
  Didier Chincholle; Mikael Eriksson; Alex Burden
Today's wireless devices have the capability to receive information that is tailored to customers' needs at a particular location. A unique set of location-based services -- called PNT and including user-solicited information, worldwide mapping, route guidance, positioning and ecouponing -- has been created for tiny displays and limited input of mobile Internet-enabled cellular phones. A first version is available on an Ericsson R380s. A set of user interfaces has been designed. This makes finding information more intuitive than ever before: interfaces have been optimized for mobile use that demands not only quick and direct manipulation but also easy navigation.
Push me, shove me and I show you how you feel: recognising mood from emotionally rich interaction BIBAFull-Text 335-340
  Stephan Wensveen; Kees Overbeeke; Tom Djajadiningrat
The mood or emotional state you are in colours the way you interact with people and systems. Future interactive systems need to recognise emotional aspects in order to be truly adaptive. We designed an alarm clock, which elicits rich expressive behaviour and demonstrated that it is able to read your mood from the way you set it. We validated film clips, used them to induce moods after which participants had to set the alarm clock. From the dynamic setting behaviour we inferred parameters from which we calculated equations to identify the mood. The results illustrate the importance of a tight coupling between action and appearance in interaction design, through freedom of interaction and matching inherent feedback.
Mixers: a participatory approach to design prototyping BIBAFull-Text 341-344
  Ramia Maze; Monica Bueno
In this design exhibit, we describe methods we have used to design a noticeboard interface for an older community in London. Three low-fidelity methods of prototyping interaction provided shared and accessible means for us and our end users to communicate design ideas, explore qualities of the user experience, and evaluate them within situations of use. This approach facilitated the development of an appropriate, innovative and feasible solution for a unique context.
What you see is what you feel: exploiting the dominance of the visual over the haptic domain to simulate force-feedback with cursor displacements BIBAFull-Text 345-348
  Ir. Mfa Koert van Mensvoort
In this paper, we will present an approach to design a more natural user interface without taking resort to special haptic input/output devices. Tactile sensations like stickiness, touch, or mass can be evoked by applying tiny displacements upon cursor movements. Our active cursor method exploits the domination of the visual over the haptic domain. We will show that interactive animations can be used to simulate the functioning of force-feedback devices. A demo is online at http://www.koert.com/work/activecursor (a shockwave plugin is required).
Using a Wizard of Oz study to inform the design of SenToy BIBAFull-Text 349-355
  Gerd Andersson; Kristina Höök; Dario Mourao; Ana Paiva; Marco Costa
We describe the design of an affective control interface, SenToy, a doll with sensors that allows users to control their avatars in an adventure game. A Wizard of Oz study was used early in the design process to find the best relationship between user movements of SenToy and the resulting affective expressions and movements of their avatar on the screenon the screen. The results from the study showed that there are behaviors and gestures that most users will easily pick up to express emotions. It told us which dimensions of movements (distance to screen, movements of limbs, etc.) that work most easily will be picked up by users. We describe in what way the results from the study have affected the design of the SenToy and the hardware requirements. Wizard of Oz studies have previously been used for natural language interface and intelligent agent design and we show that it can also be used in the domain of affective input-device design.
Forest of thoughts BIBAFull-Text 356-358
  Boris Muller; Sven Voelker
THE FOREST OF THOUGHTS was a constantly changing and self-developing art-space -- a "living exhibition" -- on the internet. It was initiated by Boris Muller and Sven Voelker in collaboration with the German weekly "Die Zeit". Fifteen personalities from different creative disciplines exhibited their work, ideas and positions in this public gallery (and discussion panel) that was explored by viewers through the internet. By constantly sending in their contributions during a six week period, the artists, writers, designers, theorists, etc. developed a number of conversations about (and along) the theme. The medium of the internet allowed everyone to show their individual positions and to respond to other artists at any time and from any place in the world. The contributors included Fiona Raby, Tony Dunne, John Warwicker, Karl Hoffmann, FAT, jodi.org, N55, Marcus Gosling, Michael Saup and others.
The chat circles series: explorations in designing abstract graphical communication interfaces BIBAFull-Text 359-369
  Judith Donath; Fernanda Viegas
We have been creating a series of graphical chat programs designed to foster social interaction and expressive communication. We started with a spare, minimalist interface and in subsequent programs have modified its fundamental features: background space, individual representation, movement implementation, communication channels, and history depiction. The resulting family of graphical chat programs share many interface features but differ significantly in their feel and function. This paper examines the variations among the interfaces and discusses their implications for social interaction.
Examples and ideas in the development of sounding objects BIBAFull-Text 370-372
  Matthias Rath
In the following I want to describe some experiences, ideas and results in the development of real-time sound models. The background of our design approach, which lies in former developments in sound generation techniques, inspirations from psychoacoustic research and in increasing demands on auditory display in HCI, specifically in interactive multimedia environments will be shortly sketched first. After an overview of some recent work, problems that I've encountered and general ideas for a sound design framework should be understood.
Things aren't what they seem to be: innovation through technology inspiration BIBAFull-Text 373-378
  Yvonne Rogers; Mike Scaife; Eric Harris; Ted Phelps; Sara Price; Hilary Smith; Henk Muller; Cliff Randell; Andrew Moss; Ian Taylor; Danae Stanton; Claire O'Malley; Greta Corke; Silvia Gabrielli
How does designing for novel experiences with largely untried technologies get its inspiration? Here we report on a project whose goal was to promote learning through novel, playful visions of technologies. To this end, we experimented with a diversity of ambient and pervasive technologies to inspire and drive our design. Working as a large multi-disciplinary group of researchers and designers we developed novel and imaginative experiences for children. To crystallise our ideas we designed, implemented and experimented with a mixed reality adventure game, where children had to hunt an elusive, virtual creature called the Snark, in a large interactive environment. We describe our experiences, reflecting on the process of design inspiration in an area where so much remains unknown.
Mediator and medium: doors as interruption gateways and aesthetic displays BIBAFull-Text 379-386
  Jeffrey Nichols; Jacob O. Wobbrock; Darren Gergle; Jodi Forlizzi
Office doors are more than entrances to rooms, they are entrances to a person's time and attention. People can mediate access to themselves by choosing whether to leave their door open or closed when they are in their office. Doors also serve as a medium for communication, where people can broadcast individual messages to passersby, or accept messages from others who stopped by when the door was closed. These qualities make the door an excellent location for designing solutions that help people better manage their time and attention. In this paper, we present a study of doors, derive design insights from the study, and then realize some of these insights in two cooperating implementations deployed in our workplace.
Multilevel design and role play: experiences in assessing support for neighborhood participation in design BIBAFull-Text 387-392
  Hal Eden; Eric Scharff; Eva Hornecker
Designing and assessing systems to support neighborhood participation in design is difficult due to the challenges of involving real participants and the fragile nature of early instantiations of technologies aimed at supporting open-ended and ill-structured design tasks. We report on a scenario-based, semi-realistic field trial of two prototypes of the Envisionment and Discovery Collaboratory, an environment for supporting community involvement in design activities. By engaging subjects in playing participant roles, we have been able to gain some crucial insights into the facets of the design at multiple levels as part of an ongoing design process.
Exploring exhibit space in a personal perspective: an interactive photo collage of a folk crafts museum BIBFull-Text 393-398
  Takashi Kiriyama; Mihoko Otake; Hiroya Tanaka; Junichi Tokuda; Haruka Tanji; Takeshi Matsushita; Masatoshi Arikawa; Ryosuke Shibasaki
Origami Desk: integrating technological innovation and human-centric design BIBAFull-Text 399-405
  Wendy Ju; Leonardo Bonanni; Richard Fletcher; Rebecca Hurwitz; Tilke Judd; Rehmi Post; Matthew Reynolds; Jennifer Yoon
In this paper, we present a case study of an interaction design exhibit, Origami Desk. This system integrates multi-modal interaction technologies and techniques in new ways to instruct users in folding origami paper into boxes and cranes. Origami Desk uses projected video clips to show users how folds should be made, projected animations to directly map instructions onto the users' paper, electric field sensing to detect touch inputs on the desk surface, and swept-frequency sensors to detect the papers folds. More importantly, the Origami Desk project incorporated numerous aspects of design -- hardware design, installation design, interface design, graphic design, sensor design, software design, content design -- into an interactive experience aimed at making the user forget about the technology altogether. This foray into teaching users physical and spatial activities led us to rethink the physical layout of the computer, and to invent inputs that were more spatial and implicitly, rather than verbal or graphical and explicit. The multidisciplinary process, human-centric design considerations and technical implementation details described in this case study may greatly inform future interactive environment applications where physical and digital worlds must be integrated to assist users in creative spatial tasks. In addition, the experience of deploying the exhibit into actual public spaces led us to examine issues of design for assembly and on-going maintenance in the context of interactive environments.
Networked information services in context sensitive environments BIBAFull-Text 406-408
  Giles Rollestone; Ian Morris
The Sushi project was originally conceived and developed in the (Interval funded) Computer Related Design Research Studio at the Royal College of Art, London. Sushi was developed as a new way of sharing information between people in small groups and networks within the Royal College of Art. Our proposal for DIS2002 extends the Sushi system so that delegates and conference organisers can author and share information during the event.

Tutorials

Collecting and incorporating user requirements into design solutions BIBAFull-Text 410
  Kathy Baxter; Catherine Courage
Usability and design professionals know that user requirements gathering is critical to the development of quality products. However, development teams often skip formal user requirements gathering, fearing it will take too long. Certain techniques can be employed by design professionals that are easily learned and implemented with little overhead. They can help designers by providing insight into how users work and what they need to succeed at their task. Through lecture, case studies, and an emphasis on hands-on activities, participants will learn how to conduct three user requirements gathering techniques and incorporate the results into design solutions.
Cross-cultural UI design: for home, work, and on the way BIBFull-Text 411
  Aaron Marcus
Handheld usability BIBAFull-Text 412
  Scott Weiss
Handheld devices have common challenges: small displays, awkward data input mechanisms, and spotty wireless connectivity. Good user interface design can overcome each of these challenges, or at least accommodate them in a fashion that benefits the user. The goal of this tutorial is to present challenges and strategies for designing user interfaces for handheld devices. It discusses how information architecture, paper prototyping, and usability testing are adapted from desktop software design for two-way email pagers, PDAs, and mobile telephone handsets. WAP, i-mode, RIM OS, Motorola Wisdom, Windows CE/Pocket PC, and Symbian OS will also be introduced.
Scenario-based usability engineering BIBAFull-Text 413
  Mary Beth Rosson; John M. Carroll
This tutorial introduces scenario-based development, an approach to usability engineering that relies on user interaction scenarios as a central representation. The course format includes a mix of overview lecture, group analysis and design activities, and general discussion.

Workshops

Co-design in practice BIBFull-Text 416
  Mark Hicks; Geraldine Fitzpatrick
Look mama, with hands!: on tangible interaction, gestures and learning BIBFull-Text 417
  Tom Djajadiningrat; Jacob Buur