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DHM Tables of Contents: 07091113-113-21415-115-2

DHM 2013: 4th International Conference on Digital Human Modeling and Applications in Health, Safety, Ergonomics, and Risk Management, Part I: Healthcare and Safety of the Environment and Transport

Fullname:DHM 2013: 4th International Conference on Digital Human Modeling and Applications in Health, Safety, Ergonomics, and Risk Management, Part I: Healthcare and Safety of the Environment and Transport
Note:Volume 22 of HCI International 2013
Editors:Vincent G. Duffy
Location:Las Vegas, Nevada
Dates:2013-Jul-21 to 2013-Jul-26
Volume:1
Publisher:Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Series:Lecture Notes in Computer Science 8025
Standard No:DOI: 10.1007/978-3-642-39173-6 hcibib: DHM13-1; ISBN: 978-3-642-39172-9 (print), 978-3-642-39173-6 (online)
Papers:44
Pages:386
Links:Online Proceedings
  1. DHM 2013-07-21 Volume 1
    1. Driving and Aviation Safety
    2. Human Factors and Digital Human Modeling in Healthcare
    3. Safety of the Human Environment

DHM 2013-07-21 Volume 1

Driving and Aviation Safety

Human Centered Design of a Pre-collision System BIBAKFull-Text 3-10
  Hirofumi Aoki; Hiroyuki Takahashi; Satoshi Udaka; Toshinori Okita; Hiroyasu Ichida; Masami Aga
Human error such as distraction and inattention while driving is one of the major causes of the rear-end collisions. In order to help reduce those accidents, a pre-collision system (PCS) has been developed and spread. A PCS basically consists of the warning, the brake-assist, and the autonomous brake functions. The total effectiveness of the system depends on not only the autonomous brake performance but also the driver's reaction to the warning and the braking maneuver. Earlier activation timing can make the system more effective in terms of collision mitigation/avoidance; however, the drivers may feel nuisance if the timing is too early. Thus, human factors issue should be considered in designing and evaluating a PCS. This paper describes the human-centered design of a PCS from object recognition to the effectiveness estimation method.
Keywords: Pre-Collision System; Perceptual Risk Estimate; Safety Impact Methodology
Causal Attribution and Control: Between Consciousness and Psychical Half-Shadow Application to Flight Operations BIBAKFull-Text 11-20
  Bruno Berberian; Jean-Cristophe Sarrazin; Laurent Chaudron
The key of the development of HMI technologies lies in the acquisition of knowledge and the integration of disciplines by industrials that are in the scope of cognitive neurosciences. The purpose of this paper is to provide new models to be applied in human centered design loops for cockpit in aeronautics. Two different problems are introduced: (1) the purpose of consciousness in action control, (2) the transformation induced by automation in term of agency. For each of this problem, we detail how the problem is currently tackled by cognitive ergonomics society, and how neurosciences could help in the comprehension of the different mechanisms involved. Perspectives are proposed for each of this issue.
Keywords: Action Control; Agency; Automation; Cognition; Consciousness
Attentional Biases during Steering Behavior BIBAKFull-Text 21-27
  Hans-Joachim Bieg; Heinrich H. Bülthoff; Lewis L. Chuang
In the current study, we examine eye movements of human operators during a combined steering and discrimination task. In this task, observers had to alternate their gaze between a central steering task and a discrimination task in the periphery. Our results show that the observer's gaze behavior is influenced by the motion direction of the steering task. Saccade reaction times (SRTs) of saccades to the discrimination target were shorter if the target appeared in the steering direction. SRTs back to the steering task were shorter when the steering target moved away from the discrimination target. These effects are likely the result of motion-related attention shifts and an interaction of the saccadic and smooth pursuit eye movement system.
Keywords: attention; eye movements; saccades; reaction time; steering
A Validation Approach for Complex NextGen Air Traffic Control Human Performance Models BIBAKFull-Text 28-37
  Brian F. Gore; Paul Milgram
Validation is critically important when human performance models are used to predict the effect of future system designs on human performance. A model of air traffic control (ATC) operations was validated using a rigorous iterative model validation process that illustrated the success of representing ATC operations in NextGen en route operations. A gold-standard model was compared to three model iterations that represented different task management and human time estimation processes when dealing with handoff operations.
Keywords: Human performance model validation; air traffic control; NextGen
Personality and Attitudes as Predictors of Risky Driving Behavior: Evidence from Beijing Drivers BIBAKFull-Text 38-44
  Jun Kong; Kan Zhang; Xuefeng Chen
The main aim of this study is to explore the relationships between personality traits, attitudes and risky driving behavior, in order to build a model of risky driving behavior that integrates the personality and social cognition approach. The study was based on a self-completion questionnaire survey carried out among 233 drivers in Beijing. The self-completion questionnaire consisted three sections: personality, attitudes towards traffic safety, and risky driving behavior. The results suggest that personality traits are valuable predictors of attitudes and risky driving behavior, and attitudes mediated the relation between the personality traits and risky driving behavior. Implications for road safety strategies are also discussed.
Keywords: personality; attitudes towards traffic safety; risky driving behavior; drivers
Effects of Sleep Deprivation on Pilot's Cognitive Behavior in Flight Simulation BIBAKFull-Text 45-54
  Zhong-Qi Liu; Qian-Xiang Zhou; Fang Xie
This study examined the effects of 32 h of continuous SD (Sleep Deprivation) on cognitive behavior in simulated flight. Four subjects who were skilled in flight simulator took part in the experiment. Eye movement and flight parameters were measured in the following 5 time periods: 1100 on DAY 1, 1500, 0400 on DAY 2, 1100, and 1500. Subject's cognitive workload and fatigue were assessed with method of NASA-TLX (national aeronautics and space administration-task load index) and RPE (rating of perceived exertion). Eye movement indices of average pupil area, average saccade amplitude and average saccade velocity decreased during the 32 h SD and they all showed significantly changes in the final SD while the index of average fixation time increased in the final SD. Flight performance that evaluated by four flight parameters of the deviation of height, pitch angle, yaw angle and tilt angle deteriorated during the 32 h SD, but not significantly. The feeling of fatigue and workload reported by subjects both increased during the 32 h SD. Effects of daily rhythm were also found, there were a obviously change at the hour of 0400. 32 h of SD has obvious effects on eye movement behaviors which have close relations to fatigue because of SD. The eye movement measurement can be served as a tool to continually monitor fatigue online.
Keywords: sleep deprivation; cognition; eye movement; flight performance
Towards Early Status Warning for Driver's Fatigue Based on Cognitive Behavior Models BIBAKFull-Text 55-60
  Yanfei Liu; Yu Zhang; Junsong Li; Jing Sun; Feng Fu; Jiangsheng Gui
Based on ACT-R (Adaptive Control of Thought-Rational) cognitive architecture this paper implements researches on a status warning system for driver's fatigue, its goal is applying vehicle performance output and cognitive science to build driver behavior model, using non-invasive detection method that retrospect driver behavior based on model to monitor driving status, and to reach the aims of driver status monitor and early warning. First, based on the different detection methods' analysis of driving fatigue, the predominance of cognitive science, and the inherent relationship between driver behavior and cognitive science, the advantages of applying cognitive theory to researches on driver fatigue are clarified. Then, based on the analysis of the factors contribute to fatigue related accidents and observations of drowsy driving cases, the viewpoint that the fatigue driving is consist of three stage and corresponding to three status is proposed; accordingly, the declarative and procedure knowledge for ACT-R architecture is extracted, and driver fatigue behavioral model is implemented on the ACT-R software platform. Finally, the simulation methods are applied to verify the model's validity and a framework of driver status monitor and early warning system that contains the cognitive fatigue driver behavior models is put forward. The research results indicate that the fatigue driver behavior model has a strong advantage in the researches of driver status monitor and early warning.
Keywords: Cognitive driver behavior; driver status warning; ACT-R
Simulating the Impact of Mental Models on Human Automation Interaction in Aviation BIBAFull-Text 61-69
  Sebastien Mamessier; Karen Feigh
This work proposes a computational approach supporting the simulation of human automation interaction in aviation. The development of an advanced human agent model that accounts for workload limitations, imperfect mental models and consequences on the operator's situation awareness provides new insight for future certification procedures regarding human interaction with complex automated systems.
Ergonomics Study of Direct and Indirect Visibility Evaluation at Uncontrolled Intersections Based on Three-Dimensional Computer Simulation BIBAKFull-Text 70-77
  Midori Mori; Noboru Kubo
Crossing collisions at intersections account for one-fourth of the total accidents in Japan. This type of accident could be caused by the poor visual environment at intersections, including the lack of indirect visibility provided by traffic convex mirrors. However, no available desk methods have been reported on the proper installation method for such mirrors. This paper discusses the appropriate conditions for direct and indirect visibility. These include mirror visibility simulation technology, which was developed by applying three-dimensional computer graphics software. The simulated mirror images were found to be highly consistent with actual images. The mirror visibility obtained by an optimal mirror installation was found to be desirable in both a simulation and field study. The simulation demonstrated that a slight change in the mirror plate angle greatly influenced the visible distance. In conclusion, the 3DCG simulation method was effective for examining conditions for good direct and indirect visibility at intersections.
Keywords: Visibility Simulation; 3D Computer Graphics; Traffic Convex Mirror; Crossing Collision
Prediction of Drowsy Driving Using Behavioral Measures of Drivers -- Change of Neck Bending Angle and Sitting Pressure Distribution BIBAKFull-Text 78-87
  Atsuo Murata; Taiga Koriyama; Takuya Endoh; Takehito Hayami
Recently, in Japan, the percentage of the death toll in traffic accidents due to drowsy driving is the most dominant in all death tolls in traffic accidents. Therefore, it is essential for automotive manufacturers to develop a warning system of drowsy driving. A lot of studies are conducted to prevent traffic accident due to drowsy driving, and make an attempt to assess drowsiness by physiological measures such as EEG. However, it is difficult to use such equipment for predicting drowsiness, because it is difficult to equip an automotive cockpit with such equipment due to expensiveness and measurement noise. As more convenient measure used to predict drowsiness, it was examined whether the neck bending angle and the sitting pressure distribution could be used to discriminate the arousal level. The effectiveness of these convenient measures was experimentally assessed. In order to prevent traffic accidents due to drowsy driving, an attempt was made to predict drowsiness (low arousal state) using the change of neck bending angle and sitting pressure distribution. As a result, these measures were found to be useful for evaluating arousal level and predicting arousal level in advance.
Keywords: ITS; prediction of drowsiness; neck bending angle; sitting pressure distribution; COP (Center of Pressure)
Effectiveness of Automotive Warning System Presented with Multiple Sensory Modalities BIBAKFull-Text 88-97
  Atsuo Murata; Michihiro Kanbayashi; Takehito Hayami
Although it is very important to drive safely by drivers themselves, it is impossible to find drivers who do not make mistakes during driving. Therefore, vehicles should be equipped with a system that automatically detect hazardous state and warn if of drivers so that such a preventive safety can contribute to the reduction of traffic accidents due to the oversight of important information necessary for safety driving. This study paid attention to the preventive safety technology, and discussed how the warning should be presented to drivers. It was explored whether simultaneously presenting warning to multiple sensory organs such as visual and auditory systems can promote (quicken) the perception of warning even under the situation, where interference between information of the same sensory modality occurs. The auditory-tactile warning was found to lead to quicker and more accurate reaction to a hazardous scene during a simulated driving.
Keywords: automotive warning; multiple sensory modality; auditory-tactile warning; reaction time; hit rate
Proposal of Automotive 8-directional Warning System That Makes Use of Tactile Apparent Movement BIBAKFull-Text 98-107
  Atsuo Murata; Susumu Kemori; Makoto Moriwaka; Takehito Hayami
We proposed a tactile 8-directional warning system which informs drivers of hazardous traffic situations hidden in 8 directions via tactile apparent movement. The effectiveness of the proposed warning system was compared with that of a warning system by simultaneous two-point stimulation and a system without warning. As a result, the apparent lead to quick reaction and higher hit rate (higher accuracy of hazard perception and recognition) as compared with the simultaneous two-point stimulation. However, this was limited to the front and the rear hazard, and was not true for all directions. The vibrotactile warning system that can recognize hazards from all of eight directions should be developed in future research.
Keywords: warning system; traffic safety; apparent movement; simultaneous two-point stimulation; reaction time; hit rate
Evaluation of Drivers Interaction with Assistant Systems Using Criticality Driven Guided Simulation BIBAKFull-Text 108-117
  Stefan Puch; Bertram Wortelen; Martin Fränzle; Thomas Peikenkamp
Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) operate more and more autonomously and take over essential parts of the driving task e.g. keeping safe distance or detecting hazards. Thereby they change the structure of the driver's task and thus induce a change in driver's behavior. Nevertheless it is still the driver who is ultimately responsible for the safe operation of the vehicle. Therefore it is necessary to ensure that the behavioral changes neither reduce the controllability of the vehicle nor the controllability of the hazardous events. We introduce the Threshold Uncertainty Tree Search (TUTS) algorithm as a simulation based approach to explore rare but critical driver behavior in interaction with an assistance system. We present first results obtained with a validated driver model in a simple driving scenario.
Keywords: Guided Co-Simulation; Driver Model; Hybrid Simulation; Risk Analysis; Monte Carlo
Effects of Spaceflight Operation Complexity and Training on Operation Error BIBAKFull-Text 118-125
  Meng Wang; Yijing Zhang; Bin Wu; Pengjie Li; Shanguang Chen; Jinwu Zhang; Min Liu
To investigate how the spaceflight operation complexity and training affect operation errors of spaceflight tasks, a two-factor experiment was designed and conducted. Nine participants performed eighteen spacecraft operation units which were divided into three complexity levels during two training stages. Based on the experiment data, the changes of average operation times and errors at the initial and final stages were analyzed; the equations of linear regression between the complexity and the average operation errors were established. The results showed that the average operation errors were significantly raised with the complexity at the initial stage (P=0.03, 0.02). The operation errors of the low and middle complexity levels at the final stage were much less than those at the initial stage (P<0.05). The operation errors were significantly correlated to the complexity levels at the two stages. It implies that suitable operation complexity and sufficient training are two of the effective ways to ensure the reliability of astronaut operations during spaceflight.
Keywords: training; operation complexity; operation error; correlation
Predicating the Safety of Airport Approaches Using a Cognitive Pilot Model BIBAKFull-Text 126-133
  Changpeng Yang; Tangwen Yin; Shan Fu
This paper introduces a new cognitive flight operator model (CFOM) that has been developed for predicting the safety of airport approaches. The creation of the CFOM is based on the frequency and percentage of accident associated with Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS) causal categories by types of operation. Operator capacity limitation, decision heuristics and action error mechanisms are incorporated into the architecture of CFOM to produce the behavior errors. This cognitive model integrated with an environment model consisting of a model of airplane, aircraft dynamics, and flight environment forms Man-Machine-Environment Safety Analysis System (MME-SAS) that can be used to investigate the cause of human errors and aircraft accident.
Keywords: Human Performance Modeling; Decision Heuristic; Rule Chunk Model
Pilot Performance Models BIBAKFull-Text 134-140
  Xiaoyan Zhang; Hongjun Xue
Pilot as the controller of the aircraft whose performance is key for aviation safety. This paper investigated three main pilot models at present. The models all can solve the problems they are expected to well, but there is no model that has integrated architecture for pilot information processed. According to the characters of pilot executing tasks, the paper built the architecture of "pilot in the loop" model. The model is dynamic and has the ability to simulate the interaction of human-machine, and can also reflect the micro mechanism and macro behavior of pilots. The difficulties of modeling have been analyzed and the methods to solve the problems have also been put forward.
Keywords: pilot modeling; human in the loop; cognitive model; control model; Fitts' law

Human Factors and Digital Human Modeling in Healthcare

Supporting Conversation for People with Dementia by Introducing a Computer-Based Third Element to the Interaction BIBAKFull-Text 143-149
  Norman Alm; Arlene Astell; Gary Gowans; Maggie Ellis; Phillip Vaughan; Richard Dye
The principle of introducing a third element to a stressful communicational encounter, to which both participants can direct their attention, and which can provide prompts for communication, has a wide potential applicability. We have developed a system to support the communication of older people with dementia, which uses this principle. The approach has uses in many settings in which there is a cognitive or emotional blockage to communicational flow, several of which are described.
Keywords: assistive technology; cognitive prostheses; dementia; autism; cognitive impairment
"Using Digital Interactive Television to Promote Healthcare and Wellness Inclusive Services" BIBAKFull-Text 150-156
  André Baptista; Ágata Dourado Sequeira; Iolanda Veríssimo; Célia Quico; Mário Cardoso; Manuel José Damásio
The potential of digital interactive television (iDTV) to promote original services, formats and contents that can be relevant to support personal health care and wellness of individuals, namely elderly people, has not been fully explored yet in the past. Therefore, in a context of rapid change of the technological resources, in which the distribution and presentation of content comes associated to new platforms (such as digital terrestrial TV and IPTV), it is important to identify the configurations that are being developed for interactive digital TV (iDTV) that may result in relevant outcomes within the field of healthcare and wellness, with the aim of offering complementarity to the existing services and contents made available today via the traditional means and media.
   This article describes and discusses the preliminary results of the first part of the research project iDTV-HEALTH: Inclusive services to promote health and wellness via digital interactive television. These first results suggest that iDTV solutions may represent a real contribution to bring healthcare and wellness to the target population, namely as a supplement to health services provision.
Keywords: Healthcare; wellness; digital; television; ICTs
Homecare Risk Management: Nursing Issues Related to Technology BIBAFull-Text 157-162
  Juliana J. Brixey; James P. Turley
Traditional risk management may not address the needs of technology being introduced into homecare situations for nurses. We propose to augment traditional risk management with insights from Prevention through Design and The 8 Rights giving a more technology focus to risk management.
Facilitators' Intervention Variance and Outcome Influence When Using Video Games with Fibromyalgia Patients BIBAKFull-Text 163-172
  Anthony L. Brooks; Eva Petersson Brooks
22 adult females diagnosed as suffering Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) participated in two explorative studies investigating potential benefits from playing gesture-controlled video games. A main goal was researching potentials of commercial gaming systems with inbuilt Internet connectivity toward home-based self-driven adaptable 'telerehabilitation' targeting means to increase tolerance to pain and thus, augmenting quality of life for sufferers. Beside this, an aim was to study variance between facilitator formal and informal intervention approaches and to analyze potential influence on outcomes; this is the core focus of this paper. Typical to FMS studies, high patient drop out numbers resulted in limited compliance. Informal facilitator intervention (non-therapist) resulted in significantly higher outcome scores (increased tolerance indicators/reported pain threshold) when compared to a formal therapeutic intervention approach. Findings, whilst not conclusive, offer a point of departure to discuss how intervention approach influences outcomes and patient benefit, especially when a self-driven training regime is designed.
Keywords: Fibromyalgia; Video Games; Pain; Facilitator Intervention
The Causal Analysis of Requested Alterations for Pressure Garments BIBAKFull-Text 173-182
  Chia-Fen Chi; Chih-Hsiang Lin; Hung-Wei Cheng
The purpose of this study was to examine altered pressure garments requested by burn patients, in Taiwan. Three hundred forty-two pressure garments needing alterations were collected from 127 burn patients at the Sunshine Foundation Organization, an nonprofit organization for burn patients to identify the major defects found in these pressure garments and their causes. Causes of required alterations were classified according to a hierarchical coding scheme focusing on poor fit, discomfort, component part, fabric and sewing, and cosmetics to identify systematic problems for each garment type. The result of our analysis indicated that the majority of the pressure garment alterations were related to poor fit in circumferential and longitudinal dimensions of the various body parts, incorrect position and size of openings for eyes, nose, ears, and mouth, or inappropriate length or position of zippers. Information derived from this causal analysis can be applied in helping to reduce the recurrence of alterations in pressure garment, thus improving the quality and effectiveness of pressure therapy.
Keywords: pressure garment; defect analysis; causal analysis
Towards Enhancing the Acoustic Models for Dysarthric Speech BIBAFull-Text 183-188
  Kuruvachan K. George; C. Santhosh Kumar
Dysarthria is a set of congenital and traumatic neuromotor disorders that impair the physical production of speech. These impairments reduce or remove the normal control of the vocal articulators. The acoustic characteristics of dysarthric speech is very different from the speech signal collected from a normative population, with relatively larger intra-speaker inconsistencies in the temporal dynamics of the dysarthric speech [1] [2]. These inconsistencies result in poor audible quality for the dysarthric speech, and in low phone/speech recognition accuracy. Further, collecting and labeling the dysarthric speech is extremely difficult considering the small number of people with these disorders, and the difficulty in labeling the database due to the poor quality of the speech. Hence, it would be of great interest to explore on how to improve the efficiency of the acoustic models built on small dysarthric speech databases such as Nemours [3], or use speech databases collected from a normative population to build acoustic models for dysarthric speakers. In this work, we explore the latter approach.
Supporting a Participant-Centric Management of Obesity via a Self-improving Health Game BIBAFull-Text 189-196
  Philippe J. Giabbanelli; Penny Deck; Lisa Andres; Thecla Schiphorst; Diane T. Finegood
A majority of American and Canadian adults are currently obese or overweight. Despite the urgency in tackling this issue, current interventions have not yet been able to provide sustainable weight loss, in part due to the difficulty of maintaining engagement over an extended period of time. Emerging trends in self-management have led to the design of new health tools in HCI that can improve individual engagement. In this paper, we propose to combine health games with recommender systems. The former has a demonstrated ability in promoting behaviour change, while the latter is able to personalize user experience. This approach goes beyond traditional health games, as the recommender system's personalization provides players with options tailored to the specific factors shaping their weight, thereby allowing for a high degree of customization which is sought after but difficult to achieve in weight interventions. Focusing on what matters for each individual can also be used to initiate dialogue with a health-care provider, which sets the stage for increased agreement on treatment and can lead to improved health outcomes.
Feedback-Based Self-training System of Patient Transfer BIBAKFull-Text 197-203
  Zhifeng Huang; Ayanori Nagata; Masako Kanai-Pak; Jukai Maeda; Yasuko Kitajima; Mitsuhiro Nakamura; Kyoko Aida; Noriaki Kuwahara; Taiki Ogata; Jun Ota
In this paper, we propose a self-training system to assist nursing students to learn nursing skills. The system focuses on the task of transferring a patient from a bed to a wheelchair. In the system, two Kinect sensors were applied to measure the posture of the trainees and patients and an automatic evaluation method was used to classify the trainees' performance in each skill as correct or incorrect. A feedback interface based on a checklist was designed to help the trainees check whether they performed correctly. The system is designed for the trainees to operate by themselves. A control test was performed to measure the training effects of the system. The results show that the growth rate of the group that trained with feedback (79%) was higher than the group that trained without feedback (48%).
Keywords: self-training system; patient transfer; Kinect sensor; nursing skills; feedback
A Comparative Analysis of the Educational Effectiveness of Leaflet and Website for Low-Literate Patients -- A Case Study of Immigrant Mothers in Taipei BIBAKFull-Text 204-213
  Yah-Ling Hung; Kai-Ren Chen; Catherine Stones; Thomas Cassidy
Low health literacy has been associated with poor outcomes in health care. Recent research suggests that good health educational material can help to reduce the literacy barrier and enhance health outcome. Immigrant populations are vulnerable to serious health disparities, and language barriers may further exacerbate their limited health literacy in accessing health care information. Yet, ways to help low-literacy parents to look after their children by applying health educational material are still at an early stage of development. The purpose of this study is to compare the educational effectiveness of leaflet and website to deliver knowledge related to children allergy healthcare for immigrant mothers with low literacy, thus establishing design guidelines of health educational materials for low-literate patients. The study was implemented in five stages, including a focus group interview, the development of testing media, a reliability and validity test, a pre-post knowledge test, and a usability survey. The findings revealed the problems low-literate patients usually encountered at the clinic, the pediatric information they most needed, the way they were able to acquire knowledge of children's healthcare, and the media they usually used to access information. Moreover, the results demonstrated that the leaflet intervention, as well as the website intervention, had a positive outcome. However, there was no significant difference between the influence of design intervention made by the leaflet and by the website. The findings also showed that the criteria used by low-literate patients to evaluate health educational material could be analyzed in terms of the quality of information, presentation, and appeal. An assessment checklist related to the design of health educational materials for low-literate patients was also listed.
Keywords: Design Intervention; Health Literacy; Low-literate Health Education; Health Educational Material Design
Effect Evaluation of Recreational Coloring Carried Out at Pay Nursing Home BIBAKFull-Text 214-222
  Shinichiro Kawabata; Nasu Maki; Akiyoshi Yamamoto; Yoshiyuki Kida; Noriaki Kuwahara; Akihiko Goto; Hiroyuki Hamada
Aging has becoming a serious problem to be solved in wide area of the world. In this study coloring was taking place at the pay nursing home for the aged tenant as part of the recreation, and the influence to the tenant was verified. It was suggested that the coloring showed effect to improvement s for reducing the frequency of wandering around and petition of excretion of the tenant. Coloring is easily done compared to painting and descriptions, also regardless to the needing care degree, more over a care worker's burden can also be reduced. As the result shows, coloring is suggested as an activity that should be taken as one of the recreations at the pay nursing home.
Keywords: key words Coloring recreation; Dementia; Nursing home
A Study for Conducting Waves by Using the Multi-channel Surface EMG BIBAKFull-Text 223-231
  Tomohiro Kosuge; Naoaki Itakura; Kazuyuki Mito
The surface electromyogram (EMG) is recorded as the interference electric potential generated by motor units in muscle. Therefore, it may be possible to analyze the muscle contraction mechanism in order to examine the composition of the interference signal of the surface EMG. We herein propose a new method by which to analyze the composition of the surface EMG. The proposed method involves searching conducting wave which mean similar waveforms considered same wave appearing during several channels by using multi-channel surface EMG, and we can analyze surface EMG as a set of conducting waves. The proposed method is referred to as the multi-channel method for conducting waves (m-ch method). We analyzed multi-channel EMG using the proposed method.
Keywords: EMG; surface EMG; MFCV; motor unit
Implementing Scenarios as an Evaluation Method of the Patient-Physician Interaction in Decision Aids BIBAKFull-Text 232-239
  Curtis V. Lauterbach; Jeremiah D. Still
Decision aids are being used in the exam room to assist physicians with diagnosing. Past research on computer-based decision aids examined perceived physician capabilities and degree of liability, and their impact on the patient-physician interaction. However, no one has contrasted the use of physical aids (physician's desk reference) with computerized aids on these characteristics. In this study, participants were given a scenario in which they took on the role of the patient and were asked to rate the physician's capabilities and degree of liability given a negative outcome. There were no significant differences between the aid types (computer, physical, or no) employed on physician capabilities or liability. However, we suggest that scenarios can effectively be used to assess the impact of decision aids on the physician-patient interaction.
Keywords: scenario; decision aid; patient-physician interaction
Plantar Pressure Gradient Angles to Evaluate Risk of Diabetic Foot Ulcer BIBAKFull-Text 240-247
  Chi-Wen Lung; Ben-Yi Liau; Yih-Kuen Jan
Diabetic foot ulcers remain one of the most serious complications of diabetes mellitus. Peak pressure gradient (PPG) has demonstrated to contribute to the development of diabetic foot ulcers. This study used the time-varying directions of instantaneous PPG angle to evaluate the risk of diabetic foot ulcers. A total of 14 participants were studied, including 7 diabetics and 7 non-diabetic controls. The peak plantar pressure (PPP), PPG, and PPG angle at the great toe were calculated from plantar pressures obtained by the F-scan plantar pressure measurement system during walking. The results showed that the PPP and PPG in the diabetics were significantly higher than in the controls, but the PPG angle in the diabetics was significantly lower than in the controls. This study provides evidence that the diabetics are associated with higher PPP and PPG and lower PPG angle as compared to non-diabetics. The proposed PPG angle may improve our understanding of the influence of PPG on the risk for diabetic foot ulcers.
Keywords: diabetic foot ulcers; peak pressure gradient; plantar pressure
Explicit Tracking in the Diagnostic Process for Hand Dermatological Practices BIBAFull-Text 248-257
  Luca Mazzola; Sara Marceglia; Stefano Bonacina; Francesco Pinciroli; Fabio Ayala; Ornella De Pitá; Paolo Pigatto
The complexity of the medical diagnostic practices is faced nowadays mainly with an extensive and long education and with on-the-job training for GPs. Despite these efforts, a big part of the diagnostic process remains implicit in the everyday practicies of skilled professionals. This project aims at an explicit tracking of this ability through the filling-in of an additional importance level for the voices in the Electronic Medical Record. The collected data leads to the extraction of rules that can empower a Decision Support System for hand dermatological practictioner with suggestions and/or diagnoses distribution probability for a specific situation.
Ideal Mode Selection of a Cardiac Pacing System BIBAKFull-Text 258-267
  Dominique Méry; Neeraj Kumar Singh
Mode transition in any inappropriate mode can be a common cause of any mishap in a complex health-care system. This paper presents an approach for formalizing and reasoning about optimal mode transition in a health-care system that uses several operating modes in various operating states. Modes are formalized and their relation to a state-based formalism is established through a refinement approach. The efficiency of this approach is presented by formalizing an ideal operating mode transition of a cardiac pacemaker case study. An incremental approach is used to develop the system and its detailed design is verified through a series of refinements. The consequence of this approach is to improve system structuring, elicitation of system assumptions and expected functionality, as well as requirement traceability using modes in state-based modeling. Models are expressed in Event B modeling language and validated by a model checker tool: ProB.
Keywords: Abstract model; Event-B; Proof-based development; Refinement; Modes; Pacemaker
Development of a Measurement and Evaluation System for Bed-Making Activity for Self-training BIBAKFull-Text 268-275
  Ayanori Nagata; Zhifeng Huang; Masako Kanai-Pak; Jukai Maeda; Yasuko Kitajima; Mitsuhiro Nakamura; Kyoko Aida; Noriaki Kuwahara; Taiki Ogata; Jun Ota
This study proposes a method to automatically measure multiple objects by image processing for constructing a system for nursing trainees of self-training in the skill of bed making. In a previous study, we constructed a system to measure and evaluate trainee performance using three RGB-D (RGB color and depth) sensors. Our previous system had a problem with recognition of equipment such as the bed pad and the sheet because of color change by the light condition, the automatic color correction by the sensors and color variability in one object. In this paper, we used color reduction and cluster selection for equipment recognition. The system reduced the color in images by using k-means clustering and recognized the clusters as separate objects by predetermined thresholds. Compared with the previous method, the recognition accuracy was higher and the accuracy achieved was 70%.
Keywords: image processing; self-training support system
Usability Problems in Patient- and Clinician-Oriented Health Information Systems: What Are They and How Do They Differ? BIBAKFull-Text 276-285
  Dinara Saparova; Josipa Basic; Yunhui Lu; Francis Kibaru; Yanfei Ma; Borchuluun Yadamsuren
This study aimed to identify the usability problems in the eVisits based on the interaction experience of the three target user groups and compare their preferences for usability features. We used think aloud usability sessions with 5 patients, 5 nurses and 5 physicians in a laboratory setting to examine users' interaction with the eVisits. Nielsen's usability heuristic principles were applied to analyze the recorded usability sessions in Morae. Usability feature preferences among three groups were overlapped in the four heuristics. However, each user group had their own perceptions of these criteria specific to their unique needs. Clinicians tended to emphasize the importance of features relevant to their professional activity. Error prevention and aesthetic/minimalist design heuristics were brought up in the comments of physicians while two other groups did not mention anything related to these criteria. Only patients expected the features related to help and documentation heuristic.
Keywords: usability; e-visit; electronic visit system; health information system

Safety of the Human Environment

AmI-Technology at Work -- A Sociological Perspective Covering Aspects of Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) BIBAKFull-Text 289-296
  Michael Bretschneider-Hagemes
Ambient Intelligence (AmI) technologies are becoming increasingly widespread in working life. Some of these are specific applications already integrated in the workflow, while others are ambitious strategies on the verge of immediate industrial implementation. However different they may be, they are commonly discussed under the shared term of "ambient intelligence" as a conceptual catch-all. In the present article, the author reflects on this somewhat simple definition and, with the aid of technology-centred definitions on the one hand and issues of the sociology of work relating to human-centricity on the other, he facilitates more instructive access to the responsible application of AmI technologies in the world of work.
Keywords: ambient intelligence; mobile ICT; mental stresses; alienation; surveillance
Bayesian Affordance-Based Agent Model for Wayfinding Behaviors in Evacuation Problems BIBAKFull-Text 297-306
  Moise Busogi; Namhun Kim; Dongmin Shin; Hokyoung Blake Ryu; Arm Yoo; Dongchul Kim
In this paper, we propose a modeling framework of rational human actions in human-environment systems by evaluating probable human actions in physical and psychological dimensions. In the affordance theoretic perspective, an environment offers certain physical and psychological limitations to filter a finite number of feasible human actions that lead to desired system states in a spatio-temporal dimension. By integrating physical and psychological constraints in human decision making processes, a value-based Bayesian-affordance model is proposed using Markov Decision Model. To this ends, two different types of filters, 'F1' and 'F2' are proposed, where 'F1' is a preference-based numerical filter conceived at the planning level for psychological constraints and 'F2' an affordance-based numerical filter at the execution level in which agent's perception of physical action availability plays a big role. Finally, a simple example based on the proposed model is illustrated to verify the proposed framework and the analysis results are discussed.
Keywords: Affordance; way-finding; dynamic programming; Markov Decision Process
A Sustainable Human Centered Design Framework Based on Human Factors BIBAKFull-Text 307-315
  H. Onan Demirel; Vincent G. Duffy
Since humans are creators and users of artifacts and processes, and are constrained by limited resources, a sustainable approach with human element in the center of the development cycle is vital today. Managing and understanding technical and analytical issues about human element in design process is a core challenge for practitioners to develop and improve design strategies that serves to accommodate human needs, abilities and limitations. Although attention has increased in recent decades, direct progress towards a sustainable product development is still not apparent. Methods for sustainability are mostly applied as post-processing activities to safeguard nature, however a pro-active approach is necessary. A sustainable Human Centered Design platform provides an alternative approach to deal with the degeneration of the ecology while providing alternative criteria for considering customer requirements. This paper focuses on improving product design by considering Human Factors as a medium to integrate Sustainability and Human Centered Design strategies. The emphasis in this framework is to introduce Human Factors aspects of product design early in the concept generation phase, provide a modular platform to allow integration of domain knowledge and technologies and to enhance the product development, and overall well being of human element in design cycle.
Keywords: Human Centered Design; Sustainability; Human Factors; Product Design; Digital Human Modeling; Ergonomics
Putting in Perspective Human-Machine System Theory and Modeling: From Theoretical Biology to Artifacts Integrative Design and Organization BIBAKFull-Text 316-325
  Didier Fass
Thinking about human systems integration is thinking human, system and human-system for designing and organizing system of systems from human-machine level to socio-technological level. For critical human in-the-loop systems there is a strong need of reliability and consistency from modeling, development and life cycle systems. A main epistemic issue rises: does it exist a conceptual framework, both theoretical and experimental, that ensures reliability and consistency of human system integration design and organization? According to the Italian Renaissance painting perspective principles invention, our paper puts in perspective human systems integrations from theoretical biology to systems sciences, and it presents an isomorphic framework for modeling human systems integration especially adapted at the human machine level, for medicine, defense and aerospace.
Keywords: human systems integration; human-machine; theoretical biology; systems theory; isomorphic framework; perspective; modeling
Friction Measurements in a Hand Tool Factory BIBAKFull-Text 326-331
  Kai Way Li; Ching Chung Chen; Liwen Liu; Chih-Yong Chen
Floor slipperiness has been identified as one of the major risk factors affecting the occurrence of slipping and falling on workplaces. Floor slipperiness assessment was conducted in a factory manufacturing hand tools in Taiwan. Three areas in the machine shop factory were measured. The friction measurements were conducted using the Brungraber Mark II slipmeter. A total of 96 measurements of the coefficient of friction on the floor were conducted. In addition, six employees were interviewed concerning their experiences of slipping and falling in the sector and their perception of floor slipperiness. The results showed that the floor in the sink area had significantly (p<0.0001) lower COF values than the other two areas. The COF values in the sink area were all less than 0.5, a safety standard commonly adopted in the USA. Six of the employees in the factory were interviewed concerning their perception of floor slipperiness and their experiences of slipping & falling in the working areas. The results were discussed.
Keywords: slip & fall; floor slipperiness; coefficient of friction; field measurement
Development of Human Balance Assessment System with Continuous Center of Gravity Tracking BIBAKFull-Text 332-337
  Ben-Yi Liau; Chi-Wen Lung; Yih-Kuen Jan
Fall is the second leading cause of injures for older adults in Taiwan. If fall risk can be prevented or decreased, fall and its complications could be reduced effectively. The purpose of this study is to develop the human balance assessment system with LabVIEW program interface. 10 healthy adults were enrolled in this study. They were evaluated under four kinds of postures while standing on a 2-axis force platform for 20 seconds. The results showed the displacements in both X and Y directions were smaller during stand with two legs and open eyes (p<0.05). Balance index results also revealed balance ability become lower while standing with one leg and closed eyes (p<0.05) In conclusion, different postures would affect balance. These differences can be assessed by this system. It is hope fall can be prevented in advanced and decrease the medical burden in older adults by the system in the future.
Keywords: fall risk; balance; force platform
Constructing Ergonomic Safety Modelling for Evaluating New Designs of Child Car Seats BIBAKFull-Text 338-347
  Che-Yu Lu; Hsin-Hsi Lai
The safety and ergonomic compatibility are the most important parts for designing child car seats. Since the children, especially the infants, cannot objectively express their aptitudes of safety, comfort and opinions very well, they cannot be suitable subjects for ergonomic design experiments. Applying computers to simulate human motions for solving ergonomic design problems has been explored for many years, especially in substituting real human engaging in high risking tasks. However, in some specific fields of product design, intelligent man-machine (abbreviated as IMM) models suitable for designers are scarcely studied. The main purpose of this paper is trying to construct a totally new IMM model to aid designers of child car seats in the process of evaluating their new design concepts. The new computerized child model with self-adjusting functions can be fitted to car seat designed by any designers. The designer can maneuver the model to understand the potential design risks and ergonomic compatibility, and then improve his design.
Keywords: Child; belt design; solid-work
How Could This Have Happened? Unintentional Injuries of Young Children at Home BIBAKFull-Text 348-354
  Rani Lueder
Unintentional injuries of young children at home are preventable. The causes often relate to a range of factors that interact with inadequacies in design. Two examples of court cases involving an entrapment injuries are reviewed.
Keywords: Ergonomics for children; unintentional injuries in children; forensics; product liability; asphyxiation injuries; toddlers; ergonomic design; nursery product safety; residential elevators; LULA low volume elevators; human factors expert witness cases
Usability of Portable Fire Extinguisher: Perspectives of Ergonomics and Intuitive Use BIBAKFull-Text 355-364
  Maria Lucia Okimoto; Maicon Puppi; Sabrina Oliveira; Vanessa Macedo
The present study aims to explore the usage of portable fire extinguisher's usability from the interaction with non-specialists in emergency context. Has been noticed an absence of Brazil's proper education regarding procedures for fires, evidencing the need for portable fire extinguishers to induce intuitive usage and to improve the usability by users. Were also explored ergonomic factors, such as effort to complete the task and user's perception of discomfort. In order to simulate the emergency context, a usability test was applied with addition stress stimuli. The study allows to conclude that the portable fire extinguisher evaluated present a low level of intuitive use induction, revealing the need to state better standards from Brazilian authorities towards the label and handles of this product. This paper presents the importance of evaluating ergonomic and intuitive factors related to products required on emergency contexts. This study conducted in Brazil is the starting point for other research that explore the theme and aim to improve these devices, assisting designers to take into account aspects of intuitive use and ergonomic principles during the configuration of industrial products.
Keywords: Fire Extinguisher; Usability; Safety
Adaptive User-Centered Design for Safety and Comfort of Physical Human Nursing -- Care Robot Interaction BIBAKFull-Text 365-372
  Minghui Sun; Hiromichi Nakashima; Shinya Hirano; Kazuya Matsuo; Ming Ding; Chang'an Jiang; Toshiharu Mukai; Guihe Qin
Nowadays serving robots are more and more popular in human society. However, most of them are designed for the special people or for the special scenario. There is little robot designed to apply appropriate interface for different people that can accommodate age-related and body-related in physical interaction. We propose that user-centered design should be used in physical Human-robot interaction. In this research, we take a nursing-care robot as an example. Based on the results of the experiment, we proved that the distance between two arms of nursing-care robot, which affected the comfort and safety of patient, should be applied by different patients with different body length. We try to build the adaptive human robot interface based on the physical properties of people, such as body length. This study is an attempt to explore the adaptive human robot interaction and contributes to giving insights and implications for the future design of general serving robot.
Keywords: Physical human robot interaction; nursing-care robot; safe transferring
Investigation of an Agent-Based Modeling on Crowd Evacuation and Its Application to Real Buildings BIBAKFull-Text 373-382
  Fujio Yamamoto
An agent-based modeling and the simulator for evacuation from multistory buildings at the time of outbreak of an earthquake and the fire are presented. The basic theory is that individual agents move in each floor and stair, unless it is filled to capacity per unit area. The simulator can reflect the situation when some destruction occurred in a passage and the stairs in the middle of refuge, because the capacity can be changed dynamically every place. Each agent moves in principle based on local information around oneself. However, as for the cases that the inside of stairs has been clogged up, wide area information equivalent to the broadcast in the hall is conveyed to agents after pre-determined time. Comparative study with the real measurement and simulation was carried out about the refuge time of the fire drill that was performed in a university building of 12 stories.
Keywords: Multi-Agent Systems; Crowd Evacuation; Behavioral Modeling