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CSCW Tables of Contents: 868890929496980002040608101112-112-2

Proceedings of ACM CSCW'96 Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work

Fullname:Proceedings of ACM CSCW'96 Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work
Note:Cooperating Communities
Editors:Kate Ehrlich; Chris Schmandt; Gary Olson; Judy Olson; Mark Ackerman
Location:Cambridge, Massachusetts
Dates:1996-Nov-16 to 1996-Nov-20
Publisher:ACM
Standard No:ACM ISBN 0-89791-765-0; ACM Order Number 612960; ACM DL: Table of Contents hcibib: CSCW96
Papers:116
Pages:450
Links:Conference Home Page
  1. Workshops
  2. Tutorials
  3. Video Program
  4. Language Support for Groupware
  5. Synchronous Work I
  6. Learning from Space and Place
  7. Filtering & Sharing
  8. Protocols for Groupware
  9. Synchronous Work II
  10. Beyond Workflow Systems
  11. Work Practices
  12. Techniques for Awareness
  13. Concurrency
  14. Setting up Encounters
  15. Places for Collaboration
  16. Work & Records
  17. Virtual Environment
  18. Groupware Usage
  19. Panels
  20. Short Papers
  21. Doctoral Colloquium

Workshops

CSCW'96 Workshops BIBPDF 1-2
  Simon Kaplan; Lisa Neal
Extending CSCW into Domestic Environments BIBAPDF 1
  Jon O'Brien; John Hughes; Mark Ackerman; Debby Hindus
This half-day workshop will aim to build a community of interest and research agenda around extending CSCW methods and technologies to home settings. Relevant issues include the coordination of activities in public and private spaces; shared resource technologies; distributed coordination in and between households and the role of technology in everyday life.
Approaches for Distributed Learning through Computer Supported Collaborative Learning BIBAPDF 1
  Marla Capozzi; Peter Rothstein; Kathleen Curley
This half-day workshop will explore current and future CSCW tools, approaches, and methodologies for distributed learning through Computer Supported Cooperative Learning. We'll focus on understanding distributed learning in comparison with other forms of traditional and technology-supported learning as well as understanding social and cultural structures, facilitation and other factors that affect effective learning processes.
CSCW and Organizational Learning BIBAPDF 1
  Liam Bannon; Giorgio De Michelis; Paal Soergaard
This workshop aims to bring together people engaged in the study of the relationships between organizational learning and CSCW to present and discuss their ideas and findings.
   Issues will include conceptual frameworks; the role of organizational learning in getting the work done; empirical studies of the relation between organizational learning and CSCW; methods for developing applications that support organizational learning; and the relationship between studies of organizational learning and studies of organizational memory.
CSCW and the Internet BIBAPDF 1
  Sara Bly; Susan Anderson
This full-day workshop will focus on understanding the range of ways in which the Internet and the Web are being used for collaboration, on the communities using it, and on how (and what) CSCW tools are appearing in this domain. The workshop will strive to characterize current on-line collaborations and their underlying technologies and to outline the implications of these for CSCW and distributed groups more generally.
Commercial Use of Meetingware BIBAPDF 1
  Michele Cresmen; Robin Lampert; Kathy Ryan
This full-day workshop focuses on applications of meetingware within commercial settings. Our aim is to share information among people with experience in implementing groupware within organizations, and to share our knowledge about new meeting technologies and practices.
Introducing Groupware into Organizations: What Leads to Successes and Failures? BIBAPDF 2
  Gloria Mark; Wolfgang Prinz; Volker Wulf; Vidar Hepsoe
This full-day workshop is intended for designers, researchers, and decision-makers to discuss and compare their experiences with designing and introducing groupware in an organizational context. Considering the impact that groupware has had on collaboration in recent years, there are relatively few published studies on experiences with introducing groupware. With so few comparisons, it is difficult to develop an appropriate framework which could guide its introduction. Yet it is important not only to understand successes and failures with methods, but also design and methodology compromises that groupware implementers must live with.
   Workshop participants shall present and discuss their experiences with requirement analysis, design and realization, training, user support/mediation, roles in the design team, and user acceptance. One goal of the workshop is to identify commonalities between different methods associated with successes and problems in order to move in the direction of developing approaches that will benefit users in system adaptation. An important issue here will be to view the introduction of groupware as an integrated organizational and technological development, i.e., a design of technology, work, and organizations.
Integrating Personal and Community Recommendations in Collaborative Filtering BIBAPDF 2
  Joseph A. Konstan; Krishna Bharat
This full-day workshop will bring together researchers and practitioners to explore techniques for integrating personal and community recommendations into CSCW systems. Personal recommendations are tailored to an individual user, while community recommendations reflect the values or tastes of a broader community of users.
Tacit Knowledge: Icebergs in Collaborative Design BIBAPDF 2
  Brent N. Reeves; Frank Shipman
This full-day workshop provides a forum for discussing experiences and issues related to tacit knowledge in the use and design of collaborative systems. We invite attendees to discuss how to elicit tacit knowledge; the value of tacit knowledge to social practices; systems which support identifying, facilitating and revealing tacit knowledge; and difficulties and successes pertaining to the topic.
Strategies for Collaborative Modeling and Simulation BIBAPDF 2
  Albert M. Selvin; Maarten Sierhuis
Participants will explore methods of increasing the quality and depth of cross-functional team participation in collaborative computer-supported modeling and simulation efforts. The workshop will focus on improving collaboration in approaches such as discrete event simulation, system dynamics, workflow modeling, and others.
Design and Use of MUDs for Serious Purposes BIBAPDF 2
  Yvonne Wærn; Daniel Pargman
This workshop will investigate MUDs and their relationship to other CSCW systems, with a special focus on design issues. We will explore MUDs now available on the Internet, the role of users in MUD design, evaluation methods, and visions of the future.
Widening the Net: The Theory and Practice of Physical and Electronic Communities BIBAPDF 2
  Steve Whittaker; Ellen Isaacs; Vicki O'Day
This 1.5 day workshop will bring together designers and researchers working on on-line communities, to discuss: (a) Existing understanding of real-world communities; (b) Experiences with the behaviour, implementation and design of on-line communities; (c) Lessons from "traditional" CSCW systems. We will develop design goals for such communities and identify outstanding research issues.

Tutorials

CSCW'96 Tutorials BIBPDF 3-6
  Lee Sproull; Amy Pearl
An Introduction to the Internet and How It Can be Used for Collaboration for K-12 Teachers BIBAPDF 3
  Nicole Yankelovich
This tutorial will provide a simple overview of the Internet for K-12 teachers with no Internet experience. It will demonstrate many useful resources that teachers can find on the Internet to use directly in their classrooms or in working with other teachers. It will explain how to get started using the Internet and will provide free admission to The Boston Computer Museum.
CSCW Overview BIBAPDF 3
  Jonathan Grudin; Steven E. Poltrock; John Patterson
To provide an organized and entertaining overview of the world of CSCW for newcomers to the field. We will offer a framework for understanding CSCW as a research domain, a management opportunity, and a business challenge. We will analyze some of the great successes and great disasters in CSCW.
   We will provide an overview of the CSCW conference, including Sunday's tutorial program, and will suggest how to learn more about CSCW. We will conclude with refreshments and an opportunity to meet many of the conference participants.
CSCW, Groupware and Workflow: Experiences, State of Art and Future Trends BIBAPDF 3
  Steven E. Poltrock; Jonathan Grudin
This tutorial draws on the experiences of the participants and instructors with groupware and workflow technologies, and with CSCW issues and methods, to construct an informed picture of what is happening and possible.
   To lectures and video-taped illustrations of commercial systems and research prototypes we have added structured subgroup activity by participants. We cover the multi-disciplinary nature of CSCW; emerging groupware products and research that support communication, collaboration, and coordination; and behavioral, social, and organizational challenges to developing, acquiring, or using these technologies, and approaches that can lead to success.
Using the Java Programming Environment to Build Collaborative Applications BIBAPDF 3
  Jim Waldo
The morning session will focus on the Java language, Java safety and security, and the Java object model. The afternoon session will focus on doing collaborative applications in the Java environment, emphasizing such class libraries as those for remote method invocation, object serialization, and multi-media presentation and collaboration.
Designing and Implementing Collaborative Applications BIBAPDF 4
  Prasun Dewan
This tutorial will address the design and implementation of collaborative applications. The design space will be described using the dimensions of session management, coupling, user awareness, and undo/redo.
   We will examine tools for building collaborative applications including shared window systems, toolkits, and object-oriented frameworks. Then we will examine the implementation space of collaborative applications using the dimensions of layering, replication, distribution, concurrency, collaboration awareness, and algorithms for supporting consistency. At the end of the tutorial, the audience will be able to understand the motivation for collaborative applications, summarize important parts of the collaboration design and implementation space, and identify and compare collaborative architectures and tools.
Developing Collaborative Applications Using the World Wide Web Shell BIBAPDF 4
  Alison Lee; Andreas Girgensohn
The tutorial discusses how to develop collaborative applications using the WWW Shell as a rapid prototyping and development platform. Using an example collaborative application, we introduce particular development topics to illustrate the suitability of the WWW Shell and its use. Also, we discuss recent additions in functionality as well as constraints with the WWW Shell approach.
An Introduction to Distributed Cognition: Analyzing the Organizational, the Social and the Cognitive for Designing and Implementing CSCW Applications BIBAPDF 4
  Christine Halverson; Yvonne Rogers
This tutorial will give a detailed overview of the theoretical and methodological framework of distributed cognition. Detailed case studies will be presented to demonstrate how it can be applied to the design and implementation of CSCW systems. Participants will then put into practice the theory and methodology through hands-on group exercises using video material of actual and hypothetical work settings.
Working through Meetings: A Framework for Designing Meeting Support BIBAPDF 4
  John Bennett; John Karat
Through this tutorial, participants will: understand distinctions among various types of meetings and the role of various types of conversations in successful meetings; understand the importance of partnership for achieving team results in meetings; formulate plans for successful technological support for meetings. Participants will experience, through a series of connected exercises, an ad hoc meeting designed to highlight what is important about meetings. Out of this experience, various theories that apply to meetings will become relevant. From an integration of experience and theory, we will explore how technology can be used innovatively and effectively to support meetings.
Asynchronous Learning Networks: The Theory and Practice of Collaborative Learning Online BIBAPDF 5
  Starr Roxanne Hiltz; Murray Turoff
This tutorial will survey major efforts in asynchronous learning networks and will explore detailed examples of successful projects at the college and K-12 levels. It will then consider a variety of practical issues including steps for putting classes on-line; how to function as an "electronic professor"; how to handle logistical issues. The tutorial will conclude with a discussion of probable developments in the next ten years.
Ethnography and Systems Development: Bounding the Intersection BIBAPDF 5
  Dave Randall; Mark Roucefield
Participants will learn the relevance of ethnographic analysis for capturing social complexity and its relationship to other social investigation methods for systems development in cooperative environments in the morning session. The afternoon session will specify and elaborate the problems inherent in integrating ethnographic methods with systems development. These problems will be highlighted through examination of data from the instructors' own research in air traffic control and retail financial services.
A Hands-On Introduction to Collaborative Filtering BIBAPDF 5
  Brad Miller; John Riedl
The morning session will introduce the concepts of information filtering develop a taxonomy of the techniques used and take a detailed look at present and historical applications of collaborative filtering technology. The afternoon session will investigate design issues including algorithms for making recommendations, obtaining user ratings, privacy, communications, and data storage.
Cooperative Information Systems: A Research Agenda BIBAPDF 5
  Matthais Jarke; John Mylopoulos
The tutorial proposes a generic architecture for Cooperative Information Systems which consists of four layers: the system layer which includes legacy systems, a system integration layer, a human cooperation layer, and an organizational layer. For each, the tutorial will review fundamental concepts, promising research directions, and open questions. The concepts will be illustrated with detailed case studies from production and service industries and with results from ongoing research efforts.
Behavioral Evaluation of CSCW Technologies BIBAPDF 5
  Tom Finholt; Gary Olson; Judy Olson
Evaluating CSCW systems is much more difficult than evaluating single-user systems because of the additional group and organizational factors. Behavioral evaluation consists of having people use CSCW technologies under appropriate conditions and gathering either qualitative or quantitative information about their behavior.
   We will examine a variety of methods, including case studies, large scale field studies, surveys, and laboratory studies.
Community Networks BIBAPDF 6
  John Carroll; Carmen Sears
This tutorial will survey community networks (such as Berkeley community Memory and the Cleveland Freenet) focusing on how they may impact human activities and institutions.
   The tutorial offers a tour of the Blacksburg Electronic Village both to demonstrate one networked community in action and to illustrate important design decisions for any networked community.
Networking for Collaboration: Video Telephony and Media Conferencing BIBAPDF 6
  Rob Fish; Bob Kraut
This tutorial will explain how video/audio networks are built and how they are typically used. An introduction to the concepts and terminology of video, audio, digital compression, transmission networks, and station equipment is provided. Participants can expect to learn what people like and dislike about these systems, and the avenues that are being explored to overcome their shortcomings.
Law in Cyberspace BIBAPDF 6
  David Post
The tutorial will explore the following issues regarding law on the global network: copyright and trademark law, privacy, free speech and "obscenity," defamation, protection of proprietary interests in factual data, and computer contracts.
Business Process Reengineering and its Role in Developing CSCW Applications BIBAPDF 6
  Frank von Martial
This tutorial provides an introduction into Business Process Reengineering (BPR) on its own and as a technique for developing CSCW applications. It will address such questions as: How can the workflow in a customer oriented organization be modeled? What are the implications for business process management systems?

Video Program

GroupWeb: A Groupware Web Browser BIBAPDF 7
  Saul Greenberg; Mark Roseman
GroupWeb is a prototype browser that allows group members to visually share and navigate World Wide Web pages in real time. Its groupware features include document and view slaving for synchronizing information sharing, telepointers for enacting gestures, and relaxed "what you see is what I see" views to handle display differences. A groupware text editor lets groups create and attach annotations to pages. An immediate application of GroupWeb is as a presentation tool for real time distance education and conferencing. The video illustrates GroupWeb and all its features.
ARGUS: An Active Awareness System Using Computer-Controlled Multiple Cameras BIBAPDF 7
  Tomoaki Kawai; Yuichi Bannai; Hideyuki Tamura
ARGUS is a prototype system which achieves awareness before starting face-to-face communication by utilizing multiple far-end controllable cameras on a broadband network. A user desiring awareness information can change camera directions and angular fields of view at will in order to get the desired image. We call this active control of cameras to acquire awareness information "active awareness." Camera locations and viewing fields can be quickly grasped by camera icons on the Map Viewer, which shows the actual office layout. ARGUS has a merit to provide both wide area views and close, detailed views via the control of remote cameras. However, the privacy of people may be violated, for example, through extreme magnification. Therefore, it is very important to carefully consider the camera placement and usage. We have modeled office environments and have introduced two camera types: private cameras and public cameras. The aim of the former type is to catch a personal view whereas the aim of the latter type is to monitor common spaces. To protect privacy, ARGUS has several levels of access restrictions for each of these camera types. In this video, we describe the policy and implementation of ARGUS from the viewpoints of user interface and privacy.
InterSpace Project -- CyberCampus BIBAPDF 7
  Shohei Sugawara; Norihiko Matsuura; Yoichi Kato; Keiichi Sasaki; Michita Imai; Takashi Yamana; Yasuyuki Kiyosue; Kazunori Shimamura; Tomoaki Tanaka; Takashi Nishimura; Carol Leick; Tim Takeuchi; Gen Suzuki
InterSpace is a revolutionary communication environment that allows users the flexibility of multi-modal interaction. People in InterSpace communicate using audio as well as video interaction in a three dimensional world. Remote terminals are connected to a central server via networks. Facial image, audio, and proximity, are processed and sent out to the remote terminals to enable multi-modal communication in a virtual world. InterSpace technology comes a step closer to bridging the gap between virtual reality and real world experiences. We conducted a trial service, CyberCampus, based on the InterSpace platform. Individual actions can now be shared with other users as you explore, talk, shop, learn, and experience the many facets of CyberCampus. Environments related to entertainment, distance learning, on-line shopping, and advertisement are currently being explored in CyberCampus with unlimited expansion capabilities.
   CyberCampus debuted in September 1995 and has been hosted by several universities and businesses in the San Francisco area. Preliminary usage suggests that multi-user, multi-modal interaction has a prominent role in the future of telecommunications.
Prairie: A Conceptual Framework for a Virtual Organization BIBAPDF 8
  Stephen H. Sato; Anatole V. Gershman; Kishore S. Swaminathan
Prairie is a simulation prototype or vision, demonstrating how individuals may work together in a virtual work environment designed for a whole enterprise. Prairie addresses various organizational and social issues exacerbated by distance and time. By using the concept of communities and by extending physical interaction cues to others across distance and time, we demonstrate possible solutions to these issues. In Prairie, people and information are organized into communities. The communities are organized into mission-based (organizational units), goal-based (project teams) and interest-based (special interest groups) hierarchies for ease of navigation. A worker may alternately navigate to communities by using personal links from their private virtual desktops. Each community has two areas. One area contains the information germane to a community, that is pushed or pulled depending on the nature of the information. Each community also has an area with a shared view where community members can meet or congregate. Presence in these community areas range from seeing thumbnail photos to holding a video-conference. The shared view facilitates ad hoc, informal interactions which are important for maintaining and building social networks and organizational culture. We believe the framework for Prairie is flexible, integrated, and scaleable so it can be adapted to model other organizations, communities, and processes.
Supporting Workspace Awareness in Groupware BIBAPDF 8
  Carl Gutwin; Saul Greenberg; Mark Roseman
Real-time groupware systems often let each participant control their own view into a shared workspace. However, when collaborators do not share the same view they lose their awareness about where and how others are interacting with the workspace artifacts. We have designed a number of add-on awareness windows that help people regain this awareness. Two general strategies and several variations are illustrated in this video that extend work done in a few other groupware systems. First, radar overviews shrink the entire workspace to fit within a single window. Awareness is indicated by overlaying the overview with boxes representing others' viewports, by telepointers that show where they are working, and by seeing changes to objects in the workspace as they are made. The workspace can be represented within the radar overview as a scaled miniature, by stylized objects, or by its semantic structure. Second, two types of detailed views show some or all of what another person can see, providing awareness of fine-grained details of others' actions.
Applying Distortion-Oriented Displays to Groupware BIBAPDF 8-9
  Saul Greenberg; Carl Gutwin; Andrew Cockburn
Real time groupware systems are now moving away from strict view-sharing and towards relaxed "what-you-see-is-what-I-see" interfaces, where distributed participants in a real time session can view different parts of a shared visual workspace. As with strict view-sharing, people using relaxed-WYSIWIS require a sense of workspace awareness -- the up-to-the-minute knowledge about another person's interactions with the shared workspace. The problem is deciding how to provide a user with an appropriate level of awareness of what other participants are doing when they are working in different areas of the workspace. In this video, we illustrate distortion oriented displays as a novel way of providing this awareness. These displays, which employ magnification lenses and fisheye view techniques, show global context and local detail within a single window, provide both peripheral and detailed awareness of other participants' actions. Three prototypes are presented as examples of groupware distortion-oriented displays. The head-up lens uses a see-through lens to show full-sized local detail in the foreground, and a miniature overview showing global context in the background. The offset lens employs a magnifying lens to show detail over a miniature overview. The fisheye text viewer provides people with detail of what everyone is doing through multiple focal points, one for each participant.
GestureCam: A Video Communication System to Support Spatial Workspace Collaboration BIBAPDF 9
  Hideaki Kuzuoka; Gen Ishimoda; Yushi Nishimura; Yoshihiro Nakada
In this paper, the collaboration in the real three-dimensional environment is defined as spatial workspace collaboration, and an experimental system, GestureCam, is presented which supports spatial workspace collaboration via a video-mediated communication. The GestureCam system has an ability to look around a remote site, an ability of remote pointing, and an ability to support gaze awareness, all of which are the essential system requirements for spatial workspace collaboration. The GestureCam consists of an actuator with three degrees of freedom and a video camera mounted on the actuator. The actuators can be controlled by a master-slave method, by a touch-sensitive CRT, or by a gyro sensor. Also, a laser pointer is mounted on an actuator to assist remote pointing. The experiments with human subjects are also shown in the video.
MAJIC and DesktopMAJIC Conferencing System BIBAPDF 9
  Ken-ichi Okada; Shunsuke Tanaka; Yutaka Matsushita
This video shows a multiparty videoconferencing system "MAJIC" and a multiparty desktop conferencing system "DesktopMAJIC". MAJIC is composed of 2 video cameras, 2 video projectors, a one-way transparent screen, and a tilted workstation forming a desk. Life-size video images of participants are projected without boundaries onto a large curved screen as if users in remote locations are sitting around a table attending a meeting together. MAJIC supports gaze awareness and multiple eye-contact among the participants. Moreover, a shared work space is provided at the center, enabling users to carry on a discussion in a manner comparable to face-to-face meetings.
   Although MAJIC is very effective, it needs a high speed network and special facilities. DesktopMAJIC is implemented on a conventional computer workstation, and supports pseudo gaze awareness and pseudo hand action. Still-picture portraits of the user in 9 different gaze directions are sent to every DesktopMAJIC in advance, and an appropriate one is dynamically selected during the conference to reflect where the user is paying attention. Moreover, other participants' mouse cursors on the shared application window are linked to their portrait window, allowing each user to intuitively see which cursor belongs to whom. Since DesktopMAJIC does not need a high speed network, it may work smoothly even in a telephone or wireless network environment.
Collaborative Wearable Systems Research and Evaluation BIBAPDF 9-10
  Jane Siegel; Robert E. Kraut; Mark D. Miller; David J. Kaplan; Malcolm Bauer
An interdisciplinary research group at Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) is investigating the design and usefulness of mobile CSCW systems for the support of distributed diagnosis, repair, and redesign of large vehicles, such as aircraft and trains. These systems incorporate diagnostic aids, online maintenance manuals, schematic drawings, and telecommunications that allow workers to access both stored information and interactive help from remote experts. This videotape illustrates the problem area and some wearable computer prototypes. It describes some of the field work we have done documenting the value of collaboration when workers are diagnosing and repairing complex equipment. Our laboratory experiments investigate whether wireless video capabilities are useful. One prototype incorporates both shared computer-based information (an on-line repair manual) and a shared view of the non-computerized work space (a video feed from a head-mounted camera). Experiments so far show that communication with a remote expert improves the speed and quality of repairs, but that shared video does not. Video does, however, affect how collaborators coordinate their behavior, for example by allowing a pair to be less verbally explicit. The videotape illustrates how a collaborative pair can exploit both shared data sources to communicate more effectively.
The MIT Design Studio of the Future: Virtual Design Review BIBAPDF 10
  Seraj Bharwani
The MIT Design Studio of the Future is an interdisciplinary effort to focus on geographically distributed electronic design and work group collaboration issues. The physical elements of this virtual studio comprise networked computer and videoconferencing connections among electronic design studios at MIT in Civil and Environmental Engineering, Architecture and Planning, Mechanical Engineering, the Lab for Computer Science, and the Rapid Prototyping Lab, with WAN and other electronic connections to industry partners and sponsors to take advantage of non-local expertise and to introduce real design and construction and manufacturing problems into the equation. This prototype collaborative design network is known as StudioNet.
   The project is looking at aspects of the design process to determine how advanced technologies impact the process. The first experiment within the electronic studio setting was the "virtual design review", wherein jurors for the final design review were located in geographically distributed sites. The video captures the results of that project, as does a paper recently published in the journal Architectural Research Quarterly (Cambridge, UK; Vol. 1, No. 2; Dec. 1995).
From Electronic Whiteboards to Distributed Meetings: Extending the Scope of DOLPHIN BIBAPDF 10
  Ajit Bapat; Jorg Geisler; David Hicks; Norbert Streitz; Daniel Tietze
This video demonstrates different aspects of the DOLPHIN cooperative hypermedia environment in the context of electronic meeting rooms. There are three parts. First, the basic functionality of DOLPHIN for electronic whiteboards is demonstrated. This includes the pen-based user-interface for creating informal structures such as scribbling, freehand sketching, and the creation of nodes and links. Interaction for frequently used operations is based on gesture-recognition. Second, it shows how DOLPHIN supports different aspects of meetings including the processes in the pre-, in-, and post-meeting phases. During the meeting, participants can use computers mounted in the meeting room table. Thus, everybody can access and modify information on the public space displayed on the whiteboard while sitting at the table. They can also engage in parallel private work which can be shared with the group later on. The third part demonstrates how DOLPHIN can be used to support meetings between two groups in physically distributed meeting rooms. Shared workspaces are complemented by audio/ video connections between the rooms. It is noted that DOLPHIN can also be used in distributed desktop-based situations.
   Streitz, N., Geissler, J. Haake, J., Hol, J. (1994). DOLPHIN: Integrated meeting support across LiveBoards, local and remote desktop environments. Proceedings of CSCW'94, pp.345-358.

Language Support for Groupware

Policies and Roles in Collaborative Applications BIBAKPDF 11-20
  W. Keith Edwards
Collaborative systems provide a rich but potentially chaotic environment for their users. This paper presents a system that allows users to control collaboration by enacting policies that serve as general guidelines to restrict and define the behavior of the system in reaction to the state of the world. Policies are described in terms of access control rights on data objects, and are assigned to groups of users called roles. Roles represent not only statically-defined collections of users, but also dynamic descriptions of users that are evaluated as applications are run. This run-time aspect of roles allows them to react flexibly to the dynamism inherent in collaboration. We present a specification language for describing roles and policies, as well as a number of common "real-world" policies that can be applied to collaborative settings.
Keywords: Computer-supported cooperative work, Policies, Roles, Infrastructure, Access control, Intermezzo
DCWPL: A Programming Language for Describing Collaborative Work BIBAKPDF 21-29
  Mauricio Cortes; Prateek Mishra
A difficult issue in the development of groupware applications is the specification of control and coordination mechanisms to handle the execution of common tasks on shared resources. The definition of these mechanisms depend on several factors, such as the current group of participants, their shared resources, tasks, and goals. These factors can change dynamically requiring coordination mechanisms to be updated at runtime.
   We propose that a collaborative program be divided into two main components, a computational program that models the shareable artifacts (e.g. pen, blackboard), and a coordination program that specifies the way these artifacts need to be shared. The main advantage of this approach is that coordination programs can be easily modified, often without any change to the computational program. We are developing a coordination language and its runtime interpreter that allows the specification of coordination mechanisms separately from computational programs.
Keywords: CSCW, Groupware, Programming languages, Coordination, Reengineering, Distributed systems
Designing Object-Oriented Synchronous Groupware with COAST BIBAKPDF 30-38
  Christian Schuckmann; Lutz Kirchner; Jan Schummer; Jorg M. Haake
This paper introduces COAST, an object-oriented toolkit for the development of synchronous groupware, which enhances the usability and simplifies the development of such applications. COAST offers basic and generic components for the design of synchronous groupware and is complemented by a methodology for groupware development. Basic features of the toolkit include transaction-controlled access to replicated shared objects, transparent replication management, and a fully optimistic concurrency control. Development support is provided by a session concept supporting the flexible coupling of shared objects' aspects between concurrent users and by a fully transparent updating concept for displays which is based on declarative programming.
Keywords: Toolkit, Synchronous collaboration, Groupware, Replicated objects, Sessions, Display updating, Concurrency control

Synchronous Work I

Identifying and Analyzing Multiple Threads in Computer-Mediated and Face-to-Face Conversations BIBAKPDF 39-47
  Susan E. McDaniel; Gary M. Olson; Joseph C. Magee
We compared face-to-face (FTF) and computer-mediated (CMC) conversations among small groups of scientists carrying out data collection campaigns. We found multiple threads of conversation in both settings, but this was much more extensive in the CMC cases. The two kinds of conversation were very similar in content and nature of participation, but differed in their temporal flow. The software that supported the CMC conversations allowed interactions that were quite similar in character to the FTF situations. The low incidence of thread confusions and the potential value of overhearing useful conversations does not seem to warrant providing technology in the CMC situation to split apart conversational threads.
Keywords: Collaboratory, Computer-mediated communication, Multiple threads of discourse
Voice Loops as Cooperative Aids in Space Shuttle Mission Control BIBAKPDF 48-56
  Jennifer C. Watts; David D. Woods; James M. Corban; Emily S. Patterson; Ronald L. Kerr; LaDessa C. Hicks
In domains like air traffic management, aircraft carrier operations, and space mission control, practitioners coordinate their activities through voice loops that allow communication among groups of people who are spatially separate. Voice loops have evolved into essential coordination support tools for experienced practitioners in space shuttle mission control, as well as other domains. We describe how voice loops support the coordination of activities and cognitive processes in event-driven domains like space shuttle mission control. We discuss how the loops help flight controllers synchronize their activities and integrate information, and how they facilitate directed communication and support the negotiation of interruptions. In addition, we suggest factors like attentional cues, implicit protocols, and the structure and features of the loops, which might govern the success of voice loops in the mission control domain. Our results should provide insight into the important functions that should be considered in the development of systems intended to support cooperative work.
Keywords: Voice loops, Space shuttle mission control, Control rooms, Coordination, Ethnography
Collaboration in Performance of Physical Tasks: Effects on Outcomes and Communication BIBAKPDF 57-66
  Robert E. Kraut; Mark D. Miller; Jane Siegel
We report an empirical study of people using mobile collaborative systems to support maintenance tasks on a bicycle. Results show that field workers make repairs more quickly and accurately when they have a remote expert helping them. Some pairs were connected by a shared video system, where the video camera focused on the active workspace and they communicated with full duplex audio. For other pairs, either the video was eliminated or the audio was reduced to half duplex (but not both). Pairs' success at collaboration did not vary with the communication technology. However, the manner in which they coordinated advice-giving did vary with the communication technology. In particular, help was more proactive and coordination was less explicit when the pairs had video connections. The results show the value of collaboration, but raise questions about the interaction of communication media and conversational coordination on task performance.
Keywords: Wearable computers, Empirical studies, Collaborative work, Conversation, Media effects, Vehicle maintenance

Learning from Space and Place

Re-Place-ing Space: The Roles of Place and Space in Collaborative Systems BIBAKPDF 67-76
  Steve Harrison; Paul Dourish
Many collaborative and communicative environments use notions of "space" and spatial organisation to facilitate and structure interaction. We argue that a focus on spatial models is misplaced. Drawing on understandings from architecture and urban design, as well as from our own research findings, we highlight the critical distinction between "space" and "place". While designers use spatial models to support interaction, we show how it is actually a notion of "place" which frames interactive behaviour. This leads us to re-evaluate spatial systems, and discuss how "place", rather than "space", can support CSCW design.
Keywords: Space, Place, Media space, Virtual reality, MUDs, Metaphor
Shared Spaces: Transportation, Artificiality, and Spatiality BIBAKPDF 77-86
  Steve Benford; Chris Brown; Gail Reynard; Chris Greenhalgh
We review current spatial approaches to CSCW (mediaspaces, spatial video conferencing, collaborative virtual environments and telepresence) and classify them along the proposed dimensions of transportation, artificiality and spatiality. This classification leads us to identify new shared space applications; so called mixed realities. We present an example of a mixed reality called the Internet Foyer, an application which provides a unified entry point into an organisation's physical and electronic environments and which supports awareness and chance encounters between the occupants of physical and synthetic space.
Keywords: Shared spaces, Virtual reality, Mediaspaces
Populating the Application: A Model of Awareness for Cooperative Applications BIBAKPDF 87-96
  Tom Rodden
This paper presents a model of awareness for shared cooperative applications. The model developed in this paper takes as its starting point a previous spatial model of interaction. A more general model is suggested that allows the action of users to be represented and made available to other users of the application. The developed model exploits the partitioning of space inherent within the spatial model to allow its application to non-spatial applications. The general applicability of the model is demonstrated by considering a range of different interpretations across a number of cooperative applications.
Keywords: Information sharing, Awareness, Cooperative systems infrastructure

Filtering & Sharing

Answer Garden 2: Merging Organizational Memory with Collaborative Help BIBAKPDF 97-105
  Mark S. Ackerman; David W. McDonald
This research examines a collaborative solution to a common problem, that of providing help to distributed users. The Answer Garden 2 system provides a second-generation architecture for organizational and community memory applications. After describing the need for Answer Garden 2's functionality, we describe the architecture of the system and two underlying systems, the Cafe ConstructionKit and Collaborative Refinery. We also present detailed descriptions of the collaborative help and collaborative refining facilities in the Answer Garden 2 system.
Keywords: Computer-supported cooperative work, Organizational memory, Community memory, Corporate memory, Group memory, Information refining, Information retrieval, Information access, Information systems, CMC, Computer-mediated communications, Help, Collaborative help, CSCW
Using Frequency-of-Mention in Public Conversations for Social Filtering BIBAKPDF 106-112
  Will Hill; Loren Terveen
We report on an investigation of using Usenet newsgroups for social filtering of Web resources. Our main empirical results are: (1) for the period of May '96 to Jul '96, about 23% of Usenet news messages mention Web resources, (2) 19% of resource mentions are recommendations (as opposed, e.g., to home pages), (3) we can automatically recognize recommendations with at least 90% accuracy, and (4) in some newsgroups, certain resources are mentioned significantly more frequently than others and thus appear to play a central role for that community. We have created a Web site that summarizes the most frequently and recently mentioned Web resources for 1400 newsgroups.
Keywords: Human-computer interaction, Human interface, Computer-supported cooperative work, Organizational computing, Social filtering, Collaborative filtering, Browsing, Resource discovery, World Wide Web, Usenet, Netnews
CLUES: Dynamic Personalized Message Filtering BIBAKPDF 113-121
  Matthew Marx; Chris Schmandt
Workgroups that defy traditional boundaries require successful communication among people whose interests, schedules, and locations may differ and are likely to change rapidly. CLUES is a dynamic personalized message filter that facilitates effective communication by prioritizing voice and text messages using personal information found in an individual's work environment. CLUES infers message timeliness by considering calendar appointments, outgoing messages and phone calls, and by correlating these "clues" via a personal rolodex. Experience shows that CLUES can be especially useful to mobile users with high message traffic who often access their messages over the telephone.
Keywords: Messaging, Electronic mail, Voice mail, Filtering, Personal information management

Protocols for Groupware

Notification Servers for Synchronous Groupware BIBAKPDF 122-129
  John F. Patterson; Mark Day; Jakov Kucan
We introduce the Notification Service Transfer Protocol (NSTP), which provides a simple, common service for sharing state in synchronous multi-user applications. A Notification Server provides items of shared state to a collection of clients and notifies the clients whenever one of the items changes. The division between client and server in this system is unusual; the centralized state is uninterpreted by the server. Instead, the responsibility for semantics and processing falls on the clients, which collude to implement the application. After describing NSTP, we differentiate it from other systems in terms of the four design principles that have guided its development.
Keywords: Synchronous groupware, Multi-user applications, Groupware infrastructure, Client server architectures, Notification, Protocol, Design principles, Performance, State sharing
A Protocol for User Awareness on the World Wide Web BIBAKPDF 130-139
  Kevin Palfreyman; Tom Rodden
This paper presents the development of an open awareness protocol for the world wide web. The protocol is intended to convey the presence of users to other web users. To encourage uptake of the systems the protocol adheres to the principles that made the world wide web a success, simplicity and openness. An initial version of the protocol is presented along with servers realising the protocol. The paper concludes by showing how the awareness information can support both 2D and 3D presentations of the World Wide Web.
Keywords: Protocol, World Wide Web, Awareness, Client-server, CSCW
Corona: A Communication Service for Scalable, Reliable Group Collaboration Systems BIBAKPDF 140-149
  Robert W. Hall; Amit Mathur; Farnam Jahanian; Atul Prakash; Craig Rasmussen
We consider the problem of providing communication protocol support for large-scale group collaboration systems for use in environments such as the Internet which are subject to packet loss, wide variations in end-to-end delays, and transient partitions. We identify a set of requirements that are critical for the design of such group collaboration systems. These include dynamic awareness notifications, reliable data delivery, and scalability to large numbers of users. We present a communication service, Corona, that attempts to meet these requirements. Corona supports two communication paradigms: the publish-subscribe paradigm and the peer group paradigm. We present the interfaces provided by Corona to applications which are based on these paradigms. We describe the semantics of each interface method call and show how they can help meet the above requirements.
Keywords: CSCW, Awareness, Groupware, Communication services, Publish-subscribe, Peer group, Multicast, Java

Synchronous Work II

Evolutionary Engagement in an Ongoing Collaborative Work Process: A Case Study BIBAKPDF 150-159
  Thomas P. Moran; Patrick Chiu; Steve Harrison; Gordon Kurtenbach; Scott Minneman; William van Melle
We describe a case study in which experimental collaboration technologies was used for over two years in the real, ongoing work process of intellectual property management (IPM) at Xerox PARC. The technologies include LiveBoard-based meeting support tools, laptop notetaking tools, digital audio recording, and workstation tools to later access and replay the meeting activities. In cooperation with the IPM manager, both the work process and the tools were continuously evolved to improve the process. We supported and observed over 60 meetings, leading to a rich set of empirical observations of the meeting activities. We note some practical lessons for this research approach.
Keywords: Activity capture, Audio recording, Co-development, Evolutionary engagement, LiveBoard, Meeting support tools, Notetaking, Salvaging, Work process support
The Social-Technical Design Circle BIBAK 160-169
  Vicki L. O'Day; Daniel G. Bobrow; Mark Shirley
Computer systems developed for groups of people often have built-in social imperatives, either explicitly or implicitly brought to bear during technology design and use. Even when users are active, ongoing participants in design, conflicts can arise between the social assumptions inscribed in technical mechanisms and those in existing or proposed social practices, resulting in changes to both. This paper describes the joint evolution of tools and social practices in Pueblo, a school-centered learning community supported by a MOO (an Internet-accessible virtual world). Examples illustrate how one can design and use a social practice to simplify a technical implementation, and how one can make a choice in technical implementation to work towards a desirable social goal. Social and technical practices in a network community co-evolve as social values and policies become clearer and as growth in the community pushes it toward changes in the distribution of authority and power.
Keywords: Network community, Educational MOO, CSCW design, Work practice, Participatory design
Hypermedia Structures and the Division of Labor in Meeting Room Collaboration BIBAKPDF 170-179
  Gloria Mark; Jorg M. Haake; Norbert A. Streitz
The type of collaboration for a group, whether working in parallel or collectively, is a style for a group influenced by many factors, among them the technology that the group works with. In an empirical study using the DOLPHIN system, we focused on the effect that using hypermedia structures in an electronic meeting room had on collaborative style. We found that groups who created documents using hypermedia were: 1) more likely to divide up their labor and work in parallel, and 2) to have a slower frequency of switching between the task phases of planning and developing ideas. We present a model to explain this effect of hypermedia on task division which suggests the involvement of mechanical and semantic components. We also discuss how DOLPHIN supports awareness of others people's activities for a parallel collaborative style.
Keywords: Collaborative work, Collaborative style, Electronic meeting room, Electronic whiteboard, Hypermedia user-interface, Group process, Task division, Empirical studies

Beyond Workflow Systems

Generalized Process Structure Grammars (GPSG) for Flexible Representations of Work BIBAPDF 180-189
  Natalie S. Glance; Daniele S. Pagani; Remo Pareschi
The promise of workflow solutions for coordinating organizational processes is currently being obscured by strong criticism of the rigidity of their work representations. This rigidity arises in part from viewing work processes as unfolding along a single line of temporally chained activities. In reality, work evolves both horizontally, in the cooperation of causally unrelated, but information-sharing tasks, and vertically, in the coordination of causally-dependent activities. In this paper, we present our process modeling approach which (1) views documents and tasks as duals of each other, capturing horizontal cooperation; and (2) exploits constraints to express the soft dependencies among related activities and documents within the framework of generative rule-based grammars for processes, thus handling vertical coordination.
Freeflow: Mediating Between Representation and Action in Workflow Systems BIBAKPDF 190-198
  Paul Dourish; Jim Holmes; Allan MacLean; Pernille Marqvardsen; Alex Zbyslaw
In order to understand some problems associated with workflow, we set out an analysis of workflow systems, identifying a number of basic issues in the underlying technology. This points to the conflation of temporal and dependency information as the source of a number of these problems.
   We describe Freeflow, a prototype which addresses these problems using a variety of technical innovations, including a rich constraint-based process modelling formalism, and the use of declarative dependency relationships. Its focus is on mediation between process and action, rather than the enactment of a process. We outline the system and its design principles, and illustrate the features of our approach with examples from ongoing work.
Keywords: Workflow, Process support, Process description, Constraints, Dependencies, Temporal organisation
Support for Workflows in a Ministerial Environment BIBAKPDF 199-208
  Wolfgang Prinz; Sabine Kolvenbach
This paper presents the POLITeam solutions and experiences with the support of ministerial workflows by electronic circulation folders. An application scenario is presented that illustrates the user actions and cooperation that occur during the processing of a ministerial workflow. This scenario is afterwards examined to identify essential requirements for a computer based support of such processes. Based on that this paper describes the design of an electronic circulation folder and how this is augmented by a support for digital signatures, the integration of paper documents and a video conferencing system to satisfy the major user requirements.
Keywords: Workflow, Electronic circulation folder, Shared workspaces, Digital signatures, Participatory design

Work Practices

Walking Away from the Desktop Computer: Distributed Collaboration and Mobility in a Product Design Team BIBAKPDF 209-218
  Victoria Bellotti; Sara Bly
A study of a spatially distributed product design team shows that most members are rarely at their individual desks. Mobility is essential for the use of shared resources and for communication. It facilitates informal interactions and awareness unavailable to colleagues at remote sites. Implications for technology design include portable and distributed computing resources, in particular moving beyond individual workstation-centric CSCW applications.
Keywords: Distributed collaboration, Field study, Mobility, Communication, Awareness
Getting Others to Get It Right: An Ethnography of Design Work in the Fashion Industry BIBAKPDF 219-228
  James Pycock; John Bowers
This paper reports an ethnographic study of design work in the fashion industry. Contrary to many images of fashion design, in this setting, it is essentially tied to organizational and inter-organizational coordination, and the demands of manufacture and supply chain management. Relatively little design work involves artistic drawing, much requires retrieval from databases, data analysis, information gathering and matters which members themselves call 'technological'. Experiences collaborating with developers and the relevance of advanced 3D design tools and Virtual Reality for CSCW are considered on the basis of these findings and in the light of debates over ethnography in system development.
Keywords: Ethnography, Studies of work, CSCW, Virtual reality, Field studies, Design, The fashion industry
Back to Labor: Returning to Labor Process Discussions in the Study of Work BIBAKPDF 229-237
  Joan Greenbaum
This paper argues that the CSCW focus on work needs to be expanded to include labor issues. Specifically it examines the role of labor issues such as wages, working conditions and division of labor in analyzing the consequences of information system design for white-collar jobs. It offers suggestions for including labor issues in the study of both current work practices and in the analysis of future design. A labor process perspective can offer the advantage of being able to design complex and interdependent systems while more clearly viewing current jobs and the consequences of planned systems for different interest groups.
Keywords: Distributed work, Division of labor, Employment, Interdependent work, Jobs, Labor process, Skill, Use, Work

Techniques for Awareness

Thunderwire: A Field Study of an Audio-Only Media Space BIBAKPDF 238-247
  Debby Hindus; Mark S. Ackerman; Scott Mainwaring; Brian Starr
To explore the potential of using audio by itself in a shared media system, we studied a workgroup using an audio-only media space. This media space, called Thunderwire, combined high-quality audio with open connections to create a shared space for its users.
   The two-month field study provided a richly nuanced understanding of this audio space's social use. The system afforded rich sociable interactions. Indeed, within the field study, audio by itself afforded a telepresent environment for its users. However while a usable media space and a useful social space, Thunderwire required its users to adapt to many audio-only conditions.
Keywords: Audio, Audio spaces, Media spaces, Electronic social spaces, Social presence, Speech interactions, Mediated communication, Computer-mediated communication, CMC, Telepresence, Social interactions, Rich interactions, Norms
Techniques for Addressing Fundamental Privacy and Disruption Tradeoffs in Awareness Support Systems BIBAKPDF 248-257
  Scott E. Hudson; Ian Smith
This paper describes a fundamental dual tradeoff that occurs in systems supporting awareness for distributed work groups, and presents several specific new techniques which illustrate good compromise points within this tradeoff space. This dual tradeoff is between privacy and awareness, and between awareness and disturbance. Simply stated, the more information about oneself that leaves your work area, the more potential for awareness of you exists for your colleagues. Unfortunately, this also represents the greatest potential for intrusion on your privacy. Similarly, the more information that is received about the activities of colleagues, the more potential awareness we have of them. However, at the same time, the more information we receive, the greater the chance that the information will become a disturbance to our normal work.
   This dual tradeoff seems to be a fundamental one. However, by carefully examining awareness problems in the light of this tradeoff it is possible to devise techniques which expose new points in the design space. These new points provide different types and quantities of information so that awareness can be achieved without invading the privacy of the sender, or creating a disturbance for the receiver. This paper presents four such techniques, each based on a careful selection of the information transmitted.
Keywords: Distributed work groups, Awareness support, Privacy, Audio, Video, Visualization, Media spaces
A Usability Study of Awareness Widgets in a Shared Workspace Groupware System BIBAKPDF 258-267
  Carl Gutwin; Mark Roseman; Saul Greenberg
Workspace awareness is knowledge about others' interaction with a shared workspace. Groupware systems provide only limited information about other participants, often compromising workspace awareness. This paper describes a usability study of several widgets designed to help maintain awareness in groupware workspaces. These widgets included a miniature view, a radar view, a multi-user scrollbar, a glance function, and a "what you see is what I do" view. The study examined the widgets' information content, how easily people could interpret them, and whether they were distracting. Observations, questionnaires, and interviews indicate that the miniature and radar views are valuable for spatial manipulation tasks. The results also suggest new design requirements for awareness widgets: they should support both shared and individual work, provide familiar representations, and link perception and action.
Keywords: Workspace awareness, Shared workspaces, Usability study

Concurrency

Consistency Guarantees: Exploiting Application Semantics for Consistency Management in a Collaboration Toolkit BIBAKPDF 268-277
  Paul Dourish
CSCW toolkits are designed to ease development of CSCW applications. They provide common, reusable components for cooperative system design, allowing application programmers to concentrate on the details of their particular applications. The underlying assumption is that toolkit components can be designed and implemented independently of the details of particular applications. However, there is good evidence to suggest that this is not true.
   This paper presents a new technique which allows programmers to express application requirements, so that toolkit structures can be adapted to different circumstances. Prospero is a toolkit which uses this technique to meet different application needs flexibly.
Keywords: Application control, CSCW toolkits, Prospero, Consistency management, Consistency guarantees
A Concurrency Control Framework for Collaborative Systems BIBAKPDF 278-287
  Jonathan Munson; Prasun Dewan
We have developed a new framework for supporting concurrency control in collaborative applications. It supports multiple degrees of consistency and allows users to choose concurrency control policies based on the objects they are manipulating, the tasks they are performing, and the coupling and merge policies they are using. Concurrency control policies are embodied in hierarchical, constructor-based lock compatibility tables. Entries in these tables may be specified explicitly or derived automatically from coupling and merge policies. In this paper, we motivate and describe the framework, identify several useful concurrency control policies it can support, evaluate its flexibility, and give conclusions and directions for future work.
Keywords: Concurrency control, Collaborative systems, Consistency criteria, Coupling, Merging, Transactions
An Integrating, Transformation-Oriented Approach to Concurrency Control and Undo in Group Editors BIBAKPDF 288-297
  Matthias Ressel; Doris Nitsche-Ruhland; Rul Gunzenhauser
Concurrency control and group undo are important issues in the design of groupware, especially for interactive group editors. We present an improved version of an existing distributed algorithm for concurrency control that is based on operation transformations. Since the usability of the algorithm relies on its formal correctness, we present a set of necessary and sufficient conditions to be satisfied in order to ensure consistency in a replicated architecture. We identify desirable properties of operation transformations and show how our approach can be employed to implement group undo. The approach has been applied to build a prototypical group editor for text; some experiences gained are presented.
Keywords: Concurrency control, Group editors, Group undo, Groupware, Interaction model, Operation transformation

Setting up Encounters

Supporting Social Awareness @ Work, Design, and Experience BIBAKPDF 298-307
  Konrad Tollmar; Ovidiu Sandor; Anna Schomer
During the last year we have been designing and studying a computer based tool intended to strengthen social group awareness within a research laboratory. While awareness has been a subject of previous research it is still unclear how it should be conceptualized and how it can be provided for a CSCW system. In order to investigate this, and hence to attempt to create a system that would gain acceptance in the user community, we have been using a mixture of user-centered and participatory design methods. This paper presents the design process, the resulting system as well as users' comments on it. Based on all this, issues related to awareness are discussed and ideas for further studies are suggested.
Keywords: Computer supported cooperative work, Awareness, User centered design, Participatory design
FreeWalk: Supporting Casual Meetings in a Network BIBAKPDF 308-314
  Hideyuki Nakanishi; Chikara Yoshida; Toshikazu Nishimura; Toru Ishida
FreeWalk is a desktop meeting environment to support informal communication. FreeWalk provides a 3-D community common where everybody can meet and can behave just as they do in real life. Each participant is represented as a pyramid of 3-D polygons on which his/her live video is mapped, and can move freely. Voice volume is proportional to the distance between sender and recipient so that many participants can talk without confusion. Various behaviors have been noted so far, such as approaching a talking couple from a distance to secretly listen to their conversation.
Keywords: Video conference, Casual meetings, Informal communication, Tele-presence, 3-D space, Shared space, Community common, Communityware, CSCW
Piazza: A Desktop Environment Supporting Impromptu and Planned Interactions BIBAKPDF 315-324
  Ellen Isaacs; John C. Tang; Trevor Morris
Much of the support for communication across distributed communities has focused on meetings and intentional contact. However, most interactions within co-located groups occur when people happen to run into each other. Such unintended interactions should also be supported among distributed communities. We conducted a study of the communication patterns of a large, distributed organization and found that people tend to disseminate information using formal techniques, even though people usually receive information informally. We then designed a system called Piazza that is intended to support the range of communication styles evident in large communities, paying particular attention to addressing the problems revealed in our study. Piazza allows people to be aware of others who are doing similar tasks when they are using their computers, thereby enabling unintended interactions. It also supports intentional contacts and planned meetings. We discuss issues for analysis in an upcoming use study.
Keywords: Informal communication, Unintended interactions, Awareness, Networkers, Enterprise-wide communication

Places for Collaboration

TeamRooms: Network Places for Collaboration BIBAKPDF 325-333
  Mark Roseman; Saul Greenberg
Teams whose members are in close physical proximity often rely on team rooms to serve both as meeting places and repositories of the documents and artifacts that support their projects. TeamRooms is a groupware system that fills the role of a team room for groups whose members can work both co-located and at a distance. Facilities in TeamRooms allow team members to collaborate either in real-time or asynchronously, and to customize their shared electronic space with tools to suit their needs. Unlike many groupware systems, all TeamRooms documents and artifacts are fully persistent.
Keywords: Groupware, Shared electronic spaces, GroupKit
Physical Spaces, Virtual Places and Social Worlds: A Study of Work in the Virtual BIBAKPDF 334-343
  Geraldine Fitzpatrick; Simon Kaplan; Tim Mansfield
This case study explores the nature of work for one group of systems administrators. Their virtual work domain offered little support for collaboration and mechanisms in the physical domain were often used instead. However, the way that group members were able to make sense of their complex virtual work environment suggests a new interpretation of spatial metaphors for the design of collaborative systems. This is one based on 'place' or 'locale', and 'centres', taking into account the observation that people work in multiple social worlds simultaneously, that these social worlds provide a structuring over the work domain, and that the individual draws from this structure elements relevant to their tasks.
Keywords: Ethnography, Grounded theory, Systems administration, Social worlds, Spatial metaphors, CSCW
Supporting Multi-User, Multi-Applet Workspaces in CBE BIBAKPDF 344-353
  Jang Ho Lee; Atul Prakash; Trent Jaeger; Gwobaw Wu
Our experience with Internet-based scientific collaboratories indicates that they need to be user-extensible, allow users to add tools and objects dynamically to shared workspaces, permit users to move work dynamically between private and shared workspaces, and be easily accessible over a network. We present the software architecture of an environment, called CBE, for building collaboratories to meet such needs. CBE provides user-extensibility by allowing a collaboratory to be constructed as a coordinated collection of group-aware applets. To support dynamic reconfiguration of shared workspaces and to allow access over the Internet, CBE uses the metaphor of rooms as the high-level grouping mechanism for applets and users. Rooms may contain applets, users, and arbitrary data objects. Rooms can be used for both asynchronous and synchronous collaboration because their state persists across synchronous sessions. Room participants may have different roles in a room (such as administrator, member and observer), with appropriate access rights. A prototype of the model has been implemented in Java and can be run from a Java-enabled Web browser.
Keywords: Groupware, CSCW toolkits, Shared electronic workspaces, Web-based collaboration, Group communication, DistView, Access control

Work & Records

Documents and Professional Practice: 'Bad' Organizational Reasons for 'Good' Clinical Records BIBAKPDF 354-363
  Christian Heath; Paul Luff
Despite the widespread introduction of information technology into primary health care within the United Kingdom, medical practitioners continue to use the more traditional paper medical record often alongside the computerised system. The resilience of the paper document is not simply a consequence of an impoverished design, but rather a product of the socially organised practices and reasoning which surround the use of the record within day to day consultative work. The practices that underpin the use of the medical records may have a range of important implications, not only for the general design of systems to support collaborative work, but also for our conceptions of 'writers', 'readers', 'objects' and 'records' utilised in those designs.
Keywords: Documentary practices, Categorisation, Record keeping
Computer Support for Clinical Practice: Embedding and Evolving Protocols of Care BIBAKPDF 364-369
  Barbara Katzenberg; Fred Pickard; John McDermott
Protocols of care are representations of practice that specify how patients should be treated given specified conditions. We have been exploring ways that protocols of care can be encoded in computers so that they can actively structure work people do in clinics to accord with standards of care. We describe one such implementation called the Care Manager. Because a protocol's power to suggest action lies in people's alignment to it, and because organizational change can make such standards obsolete overnight, means for keeping protocols in sync with work practice are a necessary accompaniment to any implementation of protocol-based care.
Keywords: Standardization, Clinical information systems, Care management, Protocol-based care, Guidelines, Coordination technologies
Paperwork At 78kph BIBAKPDF 370-379
  Esa Auramaki; Mike Robinson; Anne Aaltonen; Mikko Kovalainen; Arja Liinamaa; Taina Tuuna-Vaiska
In Finnish paper mills the stream of paper being produced can, and does break. A major concern is when these breaks are recurrent or prolonged. Downtime is expensive. The causes and remedies for problem breaks in a sophisticated and highly automated process can be hard to find. The paper reports on research from a CSCW perspective into the work activities of production crews, the social and information infrastructures that support them. It makes design recommendations for enhanced support for Organisational Memory and ways it might be differentially indexed to suit production crews.
Keywords: CSCW, Paper mills, Process automation, Organisational memory, Indexing

Virtual Environment

Practically Accomplishing Immersion: Cooperation In and For Virtual Environments BIBAKPDF 380-389
  John Bowers; Jon O'Brien; James Pycock
Collaborative virtual environments (CVEs) employ virtual reality technology to support cooperative work. Building on ethnographic and interaction analyses of CVEs in use, we argue that many and varied activities are required to set up, maintain and troubleshoot CVEs. These activities cross-over between virtual worlds and the real, physical environments which meeting participants inhabit. Thus, an understanding of CVEs must attend to the relations between cooperation within a CVE and for it to be established as an arena for intelligible social action. These findings suggest a social scientifically informed respecification of what it is to be 'immersed' in a CVE.
Keywords: Virtual reality, CSCW, Studies of work, Ethnography, Interaction analysis, Research methods, Evaluation
Cooperative Virtual Environments: Lessons from 2D Multi User Interfaces BIBAKPDF 390-398
  Gareth Smith
Existing Cooperative Virtual Environments present the same shared world to each of the cooperating users. This is analogous to the use of strict-WYSIWIS in early 2D interfaces. Research in the area of shared 2D interfaces has shown a strong trend to support individual tailoring of the shared views, and move away from the strict-WYSIWIS abstraction. This paper argues that the development of Cooperative Virtual Environments can gain from the experience of research into in shared 2D interface systems, and presents a model to manage the use of subjective views in Cooperative Virtual Environments.
Keywords: WYSIWIS, Shared interfaces, View coupling, VR
My Partner is a Real Dog: Cooperation with Social Agents BIBAKPDF 399-408
  Salvatore Parise; Sara Kiesler; Lee Sproull; Keith Waters
We investigated how cooperation with a computer agent was affected by the agent's pictorial realism, human-likeness, and likability. Participants played a social dilemma game with a talking computer agent that resembled a person, a dog, or a cartoon dog, or with a confederate interacting through a video link. Participants cooperated highly with the person computer agent and with the confederate. They loved the dog and dog cartoon agents, but (excepting dog owners), they cooperated significantly less with the dog agents. Behavioral and questionnaire results suggest likability is less important than respect in prompting cooperation with a computer agent.
Keywords: Cooperation, Social agents, Social behavior, Interface design

Groupware Usage

Talking to Strangers: An Evaluation of the Factors Affecting Electronic Collaboration BIBAKPDF 409-418
  Steve Whittaker
This empirical study examines factors influencing the success of a commercial groupware system in creating group archives and supporting asynchronous communication. The study investigates the use of Lotus Notes in a workplace setting. We interviewed 21 Notes users and identified three factors that they thought contributed to the successful use of Notes databases for archiving and communication. We then tested the effect of these factors on 15,571 documents in 20 different databases. Contrary to our users' beliefs, we found the presence of an active database moderator actually inhibited discussions, and reduced browsing. Further paradoxical results were that conversations and the creation of group archives were more successful in databases with large numbers of diverse participants. Conversations and archiving were less successful in smaller, more homogeneous, project teams. Database size was also important: a large database containing huge amounts of information was more likely to be used for further conversations and archiving, than a small one. This result again ran counter to users' beliefs that small databases are superior. We discuss possible reasons for these findings in terms of critical mass and media competition and conclude with implications for design.
Keywords: Asynchronous communications, Newsgroups, Group memory, Empirical studies, Workplace interaction, Interpersonal communication
Groupware in the Wild: Lessons Learned from a Year of Virtual Collocation BIBAKPDF 419-427
  Judith S. Olson; Stephanie Teasley
Current research on CSCW for remote groups focuses on one technology at a time: shared editing on the desktop, video conferencing, glancing at others' offices, email, etc. When a real group sets out to work remotely, however, they need to consider all aspects of work, synchronous, asynchronous, and the transitions to and from. This paper explores the planning, implementation, and use of a suite of groupware tools over the course of a year in a real group with remote members. We found that groupware affected people's commitments and the nature of the work distribution.
Keywords: Groupware, Remote work, Analysis of work, Lotus Notes, Shared-X, Video on the desktop
Groupware Implementation: Reinvention in the Sociotechnical Frame BIBAKPDF 428-437
  Tora K. Bikson; J. D. Eveland
Sociotechnical systems theory suggests several themes about implementation, including continuous mutual adaptation of tool and context, task emphasis, the priority of process, and changes in evaluative criteria over time. The effectiveness of these ideas is illustrated in the experience of the World Bank in its implementation of a group decision support system, GroupSystems.
Keywords: Groupware, Innovation, Implementation, Technological change, Sociotechnical design

Panels

Groupware at Work: It's Here Now, But Do We Know What It Is Yet? BIBAPDF 438-439
  Gianfranco Bazzigaluppi; Shoshana Zuboff; Claudio Ciborra; Wanda J. Orlikowski; Eleanor Wynn; Tora Bikson
Given the rapidly expanding deployment of groupware, do we now have an improved, empirically corroborated understanding of what groupware is? Each panelist has recently completed a case study of an implementation of groupware. Each offers a different answer to the question.
From Retrospective to Prospective: The Next Research Agenda for CSCW BIBAPDF 440
  Liam Bannon; Lucy Suchman; Terry Winograd; Giorgio de Michelis; John Bowers
It is nearly a decade since the appearance of the enormously influential "Understanding Computers and Cognition" by Terry Winograd and Fernando Flores and "Plans and Situated Actions" by Lucy Suchman. This panel offers a continuation of the lively and often impassioned debate over some of the foundational issues in CSCW and the premises upon which we act as researchers, designers, developers and potential users of collaborative work systems.
Peopled Online Virtual Worlds: A New Home for Cooperating Communities, a New Frontier for Interaction Design BIBAKPDF 441-442
  Bruce Damer; Amy Bruckman
Multi-user virtual worlds are proliferating on the Internet. These are two and three dimensional graphical environments inhabited by users represented as digital actors called "avatars". Through this new medium for cooperating communities, a wide variety of Internet users are participating in a large scale social experiment and collaborating on a variety of projects. The inhabited virtual world is an exciting new medium for HCI professionals including interaction and graphic designers, and educators and researchers focused on distance learning and teleworking. It also appeals to children and ordinary users of the Internet as a vast new digital playground and a venue for personal expression. This panel will present a brief overview the inhabited virtual world medium and then discuss its merits and limitations as a medium for cooperating communities and interaction design.
Keywords: Virtual worlds, Social computing, Avatars, Collaborative workspaces, VRML, Three dimensional interfaces, Multi-user virtual reality, Internet

Short Papers

Red Light, Green Light: Using Peripheral Awareness of Availability to Improve the Timing of Spontaneous Communication BIBPDF 443
  Trace Wax
A Group-Oriented Method of Interaction for Informal Communication BIBPDF 443
  Akihiko Obata; Kazuo Sasaki; Yoshiharu Sato; Hideo Ueno
Desktopconferencing System Using Multiple Still-Pictures: Desktop MAJIC BIBPDF 443
  Shunsuke Tanaka; Ken-ichi Okada; Shukei Kurihara; Yutaka Matsushita
Facilitating Collaborative Problem Solving with Distant Mentor BIBPDF 443
  Patricia Schank; Mark Schlager
Video Contact Affects the Learning of Organizational Routines in Laboratory Studies BIBPDF 443
  Daniel B. Horn; Michael Cohen
COBRA-Based Cooperative Learning System Using Three-Dimensional Shared Space BIBPDF 443
  Katsumi Hosoya; Akihisa Kawanobe; Susumu Kakuta
Prairie: Supporting Navigation and Social Networks in a Virtualized Organization BIBPDF 443
  Stephen H. Sato; Anatole V. Gershman; Kishore S. Swaminathan
Enhanced Mailing Lists Server: Active Circulation of Comments on Web Pages BIBPDF 443
  Shinichi Hiraiwa; Youji Kohda
Patterns of Communication between Reporters and University PR Professionals: The Role of New Communication Technologies in the Rhetorical Practice of Institutional Agents BIBPDF 443
  Jolene Galegher; Gilbert Wilkes
Medicine in the Dark: Obtaining Design Requirements for a Medical Collaboratory from Observation of Radiologists at Work BIBPDF 444
  Elizabeth Yakel; Stephane Cote; Thomas Finholt; Michael Cohen
Collaborative Interfaces for Customer Service BIBPDF 444
  Catherine Wolf; Shuang Chen; Shahrokh Daijavad; Tong Fin; Tetsu Fujiasaki; Eric Roffman; Maroun Touma
Experiences with Distributed, Asynchronous Software Inspection BIBPDF 444
  Michael Stein; Vahid Mashayekhi; John Riedl; Soren Harner
To Cook or Not to Cook: A Case Study of Decision Aiding in Quick-Service Restaurant Environments BIBPDF 444
  Ann M. Bisantz; Sally M. Cohen; Michael Gravelle
Towards the Definition of a Design Space for Collaborative Systems BIBPDF 444
  M. Teresa Soriano; Jesus Favela
Feather, Scent, and Shaker: Supporting Simple Intimacy BIBPDF 444
  Rob Strong; Bill Gaver
An Active Microphone Method for CSCW Systems -- Toward Open Co-Operative Work Space BIBPDF 444
  Takashi Endo; Masayuki Nakazawa; Toshiro Mukai; Shigeki Nagaya; Ryuichi Oka
CSCW'96 Doctoral Colloquium BIBPDF 445-447
  JoAnne Yates; Barbara Dickmann

Doctoral Colloquium

Conflict and Cooperation in the Courts: Case Study of How CSCW Alters Work BIBAPDF 445
  Margaret S. Elliott
Cooperative work has been studied by social scientists since the 19th century. Recently, computer scientists have explored cooperative work to understand how to best design computer supported cooperative work (CSCW) systems for effective use in organizations. Less attention has been focused on the study of conflict within cooperative work settings. This qualitative study addresses conflict within cooperative work in the California criminal courts where attorneys and judges work cooperatively to resolve disputes in an adversarial setting. The CSCW applications being studied are computer-aided realtime transcription and legal research digital libraries. Results will contribute to our understanding of the nature of conflict in cooperative work and of the use of production level CSCW embedded in complex work.
Group Memories: A Knowledge Medium for Communities of Practice BIBAPDF 445
  Stefanie N. Lindstaedt
Designing domain-oriented systems requires knowledge both in system and in the domain to be supported. Communication between domain experts and system developers is essential to elicit or "activate" this knowledge. Contextualized information, conveyed in ongoing communication and evaluation, sheds light on problems and solutions that may otherwise remain uncovered. This information is valuable beyond the particular situation in which it originates. Experiences of our L3D research group with industries and universities have shown that the tasks of activating and capturing communication about system design, relating it to prior experiences, and feeding new insights back into a group memory face a number of challenges. I am developing an interactive group memory management system called GIMMe for growing diverse group memories during software design to explore the issues surrounding these challenges.
Metonymy as an Organising Principle of IT Communities BIBAPDF 445
  Olaf Boettger
This research suggests two ways of examining 'technologies-in-community' assemblages: a local-horizontal approach (similar to anthropology) and a global-vertical approach (theory). Both approaches as well as the movement between them are assembled according to organising principles. My PhD research specifically examines the role of metonymy as an organising principle.
   Metonymy has been neglected in research when compared with metaphor but is one of the main mechanisms for human categorisation, i.e. for making sense of complexity and instability. Examining metonymy leads us back to basic cybernetic concerns about the nature of information and its influence in structuring our ways of thinking about information (technology).
   These insights can then be used to link the two approaches mentioned above and apply this knowledge to practical issues such as e.g. the development of genres or questions of design.
How Organizational Structure and Culture Shape CSCW BIBAPDF 446
  Angela Lin
This research project investigates how organizational structure and culture shape the experience of CSCW applications. The project aims to explore how computer support for work is implemented and how it evolves through time. The research is given a strong theoretical basis through a carefully structured analysis of motivating theories within the CSCW literature. This analysis reveals areas of (relative) strength in terms of theoretical and empirical work to date, as well as areas of (relative) weakness. The research is intended to contribute in particular to these 'weaker' areas.
   The empirical element of the research is to be carried out through multiple case studies using an interpretive approach, and seeks to provide rich description and insight, rather than tested hypotheses. The negotiation of case study location is currently under way, but one main intention is to undertake studies in organizational settings with significant cultural and physical distance, as for example in multi-national organizations working around the globe.
Providing Awareness Information in Remote Computer-Mediated Collaboration BIBAPDF 446
  Susan E. McDaniel
When people are working together from remote locations, they have much less awareness of each others' activities, presence, and availability than if they were co-located. I present a summary of a plan designed to determine the information people want and need about colleagues, the information they find useful, the information they use, and how the provision of such information changes their work and communication processes.
Computer Supported Cooperative Work in Clinical Practice BIBAPDF 446
  Jakob E. Bardram
The primary objective of this Ph.D.-project is to provide an understanding of the close-knit cooperation between healthcare professionals within hospitals and utilise this knowledge to design a prototype for supporting this cooperation. This prototype will become a substantial part of the design requirements for a major re-design of a large mainframe-based Hospital Information System. From a research perspective the objectives are to engage in a Participatory Design (PD) effort in product development and to learn how the cooperative design strategies can be brought into play in such a development project. Furthermore, the objective is to investigate how ideas and theories from the research field of CSCW can become more design-oriented. CSCW shares with PD the emphasis on understanding the work-practices of an organisation in order to develop computer support for this work, which seems very promising from a design perspective.
The Language of Coordination: A Method for the Distributed Design of Complex Organizations BIBAPDF 446
  George M. Wyner
A critical problem facing any organization is the task of coordinating its disparate components so that they function together as a coherent, effective whole. A limitation of existing approaches to coordination is the assumption that this problem can be solved using an a priori centralized design process. Such an assumption is problematic given the enormous complexity of even the smallest organization. In this dissertation I propose a coordination design method which supports an iterative design process distributed over multiple independent designers. The method centers on a coordination design language which can be used to systematically generate possible solutions to a given coordination problem. The method supports distributed design by using the design language to resolve and integrate a series of local coordination solutions into a globally coherent coordination strategy. I evaluate this method by means of a distributed design scenario based on interviews and observation in an actual organization.
Temporal Interface Issues and Software Architecture for Remote Cooperative Work BIBAPDF 447
  Devina Ramduny
The rapid growth in world-wide communications enable cooperative users to collaborate and access shared resources when distributed remotely. Most current systems assume that network communications are fast enough to give the illusion of communicating over local networks. However, these assumptions do not always hold and this may give rise to unexpected behaviour for the users. Together with temporal problems which occur as a result of communication channels, the very nature of cooperative work introduces delays and lags. Although these temporal properties are theoretically important, they have been poorly investigated with the exception of a few studies. The aim of this research is to develop the existing theoretical analysis of these temporal problems and to use this analysis to drive the development of software architectures for widely distributed groupware systems. The need for feedthrough and the way that awareness issues are affected by communication delays will be investigated.
Groupware Support for Workspace Awareness BIBAPDF 447
  Carl Gutwin
Maintaining awareness of others is a normal part of everyday collaboration, but when group work is distributed, people are less able to keep track of one another. In particular, real-time groupware systems often do not help people maintain workspace awareness, the understanding of others' interaction with a shared workspace. The goal of this research is to provide effective and general support for maintaining workspace awareness in groupware. This overview discusses workspace awareness and the steps being taken to understand how it can be supported. I describe four areas of the research: the identification of critical elements of information, its transformation to a groupware context, the development of display principles for presenting the information, and the evaluation of systems built according to those principles.
Research in Communication Services for Collaborative Systems BIBAPDF 447
  Robert W. Hall
My research considers the problem of providing communication protocol support for large-scale group collaboration systems for use in environments such as the Internet which are subject to packet loss, wide variations in end-to-end delays, and transient partitions.
   The Corona Communication Services framework supports two communication paradigms: the publish/subscribe paradigm and the peer group paradigm. In the publish/subscribe paradigm one or more data sources or publishers send data to multiple subscribers. This paradigm is characterized by the anonymous nature of communication, where a publisher is aware of the set of subscribers, but the subscribers are unaware of each other and only aware about the publisher that they are receiving data from. In the peer group paradigm of communication on the other hand, all the group members are aware of each other, and can send and receive data directly to each other.
   From this initial implementation, my research is moving towards a more general frame-work of communication services with the emphasis of providing mechanisms to support different policies that may be specified by open distributed collaborative systems while addressing fundamental problems in providing such scalable, reliable services.