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CSCW Tables of Contents: 8688909294969800020406

Proceedings of ACM CSCW'00 Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work

Fullname:Proceedings of ACM CSCW'00 Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work
Editors:Wendy Kellogg; Steve Whittaker; Paul Dourish; Sarah Kiesler; David Durand
Location:Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA
Dates:2000-Dec-02 to 2000-Dec-06
Publisher:ACM
Standard No:ACM ISBN 1-58113-222-0; ACM Order Number 612000; ACM DL: Table of Contents hcibib: CSCW00
Papers:51
Pages:363
Links:Conference Home Page
  1. Video in Collaboration
  2. Lawyers, Help, & Money: Three Cases
  3. Infrastructure: Privacy and Data Management
  4. Making Contact
  5. Component Based Infrastructures
  6. Instruction and Learning
  7. Remote Guidance
  8. Operational Transformation and Consistency
  9. Mobility
  10. Expertise and Explanation
  11. Flexibility and Constraint
  12. Facilitation
  13. Distance and Proximity
  14. Video Presentations
  15. Opening Plenary
  16. Invited Talk
  17. Closing Plenary
  18. Panels

Video in Collaboration

The Effects of Filtered Video on Awareness and Privacy BIBAKPDF 1-10
  Michael Boyle; Christopher Edwards; Saul Greenberg
Video-based media spaces are designed to support casual interaction between intimate collaborators. Yet transmitting video is fraught with privacy concerns. Some researchers suggest that the video stream be filtered to mask out potentially sensitive information. While a variety of filtering techniques exist, they have not been evaluated for how well they safeguard privacy.
   In this paper, we analyze how a blur and a pixelize video filter might impact both awareness and privacy in a media space. Each filter is considered at nine different levels of fidelity, ranging from heavily applied filter levels that mask almost all information, to lightly applied filters that reveal almost everything. We examined how well observers of several filtered video scenes extract particular awareness cues: the number of actors; their posture (moving, standing, seated); their gender; the visible objects (basic to detailed); and how available people look (their busyness, seriousness and approachability). We also examined the privacy-preserving potential of each filter level in the context of common workplace activities. Our results suggest that the blur filter, and to a lesser extent the pixelize filter, have a level suitable for providing awareness information while safeguarding privacy.
Keywords: Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - Multimedia Information Systems (H.5.1): Video (e.g., tape, disk, DVI); Computing Milieux -Management of Computing and Information Systems - Security and Protection (K.6.5); Information Systems -Information Systems Applications - Office Automation (H.4.1): Groupware; Computing Milieux -Computers and Society - Public Policy Issues (K.4.1): Privacy; Information Systems -Information Storage and Retrieval - Information Search and Retrieval (H.3.3): Information filtering; Design, Human Factors, Measurement, Management, Performance, Security, Theory; always-on video, awareness, casual interaction, distributed groupware, media spaces
Impact of Video Frame Rate on Communicative Behaviour in Two and Four Party Groups BIBAKPDF 11-20
  Matthew Jackson; Anne H. Anderson; Rachel McEwan; Jim Mullin
There has been relatively little research on the impact of different levels of video quality on users of multimedia communication systems. This paper describes a study examining the impact of two levels of video frame rate on pairs and groups of four engaged on a design task, looking at one particular aspect of communication, namely reference. It was found that a low frame rate made speakers more communicatively cautious, using longer descriptions and more elaborations to refer to pictures used in the task, possibly as a result of being less certain that they had been understood. This only occurred in the two party groups despite a prediction that groups of four would be affected most by the frame rate manipulation. This study shows that video quality can have subtle effects on communication and that identical levels of quality may have different effects depending on the situation.
Keywords: Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - Multimedia Information Systems (H.5.1): Video (e.g., tape, disk, DVI); Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - User Interfaces (H.5.2); Information Systems -Models and Principles - User/Machine Systems (H.1.2); Design, Experimentation, Measurement, Management, Performance, Theory; common ground, distributed groups, frame rate, group size, interpersonal communication, referring expressions, user requirements, video quality
Coordination of Communication: Effects of Shared Visual Context on Collaborative Work BIBAKPDF 21-30
  Susan R. Fussell; Robert E. Kraut; Jane Siegel
We outline some of the benefits of shared visual information for collaborative repair tasks and report on a study comparing collaborative performance on a manual task by workers and helpers who are located side-by-side or connected via audio-video or audio-only links. Results show that the dyads complete the task more quickly and accurately when helpers are co-located than when they are connected via an audio link. However, they didn't achieve similar efficiency gains when they communicated through an audio/video link. These results demonstrate the value of a shared visual work space, but raise questions about the adequacy of current video communication technology for implementing it.
Keywords: Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - Group and Organization Interfaces (H.5.3): Collaborative computing; Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - Multimedia Information Systems (H.5.1); Computer Systems Organization -Computer System Implementation - Microcomputers (C.5.3): Portable devices (e.g., laptops, personal digital assistants); Design, Human Factors, Measurement, Management, Performance, Theory; computer-supported collaborative work, conversational analysis, empirical studies, video mediated communication, wearable computers

Lawyers, Help, & Money: Three Cases

Designing to Support Adversarial Collaboration BIBAKPDF 31-39
  Andrew L. Cohen; Debra Cash; Michael J. Muller
We investigate the phenomenon of adversarial collaboration, through field studies of a legal firm. Adversarial collaboration requires that people with opposing goals (adversaries) come to agreement, usually producing a shared product that reflects the interests of the adversarial parties. Adversarial collaboration is characterized by secrecy, advocacy and discovery. To support this activity, software should provide flexible, selective sharing of awareness and access. These requirements contrast with conventional shared resource and awareness systems, which tend to assume cooperative collaboration, characterized by open processes and static membership lists. We illustrate these ideas in a redesign of our PeopleFlow research prototype.
Keywords: Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - Group and Organization Interfaces (H.5.3); Computing Milieux -Management of Computing and Information Systems - Security and Protection (K.6.5); Computing Milieux -Computers and Society - Public Policy Issues (K.4.1): Privacy; Computer Applications - Administrative Data Processing (J.1): Law; Design, Documentation, Legal Aspects, Management, Performance, Security, Theory; adversarial collaboration, collaborative editing, collaborative writing, cooperative collaboration, design, documents, lawyers, privacy, secrecy
Evolution of Contact Point: A Case Study of a Help Desk and its Users BIBAKPDF 41-48
  Lena Mamykina; Catherine G. Wolf
This paper describes the evolution of a concept, Contact Point, the research process through which it evolved, and the work context and practices which drove its evolution. Contact Point is a web-based application that helps a business manage its relationships with its customers. It can also be used within a business as a means for managing the relationship between parts of the business. In this paper we describe a study of the applicability of Contact Point to the technical services organization and field personnel of a medical device manufacturer. We found that there were opportunities to potentially reduce call volume through Contact Point. We discovered, however, that the technical service representatives sometimes filled roles other than providing information in their telephone conversations with field personnel. These functions included reassuring callers that the callers' answers to questions were correct, providing a rationale for information, and redirecting calls to other departments. The ability to share a document and collaborate in real time was viewed as very valuable. We also discovered that the field personnel need information from a variety of other people in order to do their jobs. These observations were used to enhance the next iteration of Contact Point and to develop strategies for the introduction of Contact Point to users.
Keywords: case study, design process, help desk, user needs, user-centered design
Machinery in the New Factories: Interaction and Technology in a Bank's Telephone Call Centre BIBAKPDF 49-58
  John Bowers; David Martin
This paper presents analyses of calls to a bank's telephone call centre documenting the way calls are opened, closed, and how financial services are actioned. Throughout, how the social interaction between caller and operator is interleaved with the human-computer interaction between operator and the bank's accounts database is attended to. We show participants varying in their orientation to each other and to providing and receiving database information, and how these matters are influenced by the recent introduction of more active, intelligent technology. Implications for design of interactive technology in such settings and for the study of organisations in CSCW are offered.
Keywords: Computing Methodologies -Artificial Intelligence - Applications and Expert Systems (I.2.1); Computer Applications - Administrative Data Processing (J.1): Financial; Information Systems -Models and Principles - User/Machine Systems (H.1.2); Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - User Interfaces (H.5.2); Design, Human Factors, Management, Performance, Theory; conversation analysis, intelligent systems, organisations, social interaction, technology

Infrastructure: Privacy and Data Management

Ensuring Privacy in Presence Awareness: An Automated Verification Approach BIBAKPDF 59-68
  Patrice Godefroidy; James D. Herbsleb; Lalita Jategaonkar Jagadeesany; Du Li
Providing information about other users and their activities is a central function of many collaborative applications. The data that provide this "presence awareness" are usually automatically generated and highly dynamic. For example, services such as AOL Instant Messenger allow users to observe the status of one another and to initiate and participate in chat sessions. As such services become more powerful, privacy and security issues regarding access to sensitive user data become critical. Two key software engineering challenges arise in this context: Policies regarding access to data in collaborative applications have subtle complexities, and must be easily modifiable during a collaboration.
   Users must be able to have a high degree of confidence that the implementations of these policies are correct.
   In this paper, we propose a framework that uses an automated verification approach to ensure that such systems conform to complex policies. Our approach takes advantage of VeriSoft, a recent tool for systematically testing implementations of concurrent systems, and is applicable to a wide variety of specification and development platforms for collaborative applications. we illustrate the key features of our framework by applying it to the development of a presence awareness system.
Keywords: computer-supported cooperative work, coordination, presence awareness, privacy, security, verification
Data Management Support for Asynchronous Groupware BIBAKPDF 69-78
  Nuno Preguica; J. Legatheaux Martins; Henrique Domingos; Sergio Duarte
In asynchronous collaborative applications, users usually collaborate accessing and modifying shared information independently. We have designed and implemented a replicated object store to support such applications in distributed environments that include mobile computers. Unlike most data management systems, awareness support is integrated in the system. To improve the chance for new contributions, the system provides high data availability. The development of applications is supported by an object framework that decomposes objects in several components, each one managing a different aspect of object "execution". New data types may be created relying on pre-defined components to handle concurrent updates, awareness information, etc.
Keywords: Information Systems -Information Systems Applications - Office Automation (H.4.1): Groupware; Computer Systems Organization -Computer-Communication Networks - Network Architecture and Design (C.2.1): Wireless communication; Computing Milieux -Management of Computing and Information Systems - Project and People Management (K.6.1): Systems development; Design, Management, Performance, Theory; asynchronous groupware, awareness, development support, mobile computing, object framework

Making Contact

Interaction and Outeraction: Instant Messaging in Action BIBAKPDF 79-88
  Bonnie A. Nardi; Steve Whittaker; Erin Bradner
We discuss findings from an ethnographic study of instant messaging (IM) in the workplace and its implications for media theory. We describe how instant messaging supports a variety of informal communication tasks. We document the affordances of IM that support flexible, expressive communication. We describe some unexpected uses of IM that highlight aspects of communication which are not part of current media theorizing. They pertain to communicative processes people use to connect with each other and to manage communication, rather than to information exchange. We call these processes "outeraction". We discuss how outeractional aspects of communication affect media choice and patterns of media use.
Keywords: Information Systems -Models and Principles - User/Machine Systems (H.1.2); Information Systems -Information Systems Applications - Communications Applications (H.4.3); Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - User Interfaces (H.5.2); Design, Management, Performance, Theory; computer-mediated communication, informal communication, instant messaging, media theory, outeraction
Providing Presence Cues to Telephone Users BIBAKPDF 89-96
  Allen E. Milewski; Thomas M. Smith
A significant problem with telephone communication is that callers do not have enough awareness about the Personal Presence of people they want to call. The result can be unwanted, interrupting calls. The live addressbook is an application that helps users make more informed telephone calls and teleconferences, from anywhere, via their wireless PDA or desktop browser. Unlike other network-based address books, which maintain static information, the live addressbook can display dynamic information about where the recipient currently is (i.e., reach number), and how available he/she currently is for calls. The system accomplishes this by applying to telephony the "Buddy List" concepts made popular in Instant Messaging applications. User trials assess the applicability of Personal Presence information in a telephone context.
Keywords: awareness, mobility, presence, telecommunication
Conversation Trees and Threaded Chats BIBAKPDF 97-105
  Marc Smith; J. J. Cadiz; Byron Burkhalter
Chat programs and instant messaging services are increasingly popular among Internet users. However, basic issues with the interfaces and data structures of most forms of chat limit their utility for use in formal interactions (like group meetings) and decision-making tasks. In this paper, we discuss Threaded Text Chat, a program designed to address some of the deficiencies of current chat programs. Standard forms of chat introduce ambiguity into interaction in a number of ways, most profoundly by rupturing connections between turns and replies. Threaded Chat presents a solution to this problem by supporting the basic turn-taking structure of human conversation. While the solution introduces interface design challenges of its own, usability studies show that users' patterns of interaction in Threaded Chat are equally effective, but different (and possibly more efficient) than standard chat programs.
Keywords: Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - User Interfaces (H.5.2); Information Systems -Information Systems Applications - Communications Applications (H.4.3); Computer Systems Organization -Computer-Communication Networks - General (C.2.0); Information Systems -Models and Principles - User/Machine Systems (H.1.2); Design, Experimentation, Human Factors, Measurement, Management, Performance, Theory; chat programs, computer mediated communication, conversation, human computer human interaction, persistent conversation, synchronous communication, turn-taking

Component Based Infrastructures

Developing Adaptive Groupware Applications using a Mobile Component Framework BIBAKPDF 107-116
  Radu Litiu; Atul Parakash
A need exists to develop groupware systems that adapt to available resources and support user mobility. This paper presents DACIA, a system that provides mechanisms for building such groupware applications. Using DACIA, components of a groupware application can be moved to different hosts during execution, while maintaining communication connectivity with groupware services and other users. DACIA provides mechanisms that simplify building groupware for domains where users are mobile. New collaboration features can be also more easily implemented. DACIA is also applicable to non-mobile environments. We show its applicability to building groupware applications that can be reconfigured at run-time to adapt to changing user demands and resource constraints, for example, by relocating services or introducing new services. This paper describes the architecture of DACIA and its use in building adaptable groupware systems.
Keywords: Information Systems -Information Systems Applications - Office Automation (H.4.1): Groupware; Computer Systems Organization -Computer-Communication Networks - Network Architecture and Design (C.2.1): Wireless communication; Design, Management, Performance, Theory
Composable Collaboration Infrastructures Based on Programming Patterns BIBAPDF 117-126
  Vassil Roussev; Prasun Dewan; Vibhor Jain
In general, collaboration infrastructures have supported sharing of an object based on its logical structure. However, current implementations assume an implicit binding between this logical structure and particular system-defined abstractions. We present a new composable design based on programming patterns that eliminates this binding, thereby increasing the range of supported objects and supporting extensibility.

Instruction and Learning

Designing Presentations for On-Demand Viewing BIBAKPDF 127-134
  Liwei He; Jonathan Grudin; Anoop Gupta
Increasingly often, presentations are given before a live audience, while simultaneously being viewed remotely and recorded for subsequent viewing on-demand over the Web. How should video presentations be designed for web access? How is video accessed and used online? Does optimal design for live and on-demand audiences conflict? We examined detailed behavior patterns of more than 9000 on-demand users of a large corpus of professionally prepared presentations. We find that as many people access these talks on-demand as attend live. Online access patterns differ markedly from live attendance. People watch less overall and skip to different parts of a talk. Speakers designing presentations for viewing on-demand should emphasize key points early in the talk and early within each slide, use slide titles that reveal the talk structure and are meaningful outside the flow of the talk. In some cases the recommendations conflict with optimal design for live audiences. The results also provide guidance in developing tools for on-demand multimedia authoring and use.
Keywords: Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - Multimedia Information Systems (H.5.1): Video (e.g., tape, disk, DVI); Information Systems -Information Storage and Retrieval - Digital Libraries (H.3.7); Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - User Interfaces (H.5.2); Information Systems -Models and Principles - User/Machine Systems (H.1.2); Design, Human Factors, Measurement, Management, Performance, Theory; digital library, streaming media, video on-demand
Distance Learning through Distributed Collaborative Video Viewing BIBAKPDF 135-144
  J. J. Cadiz; Anand Balachandran; Elizabeth Sanocki; Anoop Gupta; Jonathan Grudin; Gavin Jancke
Previous research on Tutored Video Instruction (TVI) shows that learning is enhanced when small groups of students watch and discuss lecture videos together. Using specialized, high-end videoconferencing systems, these improved results have been shown to apply even when the students are in different locations (Distributed TVI, or DTVI). In this paper, we explore two issues in making DTVI-like scenarios widely supported at low cost. First, we explore design of a system that allows distributed individuals to collectively watch video using shared VCR controls such as play, pause, seek, stop. We show how such a system can be built on top of existing commercial technologies. Second, we explore the impact of four alternative discussion channels on student learning and interaction behavior. The four channels-text chat, audioconferencing, videoconferencing, and face-to-face-have differing infrastructure requirements and costs. Our lab studies show that while text chat does not work, there is no significant difference in discussion behavior and learning between audioconferencing and videoconferencing. While lab studies have their limitations and long-term field studies need to be done, the preliminary results point to a low-cost way for a DTVI-like model to be deployed widely in the very near future.
Keywords: Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - Multimedia Information Systems (H.5.1): Video (e.g., tape, disk, DVI); Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - Group and Organization Interfaces (H.5.3): Collaborative computing; Computing Milieux -Computers and Education - Computer Uses in Education (K.3.1): Distance learning; Information Systems -Information Systems Applications - Communications Applications (H.4.3): Computer conferencing, teleconferencing, and videoconferencing; Design, Human Factors, Measurement, Management, Performance, Theory; distance learning, distributed tutored video instruction (DTVI), tutored video instruction (TVI), videoconferencing
Algebra Jam: Supporting Teamwork and Managing Roles in a Collaborative Learning Environment BIBAKPDF 145-154
  Mark K. Singley; Monindar Singh; Peter Fairweather; Robert Farrell; Steven Swerling
We are building a collaborative learning environment that supports teams of students as they collaborate synchronously and remotely to solve situated, multi-step problems involving algebraic modeling. Our system, named Algebra Jam, provides a set of tools to help students overcome two of the most serious impediments to successful collaboration: establishing common ground and maintaining group focus. These tools include tethered and untethered modes of operation including discrepancy notification, a goal-oriented team blackboard, object-oriented chat with collabicons, reification of problem solving roles, and the optional inclusion of a tutor agent as a virtual team participant. The tutor agent not only offers help and feedback on problem solving actions but also accumulates evidence about individual and group problem solving performance in a Bayesian inference network. The system is envisioned as a testbed for developing theories of teaming.
Keywords: Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - Group and Organization Interfaces (H.5.3); Computing Milieux -Computers and Education - Computer Uses in Education (K.3.1): Collaborative learning; Information Systems -Information Systems Applications - Communications Applications (H.4.3); Computing Milieux -Management of Computing and Information Systems - Project and People Management (K.6.1): Management techniques; Design, Human Factors, Management, Performance, Theory; collabicons, object-oriented chat, role reification, team blackboard, team modeling, team tutoring systems

Remote Guidance

GestureMan: A Mobile Robot that Embodies a Remote Instructor's Actions BIBAKPDF 155-162
  Hideaki Kuzuoka; Shinya Oyama; Keiichi Yamazaki; Kenji Suzuki; Mamoru Mitsuishi
When designing systems that support remote instruction on physical tasks, one must consider four requirements: 1) participants should be able to use non-verbal expressions, 2) they must be able to take an appropriate body arrangement to see and show gestures, 3) the instructor should be able to monitor operators and objects, 4) they must be able to organize the arrangement of bodies and tools and gestural expression sequentially and interactively. GestureMan was developed to satisfy these four requirements by using a mobile robot that embodies a remote instructors actions. The mobile robot mounts a camera and a remote control laser pointer on it. Based on the experiments with the system we discuss the advantage and disadvantage of the current implementation. Also, some implications to improve the system are described.
Keywords: Computing Methodologies -Artificial Intelligence - Robotics (I.2.9); Computing Milieux -Computers and Education - Computer Uses in Education (K.3.1): Distance learning; Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - Group and Organization Interfaces (H.5.3): Computer-supported cooperative work; Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - Multimedia Information Systems (H.5.1): Video (e.g., tape, disk, DVI); Design, Experimentation, Management, Performance, Theory; CSCW, embodiment, mobile robot, remote instruction, video mediated communication
Shared Walk Environment using Locomotion Interfaces BIBAKPDF 163-170
  Hiroaki Yano; Haruo Noma; Hiroo Iwata; Tsutomu Miyasato
By sharing data regarding the sensations experienced by individuals, as well as by sharing their knowledge, we are readily able to communicate with each other, and there are possibilities to further evolve this communication method. The different sensations experienced during voluntary walking and enforced walking give us different feelings. Also, the number of individuals involved can create a different feeling when walking. Networked computer-assisted walking can support and enhance these different experiences. In this paper, we introduce another walking style, the shared power-assisted voluntary walk, which is realized by a prototype networked locomotion system. This system can be used in tele-rehabilitation, which allows remote patients to share the sensation of walking. Also, it can be used to teach a group of patients rehabilitative walking. We developed two locomotion interfaces and connected them via a network. We developed enforced and semi-voluntary walking training systems using the shared walk environment and evaluated them with a series of experiments.
Keywords: Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - Multimedia Information Systems (H.5.1): Artificial, augmented, and virtual realities; Computing Methodologies -Computer Graphics - Three-Dimensional Graphics and Realism (I.3.7): Virtual reality; Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - Group and Organization Interfaces (H.5.3): Computer-supported cooperative work; Computing Methodologies -Pattern Recognition - Design Methodology (I.5.2): Classifier design and evaluation; Computing Milieux -Computers and Society - Social Issues (K.4.2): Assistive technologies for persons with disabilities; Design, Human Factors, Measurement, Management, Performance, Theory; locomotion interface, rehabilitation, shared environment, virtual reality

Operational Transformation and Consistency

Copies Convergence in a Distributed Real-Time Collaborative Environment BIBAKPDF 171-180
  Nicolas Vidot; Michelle Cart; Jean Ferrie; Maher Suleiman
In real-time collaborative systems, replicated objects, shared by users, are subject to concurrency constraints. In order to satisfy these, various algorithms, qualified as optimistic, [3, 5, 13, 17, 14, 15, 18], have been proposed that exploit the semantic properties of operations to serialize concurrent operations and achieve copy convergence of replicated objects. Their drawback is that they either require a condition on user's operations which is hard to verify when possible to ensure, or they need undoing then redoing operations in some situations. The main purpose of this paper is to present two new algorithms that overcome these drawbacks. They are based upon the implementation of a continuous global order which enables that condition to be released, and simplifies the operation integration process. In the second algorithm, thanks to deferred broadcast of operations to other sites, this process becomes even more simplified.
Keywords: Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - Group and Organization Interfaces (H.5.3): Collaborative computing; Software -Operating Systems - Organization and Design (D.4.7): Real-time systems and embedded systems; Software -Operating Systems - Organization and Design (D.4.7): Distributed systems; Algorithms, Design, Measurement, Management, Performance, Theory
Consistency in Replicated Continuous Interactive Media BIBAKPDF 181-190
  Martin Mauve
In this paper we investigate how consistency can be ensured for replicated continuous interactive media, i.e., replicated media which change their state in reaction to user initiated operations as well as because of the passing of time. Typical examples for this media class are networked computer games and distributed VR applications. Existing approaches to reach consistency for replicated discrete interactive media are briefly outlined and it is shown that these fail in the continuous domain. In order to allow a thorough discussion of the problem, a formal definition of the term consistency in the continuous domain is given. Based on this definition we show that an important tradeoff relationship exists between the responsiveness of the medium and the appearance of short-term inconsistencies. Until now this tradeoff was not taken into consideration for consistency in the continuous domain, thereby severely limiting the consistency related fidelity for a large number of applications. We show that for those applications the fidelity can be significantly raised by voluntarily decreasing the responsiveness of the medium. This concept is called local lag. It enables the distribution of continuous interactive media that are more vulnerable to short-term inconsistencies than, e.g., battlefield simulations. We prove that the concept of local lag is valid by describing how local lag was successfully used to ensure consistency in a 3D telecooperation application.
Keywords: Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - Multimedia Information Systems (H.5.1); Software -Operating Systems - Organization and Design (D.4.7): Interactive systems; Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - Group and Organization Interfaces (H.5.3): Computer-supported cooperative work; Mathematics of Computing -Discrete Mathematics - General (G.2.0); Algorithms, Design, Management, Performance, Reliability, Theory; consistency, replicated continuous interactive media
Undo Any Operation at Any Time in Group Editors BIBAKPDF 191-200
  Chengzheng Sun
The ability to undo operations is an indispensable feature of real-time group editors, but supporting group undo is a difficult problem. None of the existing solutions for group undo is able to support undoing any operation at any time with guaranteed success. In this paper, we contribute a novel group undo solution with such a capability. The basic idea is to interpret an undo command as a concurrent inverse operation by means of operational transformation, so that an operation is always undoable regardless of its undo context. By separating undo policy from undo mechanism, multiple undo modes, such as single-step undo, chronological undo, and selective undo, can be supported in the same collaborative editing session. In addition, solutions to known undo puzzles are also provided. A web-based group text editor using the proposed undo solution has been implemented and is accessible at: http://reduce.qpsf.edu.au.
Keywords: Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - Group and Organization Interfaces (H.5.3); Software -Software Engineering - Testing and Debugging (D.2.5); Information Systems -Information Systems Applications - Office Automation (H.4.1): Groupware; Algorithms, Design, Measurement, Management, Performance, Theory; distributed computing, group editors, group undo, groupware, operational transformation

Mobility

Going Wireless: Behavior & Practice of New Mobile Phone Users BIBAKPDF 201-210
  Leysia Palen; Marilyn Salzman; Ed Youngs
We report on the results of a study in which 19 new mobile phone users were closely tracked for the first six weeks after service acquisition. Results show that new users tend to rapidly modify their perceptions of social appropriateness around mobile phone use, that actual nature of use frequently differs from what users initially predict, and that comprehension of service-oriented technologies can be problematic. We describe instances and features of mobile telephony practice. When in use, mobile phones occupy multiple social spaces simultaneously, spaces with norms that sometimes conflict: the physical space of the mobile phone user and the virtual space of the conversation.
Keywords: cellular, communicative practice, digital telephony, mobile, qualitative research, wireless communication, wireless communications
FieldWise: A Mobile Knowledge Management Architecture BIBAKPDF 211-220
  Henrik Fagrell; Kerstin Forsberg; Johan Sanneblad
The paper presents results of a research project that has aimed at developing a knowledge management architecture for mobile work domains. The architecture developed, called FieldWise, was based on fieldwork in two organisations and feedback from users of prototype systems. This paper describes the empirically grounded requirements of FieldWise, how these have been realised in the architecture, and how the architecture has been implemented in the news journalism domain. FieldWise adds to the field of CSCW by offering an empirically grounded architecture with a set of novel features that have not been previously reported in the literature.
Keywords: Computer Systems Organization -Computer System Implementation - Microcomputers (C.5.3): Portable devices (e.g., laptops, personal digital assistants); Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - Group and Organization Interfaces (H.5.3); Information Systems -Database Management - General (H.2.0); Design, Management, Performance, Theory; hand-held devices, knowledge management, mobile CSCW, organisational memory
WebSplitter: A Unified XML Framework for Multi-Device Collaborative Web Browsing BIBAKPDF 221-230
  Richard Han; Veronique Perret; Mahmoud Naghshineh
WebSplitter symbolizes the union of pervasive multi-device computing and collaborative multi-user computing. WebSplitter provides a unified XML framework that enables multi-device and multi-user Web browsing. WebSplitter splits a requested Web page and delivers the appropriate partial view of each page to each user, or more accurately to each user's set of devices. Multiple users can participate in the same browsing session, as in traditional conferencing groupware. Depending on the access privileges of the user to the different components of content on each page, WebSplitter generates a personalized partial view. WebSplitter further splits the partial view among the devices available to each user, e.g. laptop, wireless PDA, projection display, stereo speakers, orchestrating a composite presentation across the devices. A wireless PDA can browse while remotely controlling the multimedia capabilities of nearby devices. The architecture consists of an XML metadata policy file defining access privileges to XML tags on a Web page, a middleware proxy that splits XML Web content to create partial views, and a client-side component, e.g. applet, enabling user login and reception of pushed browsing data. Service discovery finds and registers proxies, browsing sessions, and device capabilities. We demonstrate the feasibility of splitting the different tags in an XML Web page to different end users browsers, and of pushing updates from the browsing session to heterogeneous devices, including a laptop and a PDA.
Keywords: PDA, SML, XML, co-browsing, collaboration, groupware, middleware, multi-device, partial view, pervasive, proxy, remote control, service discovery, wireless

Expertise and Explanation

Expertise Recommender: A Flexible Recommendation System and Architecture BIBAKPDF 231-240
  David W. McDonald; Mark S. Ackerman
Locating the expertise necessary to solve difficult problems is a nuanced social and collaborative problem. In organizations, some people assist others in locating expertise by making referrals. People who make referrals fill key organizational roles that have been identified by CSCW and affiliated research. Expertise locating systems are not designed to replace people who fill these key organizational roles. Instead, expertise locating systems attempt to decrease workload and support people who have no other options. Recommendation systems are collaborative software that can be applied to expertise locating. This work describes a general recommendation architecture that is grounded in a field study of expertise locating. Our expertise recommendation system details the work necessary to fit expertise recommendation to a work setting. The architecture and implementation begin to tease apart the technical aspects of providing good recommendations from social and collaborative concerns.
Keywords: CSCW, collaborative filtering, computer-supported cooperative work, expert locators, expertise finding, expertise location, information seeking, recommendation systems
Explaining Collaborative Filtering Recommendations BIBAKPDF 241-250
  Jonathan L. Herlocker; Joseph A. Konstan; John Riedl
Automated collaborative filtering (ACF) systems predict a person's affinity for items or information by connecting that person's recorded interests with the recorded interests of a community of people and sharing ratings between like-minded persons. However, current recommender systems are black boxes, providing no transparency into the working of the recommendation. Explanations provide that transparency, exposing the reasoning and data behind a recommendation. In this paper, we address explanation interfaces for ACF systems - how they should be implemented and why they should be implemented. To explore how, we present a model for explanations based on the user's conceptual model of the recommendation process. We then present experimental results demonstrating what components of an explanation are the most compelling. To address why, we present experimental evidence that shows that providing explanations can improve the acceptance of ACF systems. We also describe some initial explorations into measuring how explanations can improve the filtering performance of users.
Keywords: Information Systems -Information Storage and Retrieval - Information Search and Retrieval (H.3.3): Information filtering; Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - Group and Organization Interfaces (H.5.3): Collaborative computing; Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - Multimedia Information Systems (H.5.1); Design, Human Factors, Measurement, Management, Performance, Reliability, Theory; GroupLens, MoviesLens, collaborative filtering, explanations, recommender systems
Interpersonal Trust and Common Ground in Electronically Mediated Communication BIBAKPDF 251-260
  Steve Greenspan; David Goldberg; David Weimer; Andrea Basso
Communication and commerce by web or phone creates benefits and challenges for both buyer and seller. Websites provide convenience and visualization; telephones provide voice and real-time interaction. To combine key elements of these experiences, we developed PhoneChannel. Using PhoneChannel, a PC user while talking on the telephone can display visuals on the other person's television. How do these different media affect the consumer experience? In a recent laboratory study, prospective homebuyers selected houses of interest using web, telephone, or PhoneChannel. Using the telephone or PhoneChannel led to higher trust; but using web or PhoneChannel led to higher ratings on convenience, enjoyment, and 'good method' scales.
Keywords: Information Systems -Information Systems Applications - Communications Applications (H.4.3); Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - Multimedia Information Systems (H.5.1); Information Systems -Models and Principles - User/Machine Systems (H.1.2); Design, Experimentation, Human Factors, Measurement, Management, Performance, Theory; WWW, consumers, conversation, telephony, television

Flexibility and Constraint

Recognizing and Supporting Roles in CSCW BIBAKPDF 261-268
  Mark Guzdial; Jochen Rick; Bolot Kerimbaev
In this paper, we describe our experience with the long-term, widespread use of CoWeb, an asynchronous collaborative tool that is mostly used to complement existing face-to-face groups (such as classes). The CoWeb is an open-ended tool that does not enforce or explicitly support specific roles or usage, yet several well-defined uses and roles have emerged over time. In our design methodology, we recognize these roles and refine our collaboration environment to better support them.
Keywords: Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - Group and Organization Interfaces (H.5.3): Computer-supported cooperative work; Computing Milieux -Management of Computing and Information Systems - Project and People Management (K.6.1): Systems analysis and design; Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - Group and Organization Interfaces (H.5.3): Web-based interaction; Information Systems -Information Storage and Retrieval - Online Information Services (H.3.5): Web-based services; Design, Human Factors, Management, Performance, Theory; CSCL, CoWeb, Wiki, design methodology, long-term, roles, website
Coping with Errors: The Importance of Process Data in Robust Sociotechnical Systems BIBAKPDF 269-278
  Michael B. Twidale; Paul F. Marty
This paper presents an analysis of written and electronic records that document the collaborative process of packing museum artifacts in preparation for a move. The majority of data recorded detailed the process of packing, while only a small amount of the data concerned which artifacts were packed in which boxes. Museum staff members were able to use these process data to solve the numerous errors that occurred during packing. We explore the design implications for collaborative systems which focus on supporting error recovery rather than error prevention.
Keywords: error analysis, problem solving, process data, workflow, workplace study
How Can Cooperative Work Tools Support Dynamic Group Process? Bridging the Specificity Frontier BIBAKPDF 279-288
  Abraham Bernstein
In the past, most collaboration support systems have focused on either automating fixed work processes or simply supporting communication in ad-hoc processes. This results in systems that are usually inflexible and difficult to change or that provide no specific support to help users decide what to do next. This paper describes a new kind of tool that bridges the gap between these two approaches by flexibly supporting processes at many points along the spectrum: from highly specified to highly unspecified. The development of this approach was strongly based on social science theory about collaborative work.
Keywords: Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - Group and Organization Interfaces (H.5.3); Information Systems -Information Systems Applications - General (H.4.0); Design, Management, Performance, Theory; dynamic/improvisational change, mixed-initiative systems, process specificity, process support system

Facilitation

Supporting Collaborative Interpretation in Distributed Groupware BIBAKPDF 289-298
  Donald Cox; Saul Greenberg
Collaborative interpretation occurs when a group interprets and transforms a diverse set of information fragments into a coherent set of meaningful descriptions. This activity is characterized by emergence, where the participants' shared understanding develops gradually as they interact with each other and the source material. Our goal is to support collaborative interpretation by small, distributed groups. To achieve this, we first observed how face-to-face groups perform collaborative interpretation in a particular work context. We then synthesized design principles from two relevant areas: the key behaviors of people engaged in activities where emergence occurs, and how distributed groups work together over visual surfaces. We built and evaluated a system that supports a specific collaborative interpretation task. This system provides a large workspace and several objects that encourages emergence in interpretation. People manipulate cards that contain the raw information fragments. They reduce complexity by placing duplicate cards into piles. They suggest groupings as they manipulate the spatial layout of cards and piles. They enrich spatial layouts through notes, text and freehand annotations. They record their understanding of their final groupings as reports containing coherent descriptions.
Keywords: Design, Management, Performance, Theory; collaborative interpretation, emergence, meeting support tools, real-time distributed groupware
Structured Online Interactions: Improving the Decision-Making of Small Discussion Groups BIBAKPDF 299-308
  Shelly Farnham; Harry R. Chesley; Debbie E. McGhee; Reena Kawal; Jennifer Landau
A quantitative research experiment was used to examine whether a group's computer-mediated decision-making could be improved by providing a scripted structure to the groups text chat discussion. The study compared a regular chat discussion to a scripted chat discussion using Lead Line, a program that allows people to add a layer of pre-authored structure to regular text chat. We found that groups were more likely to come to consensus in structured chat discussions. In addition, groups applied the structure they learned to subsequent regular chat sessions.
Keywords: Information Systems -Information Systems Applications - Types of Systems (H.4.2): Decision support; Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - Group and Organization Interfaces (H.5.3): Computer-supported cooperative work; Information Systems -Information Systems Applications - Communications Applications (H.4.3); Design, Experimentation, Human Factors, Measurement, Management, Performance, Theory; chat, computer supported collaborative work, computer-mediated communication, group decision-making, structured chat
Using Web Annotations for Asynchronous Collaboration Around Documents BIBAKPDF 309-318
  J. J. Cadiz; Anoop Gupta; Jonathan Grudin
Digital web-accessible annotations are a compelling medium for personal comments and shared discussions around documents. Only recently supported by widely used products, "in-context" digital annotation is a relatively unexamined phenomenon. This paper presents a case study of annotations created by members of a large development team using Microsoft Office 2000-approximately 450 people created 9,000 shared annotations on about 1,250 documents over 10 months. We present quantitative data on use, supported by interviews with users, identifying strengths and weaknesses of the existing capabilities and possibilities for improvement.
Keywords: World Wide Web, annotation, asynchronous collaboration, computer mediated communication, distributed work, world wide web

Distance and Proximity

Distance, Dependencies, and Delay in a Global Collaboration BIBAKPDF 319-328
  James D. Herbsleb; Audris Mockus; Thomas A. Finholt; Rebecca E. Grinter
Collaborations over distance must contend with the loss of the rich, subtle interactions that co-located teams use to coordinate their work. Previous research has suggested that one consequence of this loss is that cross-site work will take longer than comparable single-site work. We use both survey data and data from the change management system to measure the extent of delay in a multi-site software development organization. We also measure site interdependence, differences in same-site and cross-site communication patterns, and analyze the relationship of these variables to delay. Our results show a significant relationship between delay in cross-site work and the degree to which remote colleagues are perceived to help out when workloads are heavy. This result is particularly troubling in light of the finding that workers generally believed they were as helpful to their remote colleagues as to their local colleagues. We discuss implications of our findings for collaboration technology for distributed organizations.
Keywords: awareness, delay, global collaboration, informal communication, interdependence, software development, speed
Collaboration with Lean Media: How Open-Source Software Succeeds BIBAKPDF 329-338
  Yutaka Yamauchi; Makoto Yokozawa; Takeshi Shinohara; Toru Ishida
Open-source software, usually created by volunteer programmers dispersed worldwide, now competes with that developed by software firms. This achievement is particularly impressive as open-source programmers rarely meet. They rely heavily on electronic media, which preclude the benefits of face-to-face contact that programmers enjoy within firms. In this paper, we describe findings that address this paradox based on observation, interviews and quantitative analyses of two open-source projects. The findings suggest that spontaneous work coordinated afterward is effective, rational organizational culture helps achieve agreement among members and communications media moderately support spontaneous work. These findings can imply a new model of dispersed collaboration.
Keywords: Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - Group and Organization Interfaces (H.5.3): Collaborative computing; Information Systems -Models and Principles - User/Machine Systems (H.1.2); Software -Software Engineering - General (D.2.0); Computing Milieux -Management of Computing and Information Systems - Software Management (K.6.3): Software development; Design, Measurement, Management, Performance, Theory; CVS, cooperative work, distributed work, electronic media, innovation, open-source, software engineering
How does Radical Collocation Help a Team Succeed? BIBAKPDF 339-346
  Stephanie Teasley; Lisa Covi; M. S. Krishnan; Judith S. Olson
Companies are experimenting with putting teams into warrooms, hoping for some productivity enhancement. We conducted a field study of six such teams, tracking their activity, attitudes, use of technology and productivity. Teams in these warrooms showed a doubling of productivity. Why? Among other things, teams had easy access to each other for both coordination of their work and for learning, and the work artifacts they posted on the walls remained visible to all. These results imply that if we are to truly support remote teams, we should provide constant awareness and easy transitions in and out of spontaneous meetings.
Keywords: Computing Milieux -Management of Computing and Information Systems - Software Management (K.6.3): Software development; Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - Group and Organization Interfaces (H.5.3); Software -Software Engineering - Management (D.2.9): Productivity; Information Systems -Models and Principles - User/Machine Systems (H.1.2); Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - User Interfaces (H.5.2); Design, Human Factors, Measurement, Management, Performance, Theory; collocation, metrics, productivity, rapid software development, team rooms, warrooms

Video Presentations

CSCW 2000 Video Program BIBPDF 347
  Andreas Girgensohn; Alison Lee
MUSICFX: An Arbiter of Group Preferences for Computer Supported Collaborative Workouts BIBPDF 348
  Joseph E. McCarthy; Theodore D. Anagnost
Talking in Circles: A Spatially-Grounded Social Environment BIBPDF 349
  Roy A. Rodenstein; Judith S. Donath
StickyChats: Remote Conversations Over Digital Documents BIBPDF 350
  Elizabeth Churchill; Jonathan Trevor; Sara Bly; Les Nelson
Sun SharedShell Tool BIBPDF 351
  Nicole Yankelovich; James "Bo" Begole; John C. Tang
User Experience of CLIVE/mbanx Solution BIBPDF 352
  Shahrokh Daijavad; Tong-Haing Fin; Tom Frauenhofer; Tetsu Fujisaki; Alison Lee; Maroun Touma; Catherine G. Wolf
Enabling Distributed Collaborative Science BIBPDF 353
  Tom Hudson; Diane Sonnenwald; Kelly Maglaughlin; Mary Whitton; Ronald Bergquist
GestureMan: A Mobile Robot that Embodies a Remote Instructor's Actions BIBPDF 354
  Hideaki Kuzuoka; Shinya Oyama; Keiichi Yamazaki; Akiko Yamazaki; Mamoru Mitsuishi; Kenji Suzuki
Supporting Real-Time Collaboration Over Wide Area Networks BIB 355
  Hye-Chung (Monica) Kum; Prasun Dewan

Opening Plenary

Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Community BIB 357
  Robert D. Putnam

Invited Talk

IT2: An Information Technology Initiative for the Twenty-First Century -- NSF Plans for Implementation BIB 359
  Ruzena Bajcsy

Closing Plenary

Got a Minute? How Technology Affects the Economy of AttentionInstant Messaging: Products Meet Workplace Users BIB 361363
  Warren Thorngate; John C. Tang; Austina de Bonte; Mary Beth Raven; Ellen Isaacs

Panels

Research at Internet Speed: Is it Necessary? BIB 363
  Irene Greif
The Children's Challenge: New Technologies to Support Co-Located and Distributed Collaboration BIB 363
  Allison Druin; Steve Benford; Amy Bruckman; Kori Inkpen; Shelia O'Rouke
Beyond Bowling Together BIB 363
  Paul Resnick; Tora Bikson; Elizabeth Mynatt; Robert Puttnam; Lee Sproull; Barry Wellman